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J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. (1977). Animal brucellosis in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1977. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Hashim SO, Kaul RH, Andersson M, Mulaa FJ, Mattiasson B.Differential scanning calorimetric studies of a Bacillus halodurans alpha-amylase.Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 May 25;1723(1-3):184-91. Epub 2005 Mar 24.". In: Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 May 25;1723(1-3):184-91. Epub 2005 Mar 24. Springerlink; 2005. Abstract
The thermal unfolding of Amy 34, a recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus halodurans, has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The denaturation of Amy 34 involves irreversible processes with an apparent denaturation temperature (T(m)) of 70.8 degrees C at pH 9.0, with four transitions, as determined using multiple Gaussian curves. The T(m) increased by 5 degrees C in the presence of 100-fold molar excess of CaCl2 while the aggregation of Amy 34 was observed in the presence of 1000-fold molar excess of CaCl2. Increase in the calcium ion concentration from 1- to 5-fold molar excess resulted in an increase in calorimetric enthalpy (DeltaH(cal)), however, at higher concentrations of CaCl2 (up to 100-fold), DeltaH(cal) was found to decrease, accompanied by a decrease in entropy change (DeltaS), while the T(m) steadily increased. The presence of 100-fold excess of metal chelator, EDTA, resulted in a decrease in T(m) by 10.4 degrees C. T(m) was also decreased to 61.1 degrees C and 65.9 degrees C at pH 6.0 and pH 11.0, respectively.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Facing the burden of malignant orofacial neoplasia.East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):61.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):61. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2006. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 16771100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Serological investigation of HIV-1 variant subtype strains in transmission in Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1996. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Evolution of cancer management. East Afr Med J. 2000 Oct;77(10):521-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Oct;77(10):521-2. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2000. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 12862116 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFBUOROIB. "Wandera, J.G., Kamau, J.A., Ngatia, T.A., Buoro, I.B.J and Price, J.E. (1990).Haemangiosarcoma in Dogs: Morphological land Clinical findings. Bulleti Animal Health and Production in Africa 38: 301-308.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, MULAMA DROSUNDWATOM, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Osundwa TM, Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Nyong'o A.McCune Albright syndrome: autosomal dominant trait in a family of eight.East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S40-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S40-2. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Akama M.K., Chindia M.L., and Ndung'u F.l.: Occurrence and pattern of Mandibular fractures at Kisii District Hospital, Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 70: 732-733, 1993.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1993. Abstract
The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Export standards, market institutions and smallholder farmer exclusion from fresh export vegetable high value chains: Experiences from Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Ng'ang'a PM, Chindia ML, Hassanali J. Clinical report on longitudinal post-eruptive changes in fluorotic enamel observed in 10 cases over a 2 1/2 year period. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):17-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):17-23. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1990. Abstract
The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
J N. "Root length in maxillary first permanent molars in a Kenya population." African journal of oral Health Sciences. 2016;VI(4):1-5.abstract_4.docx
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. and Waiyaki P.G. (1978) A serological survey of animal brucellosis in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. Kenya Veterinary, Vol. 2 No. 2 pp.35-38.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1978. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J K. LEAN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AT PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Lean supply chain management thinking and practices is considered as one of the ways
recognized to achieve timely supplies and to create greater values. The application of lean supply
management principles is meant to lead to improved performance of managers of the supply
chain. The Changing consumer needs and business environment has necessitated Public
Universities in Kenya to adopt lean supply chain management practices in order to survive thus
minimizing operational costs and maximizing profits. The increased change of customer needs
and the emergence of new technologies have resulted into Public Universities adapting to those
changes so as to remain relevant and competitive.
The objectives of the study sought to; (i) determine the extent that the human resource practices
linked to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were consistent with
lean supply chain management, (ii) determine the extent that the information Technology linked
to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were consistent with
reference to lean supply chain management and (iii)determine the extent to which the supplier
relations linked to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were
consistent with the reference of lean supply chain management.
The study used a descriptive survey research design to assess the application of lean supply
chain management practices at the Public Universities in Kenya. The survey was used to
describe the Lean Supply chains Management practices which are successfully applied in the
Public Universities so as to enhance their service delivery. The survey was a census study that
included all the Seven Public Universities in Kenya, namely; University of Nairobi, Moi
University, Egerton University, Kenyatta University, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture
and Technology, Maseno University and Masinde Muliro University. The main instruments for
data collection were structured questionnaires with both closed and open ended questions. It was
administered to the respondents through personal interviews and by dropping and picking the
questionnaires at the business premises.
The data collected was analyzed using measures of central tendency including the mean scores
and percentages and measures of dispersion. Findings were then interpreted, conclusions made
and recommendations. The study established that rigid organizational culture and resistance to
change among Public Universities is a major obstacle to successful implementation of lean
supply chain management practices in Public Universities.
The study recommends that employees of Public Universities in Kenya be involved in decision
making and be sensitized on lean supply chain management practices in order to understand the
value and the changing business environment. The study established that human resource
practices among Public Universities have not been full linked to lean supply chain management
practices due to inappropriate policies of Public Universities to develop their new and existing
staff through training on the value of lean supply chain management practices. Therefore, the
study recommends the formulation of policies by the public universities that embrace lean supply
chain management practices for competitive advantage. The study established that, integration
of information technology in every department of Public Universities in Kenya enhances
efficiency and effectiveness thus customer satisfaction. The study established that unclear
procurement policies in Public Universities in Kenya hinder efficient and effective lean supply
chain management practices and results into poor performance of Public Universities due to
increased costs associated with supply chain activities.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Production, purification and characterisation of an alkaline-active pectinase by B. halodurans LBK 261 (Manuscript).". In: Gene Bank under accession number DQ 341411. Springerlink; 2005.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Political Leadership and the Crisis of Development in Africa: Lessons from Kenya",.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Akama MK, Chindia ML, Macigo FG, Guthua SW.Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by head and chest injuries combined which were responsible for 13% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton appear to be uncommon in this series. Pedestrians in their third decade of life are most affected with passenger service vehicles being responsible in the majority of the cases. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventional programmes targeting pedestrians and those in the third and fourth decades of life should be enacted.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Kariuki MM, Kiaira JK, Mulaa FK, Mwangi JK, Wasunna MK, Martin SK.Plasmodium falciparum: Purification of the various gametocyte developmental stages from in vitro cultivated parasites gametocytes Am J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 59 (4), 505-508.". In: Am J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 59 (4), 505-508. Springerlink; 1998. Abstract
Cultivated Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes reach maturity in vitro in approximately 14-16 days, during which they pass through five morphologically distinct developmental stages. Purification of the earlier developmental stages has not been previously reported. We have modified the standard discontinuous Percoll gradient method for the separation of stage IV and V gametocytes to obtain enriched preparations of those and the earlier P. falciparum gametocyte stages. In contrast to the stages II, III, and IV, the mature stage V gametocytes from our gradient readily transformed into gametes. Such preparations may be useful in research studies on the mechanisms that underlie gametocytogenesis.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Riyat MS, Nyong'o A.Multiple myeloma presenting as a painful mandibular swelling: a case report.Dent Update. 2001 Jun;28(5):258-60.". In: Dent Update. 2001 Jun;28(5):258-60.v. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2001. Abstract
Multiple myeloma is a disease characterized by monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells, the most differentiated stage of B-cells. Primary manifestation of multiple myeloma in the jawbones is rare. In the case reported here, a 29-year-old woman who presented with a right mandibular swelling after extraction of a mobile painful tooth turned out to have multiple myeloma. Current diagnostic criteria and management strategies of the disease are discussed.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J., Atwell, R.B. and Tummy. T. (1992). Plasma levels of Renin and Aldosterone in Right Sided Congestive Heart failure due to Dirofilariasis. Canine Practice 17: 21-24.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1992. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Awange DO.Congenital epulis of the newborn: a report of two cases.Br Dent J. 1994 Jun 11;176(11):426-8.". In: Br Dent J. 1994 Jun 11;176(11):426-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
Congenital epulis of the newborn is a rare lesion whose histogenesis and natural clinical history have remained obscure. Even with the advent of modern histopathological techniques, it has not been possible to depict specific cellular features unique to this lesion. However, it is important that new cases are reported from all populations so that their occurrence and frequency may be easily noted. Furthermore, the lesion is important as a differential diagnosis of other aggressive lesions early in life. This report presents two Kenyan cases.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Bacteria contamination of Kale (Brassica Oleracea Acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs.". In: Eastern Africa Medical Journal. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J. and Atwell R.b. (1982). Urinalysis in Canine dirofiliaris with emphasis on proteinuria. Veterinary record 111: 252-252.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1982. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Ocholla TJ, Imalingat B.Osteopetrosis presenting with paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia. A case report.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Aug;20(4):199-200.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Aug;20(4):199-200. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract

Osteopetrosis is a rare disease of unknown aetiology. The relentless bone growth may progressively obliterate the various craniofacial skeletal foramina leading to nerve compression and a diversity of neurological disorders. A case is reported of a 37-year-old woman who was seen because of frequent attacks of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN); other orofacial neurologic deficits and generalised craniofacial skeletal thickening. The prompt recognition and management of associated disorders such as PTN is emphasized. Despite the lack of definitive treatment modalities for both osteopetrosis and PTN, the patient's quality of life must be sustained.

