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G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding emergency contraception among nurses and nursing students in two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.1: Contraception. 1999 Apr;59(4):253-6.". In: Contraception. 1999 Apr;59(4):253-6. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
A cross-sectional descriptive study on knowledge, attitudes, and practice about emergency contraception (EC) was conducted among nurses and nursing students using a self-administered questionnaire. One-hundred-sixty-seven qualified nurses and 63 nursing students completed the questionnaire. Over 95% listed at least one regular contraceptive method but only 2.6% spontaneously listed EC as a contraceptive method, whereas 48% of the respondents had heard of EC. Significantly more nursing students than qualified nurses were familiar with EC. Knowledge about the types of EC, applications, and side effects was poor and 49% of the respondents considered EC as an abortifacient. Of those familiar with EC, 77% approved its use for rape victims and 21% for adolescents and schoolgirls. Only 3.5% of all respondents had personally used EC in the past, 23% of those familiar with EC intend to use it in the future, whereas 53% intend to provide or promote it. The view that EC was abortifacient negatively influenced the decision to use or provide EC in the future. The present findings suggest that the level of knowledge of EC is poor and more information is needed. These findings indicate the potential to popularize emergency contraception in Kenya among nurses and nursing students. PIP: A descriptive research study on knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to emergency contraception (EC) was conducted using a questionnaire among 167 nurses and 63 nursing students in Nairobi, Kenya. Results revealed that 95% recorded at least one regular contraceptive method. About 48% of the respondents had heard about EC, but only 2.6% had used it. More nursing students than qualified nurses were aware of EC. There was poor knowledge about the types, applications and side effects of EC. Some 49% of the subjects regarded EC as an abortifacient. About 77% of those knowledgeable about EC approved its use for rape victims and 21% for adolescents and schoolgirls. Only about 3.5% had personally used it. Some 23% of those aware of EC intended to use it in the future. About 53% planned to provide or promote it. The perception that EC is abortifacient affected the decision whether to use or provide it. The data imply that there is potential for effective promotion of EC among nurses and nursing students in Kenya
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "CHESEREM E, KOMBE Y, OTARA AM, KARANJA JG, AGWANDA R, KARAMA M, MUTSUMI J. Genital and Reproductive Morbidity in Women with Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) in Rachuonyo, Nyanza Province of Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and C.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 41-45, February 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, GWAYI-CHORE MO, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, LEQUIN RM and MATI JKG: Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycle in Healthy Black Kenyan women. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: Breastfeeding and Contraception: Editorial. Journal Obstet.Gynae East Centr. Afr. 1989.". In: Journal Obstet.Gynae East Centr. Afr. 1989. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Rees PH, Gatei DG, de Cock KM, Tosswill J. Some preliminary observations on the investigation of splenomegaly in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Oct;59(10):658-64. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Oct;59(10):658-64. No abstract available. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1982. Abstract
Small-intestinal function was studied in 10 patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Vitamin-A absorption was impaired in 7 and d-xylose in 1. In 5 of the 10 patients Leishmania were demonstrated in biopsy specimens of intestinal mucosa. Parasitised macrophages were present in villous tips and less commonly in the lamina propria and submucosa; a moderate inflammatory infiltrate was composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells. 2 patients had partial villous atrophy. There was no correlation between intensity of parasitisation and severity of malabsorption. After treatment with sodium stibogluconate there was a significant improvement in absorption of vitamin A and d-xylose, and biopsy specimens became normal. In 1 patient visceral leishmaniasis was thought to be the cause of chronic diarrhoea.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Beames, R.M., Higgs, D., Iwama, G., Mbugua, P.N. and Kisia A. (2000). Digestibility, Feeding value and limiting amino acids in high-fibre and fibre-reduced sunflower cake fed to tilapia O. niloticus.". In: Canadian Association of African Studies. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada April 30th – May 4th 2000. The Kenya Medical Association; 2000. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "TEMMERMAN M, GICHANGI PB, FONCK K, APERS L, CLAEYS P, van RENLERGHEN L,KIRAGU D, KARANJA JG, NDINYA-ACHOLA J,BWAYO J. Effect of syphilis control program on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Inf 75: 0-4, 1999.". In: Sex Transm Inf 75: 0-4, 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: The value of FSH, LH and prolactin assays in aetiological diagnosis of ammenorrhoea. M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982.". In: M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G W. THE PREVALENCE OF INTERNET CRIMES ON STUDENTS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "SEKADDE-KIGONDU C, QURESHI Z, KARANJA JG, JALDESA GW AND KAIHURA DMM: Compilers Abstracts of research in reproductive health by the department of OBS/GYN, College of Health Sciences, UON, 1971-1995.I: OBSTETRICS.". In: College of Health Sciences, UON, 1971-1995.I: OBSTETRICS. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "J E Sanderson, E G Olsen, and D Gatei.Peripartum heart disease: an endomyocardial biopsy study.". In: Br Heart J. 56(3): 285. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Endomyocardial biopsies were performed in 11 African women in Nairobi who presented with the clinical features of peripartum cardiomyopathy. The samples were studied by light and electron microscopy. In five patients there was evidence of a "healing myocarditis", that is the presence of a mild inflammatory cell infiltration within the myocardium with foci of necrosis and variable amounts of hypertrophy and fibrosis. Of the nine patients who were followed up, three out of four with myocarditis had persistent heart failure and four out of five without myocarditis improved. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte cell subsets were measured in nine patients by means of monoclonal antibodies. A high helper:suppressor T cell ratio was found in three patients. Almost half of this group of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy had myocarditis in their biopsy specimens. The myocarditis may have been due to an inappropriate immunological reaction in some patients.
G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;25(1):15-21. Abstractfull_article.pdf