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Okello, J.J. and S. M. Swinton (2005). .". In: Selected poster (Finalist for Outstanding Poster Presentation Award), American Agricultural Economics Association meeting, Providence, Rhode Island, 24-27, 2005. INTECH Publishers; 2005. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, A.R.J., Drug Use and Abuse Problems and the Emerging Drug Trafficking menace in Kenya U.S.I.S. Nairobi, 1990.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1990. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Mbuthia P.G.; Karaba W.; Kuria J.K.N.; and Kagunya D.K.J. (1993). Sarcosporidia in domestic chicken in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at KVA Annual Scientific conference at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kabete on 22nd-23rd April 1993. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Gichaga, F.J. and Mwea, S.K. .". In: Third International Conference on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields, held in Trondheim, Norway, July 1990. UN-HABITAT; 1990. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Biodegradability of Poly (lactic acid), Preparation and Characterization of PLA/Gum Arabic Blends.". In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment Volume 16, Number 3, 205-212, DOI: 10.1007/s10924-008-0096-5. Springerlink; 2008.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Towards A Power Balance Among Institutions of Governance.". In: Paper presented at the Conference of NGO Council, Pan Africa Hotel, Dec 9 - 10. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "BUTT FMA, CHINDIA ML, WAKOLI KA. Problems in Diagnosing Odontogenic Myxoma: Case Report. East African Medical Journal 2007; 84: 141-145.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2007. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Medfly microsatellite markers for species diagnosis and population genetic analysis in three tephritid fruit fly species.". In: Proceedings of the 6th International symposium on fruit flies of economic importance, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6-10 May 2002. Springerlink; 2002. Abstract
The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Butt F.M.A., Vaghela V.P, Chindia M. L.: Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS in a Kenyan Provincial Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2001 Aug;78(8):398-401.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Aug;78(8):398-401. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya many patients exposed to the HIV infection present with orofacial lesions as the primary manifestations of the disease and only a few studies have been performed to document this observation. OBJECTIVE: To clinically evaluate and document the range and pattern of oral lesions in a group of hospitalised patients with HIV-infection. DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Coast Province General Hospital in Mombasa, Kenya, which is the main referral institution serving a population of approximately two million people. METHODS: Examination of all the cases included in the study was performed according to the WHO criteria. Both male and female patients aged 16 years and above were selected. The criterion of recruitment was based on a suspicion of immunosuppression, the presence of oral manifestations and the willingness to participate in the study. Prior to the examination each patient had undergone counselling followed by two consecutive screening tests using the ELISA technique. Where indicated incisional biopsy was performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of the relevant lesions. In collaboration with the medical team, treatment was administered as per the needs of the patient in terms of anti-fungals, antivirals or topical cortisteroids. RESULTS: Of the 61 cases, 25(41%) were males and 36(59%) females with an age range of 19 to 65 years (mean = 34.7 years). While all the cases had periodontal disease, over 80% had candidiasis of the hyperplastic, erythematous and pseudomembraneous types. Lymphadenopathy and angular cheilitis were each diagnosed in 27.9% of the cases; while oral Kaposi's sarcoma was seen in 13% of the patients. Other conditions seen included persistent oral ulceration (11.5%), oral hairy leukopLakia and herpes zoster each constituting 4.9%; herpes simplex, mucosal hyperpigmentation, parotomegaly and facial palsy each comprised six per cent and oral warts seen in one case. In accordance with the pattern and prevalence of oral manifestations in our study, the results were largely consistent with those documented elsewhere. CONCLUSION: For the alleviation of the morbidity arising from the commonly occurring lesions, early detection is mandatory. Furthermore, documentation of the varied regional patterns of occurrence of these lesions may aid in the rational application of the emerging treatments.

J K. "Editorial: VISION 2020 "The Right to Sight" global Initiative: update." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2006;12:2. Abstract

VISION 2020: “The Right to Sight” Global Initiative is the WHO adopted 20 -Year global plan
for the elimination of avoidable blindness by the year 2020. It brings together all the partners involved in prevention of blindness. The three essential components (pillars) of VISION 2020 are:
>Cost-effective disease control interventions,
>Human resource development
>Infrastructure development

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Wakiaga J, Kisumbi B, Chindia ML.Discolouration of teeth: an overview of the diagnosis and management.East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
The dentist is faced with a daunting task in application of clinical skills to achieve maximum cosmetic results when it comes to the management of discoloured and/or hypoplastic dentition. In this paper, an overview is made of the diagnosis and the management of these broadly termed conditions and the cost-effectiveness of the various modalities discussed.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Anchored vs. relative best-worst scaling and latent class vs. hierarchical Bayesian analysis of best-worst choice data: Investigating the importance of food quality attributes in a developing country.". In: Food Quality and Preference. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J., Atwell R.B. and Heath, T. (1983). The angles of branching and the diameters of pulmonary arteries in relation to the distribution of pulmonary lesions in Canine dirofilariasis. Research in Veterinary Science. 35:353-356.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J N-M, P.M.F M, J.K W;, P.G M. "Risk (Predisposing) Factors for Non-Infectious Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Varying Zero-Grazing Systems.". 2000. Abstract

Lameness in cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in dairy production systems (Hernandez et al., 2005; Kossaibati & Esslemont, 1997). These losses occur through various negative impact directly on cattle and indirectly on the dairy production system. These include reduced milk yield (Hernandez et al., 2005), discarding of milk due to withdrawal period of drugs used to treat some of the lameness conditions, cost of veterinary drugs and professional services in managing the conditions (Enting et al., 1997), lowered conception rate and increased calving interval (Melendez et al., 2003; Sogstad et al.,2006), reduced ovarian activity during early postpartum period (Garbarino et al., 2004), as well as premature culling and occasional mortalities (Enting et al., 1997). Lameness has also been identified as a major welfare determinant in cattle because of discomfort and pain that it causes (Offer et al., 2000). Claw lesions account for between 60% and 90% of all lameness incidences in cattle in various countries of the world (Bergsten et al., 1994; Manske et al., 2002; Weaver, 2000). More than 60% of lameness in cattle is caused by lesions and disorders affecting the horn of the claw such as sole ulcers, heel erosion, sole bruising, white line separation and underrun (double) soles. All these claw disorders and lesions have a direct or indirect effect on the dermis (corium) of the claw and are associated with laminitis ( Belge & Bakir, 2005; Manske et al., 2002; Nocek, 1997). They are common in cattle raised under intense systems and feedlots (Smilie et al., 1991). Claw horn disorders in cattle are discernible at clinical level by lameness symptoms or at subclinical level by hoof trimming to reveal non-painful lesions within or under the horn (Clarkson et al., 1996; Nocek, 1997). However, adoption of confined housing in dairy cattle husbandry as is the practice in smallholder dairy production systems particularly in developing countries has led to higher incidences of claw disorders. This is mainly due to cattle spending long hours standing on confined hard floors that exposes claws to higher pressures which predispose them to circumscribed excessive local loading, thus stimulating more horn production and enlarging of the claws.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL.Ameloblastoma after surgical removal of an impacted mandibular molar. A case report.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Apr;20(2):73-4.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Apr;20(2):73-4. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
A case of an ameloblastoma diagnosed about 3 1/2 years after removal of an impacted mandibular 3rd molar is presented. The pre-operative radiographs, though poor in quality, showed an ill-defined radiolucency in relation to the tooth. This feature was not apparent to the examiners at the time of first presentation. Despite unfavourable working conditions in developing countries, a high level of suspicion should be maintained to avoid serious sequelae at a later stage.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Do EU standards promote environmentally-friendly fresh vegetable production? Evidence from Kenyan green bean industry.". In: Environment, Development and Sustainability. INTECH Publishers; 2010. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, A.R.J., Challenges of Social Work Training in Kenya. The Social Focus Vol. 1, Litho Press, Nairobi, 1993.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1993. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J D, A S, E I. "[{Variations} in the position and point of origin of the vermiform appendix]." Medicinski arhiv. 2001;56:5-8. AbstractWebsite

Author: Delić J, Journal: Medicinski arhiv[2001/12], Abstract: There were investigated variations of appendix vermiformis in the place of origin and position. The investigations were carried out on 50 human preparations of adults of both sexes, unintentional...