AbstractBackground: Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Beames, R.M., Higgs, D., Iwama G., Mbugua, P.N. and Kisia S. (2002). Digestibility and feeding value of some feed ingredients fed to tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linn).". In: Aquaculture Research 33 (11), 853-862. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "MUTUNGI AK, WANGO EO, ROGO KO, KIMANI VN and KARANJA JG . Abortion: Behaviour of Adolescents in two Districts in Kenya. East Afr. Med. J.76: 541-546, October 1999.". In: East Afr. Med. J.76: 541-546, October 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "WERE EO and KARANJA JG: Low birth weight deliveries at the Nyanza General Hospital Kisumu, Kenya. East Afr.Med.J. 71(10: 667-670, October 1994.". In: East Afr.Med.J. 71(10: 667-670, October 1994. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "NOREH J, SEKADDE-KIGONDU C, KARANJA JG and THAGANA NG. Age at menopause in a rural population of western Kenya.East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G DRMACIGOFRANCIS, W. DRGATHECELOICE, KITUKU DRMULLITONNIE, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "MACIGO, F.G., GATHECE, L.W., GUTHUA, S.W., NJERU, E.K. WAGAIYU, E.G. and MULLI, T.K.: Oral Hygiene Practices and Risk of Oral Leukoplakia. East African Medical Journal, 83 (4), 74-79, 2006.". In: East African Medical Journal, 83 (4), 74-79, 2006. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Jeshrani MK, Gatei DG. Unusual presentation of hepatoma. East Afr Med J. 1975 Nov;52(11):605-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1975 Nov;52(11):605-10. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1975. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G GC, C BL. "Histomoniasis in a Peafowl (Pavo Cristatusl." Indian Veterinary Journal. 1992;69:944-945.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Kabuage, L.W and Owiti C (2005). Integrating Fish Culture into rice farming at Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kirinyaga District Phase 2: Choice of species, stocking density and potential of local fish species to be used in the control of mosquito.". In: AICAD Final Reports Presentation Workshop at the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (12th – 14th September 2005). The Kenya Medical Association; 2005. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "CHESEREM E, KOMBE Y, OTARA AM, KARANJA JG, AGWANDA R, KARAMA M, MUTSUMI J. Genital and Reproductive Morbidity in Women with Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) in Rachuonyo, Nyanza Province of Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and C.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 41-45, February 2004. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG AND MACHOKI JM (EDITORS) HOG 300: Curriculum for 3rd year MB.Ch.B Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Junior Clerkship in OBS/GYN), Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi,1995. (Bound Document).". In: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi,1995. (Bound Document). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA, J.G. Adolescent Reproductive Health. Editorial. J. Obstet. Gynaec Eastern & Central Africa. March 1999.". In: Gynaec Eastern & Central Africa. March 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G R, L O. National Study on Adolescent Reproductive Health Issues. Nairobi: Voluntary Agency for Local Initiatives Development ; 1999.
G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans. East Afr Med J. 1977 Nov;54(11):615-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Nov;54(11):615-20. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1977. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G DRKIBOIJULIUS. "Mwang'ombe NJ, Kiboi J.Factors influencing the outcome of severe head injury at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2001 May;78(5):238-41.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 May;78(5):238-41. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the factors influencing the outcome of severe head injury. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Six hundred and seventy seven patients with severe head injuries who were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1992 and December 1996. RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy seven patients with severe head injuries were treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, between January 1992 and December 1996. Three hundred and eighty one patients died while undergoing treatment, 56.2% overall mortality. Age specific mortality was 35.7% in patients below 13 years, 44% in age group 14-25 years, 56% in age group 26-45 years. The admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was recorded in 637 patients. Patients with admission GCS of 3-4 had a mortality of 88%, those with GCS 5-6 had a mortality of 60% and those with admission GCS 7-8 had a mortality of 52%. Ninety per cent of the patients who had bilaterally dilated pupils not reacting to light on admission died and 66% of the patients with bilaterally constricted pupils at the time of admission died. Only 20% of patients with severe head injury who had normal pupillary reaction to light at the time of admission died. Eighty five per cent of the patients with systolic BP of less than 90 mmHg on admission died while 60% of those with systolic BP greater than 120 mmHg died. CONCLUSION: In this study, factors associated with poor outcome in severe head injury patients at Kenyatta National Hospital were age, admission GCS, admission blood pressure (systolic), presence of other associated injuries and pupillary reaction to light.
G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans. East Afr Med J. 1977 Nov;54(11):615-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Nov;54(11):615-20. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1977. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "NOREH J, SEKADDE-KIGONDU C, KARANJA JG and THAGANA NG. Age at menopause in a rural population of western Kenya.East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996. SETTING: Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks.

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "GICHANGI PB, KARANJA JG, KIGONDU CS, FONCK K, and TEMMERMEN M. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Emergency Contraception Among Nursing Students in Two Hospitals in Nairobi Kenya. Contraception 59: 253-256,1999.". In: Contraception 59: 253-256,1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, MATI JKG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB: The value of FSH LH and prolactin assays in aetiological diagnosis of ammenorrhea. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1:108, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1:108, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Recruitment and training of pathologists in Kenya.". In: East Afr Med J. 1979 Nov;56(11):537-9. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1979. Abstract
No abstract available.
G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;1(25):15-21. Abstractantenatal_corticosteroid_use_in_preterm_birth_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background:Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Abortion: behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996. SETTING: Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks.

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "BUKUSIEA, COHEN CR, NGUTI R, MUNGAI JN, WAIYAKI PW, KARANJA JG, HOLMES KK Evaluation of "Femexan" Rapid Test for the Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis in Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 57-61, February 200.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 57-61, February 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycles in healthy black Kenyan women.J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Dec;1(4):140-4. Links.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Dec;1(4):140-4. Links. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
PIP: 17 regularly mentruating young black Kenyan women were studied during a mentrual cylcle for their reproductive hormonal patterns. The serum concentrations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Prolactin (PRL) were determined by World Health Organization Matched Reagent Programme Radioimmunoassay (WHO-MR-RIA). A biphasic basal body temperature (BBT) record was also noted. The hormonal patterns showed a mid-cycle LH surge and rise in plasma progesterone beginning with the LH peak and lasting a maximum of 6-8 days after the LH peak. Cycle lengths ranged from 25-32 days with a mean of 28 plus or minus 2 days. The follicular phase ranged from 10-17 days, and the luteal phase lasted from 13-15 days. When the mean LH and FSH concentrations and the mean BBT curve were synchronized on the day of the mid-cycle LH peak, the temperature elevation occured about 48 days after the LH peak. Along with the LH, the FSH showed a mid-cycle peak. The results of this study are consistent with those already documented for Caucasian, Asian and African females
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: Review of Caesarean Section deliveries at Kenyatta National Hospital 1980. M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982.". In: M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "De Cock KM, Gatei DG, Shah MV. Aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of liver cancer. East Afr Med J. 1981 Sep;58(9):636-40. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Sep;58(9):636-40. No abstract available. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1981. Abstract
Small-intestinal function was studied in 10 patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Vitamin-A absorption was impaired in 7 and d-xylose in 1. In 5 of the 10 patients Leishmania were demonstrated in biopsy specimens of intestinal mucosa. Parasitised macrophages were present in villous tips and less commonly in the lamina propria and submucosa; a moderate inflammatory infiltrate was composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells. 2 patients had partial villous atrophy. There was no correlation between intensity of parasitisation and severity of malabsorption. After treatment with sodium stibogluconate there was a significant improvement in absorption of vitamin A and d-xylose, and biopsy specimens became normal. In 1 patient visceral leishmaniasis was thought to be the cause of chronic diarrhoea.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G. and Gichohi C.M. (1992). Poultry Production and Marketing in Kenya. In.". In: All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture. Nairobi, Kenya.November 1992. The Kenya Medical Association; 1992. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA J.G. Are condoms effective in preventing HIV transmission? The KOGS NEWSLETTER. Kenya Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society. October-December 1999.". In: The KOGS NEWSLETTER. Kenya Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, MATI JKG, LEQUIN RM: Pulsitile release and diurnal rhythm of gonadotropins and prolactin in young healthy Kenyan men. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr.1: 77, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr.1: 77, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "SEKADDE-KIGONDU C, QURESHI Z, KARANJA JG, JALDESA GW AND KAIHURA DMM: Compilers Abstracts of research in reproductive health by the department of OBS/GYN, College of Health Sciences, UON, 1971-1995.II: GYNAECOLOGY AND FAMILY PLANNING.". In: College of Health Sciences, UON, 1971-1995.II: GYNAECOLOGY AND FAMILY PLANNING. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Aetiology of liver cirrhosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1986 Nov;63(11):724-30.". In: Br Heart J. 56(3): 285. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. 
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G. (2002). Aquaculture in Kenya – Past Constrains and future prospects.". In: 2nd Scientific Conference of the Kenya Livestock Technologists Association (KELITA). 10th to 13th September 2002. Nairobi, Kenya. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "MUTUNGI AK, KARANJA JG, KIMANI VN, ROGO KO and WANGO EO. Abortion: Knowledge and Perceptions of Adolescents in two Districts in Kenya. East Afr. Med. J. 76: 556-561, October 1999.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 76: 556-561, October 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: Breastfeeding and Contraception: Editorial. Journal Obstet.Gynae East Centr. Afr. 1989.". In: Journal Obstet.Gynae East Centr. Afr. 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "COHEN CR,SINEI S, REILLY M, BUKUSI E, ESCHENBACH D, HOLMES K, NDINYA-ACHOLA JO, BWAYO J, GRIECOV, STAMM W, KARANJA JG, KREISS J.: Effect of HIV-1 infection upon acute pelvic inflammatory disease: A laparoscopic study in Kenya. Abstracts. The XI Internatio.". In: The XI International Conference on Aids, Vancouver, Canada 1996. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Hillman DA, Roy AD, Gatei DG. A virilizing tumour derived from cells of the foetal cortex in a year-old African child. East Afr Med J. 1972 May;49(5):387-93. ].". In: East Afr Med J. 1972 May;49(5):387-93. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1972. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Kabuage, L.W. and Omolo B. (2004). Integrating fish culture into rice and livestock farming at Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kirinyaga District Phase 1: The Possibilities and Challenges.". In: African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD) conference (9th September – 11th September 2004) at Jomo Kenyatta College of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi Kenya. The Kenya Medical Association; 2004. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "BUKUSIEA, COHEN CR, NGUTI R, MUNGAI JN, WAIYAKI PW, KARANJA JG, HOLMES KK Evaluation of "Femexan" Rapid Test for the Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis in Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 57-61, February 200.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 57-61, February 2004. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "SEKADDE-KIGONDU C, QURESHI Z, KARANJA JG, JALDESA GW AND KAIHURA DMM: Compilers Abstracts of research in reproductive health by the department of OBS/GYN, College of Health Sciences, UON, 1971-1995.I: OBSTETRICS.". In: College of Health Sciences, UON, 1971-1995.I: OBSTETRICS. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: Safe Motherhood. Editorial. J.Obst.Gynae East.& Centr. Afr. 13: 1-3, March, 1997.". In: Editorial. J.Obst.Gynae East.& Centr. Afr. 13: 1-3, March, 1997. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G GC, Nyaga P N. " Some biological properties of camelpox virus isolated from camels (camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. ." Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 1997;52(4):141-148. Abstractpub_25_gitao_and_nyaga_1997.pdfWebsite