J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Mwea, S. K. and Gichaga, F.J.- Engineering properties of common.subgrade soils below pavement structures in Kenya.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT, Volume 7, March 2002. UN-HABITAT; 2002. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Enzymatic oil extraction and positional analysis of ω-3 fatty acids in Nile perch and salmon heads. Process Biochemistry.". In: Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2011. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
PUFA from oil extracted from Nile perch viscera were enriched by selective enzymatic esterification ofthe free fatty acids (FFA) or by hydrolysis of ethyl esters of the fatty acids from the oil (FA-EE).Quantitative analysis was performed using RP-HPLC coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector(RP-HPLC-ELSD). The lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus discriminated against docosahexaenoicacid (DHA) most, resulting in the highest DHA/DHA-EE enrichment while lipase from Pseudomonascepacia discriminated against eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) most, resulting in the highest EPA/EPA-EEenrichment. The lipases discriminated between DHA and EPA with a higher selectivity when present asethyl esters (EE) than when in FFA form. Thus when DHA/EPA were enriched to the same levelduring esterification and hydrolysis reactions, the DHA-EE/EPA-EE recoveries were higher than thoseof DHA/EPA-FFA. In reactions catalysed by lipase from T. lanuginosus, at 26 mol% DHA/DHA-EE,DHA recovery was 76% while that of DHA-EE was 84%. In reactions catalysed by lipase fromP. cepacia, at 11 mol% EPA/EPA-EE, EPA recovery was 79% while that of EPA-EE was 92%. Bothesterification of FFA and hydrolysis of FA-EE were more effective for enriching PUFA compared tohydrolysis of the natural oil and are thus attractive process alternatives for the production of productshighly enriched in DHA and/or EPA. When there is only one fatty acid residue in each substratemolecule, the full fatty acid selectivity of the lipase can be expressed, which is not the case withtriglycerides as substrates.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. "Ludeki Chweya, .". In: Proceedings of the Africa Regional Development Policy Forum, 10-11 June 1998, Nairobi, Kenya, 153-164. UNCRD Proceedings Series, No. 29 (Nagoya: United Nations Centre for Regional Development, 1998). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Displacement, Minorities, and Human Security: The African Experience.". In: Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 4, No.2 Autumn pp. 133-134. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Koech KJ, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA, Gathece LW. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV infection and their relationship with CD4 count at a Nairobi centre. African journal of oral health sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9. Hekima III (1) 27-42; Submitted. Abstract
Savanna ecosystems and origins of modern human behavior Hekima III (1) 27-42: (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi).
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Evidence for the involvement of a tsetse midgut lectin-trypsin complex in differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes. Insect Sci. Applic. 23(3). 197.". In: Bull Entomol Res. 2003 Feb;93(1):1-10. Springerlink; 2003. Abstract
The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Chindia ML, Akama MK, Awange DO.Ameloblastic fibroma at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To document the occurrence of cases of ameloblastic fibroma. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: The Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine histopathology laboratory at the Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, January 1991 to December 2000. RESULTS: Seven complete records of histopathologically confirmed cases of ameloblastic fibroma were identified. There were four male and three female cases with an age range of 10 to 22 years (mean=14 years). Remarkably, six of the cases had lesions in the molar regions of the mandible with a single case with a maxillary molar area lesion. One of the cases had the neoplasm associated with an unerupted tooth. From the clinical notes all the patients were managed by meticulous enucleation and curettage of the lesions. After follow up periods ranging from several months to eight years no recurrences had been recorded. CONCLUSION: Evidently ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon neoplasm as noted in the earlier literature. Although the lesions can be quite extensive at the time of diagnosis, the recurrence rate appears to be relatively low if the neoplasms are meticulously extirpated.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "NJIRU ABK, CHINDIA ML. Late presentation of patients with oral Squamous cell Carcinoma. African Journal Oral Health , 3:118-121, 2002.". In: African Journal Oral Health , 3:118-121, 2002. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Wakiaga J.M., Kisumbi B, and Chindia ML: Discolouration of teeth an overview of the diagnosis and management. East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
The dentist is faced with a daunting task in application of clinical skills to achieve maximum cosmetic results when it comes to the management of discoloured and/or hypoplastic dentition. In this paper, an overview is made of the diagnosis and the management of these broadly termed conditions and the cost-effectiveness of the various modalities discussed.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Choice of fresh vegetable retail outlets by developing-country urban consumers: The case of kale consumers in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: European Journal of Development Research. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1985). Experimental Caval Sydrome. Australian VeterinaryPractitioner 15:120.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ogaard B, Cruz R, Chindia ML, Aasrum E.Tensile strength of orthodontic brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth: an in vitro comparative study.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

Information related to bonding of orthodontic brackets to fluorotic teeth is scanty. The purpose of this study was to compare, in vitro, the tensile bond strength and the bond failure site of brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth. The etching patterns were also evaluated. The study involved 26 teeth classified as score 3 and 4, and 26 as score 0 with the Thylstrup and Fejerskov's (TF) fluorosis index. In addition to the clinical classification, difference in the concentration of fluoride in the teeth was verified by acid etching. Brackets were bonded with a composite resin after etching the enamel surface with 40% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds. Tensile bond strength was determined with an Instron testing machine. The bond failure site was assessed by the percentage of residue cement on the tooth surface after debonding and the etching pattern by SEM. The mean concentration of fluoride was 2888.5 ppm (SD 1081.7) in the fluorotic teeth and 1227.1 ppm (SD 526.3) in the nonfluorotic teeth. The mean bond strength was 7.8 N/mm2 (SD 1.47) for the fluorotic teeth and 8.6 N/mm2 (SD 2.19) for the nonfluorotic teeth. The difference between the means for bond strength was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). Bond failure site was primarily at the bracket-adhesive interface. The mean percentage of adhesive on the enamel surface after debonding was 70% (SD 25.90) for the fluorotic teeth and 75% (SD 24.66) for nonfluorotic teeth. The difference in the means was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Stimulating smallholder investment in sustainable land management: Overcoming market, policy and institutional challenges.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Enzymatic Synthesis of Lipophilic Rutin and Vanillyl Esters From Fish By Products. Accepted.". In: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2011. Abstract
p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; } Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of lipophilic phenolic antioxidants was carried out with a concentrate of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), recovered from oil extracted from Salmon (Salmon salar) by-products. Vanillyl alcohol and rutin were selected for the esterification reaction and obtained esters yields were 60 and 30 %, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the esters were compared with those of commercial butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol using DPPH radical scavenging and thiobarbituric acid assays. In DPPH assay, rutin esters showed better activity than vanillyl esters and on the contrary in lipophilic medium, vanillyl esters were found to be superior to rutin esters. In bulk oil system, the antioxidant activities of rutin and vanillyl derivatives were lower than that of BHT and α-tocopherol but in emulsion, they showed better activity than α-tocopherol. By attaching PUFAs to natural phenolics, the PUFAs are protected against oxidation while PUFA improves the hydrophobicity of the phenolic which could enhance its function in lipid systems.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. "The State and Rural Development: Transcending the Centralization-Decentralization Debate, ".". In: Regional Development Dialogue Vol 25, No, Spring pp. 18-32. ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Hashim SO, Delgado O, Hatti-Kaul R, Mulaa FJ, Mattiasson B.Starch hydrolysing Bacillus halodurans isolates from a Kenyan soda lake.Biotechnol Lett. 2004 May;26(10):823-8.". In: Biotechnol Lett. 2004 May;26(10):823-8. Springerlink; 2004. Abstract
Fourteen obligate alkaliphilic and halotolerant bacterial isolates, exhibiting extracellular amylase activity at 55 degrees C and pH 10, were isolated from hot springs around Lake Bogoria, Kenya. From 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nine isolates shared 100% identity with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497T, while the rest shared 99% identity with alkaliphilic Bacillus species A-59. PCR of the intergenic spacer region between 16S and 23S rRNA genes (ISR-PCR) divided the isolates into two groups, while tDNA-PCR divided them into three groups. Bacillus halodurans DSM 497T had a different ISR pattern from the isolates, while it had a tDNA-PCR profile similar to the group that shared 99% identity with alkaliphilic Bacillus species A-59. All isolates hydrolysed soluble starch as well as amylose, amylopectin and pullulan. The amylase activity (1.2-1.8 U ml(-1)) in the culture broths had an optimum temperature of 55-65 degrees C, was stimulated by 1 mm Ca2+, and was either partially (16-30%) or completely inhibited by 1 mM EDTA. Activity staining of the cell-free culture supernatant from the isolates revealed five alkaline active amylase bands.
J K, P N, Ndegwa P, L I, J I, B BO, C. A. "Discovery of Phlebotomus Species of Sand Flies in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya: A Possible Leishmaniases focus. ." Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology . 2018;4(3):1103-1107.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Moshy J, Chindia ML. Clinical characteristics of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences, 2003. 4: 170 - 172.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences, 2003. 4: 170 - 172. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "The effects of Cortisone on GABA metabolism on the rat hypothalamus and hippocampus. MSc Thesis Donestsk State University.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1983. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Kimaro S.S., Moshy J: Gangrenous Stomatitis (cancrumoris) Clinical features, etiologic factors and complications. Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81.". In: Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1997. Abstract
Gangrenous stomatitis (cancrum oris) is a lesion involving the orofacial structures that is primarily seen in areas where the socioeconomic standards are low and there is poor hygiene. The general clinical features, associated etiologic factors, and ensuing complications in eight consecutive cases diagnosed between 1991 and 1995 are presented and discussed.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell, R.B. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1987). Canine Caval Syndrome, in canine Dirofilariasis. C.R.C., press. New York.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1987. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI D.L., CHINDIA M.L.: Orofacial lesions as indicators of HIV/AIDS among dental patients in Kenya. E. Afri. Med. J. 72(2): 135-138, 1994.". In: E. Afri. Med. J. 72(2): 135-138. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L., Valderhaug J and Ng'ang'a P.M.: Oral Health habits and Periodontal Health among a group of University Students in Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 69: 337 - 340, 1992.". In: East African Medical Journal, 69: 337 - 340, 1992. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya. The study comprised 243 randomly selected first year students, mean age 23 years, at the University of Nairobi. Questionnaire response showed that 39% of the participants had visited a dentist before, mainly for extraction. Sixteen per cent said they visited a dentist at least once a year and 96% said they brushed daily. Clinical examination was done in a room with natural daylight using the WHO criteria. Plaque was visible on 35% of the surfaces. 11% of gingival sites examined bled on probing. Only one participant had pocket depth greater than or equal to 4 mm. Supra- and sub-gingival calculus was recorded at 18% of index tooth surfaces. The study will be considered as a baseline for later studies on oral health trends in similar populations.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Urban consumers.". In: International Journal of Business and Social Science. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J S, T N, J G, Z Q. "Menstruation Requirements as a Barrier to Contraceptive Access in Kenya E.A.M.J. 76 ( 3 ): 124, 1999." E.A.M.J. . 1999;76(3):124-126. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In many countries, non-menstruating women are routinely denied contraceptive services even when pregnancy can easily be ruled out.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether menstruation requirements in Kenya constitute a barrier to access for potential family planning clients.

DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective observational study.

SETTING: Nine family planning clinics in western Kenya.
SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at Ministry of Health family planning clinics.

INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking and retrospective record reviews to compare the menstrual status of women presenting for family planning services with that of women who received methods in family planning clinics.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dichotomous outcomes (menstruating versus non-menstruating women).
RESULTS:
During the eight-week period that tally sheets were used in the one hospital and eight health centres, 45% of the 760 women presenting for services as new clients were not menstruating (clinic range = 19%-70%). In contrast, information from clinic registers and client records in the same nine clinics showed that the (weighted) proportion of registered new clients who were menstruating was 85% (n = 102). We estimated that 78% of non-menstruating women (35% of all potential new clients) were sent away without services.

CONCLUSION: For most women turned away, it is likely that pregnancy could be ruled out easily with a history and an examination. Menstruation as a pre-condition for provision of contraception wastes valuable resources and denies women their right to contraception.

J M, E M, Nguhiu J. "complications associated with anaesthesia in small animal practice in Nairobi County, Kenya." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2015;39(1):27-32.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. "Control of corruption in Kenya: Legal and Political Dimensions.". In: Nairobi: Claripress. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Immunization of rabbits with Glossina pallidipes tsetse fly midgut proteins:.". In: Effects on the fly and trypanosome transmission. Vaccine, Volume 23, Issue 29, 31 May Pages 3824-3828. Springerlink; 2005. Abstract
The thermal unfolding of Amy 34, a recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus halodurans, has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The denaturation of Amy 34 involves irreversible processes with an apparent denaturation temperature (T(m)) of 70.8 degrees C at pH 9.0, with four transitions, as determined using multiple Gaussian curves. The T(m) increased by 5 degrees C in the presence of 100-fold molar excess of CaCl2 while the aggregation of Amy 34 was observed in the presence of 1000-fold molar excess of CaCl2. Increase in the calcium ion concentration from 1- to 5-fold molar excess resulted in an increase in calorimetric enthalpy (DeltaH(cal)), however, at higher concentrations of CaCl2 (up to 100-fold), DeltaH(cal) was found to decrease, accompanied by a decrease in entropy change (DeltaS), while the T(m) steadily increased. The presence of 100-fold excess of metal chelator, EDTA, resulted in a decrease in T(m) by 10.4 degrees C. T(m) was also decreased to 61.1 degrees C and 65.9 degrees C at pH 6.0 and pH 11.0, respectively.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Kassim BA, Noor MA, Chindia ML.Oral health status among Kenyans in a rural arid setting: dental caries experience and knowledge on its causes.East Afr Med J. 2006 Feb;83(2):100-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Feb;83(2):100-5. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental caries experience and knowledge on the causes and preventive measures for dental diseases. DESIGN: A community based cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Elwak sub-district hospital, North Eastern Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty one adults who presented themselves during a dental check up at a sub-district hospital and gave written consent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries status and knowledge on its causes and preventive measures. The importance of outreach programmes in obtaining information as well as helping to alleviate the pain and suffering caused by dental diseases among communities living in remote areas is also revealed. RESULTS: Of the one hundred and forty one individuals, who were included in the study, 63.1% were women and 36.9% were men. Their ages ranged between 18 and over 65 years. 41.1% were in the 18-24-year age bracket. Regarding the oral health knowledge, 43% did not know any causes of dental diseases while 36%, 17% and 12% knew that diet, "dirt" on teeth and bacteria were possible causes, respectively. Fifty percent did not know any preventive measures for dental diseases while the rest indicated abstention from the consumption of sugary foods; and only 0.8% mentioned use of fluoridated toothpaste as a preventive measure for dental caries. 56.7% of the subjects were caries free. The mean DMFT for all ages was 3.4. Of those with caries 72.1% were women. CONCLUSION: There is a low level of oral health awareness and a moderately high level of dental caries experience in this community with women apparently carrying the biggest burden of dental caries.
J NG, Ombui JN, Nduati DW, Gicheru MM. "Genetic Characterisation of food borne Bacillus cereus strains from milk, cheese and rice by multiplex PCR assay." Inter J. of Integrative Biology. 2009;5(2):82-86.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Two Phosphoglycoprotein (Phosvitins) from Kinixys erosa Oocyte. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 103B 1025 - 1031.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1992. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Osteomyelitis of the mandible in HIV infection.Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999 Apr;37(2):154.". In: Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999 Apr;37(2):154. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1999. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 10371330 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J., Kanui, T., Atwell, R.B. Njenga, K.M. and Gathumbi, P.K. (1990).Polymyositis associated with chrlichia canis infection in 2 dogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice 31:624-627.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Awange D.O., Wakoli K.A.: Osteosarcoma of the Maxillofacial bones in Kenyans. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101.". In: J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101. Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Awange DO, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in three Kenyan girls: case reports. East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1993. Abstract