The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.

G PROFGATEIDAVID, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Jeshrani MK, Gatei DG, Onyango JN. A case of multifocal eosinophilic granuloma. East Afr Med J. 1977 Aug;54(8):455-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Aug;54(8):455-9. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1977. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G GC. "The Epidemiology and control of camel Dermatophilosis." Rev. D'elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. . 1993;46(1-2):309-311.pub_34_gitao_1993.pdf
G DRMUGOMERCY. "Mercy Mugo and Julia Fox-Rushby (2003) Examining Content Validity and Conceptual Equivalence of Health State Valuation Techniques: Some Methodological Lessons. Paper presented at the 4th World Congress of the International Health Economic Association (iHE."; 2003. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.

G N, Gachago MM, MW N, S J. Pattern of Posterior Segment Manifestations After Ocular And Orbital Trauma In Kikuyu Eye Unit.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Beames, R.M., Higgs, D., Iwama, G., Mbugua, P.N. and Kisia S. (2005). A Comparison of the Nutritional Quality of Kenya’s omena fishmeal and LT. Anchovy fishmeal fed to tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linn).". In: Veterinary Journal Vol. 49 (2005). The Kenya Medical Association; 2005. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Comparative acceptability of combined and progestin-only injectable contraceptives in Kenya.Contraception. 2005 Aug;72(2):138-45.". In: Contraception. 2005 Aug;72(2):138-45. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Median age at menopause in a rural population of western Kenya.1: East Afr Med J. 1997 Oct;74(10):634-8. Links.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Oct;74(10):634-8. Links. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G WG. "Academic Partnerships In Research For Development: The Case Of PROSOWO.‘Kenyan – Austrian University Cooperation: Experiences and Opportunities’.". In: Austrian Agency for International Cooperation in Education and Research (OeAD) . Kenyatta University Conference Center, Nairobi – Kenya; 2013.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "TEMMERMAN M, GICHANGI PB, FONCK K, APERS L, CLAEYS P, van RENLERGHEN L,KIRAGU D, KARANJA JG, NDINYA-ACHOLA J,BWAYO J. Effect of syphilis control program on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Inf 75: 0-4, 1999.". In: Sex Transm Inf 75: 0-4, 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G DRMACIGOFRANCIS, W. DRGATHECELOICE, KITUKU DRMULLITONNIE, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "MACIGO, F.G., GATHECE, L.W., GUTHUA, S.W., NJERU, E.K. WAGAIYU, E.G. and MULLI, T.K.: Oral Hygiene Practices and Risk of Oral Leukoplakia. East African Medical Journal, 83 (4), 74-79, 2006.". In: East African Medical Journal, 83 (4), 74-79, 2006. Tafa C, Mua B, Gathece L, Dimba E-; 2006. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, GWAYI-CHORE MO, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, LEQUIN RM and MATI JKG: Hormonal patterns during the menstrual cycle in Healthy Black Kenyan women. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1: 140, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya. Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7.". In: Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1978. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: Safe Motherhood. Editorial. J.Obst.Gynae East.& Centr. Afr. 13: 1-3, March, 1997.". In: Editorial. J.Obst.Gynae East.& Centr. Afr. 13: 1-3, March, 1997. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996. SETTING: Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks.

G WG. "Towards indigenized social work education and practice in East Africa: The missing links.". In: Joint World Conference on Social Work, Education and Social Development 2014. Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre, Melbourne ; 2014.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "MUTUNGI AK, WANGO EO, ROGO KO, KIMANI VN and KARANJA JG . Abortion: Behaviour of Adolescents in two Districts in Kenya. East Afr. Med. J.76: 541-546, October 1999.". In: East Afr. Med. J.76: 541-546, October 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: The value of FSH, LH and prolactin assays in aetiological diagnosis of ammenorrhoea. M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982.". In: M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Kaposi's sarcoma in Kenya: a retrospective clinicopathological study. Antibiot Chemother. 1981;29:38-58.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Sep;58(9):636-40. No abstract available. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1981. Abstract
No abstract available.
G EL, B.N M, B.K K, A.M K. "Oral health knowledge, attitude, practices and caries experience among 10-12 year olds in children’s homes. ." Journal of Kenya Dental Association. 2009;1(3):84-89.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Mbugua P.N. and Mitaru B. (1992). Effect of Biotin supplementation in broiler chicken: Effect on growth, Feed Conversion Ratio, Hepatic lipid content and plasma biotin levels.". In: Animal Production Society of Kenya Egerton, Njoro. July 1992. The Kenya Medical Association; 1992. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Abortion: knowledge and perceptions of adolescents in two districts in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy among adolescents is unplanned in many instances. Although some pregnant adolescents carry the pregnancy to term, abortion, in many instances unsafely induced, is a commonly sought solution in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine adolescents' perceptions of induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between July 1995 and June 1996. SETTING: An urban and a rural district in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools in Nairobi and Kiambu districts, and a group of immediate post-abortion adolescent girls in some health facilities in Nairobi. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of health programmes formulated and put into use, which are adolescent-friendly and providing information, education and communication on abortion issues. DATA COLLECTION: One thousand eight hundred and twenty adolescents were subjected to a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic and health data as well as perceptions of induced abortion. Focus group discussions on perceptions of abortion were held with 12 groups of adolescents in schools and the information obtained recorded on paper and in a tape-recorder. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred and fifty two adolescents, comprising of 1048 school girls (SG), 580 boys (SB), 192 post-abortion girls (PA) and 132 adolescents in the focus group discussions, formed the study sample. More than 90% were aware of induced abortion (IA). Knowledge of IA correlated positively with level of education (P < 0.01). Seventy one per cent of SG, 84% of PA and 40% of SB were aware of abortion-related complications, the most common being infections, death and infertility. Eighty three per cent of PA felt that complications were preventable by seeking care from a qualified doctor compared to one quarter each for the SB and SG. 56% PA, 69% SB and 72% SG felt that abortions were preventable. However, less than 40% proposed abstinence as a primary strategy. The most important source of information on abortion was the media followed by friends and teachers. CONCLUSION: Adolescents are aware of abortion and the related complications, but there is more variability in their knowledge and preventive measures