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

J M, JN K, D K, GO A', J N. "Feasibility of Low-Cost Seed Potato Storage in Kenya: The Case of Diffused Light Storage in Nyandarua County." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6(1):59-65.
J MROKELLOJULIUS, J MROKELLOJULIUS. "The role of collective action in overcoming the challenges of European food safety standards: The case of Kenya.". In: Agricultural Science Research Journal. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Mg'ang'a PM, Chindia ML. Dental and skeletal changes in juvenile hypothyroidism following treatment: case report. Odontostomatol Trop. 1990 Jan;13(1):25-7.". In: Odontostomatol Trop. 1990 Jan;13(1):25-7. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1990. Abstract
A case of juvenile hypothyroidism is presented showing evidence of delayed shedding of deciduous teeth, root development, eruption of permanent teeth as well as retarded skeletal growth. Changes in dental and skeletal ages were of varying degrees following two years of treatment with L-thyroxine.
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Waghela S., Gathuma, J.M. Fazil, M.A. and Kagunya, D.K.J. (1978). A serological survey of Camel brucellosis in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production Vol. 10 No. 1 pp. 28-29.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1978. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Pectinase-producing microorganisms from Kenyan soda lakes (Manuscript).". In: Gene Bank under accession number DQ 341411. Springerlink; 2005.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Mutave R, Chindia ML, Guthua SW.Post-operative re-construction of dentoalveolar tissue and the mandible and maxillae using prosthetic therapy.East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):311-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):311-3. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate.
J N, SG K, Gathumbi P K, AN M, J K. "Erythrina abyssinica prevents meningoencephalitis in chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei mouse model." Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014.Website
J W, W OGANA. "The dynamics of vector-host feeding rate with saturation ; A case of malaria in Western Kenya. Applied." Applied Mathematics. Journal. 2013;4(10):1535-1545.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Signal transduction in malaria gametocytes. biochemical pathways in parasites of medical importance.". In: Proceedings of a workshop held at the University of Cape Town from 14-16 January (1998). South African Journal of Science. 271-272. Springerlink; 1998. Abstract
Cultivated Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes reach maturity in vitro in approximately 14-16 days, during which they pass through five morphologically distinct developmental stages. Purification of the earlier developmental stages has not been previously reported. We have modified the standard discontinuous Percoll gradient method for the separation of stage IV and V gametocytes to obtain enriched preparations of those and the earlier P. falciparum gametocyte stages. In contrast to the stages II, III, and IV, the mature stage V gametocytes from our gradient readily transformed into gametes. Such preparations may be useful in research studies on the mechanisms that underlie gametocytogenesis.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, ELIZABETH DRDIMBA. "Chindia M. L., Dimba E: Neural Tumours of the Head and Neck. East African Medical Journal; 77:531-533, 2000.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Oct;77(10):531-3. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To document the pattern of occurrence of all primary neural tumours arising in the neck and craniofacial region over the period 1982 to 1991. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Cancer Registry, Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Out of the 289 cases who were identified to have had whole body neural tumours, 225 (77.8%) had the lesions distributed in the neck and craniofacial area. While 80% of the neoplasms located in this region were retinoblastomas (mainly occurring in the age group 0 to 4 years), other lesion types occurred in small numbers thus: neurofibromas comprised 12.4%, Schwannomas four per cent, neuroblastomas and neuromas each 0.4%; and extracranial gliomas 2.7%. Overall, the male to female ratio was 1:1 and the site distribution revealed that over 90% of the lesions afflicted the upper face. CONCLUSION: Neural tumours of the neck and craniofacial region appear generally rare in this population as has been shown elsewhere.
J H, Z Q. "Preventing deaths due to haemorrhage. ." Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology Elsevier. 2016;36:68-32.Website
J PROFBUOROIB. "Gathumbi, P.K., Waruiru, R.M. and Buoro, I.B.J., (1991). A case of feline Aelurostrongylus abstructus infection in Kenya. Bulletin Animal Health and Production in Africa 39:361-363.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1991. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Akama MK, Chindia ML, Macigo FG, Guthua SW.Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):287-95. Elsevier; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by head and chest injuries combined which were responsible for 13% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton appear to be uncommon in this series. Pedestrians in their third decade of life are most affected with passenger service vehicles being responsible in the majority of the cases. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventional programmes targeting pedestrians and those in the third and fourth decades of life should be enacted.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Kimaro S.Congenital lower lip pits and bilateral clefting of the upper lip.East Afr Med J. 1994 May;71(5):332-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 May;71(5):332-3. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
An apparently sporadic case of congenital lower lip pits in association with upper lip bilateral clefts is described in an 11-month-old boy. The presentation, mode of inheritance, aetiology and genetic significance are briefly reviewed.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Export standards, market institutions and smallholder farmer exclusion from fresh export vegetable high value chains: Experiences from Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sceince. Julius J. Okello; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Epidemiology of maxillofacial cancer: a need for enhanced knowledge among communities. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1990 Jun;18(3):165.". In: Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1990 Jun;18(3):165. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1990. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 2350957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "English, P., S. Jaffee and J.J. Okello (2004). .". In: Paper presented at the World Bank conference on Scaling Up Poverty Reduction: A Global Learning Process, Shanghai, May 25-27, 2004. INTECH Publishers; 2004. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, Ara, The Use and Abuse of Khat/9cathaedulis Forsk in Garissa - Kenya MA, University of Nairobi, 1985.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1985. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. (1989). Diagnosis and Control of Psuedomonas aeruginosa infections: A Review. Bulletin of animal Health and Production in Africa :.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1989. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Misoi, G.K., Gichaga, F.J., Carson, R.N. .". In: Part 2. Wheel oilInteraction.Proceedings. Inst. Mech. Engrs.Vol. 203. (pp. 216 . UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Hydrogen peroxide degradation by immobilized cells of alkaliphilic Bacillus halodurans.". In: Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, 24. 3,. 215-222. Springerlink; 2006.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. "'Electoral Politics in Kenya: Voter Choice in Mvita and Changamwe Constituencies'.". In: Paper presented at the XVI Biennial Conference of the African Association of Political Science, (AAPS), Durban, South African, June 26-28, 1997. ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "BUTT FMA, VAGHELA VP, CHINDIA ML. Correlation of CD4 counts and CD4/CD8 ratio with HIV-infection associated oral manifestations. East African Medical Journal 2007; 84: 383-388.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2007. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Protein polymorphism in two populations of the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus Appendiculatus Neumann ( Acari: Ixodidae). Insect Sci.Applic.Vol.20.(3), 227-231.". In: Proceedings of the 6th International symposium on fruit flies of economic importance, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6-10 May 2002. Springerlink; 2001. Abstract
The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, MULAMA DROSUNDWATOM, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Osundwa TM, Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Nyong'o A.McCune Albright syndrome: autosomal dominant trait in a family of eight.East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S40-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S40-2. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2001. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J., Mande, J.D. and Nyamwange, S.B. (1993). Isolation of Nocardia asteroids from a dog with harmorrhagic cystitis. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 34: 99-102.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1993. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Traditional dental practices.East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):205-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):205-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 7621750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "The role of varietal crops in the adoption of improved dryland crop varieties.". In: African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J. and Atwell R.B. (1983). Intravascular Haemolytic Sydrome in Dogs.Veterinary Record 112:273-274.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Fibrous dysplasia of the jaws: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):312-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):312-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
This article reviews the present clinical, radiographic and histologic features of fibrous dysplastic lesions of the jaws. A case is presented of an apparently reactivated fibrous dysplastic jaw lesion, with evidence of cystic degeneration, in a 33-year-old female school-teacher who was first seen at the Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi in March 1986. The dilemma in the management of fibrous dysplasia is reviewed and discussed. It is noted that while conservative surgical procedures remain the treatment of choice, situations arise where tremendous tissue activity would require early intervention by numerous cosmetic surgical shaving procedures. The present case, however, offers a unique management challenge due to the occurrence of extensive cystic degeneration in the mandible.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Okello, J.J (2006) .". In: A presentation made at the DrumNet (Pride Africa) Outcome Mapping workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. November 23, 2006. INTECH Publishers; 2006. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, A.R.J., Non-Governmental Organization in Africa: Present conditions and future prospects. In Mikono Vol.2 Journal of the African Education Fund (A.E.F) FUKUOKA JAPAN, 1991.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1991. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Mbuthia P.G.; Karaba W.; Kuria J.K.N.; and Kagunya D.K.J. (1993).Sarcosporidia in domestic chicken in Kenya.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Atibu, F.S. and Gichaga, F.J. .". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences.Series A. Vol. 10 No.2. (pp 41 . UN-HABITAT; 1996. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Enzymatic enrichment of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Nile perch (Lates niloticus) viscera oil.". In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. Volume 112, Issue 9, pages 977. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
Oil was extracted from fatty material obtained from Nile perch viscera using the protease Protex 30L. Enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the glyceride fraction was carried out by hydrolysis of extracted oils with lipases from Candida rugosa, Thermomyces lanuginosus and Pseudomonas cepacia. The unusual fatty acid distribution of the oil influenced the apparent lipase specificity to a large extent. In the unhydrolysed oil, only 16% of EPA was in sn-2 position while 51% of palmitic acid was located in this position of the triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules. Non-regioselective lipase from C. rugosa was the most effective in combined enrichment of both EPA and DHA. This was partly because it was able to hydrolyse off palmitic acid from the sn-2 position, which 1-, 3-specific lipases were unable to do. Hydrolysis with C. rugosa lipase enriched EPA from 3 to 6 mol% and DHA from 9 to 23 mol%, with recoveries of 42 and 55%, respectively. The 1-, 3-specific lipase from T. lanuginosus was ineffective in enriching EPA, but gave best DHA enrichment, 38 mol% with a recovery of 39%. DHA was rather equally distributed in sn-1, -2 and -3 positions of TAG. The results show that both the fatty acid specificity and regiospecificity of the lipase as well as the fatty acid distribution of the oil should be considered when choosing the strategy for fatty acid enrichment.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""The Role of Governance and Civil Society of Africa's Development: A Critical Review",.". In: Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 4, No.2, Autumn. ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""The Steel Frame for Rule: The Provincial Administration in Colonial and Post-Colonial Kenya,".". In: Paper Presented at the African Studies Association (ASA), Washington DC, Fall. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Butt FM, Chindia ML, Rana F, Machigo FG.Pattern of head and neck malignant neoplasms in HIV-infected patients in Kenya.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008 Sep 8.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008 Sep 8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2008. Abstract

HIV-infected patients face a greater risk of developing malignant disease. The most commonly reported neoplasms of the head and neck region include Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). There is also an increased risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A descriptive cross-sectional study including HIV-infected patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions was conducted. Of the 200 participants, 116 (58%) were male and 84 (42%) female with an age range of 18-61 years (mean 37 years). The females were significantly younger (mean 33 years) than the males (mean 37 years) (t test; 2.57; P<0.05 [0.001]). The prevalence of neoplastic lesions in this study was 27%; 37 (68%) patients had KS, 9 (17%) had SCC, 7 (13%) had NHL and 1 (2%) had Burkitt's lymphoma. More females than males presented with lesions of KS and SCC compared with NHL. The youngest patient presented with SCC at 18 years (mean 35.7 years), followed by KS at 23 years (mean 36.3 years) and NHL at 33 years (mean 43.9 years). Most study participants (97%) were in stage III/IV of the disease and the remaining 3% in stage II. In this study, the most common malignant neoplasms were KS, SCC and NHL, manifesting in a younger age group than in the non-HIV group of patients.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Introduction to bioinformatics. Report of the first international course on strategic planning for parasite control.". In: Eastern and South Africa Centre of International Parasite control (ESACIPAC). 3-21, Feb 2003.P 56- 58. Springerlink; 2003. Abstract
The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Cleft lip and/or palate: searching for aetiological factors.East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):509.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):509. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L., and Valderhaug, J: Periodontal status following Trapezoidal and Semilunar Flaps in apicectomy. East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):564-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):564-7. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
Apicectomy is offered where routine endodontics cannot resolve periapical inflammation. This study compared the influence on periodontal attachment level of two surgical procedures, the trapezoidal (TF) and the semilunar (SF) flaps. Twenty patients aged 16-44 years (mean 23.2 years), were randomly assigned to either flap procedure. Prior to surgery the patients received periodontal prophylaxis and oral hygiene instruction. Records were made of gingival indices, pocket depth and the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the bottom of the gingival pocket. The measurements involved buccal surfaces of 13 to 23. The TF flap extended from 14 to 24 between the interdental papillae, whereas the SF flap was carried in a semi circle from 14 to 24 about 2mm from the attached gingiva. The surgical wounds were closed with black silk sutures. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. Sutures were removed after one week. On recall after 6, 12 and 24 weeks the same measurements as before surgery were made. No statistically significant change was observed in pocket depth or attachment level between TF and SF flaps (p > 0.05). However, the TF flap produced less noticeable scarification than the SF flap.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Awareness of Mobile Phone-Based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya.". In: International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1984). Development of a Model of Caval Syndrome in the Dog infected by Dirofilaria immitis. AustralianVeterinaryJournal 62: 29-30.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1984. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Giant twin sialoliths presenting with acute cellulitis: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1992 Mar;69(3):171-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Mar;69(3):171-2. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

Sialolithiasis is a process of unknown aetiology in which calculus concretions form in the salivary gland ducts and tissue. It may occur at any age but it is most common in middle-aged adults. A case is presented of the occurrence of double giant sialoliths in the left Wharton's duct in a 16-year-old boy. The clinical symptoms and signs were somewhat atypical and included acute suppurative cellulitis in the floor of the mouth plus localized periodontitis involving 36. Under a local anaesthetic the stones were surgically extracted and healing was uneventful. Proper interpretation of symptoms and thoughtful investigation for localization of salivary stones is emphasized.