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "OTARA AM, KOMBE Y, KARANJA JG, CHESEEM E, ODERO M, KARAMA M, MUTSUMI J, AGWANDA R. Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) in Rachuonyo, Nyanza Province of Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 34-40, February 200.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 34-40, February 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, MATI JKG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB: The value of FSH LH and prolactin assays in aetiological diagnosis of ammenorrhea. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1:108, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr. 1:108, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "WERE EO and KARANJA JG: Low birth weight deliveries at the Nyanza General Hospital Kisumu, Kenya. East Afr.Med.J. 71(10: 667-670, October 1994.". In: East Afr.Med.J. 71(10: 667-670, October 1994. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Muigai R, Gatei DG, Shaunak S, Wozniak A, Bryceson AD. Jejunal function and pathology in visceral Leishmaniasis. Lancet. 1983 Aug 27;2(8348):476-9.". In: Lancet. 1983 Aug 27;2(8348):476-9. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1983. Abstract
Small-intestinal function was studied in 10 patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Vitamin-A absorption was impaired in 7 and d-xylose in 1. In 5 of the 10 patients Leishmania were demonstrated in biopsy specimens of intestinal mucosa. Parasitised macrophages were present in villous tips and less commonly in the lamina propria and submucosa; a moderate inflammatory infiltrate was composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells. 2 patients had partial villous atrophy. There was no correlation between intensity of parasitisation and severity of malabsorption. After treatment with sodium stibogluconate there was a significant improvement in absorption of vitamin A and d-xylose, and biopsy specimens became normal. In 1 patient visceral leishmaniasis was thought to be the cause of chronic diarrhoea.
G EL, BA K, F O, T D, RJ M. "Complications associated with crowns and fixed partial dentures provided to patients at a teaching hospital." International journal of multidisciplinary research review. 2017;1(32):19-24.publication_ijmdrr.pdf
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., and Mwangi T.K. (2002). Current land tenure system and the feminization of poverty – the case of the Central Kenya highlands.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, 7th – 9th August 2002. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "GICHANGI PB, KARANJA JG, KIGONDU CS, FONCK K, and TEMMERMEN M. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Emergency Contraception Among Nursing Students in Two Hospitals in Nairobi Kenya. Contraception 59: 253-256,1999.". In: Contraception 59: 253-256,1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG: Review of Caesarean Section deliveries at Kenyatta National Hospital 1980. M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982.". In: M.Med Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1982. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG AND MACHOKI JM (EDITORS) HOG 300: Curriculum for 3rd year MB.Ch.B Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Junior Clerkship in OBS/GYN), Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi,1995. (Bound Document).". In: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nairobi,1995. (Bound Document). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Maina, J.G., Beames, R.M., Higgs D., Iwama, G., Mbugua, P.N., and Kisia S. (2003). Partial replacement of fishmeal with sunflower cake and corn oil in diets for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linn): Effect on whole body fatty acids.". In: Aquaculture Research 34, 601 – 608. The Kenya Medical Association; 2003. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA, J.G. Adolescent Reproductive Health. Editorial. J. Obstet. Gynaec Eastern & Central Africa. March 1999.". In: Gynaec Eastern & Central Africa. March 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "SEKADDE-KIGONDU C, QURESHI Z, KARANJA JG, JALDESA GW AND KAIHURA DMM: Compilers Abstracts of research in reproductive health by the department of OBS/GYN, College of Health Sciences, UON, 1971-1995.II: GYNAECOLOGY AND FAMILY PLANNING.". In: College of Health Sciences, UON, 1971-1995.II: GYNAECOLOGY AND FAMILY PLANNING. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KAMAU RK, KARANJA JG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, RUMINJO JK, NICHOLS D,: Barriers to contraceptive use in Kenya. East Afr.Med.J. 73 (10): 651-659, October 1997.". In: East Afr.Med.J. 73 (10): 651-659, October 1997. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Orinda DA, Okech M, Gatei DG. Beta-glucuronidase in human mammary carcinomas. East Afr Med J. 1977 Jun;54(6):314-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Jun;54(6):314-8. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1977. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G DRMUGOMERCY. "Mugo M (2000) Stock Market Development and Economic Growth: The Impact of Financial Sector Liberalisation in Kenya" An Africa Economic Research Consortium (AERC) Research Paper.".; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.

G DMAINAJOYCE. "Kabuage, L.W. and Maina, J.G. (2005). Assessment of Rice Based Feedstuffs for Poultry Production at Mwea Irrigation Scheme.". In: African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD) conference (12th – 14th September 2005) at Jomo Kenyatta Institute of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi. The Kenya Medical Association; 2005. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "OTARA AM, KOMBE Y, KARANJA JG, CHESEEM E, ODERO M, KARAMA M, MUTSUMI J, AGWANDA R. Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) in Rachuonyo, Nyanza Province of Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 34-40, February 200.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 34-40, February 2004. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "COHEN CR,SINEI S, REILLY M, BUKUSI E, ESCHENBACH D, HOLMES K, NDINYA-ACHOLA JO, BWAYO J, GRIECOV, STAMM W, KARANJA JG, KREISS J.: Effect of HIV-1 infection upon acute pelvic inflammatory disease: A laparoscopic study in Kenya. Abstracts. The XI Internatio.". In: The XI International Conference on Aids, Vancouver, Canada 1996. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA J.G. Are condoms effective in preventing HIV transmission? The KOGS NEWSLETTER. Kenya Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society. October-December 1999.". In: The KOGS NEWSLETTER. Kenya Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "NJOROGE W, NDAVI PM, KARANJA JG, MATI JKG. The incidence of cervical extropion among women on contraceptive methods in two periurban areas in Nairobi. J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00.". In: J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Kaminsky RG, Gatei DG, Zimmermann RR. Human coenurosis from Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1978 Aug;55(8):355-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Aug;55(8):355-9. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1978. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya. Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7.". In: Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KAMAU RK, KARANJA JG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, RUMINJO JK, NICHOLS D,: Barriers to contraceptive use in Kenya. East Afr.Med.J. 73 (10): 651-659, October 1997.". In: East Afr.Med.J. 73 (10): 651-659, October 1997. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996. SETTING: Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks.