J K, K K, Gichuhi S, S M. "Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoretti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008;14(1):42-50.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "International food safety standards and the use of pesticides in fresh export vegetable production in developing countries: Implications for farmer health and the environment.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. INTECH Publishers; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J O, Kimani PM. "Screening for drought resistance in small seeded common." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal . 2013;78(78):99-108.
J KC, O OFD, DA A. "Assessment of Domestic Water Quality of Dams in Chepalungu Sub-county, Bomet County, Kenya." The International Journal of Science & Technology. 2017;5(6):144-130.
J B, L O. Evaluation of Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organisation (MYWO) and Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) Female Genital Mutilation Project in four Districts in Kenya. Nairobi: Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organisation (MYWO) and Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH); 1998.
J M, HM M, VT Tsuma ERM. "characterization of follicular dynamics in the Kenyan Boran Cow." Inter J Vet Sci. 2015;4(4):206-210.mutembei-muraya_2015-_dynamics.pdf
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Enrichment of PUFA in Nile perch free fatty acids by selective enzymatic esterification and subsequent analysis using HPLC-ELSD.". In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 29 MAR 2011 DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201000560. Wiley; 2011. Abstract
PUFA from oil extracted from Nile perch viscera were enriched by selective enzymatic esterification of the free fatty acids (FFA) or by hydrolysis of ethyl esters of the fatty acids from the oil (FA-EE). Quantitative analysis was performed using RP-HPLC coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector (RP-HPLC-ELSD). The lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus discriminated against docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) most, resulting in the highest DHA/DHA-EE enrichment while lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia discriminated against eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) most, resulting in the highest EPA/EPA-EE enrichment. The lipases discriminated between DHA and EPA with a higher selectivity when present as ethyl esters (EE) than when in FFA form. Thus when DHA/EPA were enriched to the same level during esterification and hydrolysis reactions, the DHA-EE/EPA-EE recoveries were higher than those of DHA/EPA-FFA. In reactions catalysed by lipase from T. lanuginosus, at 26 mol% DHA/DHA-EE, DHA recovery was 76% while that of DHA-EE was 84%. In reactions catalysed by lipase from P. cepacia, at 11 mol% EPA/EPA-EE, EPA recovery was 79% while that of EPA-EE was 92%. Both esterification of FFA and hydrolysis of FA-EE were more effective for enriching PUFA compared to hydrolysis of the natural oil and are thus attractive process alternatives for the production of products highly enriched in DHA and/or EPA. When there is only one fatty acid residue in each substrate molecule, the full fatty acid selectivity of the lipase can be expressed, which is not the case with triglycerides as substrates.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""New Dimensions of Regional Security in Africa: The Case of IGAD", Mwagiru M. (ed), African Regional Security in the Age of Globalization, Nairoi: HB Foundation).". In: Regional Development Dialogue Vol 25, No, Spring pp. 18-32. ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J N, SG K, Gathumbi P K, AN M, J K. "Erythrina abyssinica ameliorates meningoencephalitis and conserves proteins in Trypanosoma brucei brucei chronic mouse model.". In: 15th International Neuroscience Winter Conference. Austria; 2013.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Baliraine FN, Bonizzoni M, Guglielmino CR, Osir EO, Lux SA, Mulaa FJ, Gomulski LM, Zheng L, Quilici S, Gasperi G, Malacrida AR.Population genetics of the potentially invasive African fruit fly species, Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera: T.". In: Mol Ecol. 2004 Mar;13(3):683-95. Springerlink; 2004. Abstract
A set of 10 microsatellite markers was used to survey the levels of genetic variability and to analyse the genetic aspects of the population dynamics of two potentially invasive pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis rosa and C. fasciventris, in Africa. The loci were derived from the closely related species, C. capitata. The degree of microsatellite polymorphism in C. rosa and C. fasciventris was extensive and comparable to that of C. capitata. In C. rosa, the evolution of microsatellite polymorphism in its distribution area reflects the colonization history of this species. The mainland populations are more polymorphic than the island populations. Low levels of differentiation were found within the Africa mainland area, while greater levels of differentiation affect the islands. Ceratitis fasciventris is a central-east African species. The microsatellite data over the Uganda/Kenya spatial scale suggest a recent expansion and possibly continuing gene flow within this area. The microsatellite variability data from C. rosa and C. fasciventris, together with those of C. capitata, support the hypothesis of an east African origin of the Ceratitis spp.
J PROFBUOROIB, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M., Njenga, M.J., Karitu T.P., Kimoro, C. Kiptoon J.C. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1990). A note on clinical-pathological findigs and serum enzyme activity in sheep, goats and Friesian calves with acute Lantana camara poisoning. Bulletin Animal Health a.". In: Proc. 9th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1990. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "AKAMA M.K., MACIGO FG, CHINDIA ML, ODHIAMBO W.A. Occurence of injuries of the maxillofacial skeleton seen at a Teaching and National referral Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Oral health Sciences 2003.". In: African Journal of Oral health Sciences 2003. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Asseri L, Nguvumali HI, Matee MI, Chindia ML.Chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible following tooth extraction in HIV infection.Oral Dis. 1997 Sep;3(3):193-5.". In: Oral Dis. 1997 Sep;3(3):193-5. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1997. Abstract
A case is presented of refractory chronic osteomyelitis of the left mandible arising after a tooth extraction in HIV infection. The challenges of prompt diagnosis and the dilemma of satisfactory management are highlighted. It is imperative that dental and oral health providers have a particularly high index of suspicion of conditions that occur in HIV infection so that early identification and appropriate management may be instituted.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B., Sutton, R.H. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1986). Early pulmonary lesions caused by dead Dirofilaria immitis in dogs exposed to homologous antigens. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 67: 395-405.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1986. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Awange DO, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in three Kenyan girls: case reports. East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Ng'ang'a P.M., Bjorn O., Cruz R, Chindia M.L., AASRI E.: Tensile strength of orthodontic brankets bonded directly to fluorotic teeth: An invitro comparative study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

Information related to bonding of orthodontic brackets to fluorotic teeth is scanty. The purpose of this study was to compare, in vitro, the tensile bond strength and the bond failure site of brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth. The etching patterns were also evaluated. The study involved 26 teeth classified as score 3 and 4, and 26 as score 0 with the Thylstrup and Fejerskov's (TF) fluorosis index. In addition to the clinical classification, difference in the concentration of fluoride in the teeth was verified by acid etching. Brackets were bonded with a composite resin after etching the enamel surface with 40% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds. Tensile bond strength was determined with an Instron testing machine. The bond failure site was assessed by the percentage of residue cement on the tooth surface after debonding and the etching pattern by SEM. The mean concentration of fluoride was 2888.5 ppm (SD 1081.7) in the fluorotic teeth and 1227.1 ppm (SD 526.3) in the nonfluorotic teeth. The mean bond strength was 7.8 N/mm2 (SD 1.47) for the fluorotic teeth and 8.6 N/mm2 (SD 2.19) for the nonfluorotic teeth. The difference between the means for bond strength was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). Bond failure site was primarily at the bracket-adhesive interface. The mean percentage of adhesive on the enamel surface after debonding was 70% (SD 25.90) for the fluorotic teeth and 75% (SD 24.66) for nonfluorotic teeth. The difference in the means was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05).

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "The role of ICT-based market information services in spatial food market integration: The case of Malawi Agricultural Commodity Exchange.". In: International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J B, C N, P M. Women Professionals in the Agricultural Sector: Kenya Case Study. Arkansas: Winrock International; 1992.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. "Government of Kenya Anti-Corruption Programs, 2001-2005', ).". In: Ludeki C. et al Control of Corruption in Kenya: Legal & Political Dimensions Claripress: Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Kinyua, J. K., Nguu, E.K., Mulaa, F. J. and Ndung.". In: Vaccine. 23. 3824-3828. Springerlink; 2005. Abstract
Proteins isolated from the midgut of Glossina pallidipes were used to immunize rabbits and their efficacy as vaccine candidate(s) against the fly, and their potential to block transmission of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense assessed. Two fractions, detergent (DET) and aqueous (AQ) fractions were separated using a non-ionic detergent (Triton X-114) and a series of bioassay experiments carried out using serum obtained from rabbits immunized with either of the two fractions. The mortality rates of tsetse flies fed on serum from rabbits immunized with DET and AQ was 56 and 35%, respectively, as compared to 20% mortality in controls. The DET antigen(s) caused considerably higher mortality (chi(2)=1.194, P<0.05) than that on controls. These findings suggest that midgut proteins contain antigens that are lethal to tsetse flies, and are potential candidates for the development of anti-tsetse vaccine. When flies fed on serum derived from DET immunized rabbits were fed on T. b. rhodesiense infected blood, only 20% of them picked the infection. Very few flies (20%) fed on serum derived from DET immunized rabbits had infection of T. b. rhodesiense. In the control flies 45% of them had infection in the midgut with a higher and actively motile parasite load. Assessment of fecundity indicated significantly higher (chi(2)=2.117, P<0.05) larviposition for the control flies when compared to the AQ group of flies (chi(2)=1.054, P<0.05). Significant differences in abortions and pupal weights were also observed. These results suggest that midgut proteins contain antigens with potential for use in development of vaccine to block transmission of trypanosomes through tsetse.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, MULAMA DROSUNDWATOM, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Osundwa TM, Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Nyong'o A.McCune Albright syndrome: autosomal dominant trait in a family of eight.East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S40-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S40-2. University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Chindia ML, Akama MK, Awange DO.Ameloblastic fibroma at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To document the occurrence of cases of ameloblastic fibroma. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: The Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine histopathology laboratory at the Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, January 1991 to December 2000. RESULTS: Seven complete records of histopathologically confirmed cases of ameloblastic fibroma were identified. There were four male and three female cases with an age range of 10 to 22 years (mean=14 years). Remarkably, six of the cases had lesions in the molar regions of the mandible with a single case with a maxillary molar area lesion. One of the cases had the neoplasm associated with an unerupted tooth. From the clinical notes all the patients were managed by meticulous enucleation and curettage of the lesions. After follow up periods ranging from several months to eight years no recurrences had been recorded. CONCLUSION: Evidently ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon neoplasm as noted in the earlier literature. Although the lesions can be quite extensive at the time of diagnosis, the recurrence rate appears to be relatively low if the neoplasms are meticulously extirpated.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "The Phosphoproteins of the African Land tortoise Kinixy erosa Lin. 7 Ph.D. Thesis Obafemi Awolowo University Ile - Ife.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1990. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Alibhai ZA, Matee MI, Chindia ML, Moshy J.Presentation and management of chronic osteomyelitis in an African patient with pycnodysostosis.Oral Dis. 1999 Jan;5(1):87-9.". In: Oral Dis. 1999 Jan;5(1):87-9. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1999. Abstract
A case is reported of pycnodysostosis (PCD) with chronic osteomyelitis in the mandible. The clinical and radiological features and the problems of management and follow-up are discussed.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J., Atwell, R.B., Kiptoon, J.C. and Ihiga, M.A. (1989). Feline anaemia associated with ehrlichia-like bodies in three domestic short-haired cats. Veterinary record 125: 4340-436.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1989. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Kimaro S.S., Moshy J: Gangrenous Stomatitis (cancrumoris) Clinical features, etiologic factors and complications. Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81.". In: Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Gangrenous stomatitis (cancrum oris) is a lesion involving the orofacial structures that is primarily seen in areas where the socioeconomic standards are low and there is poor hygiene. The general clinical features, associated etiologic factors, and ensuing complications in eight consecutive cases diagnosed between 1991 and 1995 are presented and discussed.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Koech KJ, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA, Gathece LW. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV infection and their relationship with CD4 count at a Nairobi centre. African journal of oral health sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental caries experience and knowledge on the causes and preventive measures for dental diseases. DESIGN: A community based cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Elwak sub-district hospital, North Eastern Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty one adults who presented themselves during a dental check up at a sub-district hospital and gave written consent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries status and knowledge on its causes and preventive measures. The importance of outreach programmes in obtaining information as well as helping to alleviate the pain and suffering caused by dental diseases among communities living in remote areas is also revealed. RESULTS: Of the one hundred and forty one individuals, who were included in the study, 63.1% were women and 36.9% were men. Their ages ranged between 18 and over 65 years. 41.1% were in the 18-24-year age bracket. Regarding the oral health knowledge, 43% did not know any causes of dental diseases while 36%, 17% and 12% knew that diet, "dirt" on teeth and bacteria were possible causes, respectively. Fifty percent did not know any preventive measures for dental diseases while the rest indicated abstention from the consumption of sugary foods; and only 0.8% mentioned use of fluoridated toothpaste as a preventive measure for dental caries. 56.7% of the subjects were caries free. The mean DMFT for all ages was 3.4. Of those with caries 72.1% were women. CONCLUSION: There is a low level of oral health awareness and a moderately high level of dental caries experience in this community with women apparently carrying the biggest burden of dental caries.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L: Fighting Orofacial Cancer. Africa Health 14:41, 1992.". In: Africa Health 14:41, 1992. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