G WG. "Beyond the Lecture Theatre: Trends and Partnerships for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control by Academic Institutions of Higher Learning.". In: 6th International Conference on Peer Education, Sexuality, HIV&AIDS. Kenyatta International Conference Centre; 2014.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "MUTUNGI AK, KARANJA JG, KIMANI VN, ROGO KO and WANGO EO. Abortion: Knowledge and Perceptions of Adolescents in two Districts in Kenya. East Afr. Med. J. 76: 556-561, October 1999.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 76: 556-561, October 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "KARANJA JG, SEKADDE-KIGONDU CB, MATI JKG, LEQUIN RM: Pulsitile release and diurnal rhythm of gonadotropins and prolactin in young healthy Kenyan men. J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr.1: 77, 1982.". In: J.Obstet.Gynae. East Centr. Afr.1: 77, 1982. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G KAMAU, A WAUSI NJIHIAJ. "CONTEXTUAL FACTORS AND PUBLIC VALUE OF E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES IN KENYA.". 2017. Abstractfull text link

E-government research has been skewed towards technological deterministic
perspective mainly centering on technological issues. This provides no explicit guidance to
the design and practice of e-government programs that result to increased uptake of e-
government services. Theoretical discourse reveals undisputed consensus among e-
government researchers that e-government uptake may be influenced by others contextual
factors such as administrative and political consequences and should not be overlooked

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "History of West-African from 1800 to the Present.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1999. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Elijah Masinde: A Biography Series : Makers of Kenya's History.". In: Series Editor Prof. Simiyu Wandibba East African Educational Publications, Nairobi, Kenya. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1963. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Boman J., Gatari M.J., wagner A., Hossain M.I., (2005). Elemental characterization of aerosols in urban and rural locations in Bangladesh.". In: X-ray Spetrometry; DOI: 10, 1002/xrs.864, 460-467. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Land and Politics in Ukambani, 1895-1933, in Presence Africaine.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1975. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Bildad Kagia: A Biography.". In: East African Educational Publishers.; 1996. Abstract

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G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Michael James Gatari, (2006). PhD Thesis:- Studies of atmospheric aerosols and development of an EDXRF spectrometer in Kenya, Gotenburg University, Gotenburg, Sweden, ISBN 91-628-6755-5.". In: Publicly Defended , PhD Thesis: ISBN 91-628-6755-5. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Democractic Myth in African Traditional Societies in Theory and Practice of Democracy in Africa ed.". In: By W. Oyugi et all, Heinemann, Nairobi. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1988. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
mary g., john m., lewis n., isaac m., ambrose v. "The challenges facing adult and continuing education in Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 2016;10(3):53-57.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M. J., Pettersson J. B. C., Kimani W., Boman J., (2008). Inorganic and black carbon aerosol concentrations at a high altitude on Mt Kenya.". In: X-Ray Spectrometry; DOI 10.1002/xrs.1094. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Arican Traditional Methods anf Education in East Africa in Presence Africaine, No. 87.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan.; 1973. Abstract

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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Emergency of a sub-Nation. A History of Babukusu in the TransAfrican.". In: Journal of History, Vol. 1:20. G.S. Were Pres, Nairobi, Kenya. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1991. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Changes in China since 1976 in Viva.". In: Special Edition on President Daniel Moi's State to the Peoples Republic of China.; 1980. Abstract

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G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Autonomic nervous function in patients with chronic renal failure at the Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Autonomic nervous function was assessed in twenty two patients (16 males and 6 females) with chronic renal failure on conservative management. The presenting symptoms were postural dizziness in 10(45%), impotence in 4(18%) patients and 1 patient each with diplopia, urinary urgency and nocturnal diarrhoea. The following autonomic function tests were performed; valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to posture and postural change in blood pressure. Fifteen (68%) patients had abnormal autonomic function tests. Out of these patients, 14(93%) had abnormalities of the parasympathetic system and only one had abnormalities in the sympathetic system. There was a negative correlation between the creatinine levels and the following; valsalva ratio (r = -0.72 p < 0.001), heart rate response to standing (r = -0.56 p < 0.01) and heart rate response to deep breathing (r = -0.45 p < 0.05). PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Kinyua, A.M., Maina D.M., Maina C., Mangala M.J., Jumba I.O., Gatebe C. K., Gatari M.J., Non-destructive analysis of Mercury (Hg) by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique in Beauty Creams sold in Kenya.". In: Presented at International Symposium on harmonization of health related environmental measurements using nuclear and isotopic techniques, Hyderabad, India, 4-7 November 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Human Settlement along the Kenyans Coast. Proceedings of the SAREC conference in Harare, Zimbabwe, SAREC, Sweden.". In: Indiana State University Press. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1992. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. W. "The Role of the University Lecturer.". In: Interactive Teaching Materials for University Lecturers and Professors in Pedagogy . Nairobi: CODL: University of Nairobi; 2014.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Maina D.M., Bartilol S., Gaita S.M., Determination of trace metals in bottled Commercial Drinking water using TXRF in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, European conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS2008), Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 16-20 June 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Use of the Oral Traditions in the reconstruction of Africans past: Case Studies from Kenya.". In: Proccedings of the International Conference of Anthropologists, Maputo, Mozambique, SAREC, Sweden.; 1990. Abstract

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G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Kalaria, R. N., Patel, N.B ., Kariuki, M., Kioy, P.G., Gatere, S., Hall, K.S., Unverzagt, F.W., Hendrie, H.C., Friedland, R.P. (1999) Epidemological studies and genetic factors in Alzheimer's disease in rural Kenya. 4th International Congress, Society of .". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Feb;78(2):93-6.PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of clinical multiple sclerosis among indigenous Bantu African Kenyans who have never been out of the country. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A private neurology and clinical electrophysiology clinic. SUBJECTS: All the patients referred to the clinic by neurologists and other specialists for electrophysiological tests with diverse neurological complaints. The patients examined and diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds and established criteria are reported. RESULTS: Out of 2831 patients referred for electrophysiological tests over a ten year period, nine patients were diagnosed as having definite multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds. Four of these had supporting laboratory findings (MRI scans, CSF studies and visual evoked responses). The presenting symptoms were predominantly visual disturbances and somatic sensorimotor disturbances which were seen in all the patients. Cerebellar dysfunction was observed less frequently, in less than half of the patients while sphincter disturbances were conspicuously rare. The sex distribution was overwhelmingly in favour of the female at a ratio of 7:2. A part from two patients of Indo-asian ethnicity, all the others were indigenous Bantu Africans who had never travelled outside their country before the onset of the illness. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis occurs amongst Bantu Africans and may not be as rare as previously suggested and its prevalence is certainly on the increase. The development of higher incidence rates in communities where the illness was previously unknown may present opportune settings for the study of aetiological factors of this illness as it emerges. There is a need therefore for proper epidemiological studies to evaluate these factors, especially environmental factors, as the new disease continues to appear. PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., (2002). Studies of Atmospheric Aerosols at selected sites in Kenya.". In: Publicly Defended, Licentiate Thesis, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, G. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Bildad Kagia: A Biography.". In: East African Educational Publishers. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1996. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Demographic trends in Muranga District Socio-Cultural profile.". In: Publication sponsored by the Ministry of Finance and Economics Planning and the University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract

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G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Oyungu, Eren, Kioy, P.G ., Patel, Nilesh B . (2003). Khat (Catha edulis) reduces entylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizures. Biochemical Society of Kenya Conference. Nairobi , Kenya . 11-15 August 2003.". In: Biochemical Society of Kenya Conference. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2003. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, Moi University, P.O. Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Khat is a plant whose young shoots and leaves are habitually used in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a drug of recreation. Although it is used without any control in these regions, it contains two controlled substances, cathinone (schedule I) which is present in fresh khat and cathine (schedule VI) which is a degradation product of cathinone abundant in old khat. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of khat on locomotor behaviour and seizures in rats. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Adult male rats in groups of six were given fresh khat, old khat, methylphenidate and saline at varying doses and observed over three hours. RESULTS: Fresh khat at low doses and old khat at high doses stimulated locomotor activity. High doses of fresh and old khat induced stereotype behaviour and seizures. CONCLUSION: The results show that khat stimulates locomotor and stereotypic behavioural activity and can induce seizures; results similar to those observed with amphetamine analogs. PMID: 17892196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Air pollution over East Africa.". In: Oral presentation, First International Workshop on Climate Variability over Africa. Alexandria, Egypt, 15-26 May 2005. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Arican Traditional Methods anf Education in East Africa in Presence Africaine, No. 87.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1973. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Common Themes in the History of Africans and African Americans in Pan-African Studies.". In: Indiana State University Press.; 1994. Abstract