J M, JN K, D K, GO A', J N. "Yield performance of potato seed tubers after long storage in diffused light store." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6 (1):21-28.yield_and_dls_storage.pdf
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Challenges facing smallholder farmers.". In: International Journal of Economic Research. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J N-M, P.M.F M, J.K W, P.G M. "Prognostic indicators and the importance of trimming in non-infective claw disorders in cattle.". 2008. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 32 smallholder dairy farms in Nairobi and its environs, in which 300 cowswere examined for clawdisorders. The objectivewas to evaluate characteristics of claw disorders in dairy cows in smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs. After a purposive selection of the farms and a systematic sampling of the cows, hind limb claws of all the 300 cows were examined for disorders. Thorough washing and trimming of the clawswere done. Claw disorders that were chronic in nature were the most destructive and incorrigible by claw trimming. Apart from chronic nature of the disorders, other prognostic indicators were the laminitic features of claw damage which mainly included invasive erosions of the horn leading to excessively thinned sole, excessively softened and crumbling horn of the sole, widespread penetrating sole haemorrhages and crookedly shaped claws.These features of chronic laminitis occurred concurrently with heel or sole erosion, white line separation, sole ulcers, horizontal hoof wall fissures and double soles. In most smallholder farms, cowswith these disorders were neglected to the extent that trimming was inadequately corrective. Regular claw examination and corrective trimming should be adopted as routine procedures in dairy cow production.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Some modalities of initiating and sustaining oral health research. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1989 Oct;17(5):274.". In: Oral Epidemiol. 1989 Oct;17(5):274. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 2791520 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Waiyaki, P.G. and Kagunya D.K.J. (1978) orchitis in a ram caused by a Flavobacterium species .". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1978. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "B. Alkaline active maltohexaose forming α-amylase from Bacillus halodurans LBK 34.". In: Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36: 139-146. Springerlink; 2005.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, ELIZABETH DRDIMBA. "Aden A, Dimba EA, Ndolo UM, Chindia ML.Socio-economic effects of khat chewing in north eastern Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):69-73.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):69-73. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The khat habit is a widespread phenomenon which has in the past two decades spread to parts of Western Europe and North America from Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Although khat has been identified as one of the most commonly abused substances in Kenya, restrictions on cultivation, trade and usage have been non-existent since its legalisation in 1977. OBJECTIVE: To describe the socio-economic effects of khat chewing in Ijara District in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Ijara District, North Eastern Kenya. SUBJECTS: Fifty respondents were interviewed. RESULTS: Eighty eight percent of the respondents were khat chewers, and the majority (80%) had family members who engaged in the khat habit. There was a general lack of education on the negative effects of khat chewing. Due to reported mood changes and withdrawal symptoms when not chewing khat, many respondents used more than half of their domestic budgets on khat, but few (28%) perceived this as a waste of resources. Fifty four percent of khat chewers typically started the habit during the day, implying a waste of time for productive work. However, only 40% of the persons interviewed admitted that the drug affected work performance negatively. The khat habit was associated with strain on family relationships, anti-social behaviour and health effects such as insomnia. CONCLUSION: In spite of the negative socio-economic impact of khat in Ijara District, khat consumption remains a widespread habit.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Khan B, Omar S, Kanyara JN, Warren-Perry M, Nyalwidhe J, Peterson DS, Wellems T, Kaniaru S, Gitonga J, Mulaa FJ, Koech DK.Antifolate drug resistance and point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum in Kenya. Trans Trop Med and Hyg 91: 456-460.". In: Trans Trop Med and Hyg 91: 456-460. Springerlink; 1997. Abstract
Due to increased chloroquine resistance, the antifolate/sulpha drug combinations are becoming increasingly important in the chemotherapy of falciparum malaria. However, point mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene lead to resistance to the antifolate drugs. We therefore investigated the prevalence of the 6 reported point mutations in this gene among field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Kenya, to determine if the mutations correlated with resistance to pyrimethamine and the biguanides cycloguanil and chlorcycloguanil. We used a mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to test for these reported mutations in 21 Kenyan isolates and 4 reference lines. We also amplified and directly sequenced the dihydrofolate reductase coding sequence from these parasites to confirm the results and test for other possible mutations. Of the reported mutations, we found S108N, which is the central mutation of pyrimethamine resistance, and mutations N51I and C59R, which modulate the levels of resistance and may confer decreases in response to cycloguanil that are folate and p-aminobenzoic acid dependent. No isolate possessed the paired point mutations S108T and A16V, or I164L and S108N, which have been associated with cycloguanil resistance in previous studies. These results provided supportive evidence for the combined use of a cycloguanil-class drug (e.g., chlorproguanil) and a sulpha drug (e.g., dapsone) against P.falciparum malaria in Kenya.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L., Swaleh S.M., Godiah P.M: Sarcomas of the Head and Neck at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):256-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):256-9. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of sarcomas afflicting the neck and craniofacial region. DESIGN: A retrospective study (1982-1991). SETTING: Cancer Registry, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHOD: Examination was performed of the cancer records in the registry over the period 1982 to 1991 inclusive. Histopathological types of the sarcomas were then analysed to indicate the numbers that occurred per year; and also the pattern of occurrence according to age groups, gender and site. RESULTS: Of the 10,897 whole body neoplasms, 985 were sarcomas. Among these sarcomas, 160 (16%) were located in the neck and craniofacial region. The histopathological types of the neoplasms included Kaposi's sarcoma (39%), osteosarcoma (23%), rhabdomyosarcoma (21%), fibrosarcoma (13%), chondrosarcoma (two per cent), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (one per cent) and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (one per cent). CONCLUSION: The results of this investigation, in concordance with those of other series worldwide, indicate that the various sarcomas afflicting the neck and craniofacial area are generally rare.