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G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Wagner A., Janhall S., Isakson J., (2006). Assessment of inorganic content of PM2.5 particles sampled in a rural area north-east of Hanoi, Vietnam. Sc. of Total Environ. 368: 675-685.". In: Sc. of Total Environ. 368: 675-685. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Changes in China since 1976 in Viva.". In: Special Edition on President Daniel Moi's State to the Peoples Republic of China. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1980. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Hays D.M., Lavrich R.J., Gaita S.M., Determination of particulate carbonaceous species in an urban background aerosol in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, The 5th Asian Aerosol Conference (AAC2007). Kaohsiung, Taiwan (ROC), 26-29 August 2007: Poster presentation, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2007), Salzburg, Austria, 9-14 September 2007. University of Nairobi.; 2007.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ, ODHIAMBO MRMATINIA. "Training of Equipment Maintenance Personnel Matini A.O., Gatari M.J.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2001.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Family Life Among the Kikuyu People of Nyandarua District, in Nyandarua District Socio-Cultural Profile, Nairobi.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan.; 1963. Abstract

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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Use of the Oral Traditions in the reconstruction of Africans past: Case Studies from Kenya.". In: Proccedings of the International Conference of Anthropologists, Maputo, Mozambique, SAREC, Sweden. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1990. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Boman J., Gatari M. J., Janh.". In: Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss; 8, 7703-7724. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Les Classes Sociales en Afrique de Iquest Pre-Coloniale in He-CHI Revue dEtudes Francaises de Iuniversite de Nairobi.". In: P. 47-53 Editorship: African in Time Perspective. Weekly Radio Talks on African History, V.O.K.; Submitted. Abstract

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G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Wilmshurst PT, Al-Hasani SF, Semple MJ, Hamblin AS, Kioy PG, Lucas GF, Savidge GF, Webb-Peploe MM. The effects of amrinone on platelet count, survival and function in patients with congestive cardiac failure. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Mar;17(3):317-24.PMI.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1984. Abstract
In a prospective trial, the immediate and long-term haematological effects of amrinone were studied in sixteen patients with refractory cardiac failure. The platelet count was significantly and variably reduced in all patients and the reduction was related to log plasma amrinone concentration. Platelet survival was significantly reduced in those cases studied. No evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or intravascular platelet deposition was observed and the reduced platelet survival was not considered to be the result of an immunological process. Evidence of a marrow response to the reduced platelet count and survival was seen. Although no haemorrhagic symptoms were observed in the patients, the haematological side-effects were considered to be of such severity as to limit the use of this drug in clinical practice.    PMID: 6712864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kinyua A.M., Projects implementation in Africa.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Demographic trends in Muranga District Socio-Cultural profile.". In: Publication sponsored by the Ministry of Finance and Economics Planning and the University of Nairobi. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1991. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. W, N KC, MW O, H.G. R. "Status and process analysis of Koche, a traditional pastoral meat product in Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2019;9(6):1-7.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Naziriwo B.B., Wandiga S.O., Gatari M.J.G., Madadi O.V., Ssebuwufu P.J., Determination of trace metal concentrations in waters of Nakivubo Channel and Lake Victoria using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.". In: Poster presentation, European conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS2007), Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 16-20 June 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
In an effort to understand the pollution levels in waters of Nakivubo channel in Kampala, Uganda and Lake Victoria (Fig 1) concentrations of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using convectional EDXRF and TXRF analysis. Water samples were collected with a 1-litre Van Don sampler (code, 1077) and transferred into polyethylene containers that were stored in an ice cooled box. Five samples were obtained at each sampling site and were all stored at -21 0C until analysis. Filtration on cellulose filter gave a particulate deposit that was analyzed for trace metals on a convectional EDXRF spectrometer. Pre-concentration and evaporation at 50 0C were used for extraction of dissolved metal content that was analyzed on TXRF. Samples of the unfiltered water were treated with HNO3 and H202 in a process for extracting total trace metal content that was subsequently prepared and analyzed on TXRF. Spectra from the spectrometers were analyzed for the trace elements of interest and elemental quantification was achieved using Quantitative X-ray Analysis software from International Atomic Energy Agency. The results showed high concentrations of particulate Fe and Mn, and relatively low Zn upstream the Nakivubo Channel. These were lower in the Lake Victoria waters. At the shores of Lake Victoria the dissolved Fe and Zn were higher than in the channel. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn in Lake Victoria were below the USEPA maximum contamination limits of 0.3, 0.05 and 5 mg/L respectively. However, Fe at the mouth of Nakivubo Channel was high and in general the quantified total elemental concentrations increased upstream along the channel. This meant increased water pollution input upstream and along the channel.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Human Settlement in South Nyanza.". In: Procedings of a Conference sponsored by the Swedish agency for Research co-operation with Development Countries (SAREC) and organised by the Centre for Archaelogy and Antiquties, University of Tananarive Madagascar, SAREC, Sweden.; Submitted. Abstract

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G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract
Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ, ODHIAMBO MRMATINIA. "Training of Equipment Maintenance Personnel Matini A.O., Gatari M.J.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Common Themes in the History of Africans and African Americans in Pan-African Studies.". In: Indiana State University Press. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1994. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.G., Boman J., Design and Development of an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer: A tool for Environmental Research in Kenya.". In: Oral Presentation, 1st National Conference and Exhibition for Dissemination of Research Results and Review of Innovations and Exhibition, Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. Nairobi, Kenya, 28-30 April 2008: Poster presentation, European. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
Contribution of scientific research to local and international journals from Africa and indeed Kenya is weak in comparison to other regions. One of the main problems is the non-availability of reliable and affordable analytical instrumentation. Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis is a special analytical technique for trace elements in that it is economical and easy to use. Its analytical capacity has the advantage of having multi-elemental characteristics and satisfactory speed. Convectional EDXRF analysis is used in identifying toxic trace elements in the general environment, trace elements in airborne particles for source apportionment, investigation of micronutrients in different ecosystems and agriculture practices among other areas of scientific investigations. A new EDXRF Spectrometer has been built and installed at the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, College of Architecture and Engineering, University of Nairobi. It is a new research tool that has improved local analytical detection limits of heavy metals in environmental and air pollution samples. A Siemens type D x-ray tube-stand was modified to facilitate x-ray irradiation of a Mo-secondary target. The target is a glued disk that was cut from a 1 mm thick Mo plate of 99.99 % purity. The fluoresced secondary x-rays propagate through three Ag collimators giving a near monochromatic Mo characteristic x-rays for sample excitation. The disk holder was designed to be easily removable, from the Al-measuring head, thus allowing the flexibility of carrying out experiments using different secondary targets. Air samples on Teflon filters and water samples on Cellulose filters were analyzed. The results were better than those obtained in previous spectrometer setups. The detection limits of trace elements improved by a factor of 10. The spectrometer is an extra facility for direct analysis of trace elements in air and other environmental samples.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Family Life Among the Kikuyu People of Muranga District, Nairobi.". In: Publication sponsored by the Ministry of Finance and Economics Planning and the University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract

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G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Emerging picture of multiple sclerosis in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2001 Feb;78(2):93-6.PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Feb;78(2):93-6.PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of clinical multiple sclerosis among indigenous Bantu African Kenyans who have never been out of the country. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A private neurology and clinical electrophysiology clinic. SUBJECTS: All the patients referred to the clinic by neurologists and other specialists for electrophysiological tests with diverse neurological complaints. The patients examined and diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds and established criteria are reported. RESULTS: Out of 2831 patients referred for electrophysiological tests over a ten year period, nine patients were diagnosed as having definite multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds. Four of these had supporting laboratory findings (MRI scans, CSF studies and visual evoked responses). The presenting symptoms were predominantly visual disturbances and somatic sensorimotor disturbances which were seen in all the patients. Cerebellar dysfunction was observed less frequently, in less than half of the patients while sphincter disturbances were conspicuously rare. The sex distribution was overwhelmingly in favour of the female at a ratio of 7:2. A part from two patients of Indo-asian ethnicity, all the others were indigenous Bantu Africans who had never travelled outside their country before the onset of the illness. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis occurs amongst Bantu Africans and may not be as rare as previously suggested and its prevalence is certainly on the increase. The development of higher incidence rates in communities where the illness was previously unknown may present opportune settings for the study of aetiological factors of this illness as it emerges. There is a need therefore for proper epidemiological studies to evaluate these factors, especially environmental factors, as the new disease continues to appear. PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M., Wagner A., Boman J., Elemental composition of tropospheric aerosols in Hanoi, Vietnam and Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Sc. of Total Environ, 341: 241-249. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Family Life Among the Kikuyu People of Nyandarua District, in Nyandarua District Socio-Cultural Profile, Nairobi.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1963. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "History of the Peoples of Bungoma District, In Bungoma District socio-cultural Profile Nairobi.". In: Indiana State University Press.; 1993. Abstract

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G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Atmospheric aerosol studies in Kenya. Contribution by the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Oral presentation, invited presentation, Copenhagen Centre for Atmospheric Research, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 15th March 2006. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. W, Koriyow Hussein A. "Impact of Subsidised Fees on Students’ Access to Quality Education in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Research . 2017;5(7):247-262 .abstract.pdf
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Les Classes Sociales en Afrique de Iquest Pre-Coloniale in He-CHI Revue dEtudes Francaises de Iuniversite de Nairobi.". In: P. 47-53 Editorship: African in Time Perspective. Weekly Radio Talks on African History, V.O.K. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1985. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

G. WG, D. O, Dindi E, Owor M. "Genesis of the East African Rift System.". In: Genesis of the East African Rift System. Springer; 2016. Abstract

The East African Rift System (EARS) started in Late Oligocene to Early Miocene time and gradually propagated southwards from the Afar Depression, beginning in the Middle Miocene. The hot, low-density mantle material of the Afar Plume heated the overlying lithosphere, causing thinning, regional doming, and the earliest basaltic volcanism in southern Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, the Afar Depression, the Main Ethiopian Rift, and the broadly rifted zone of southwestern Ethiopia represent the northern segment of the EARS. In the Kenyan sector of the EARS, uplift and doming also gave rise to the Kenya Dome. The radial flow patterns of the initial phonolites provide evidence for doming. Another important observation is that the rift geometry was greatly influenced by pre-existing structures of the underlying Mozambique Mobile Belt. Rifting proceeded through alternating episodes of volcanism and tectonics. Crossing into Tanzania, the influence of the neighbouring Tanzania Craton becomes evident. Here, the rift is expressed only in the northern part, splaying out in diverging half-graben valleys that are outside the Kenya Dome. Large boundary faults and opposing flexural margins, producing mobile asymmetrical full and half-graben basins that are individually linked along the rift axis, mark the Western Rift Valley. These basins are frequently occupied by elongate and narrow lakes (largely freshwater) separated by accommodation zones and containing significant hydrocarbon resources especially in the Albertine Graben. Small to large lakes existed in the EARS during the Plio–Pleistocene. Lakes in the Western Rift are large and deep, whereas those in the Kenya, Main Ethiopian, and Afar Rifts are generally small and shallow. Geological records indicate that the lakes sensitively responded to orbital forcing as well as to local, regional, and global climatic, environmental, and tectonic changes, resulting in fluctuating lake sizes and even desiccation.

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "History of West-African from 1800 to the Present.". In: University of Nairobi Press.; 1999. Abstract

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G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Gaita S.M., Hays M.D., Bond T. C., Boman J., Assessment of criteria pollutants and NO in a typical urban aerosol in Africa.". In: Oral presentation, The 5th Asian Aerosol Conference (AAC2007), Kaohsiung, Taiwan (ROC), 26-29 August 2007. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
Criteria pollutants have health implications that are not only of concern to the urban population but also to governments in formulating their policies. These pollutants are also important to climate change investigations and any sustainable development programs require a properly informed population on their effects, concentration levels and sources. However, without the knowledge of the characteristic aerosol and information on the levels of pollutant concentrations, implementation of controls and enforcement of regulation remains difficult. NO and five species in the group of the criteria pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at an urban background site in Nairobi, Kenya. The site is approximately 20 m above the ground, on top of a building at the main campus, University of Nairobi. Eight hour measurements at intervals of 10 s were obtained using pollutant gas monitors and 24 h samples of PM2.5 and PM10 particles were collected on glass fiber filters by a size segregating impactor. Figure 1 and 2 shows preliminary typical hourly average concentrations trends on a day in a weekend. The results imply a different daytime chemistry of NOX (= NO + NO2) from that reported in the literature. Typical measurements in urban boundary layer shows peaking of NO in early morning hours followed by NO2 and O3 in the afternoon. O3 oxidizes NO in a fast reaction to NO2 and O2. The recorded trend showed high rate of NO concentration replenishment, throughout the measurement period, in competition to its conversion to NO2. Similar trends of NO and NO2 were observed from about 1200 h until the end of the 8 h daytime measurement. This implied a near constant rate of NO oxidation that may have been the indicator of O3 production after 1130 at a concentration which was not capable of decreasing NO substantially. Normally, in urban aerosol, CO concentration is far much higher than the other gaseous pollutants but it was comparable to NO from midday. There was daytime SO2 which persisted at constant concentration of 0.1 ppm, the instrument indicator resolution value. High levels of CO were recorded in the early hours of the night and NO2 that persisted at 0.1 ppm. Considering that NO was high during the mid afternoon the nighttime NO2 concentrations portrayed a nighttime chemistry that converted NO to NO2. This conversion may have been driven by the peroxy radicals that are produced by reactions between NO3 radicals and reactive organic gases in the absence of sunlight. Since NO3 is a product of NO and O3 it followed that concentrations of the latter continued into nighttime.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Elijah Masinde: A Biography Series : Makers of Kenya's History.". In: Series Editor Prof. Simiyu Wandibba East African Educational Publications, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1963. Abstract

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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Human Settlement in South Nyanza.". In: Procedings of a Conference sponsored by the Swedish agency for Research co-operation with Development Countries (SAREC) and organised by the Centre for Archaelogy and Antiquties, University of Tananarive Madagascar, SAREC, Sweden. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1991. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Wagner A., (2008). Characterization of aerosol particles at an industrial background site in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: X-Ray Spectrometry; DOI 10.1002/xrs. 1097. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
Air pollutants from industrial sources contain harmful elements and chemical compounds. This work presents a study on background industrial and urban aerosol particles in the city of Nairobi. Its main focus was the understanding of elemental, black carbon (BC) and particulate mass (PM) concentrations in the perspective of identifying their sources. Aerosol particles were collected on Teflon filters in two size fractions, a fine fraction of particles having an aerodynamic diameter (da) < 2.5 m and a coarse fraction with particles between 2.5 m and 10 m. A photometer and an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer were used to analyze BC and trace elements (Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb), respectively. The sampled mass of the particulate matter was determined gravimetrically. The measured concentrations of the analysable species were dominated by BC, K, and S in the fine fraction and Si, Ca, and Fe in the coarse fraction. Principal component analysis and correlation evaluation of the fine fraction concentrations implicated industrial, vehicular, and biomass burning emissions as the main sources of the measured elements. The average Pb concentration of 105 ng m-3 in the PM10 sample at the background industrial site is approximately 20% of the Air Quality Guideline (AQG) recommended by World Health Organisation (WHO). Most of the measured elements exhibited higher concentrations than those measured in Francistown in Botswana, Dar es Salaam in Tanzania and Edinburgh in United Kingdom but less than those measured in Barcelona in Spain and from previous studies in Nairobi.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Land and Politics in Ukambani, 1895-1933, in Presence Africaine.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan.; 1975. Abstract