J PROFBUOROIB, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M., Njenga, M.J., Karitu T.P., Kimoro, C. Kiptoon J.C. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1990). A note on clinical-pathological findigs and serum enzyme activity in sheep, goats and Friesian calves with acute Lantana camara poisoning. Bulletin Animal Health a.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J N-M, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Radiographic features of laminitic claws of dairy cows around Nairobi.". 2007. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the common radiographic features in laminitic claws from dairy cows using abattoir samples. A total of 192 claws were collected from Wangige slaughter slab and 126 claws from Kiserian abattoir. The claws were examined for gross lesions. Dorso-palmar/ dorso-plantar and lateral radiographic exposures of each clawwere taken and evaluated for radiographic changes. Subclinical and chronic laminitis was respectively present in 35% and 21% of the claws examined and 44% of the claws showed extreme deformities. Concurrent appearance of lesions was in 27% of the claws.Radiographic changes were observed in the pedal bones but not in the adjacent joints. Dilated vascular channels (61%) and prominently visible non-dilated vascular channels (24%) in the pedal bones were observed in subclinical and chronic laminitis. The most frequently observed radiographic changes in pedal bones were: irregular (serrated) margins (14%), exostoses (8%), and narrowing (6%), complete absence (3%) or partial absence (1%) of its apex.Other changes on the pedal bones were: rotation (4%), "dropping (sinking)" (3%), fissure fractures (2%), periostitis (1%) and osteolysis (1%). Most of these radiographic changes were seen in claws that had chronic laminitis with extreme deformities. It is concluded that radiographic changes in laminitis occur during the chronic phase and are most severe when concurrent extreme deformities of the claws are present.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Mutave R, Chindia ML, Guthua SW.Post-operative re-construction of dentoalveolar tissue and the mandible and maxillae using prosthetic therapy.East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):311-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):311-3. Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Ng'ang'a PM.Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Choice of fresh vegetable retail outlets by developing-country urban consumers: The case of kale consumers in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: European Journal of Development Research. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J N-M, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Radiographic features of laminitic claws of dairy cows around Nairobi.". 2007. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the common radiographic features in laminitic claws from dairy cows using abattoir samples. A total of 192 claws were collected from Wangige slaughter slab and 126 claws from Kiserian abattoir. The claws were examined for gross lesions. Dorso-palmar/ dorso-plantar and lateral radiographic exposures of each clawwere taken and evaluated for radiographic changes. Subclinical and chronic laminitis was respectively present in 35% and 21% of the claws examined and 44% of the claws showed extreme deformities. Concurrent appearance of lesions was in 27% of the claws.Radiographic changes were observed in the pedal bones but not in the adjacent joints. Dilated vascular channels (61%) and prominently visible non-dilated vascular channels (24%) in the pedal bones were observed in subclinical and chronic laminitis. The most frequently observed radiographic changes in pedal bones were: irregular (serrated) margins (14%), exostoses (8%), and narrowing (6%), complete absence (3%) or partial absence (1%) of its apex.Other changes on the pedal bones were: rotation (4%), "dropping (sinking)" (3%), fissure fractures (2%), periostitis (1%) and osteolysis (1%). Most of these radiographic changes were seen in claws that had chronic laminitis with extreme deformities. It is concluded that radiographic changes in laminitis occur during the chronic phase and are most severe when concurrent extreme deformities of the claws are present.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Coping with the management of orofacial cancer with limited resources. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1990 Apr;18(2):109.". In: Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1990 Apr;18(2):109. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1990. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 2335062 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J A, K O,.N O. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Okello, J. J. and S. M. Swinton (2004). .". In: Paper presented at the Rockefeller Foundation workshop on Markets to raise incomes for poor farmers in Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; April 5-8, 2004. INTECH Publishers; 2004. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Haji, A.R.J., International Youth Year: Challenge and Opportunity. In Wajibu Journal of Religious and Social Concern Vol. 1 No. 2 December 1985, Nairobi.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1985. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. (1989). Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Paper read at a Veterinary Pathology Departmental Seminar on 25th October 1989.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1989. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Molecular characterization of a tsetse fly midgut proteolytic lectin that mediates differentiation of African trypanosomes.". In: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 36 (4). Springerlink; 2006.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Western Modernity, African Indegene, and Political Order: Interrogating the Liberal Democratic Orthodoxy".". In: L. Chweya, ed. Electoral Politics in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress, 2002). ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Butt FM, Chindia ML, Rana FS, Ashani A.Cheilitis glandularis progressing to squamous cell carcinoma in an hiv-infected patient: case report.East Afr Med J. 2007 Dec;84(12):595-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Dec;84(12):595-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2007. Abstract
Cheilitis glandularis (CG), is a rare inflammatory minor salivary gland disease affecting the lower lip. The hallmarks of which include progressive enlargement and eversion of the lower labial mucosa resulting in the obliteration of the mucosal-vermillion interface. A case is presented of a 47-year-old HIV-infected woman who initially manifested clinical features of CG with a typical histopathology picture of a non-specific sialadenitis while a second biopsy performed six months later revealed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). She is symptom free one year following excision and radiotherapy treatment.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Repetitive sequences upstream the pfg27/25 gene determine frequent polymorphism in this subtelomeric locus in laboratory and natural lines of Plasmodium falciparum.". In: Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. Oct 110 (2): 247-257. Springerlink; 2000. Abstract
The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Osteosarcoma of the jaw bones.Oral Oncol. 2001 Oct;37(7):545-7.". In: Oral Oncol. 2001 Oct;37(7):545-7. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2001. Abstract
Currently, it has been established that osteosarcoma (OS) of bone is not a stereotyped disease, and several varieties have been identified by clinical findings, radiographic and histopathologic appearances. Generally, it is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm that accounts for at least 30% of all primary tumours of bone. In the jaw bones, OS accounts for about 4% of all the primary malignant neoplasms. In the general skeleton, the highest incidence is observed in the second decade of life; the neoplasm is said to be unusual before the age of 5 years and very rare after age 50 years. The aetiology and precise pathogenesis of this disease remain unknown. A diagnosis of clinically and radiologically suspicious OS requires meticulous histologic examination. However, histologic diagnosis may also be difficult since the different varieties of OS may have different morphological patterns in different sample sites. Currently, the two therapeutic modalities used in the primary treatment of OS include radical surgery and cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the general skeleton, the use of surgery alone results in a 90% rate of recurrence of OS. Notably, the advent of adjuvant and neoadjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy as an adjunct to radical surgery has greatly improved the prognosis of many cases of OS of the jaw bones.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J. (1993). Pox-like virus particles in skin lesions of 5 nile crocodiles in Kenya. Discovery and Innovation 3: 117-118.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1993. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI D.L., CHINDIA M.L.: Orofacial lesions as indicators of HIV/AIDS among dental patients in Kenya. E. Afri. Med. J. 72(2): 135-138, 1994.". In: E. Afri. Med. J. 72(2): 135-138. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 7621750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Drivers of use of information and communication services by farm households: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya.". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Buoro, I.B.J. and Atwell R.B. (1983). Heartworm Diagnostic Kit. Australian Veterinary Journal 13: 134.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. A conservative management of an extensive odontogenic residual cyst: a case report.East Afr Med J. 1991 Feb;68(2):143-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Feb;68(2):143-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
This article briefly reviews the clinical presentation and management of odontogenic cysts. A case is reported of an 18-year-old girl who, on 12-3-1986, presented for the first time at the Dental Department, University of Nairobi with a painful bony swelling in the chin area. The extensive swelling apparently arose long after the traditional removal of two mandibular incisors. After periodontal prophylaxis the cystic lesion was enucleated under a local anaesthetic and the cavity lining subjected to histopathological examination which revealed appearances consistent with those of an odontogenic residual cyst. Immediate wound care involved dressing the defect with zinc iodoform paste on ribbon gauze for 4 weeks when complete granulation and epithelialisation occurred. Subsequently the patient was instructed on homecare irrigation of the cavity without packing. Clinical and radiographic assessment showed progressively satisfactory healing of both the soft tissue and bone through a follow-up period of about two years. It is suggested that the cavity filling in process by periosteal and endosteal bone deposition may be faster where the defect is left without a pack or obturator following complete granulation and epithelialisation.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Okello, J.J and S.M. Swinton (2005). .". In: Selected paper, American Agricultural Economics Association meeting, Providence Rhode Island, July 24-27, 2005. INTECH Publishers; 2005. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MISSHAJIASHAR. "Farah, K.O., Haji, A.R.J., African Nomadic-Pastoralism in Transition: The Case of North-Eastern Kenya, 1990 SSRC New York.". In: MSc thesis, Faculty of vet. medicine, university of Nairobi. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1990. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Mbuthia P.G. and Kagunya D.K.J. (1993). Fish diseases investigation and control in aquaculture ponds in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at KVA Annual Scientific conference at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kabete on 22nd-23rd April 1993. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Deflections of Lateritic Gravel and Stone Base Pavements of low volume Tea roads in Kenya.". In: Fifth International Conference on Low Volume Roads. Held in May 1991 North Carolina. TRB. National Research Council. UN-HABITAT; 1991. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids.". In: African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 3(8) pp. 426-433 August, 2009. Academic Journals; 2009. Abstract
A Gram-negative obligate alkaliphilic bacterium (BOG6T) that secretes carotenoids was isolated fromthe outflow of Lake Bogoria hot spring located in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The bacterium is motile bymeans of a polar flagellum, and forms red colonies due to the production of xanthophyll carotenoidpigments. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed this strain to cluster phylogenetically within thegenus Paracoccus. Strain BOG6T is aerobic, positive for both catalase and oxidase, and nonmethylotrophic.The major fatty acid of the isolate is C18: 1w7c. It accumulated polyhydroxybutyrategranules. Strain BOG6T gave astaxanthin yield of 0.4 mg/g of wet cells indicating a potential forapplication in commercial production of carotenoids. On the basis of its genotypic characteristics, fattyacid composition and physiological reaction profiles, it is proposed that the isolate may be assigned tothe genus Paracoccus as Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov. The type strain is BOG6T (=DSM16578=LMG22798). The GenBank 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence accession number is AJ580352.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Civill Society and Democratization in Africa's Third Republi Republics".". In: Paper Presented at the Conference of NGO Council, Pan Africa Hotel, Nairobi, Dec 9-10,. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "polymorphism in CD45 locus In African cattle.". In: Journal Of The Cameroon Academy Of Sciences Vol 2 Supplement (2002) 251-255. Springerlink; 2002. Abstract
The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Clinical recognition of odontogenic tumours.East Afr Med J. 2002 Jan;79(1):1-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jan;79(1):1-2. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 12380861 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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