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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Family Life Among the Kikuyu People of Muranga District, Nairobi.". In: Publication sponsored by the Ministry of Finance and Economics Planning and the University of Nairobi. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1991. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.G., Strengthening National Facilities for the Maintenance and Repair of Medical and Scientific Instruments.". In: Oral presentation, First Project coordination meeting, AFRA IV, RAF/4/021. Arusha, Tanzania, 3-7 March 2008: Oral presentation, Workshop for Project Coordinators of National and AFRA/IAEA funded projects, Nairobi, Kenya, 4-5 August 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
The project is hosted at the Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (INST), University of Nairobi. One of the core mandates of the Institute is provision of scientific instrumentation maintenance and repair services to Educational and Research Institutions besides income generation through the wide scope of services. Nuclear instrumentation is part of the scientific instruments; consequently, the project enjoys the professional services of a strong technical team. INST is strongly founded on peaceful utilization of nuclear techniques in research and teaching and its management interest in this project is well demonstrated by the achievements, that is documented in this report. This report describes the achievement and impact of the just ended project, AFRA IV RAF/4/017 over the period 2002 to 2007. It also includes the available human resources to drive the new project, beneficiary institutions, expected needs and support as well as priorities. A brief on SWOT is included that highlights those that are perceived unique for Kenya otherwise most of it is the same as described in the last evaluation meeting of RAF/4/017 in Libya.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Democractic Myth in African Traditional Societies in Theory and Practice of Democracy in Africa ed.". In: By W. Oyugi et all, Heinemann, Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract

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G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Pain.Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Aug;2(3):324-326. No abstract available. PMID: 12160456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher].". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1995. Abstract
Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Stikans M.,. Gatari M.J., Lindgren E.S., .". In: J. Aerosol Sci. 29, suppl. 1: 747-748: 5th International Aerosol Conference, Scotland: 14-18 September 1998. University of Nairobi.; 1998.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "History of the Peoples of Bungoma District, In Bungoma District socio-cultural Profile Nairobi.". In: Indiana State University Press. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1993. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. W. "Programme Design at University : A Prelude to Pedagogy.". In: Interactive Teaching Materials for University Lecturers and Professors in Pedagogy . Nairobi: CODL: University of Nairobi; 2014.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Wagner A., Boman J., Gatari M. J., (2007). The elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter using TXRF.". In: Corrected and re-Submitted to Spectrochimica Acta Part B. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Emergency of a sub-Nation. A History of Babukusu in the TransAfrican.". In: Journal of History, Vol. 1:20. G.S. Were Pres, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1991. Abstract

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G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Patel, N.B ., Kalaria, R.N., Kioy, P.G., Kariuki, M, Unverzagt, F., Hendrie, H., Gatere, S., Freidland, R.P. (2000) High APOE e 4 allele frequency in elderly Kikuyus in Kenya . World Alzheimer's Congress 2000.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Feb;78(2):93-6.PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of clinical multiple sclerosis among indigenous Bantu African Kenyans who have never been out of the country. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A private neurology and clinical electrophysiology clinic. SUBJECTS: All the patients referred to the clinic by neurologists and other specialists for electrophysiological tests with diverse neurological complaints. The patients examined and diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds and established criteria are reported. RESULTS: Out of 2831 patients referred for electrophysiological tests over a ten year period, nine patients were diagnosed as having definite multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds. Four of these had supporting laboratory findings (MRI scans, CSF studies and visual evoked responses). The presenting symptoms were predominantly visual disturbances and somatic sensorimotor disturbances which were seen in all the patients. Cerebellar dysfunction was observed less frequently, in less than half of the patients while sphincter disturbances were conspicuously rare. The sex distribution was overwhelmingly in favour of the female at a ratio of 7:2. A part from two patients of Indo-asian ethnicity, all the others were indigenous Bantu Africans who had never travelled outside their country before the onset of the illness. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis occurs amongst Bantu Africans and may not be as rare as previously suggested and its prevalence is certainly on the increase. The development of higher incidence rates in communities where the illness was previously unknown may present opportune settings for the study of aetiological factors of this illness as it emerges. There is a need therefore for proper epidemiological studies to evaluate these factors, especially environmental factors, as the new disease continues to appear. PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J. (2003). Black Carbon and total carbon measurements at urban and rural sites in Kenya, East Africa.". In: Atmospheric environ., 37: 1149-1154. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
G. KJ, I. MJ, N. WR, L TC. "Determination of Deltamethrin Residue Levels in Selected Vegetables Consumed in Nairobi, Kenya using HPLC." Journal of International; Published by Environmental Application & Science . 2010;5(1)(11-ICCA Special Issue):801-805. Abstract

Abstract Vegetables provide vital minerals and other nutrients to our bodies.
However, pests destroy vegetables. This as lead to rampant use of pesticides on
vegetables in Kenya. The pesticides that are commonly used on vegetables in
Kenya are the pyrethroids which include; deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and
chismethrin. In this study deltamethrin was analysed in selected vegetables which
include; kales, cabbages and tomatoes during the dry and wet seasons. The
vegetables were bought from some markets in Nairobi city in Kenya.
Deltamethrin residues were extracted from the samples using organic solvents.
The residues were then determined by high performance liquid chromatography
1
(HPLC). The results shows that the deltamethrin mean residue levels ranged
between 0.0700±0.0200 and 0.2000±0.1000 mg/kg during the dry season and
between 0.0080±0.0500 and 0.0400±0.0001 mg/kg during the wet season. The
deltamethrin residue levels were significantly higher during the wet season than
during the wet season in most of the samples.
Keywords: Vegetables, pyrethroids, deltamethrin, residues and HPLC

G. K. Korir1, B. O. Ochieng, J. S. Wambani, I. K. Korir, Jowi YC. "RADIATION EXPOSURE IN INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES ." Radiat Prot Dosimetry (2012) doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncs072 . 2012. Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate radiation doses patients and staff are exposed to during interventional procedures (IPs), compare them with the international diagnostic reference levels and to develop initial National Diagnostic Reference Levels. The IP survey was undertaken as the initial task of which, retrospective data were collected from the only four Kenyan hospitals carrying out interventional radiology and cardiology procedures at the time of the study. Real-time measurement of radiation dose to patients and staff during these procedures was done. To the patients, kerma-area product (KAP) and fluoroscopy time measurements were done using an in-built KAP meter, while peak skin dose (PSD) was measured using slow Extended Dose Range (EDR2®) radiographic films. The staff occupational doses were measured using individual thermoluminescence dosemeters. The maximum and minimum KAP values were found to be 137.1 and 4.2 Gy cm2, while the measured PSD values were 740 and 52 mGy, respectively. The fluoroscopic time range was between 3.3 and 70 min. The staff doses per procedure ranged between 0.05 and 1.41 mSv for medical doctors, 0.03 and 1.16 mSv for nurses, 0.04 and 0.78 mSv for radiographers and 0.04 and 0.88 mSv for clinical staff. The measured patient PSDs were within the threshold limit for skin injuries. However, with the current few IP specialists, an annual increase in workload as determined in the study will result in the International Commission on Radiation Protection annual eye lens dose limit being exceeded by 10 %. A concerted effort is required to contain these dose levels through use of protective gear, optimisation of practice and justification.

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