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and Chichongue, O.J; Karuku MOMGN; AK;. " Effect of organic and low inorganic fertilizers in maize-legume intercrop." International Journal of Advanced Biological Research (IJABR). Accepted for Publication in the next Issue after payments).. 2014.
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and Chichongue, O.J; Karuku MOGN; AK. Farmers’ risk perceptions and adaptation to climate change in Lichinga and Sussundenga, Mozambique. Cathy Hotel, Nakuru-Kenya; 2013.
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CA Omwandho, SE Gruessner FMAGT-OHRTTKRJE. " Immunoglobulin G bound to ovine placenta is eluted by surgical cannulation and acid perfusion in situ.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9):468-72.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To elute placental bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) in situ. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department, The University of Newcastle Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Twelve pregnant ewes 10 to 15 days before the onset of natural parturition. RESULTS: Placental eluates were rich in IgG, and IgG2. The relative molecular weight of placental IgG was estimated at 158kDa by gel filtration chromatography. Analysis of eluate by SDS PAGE revealed the heavy and light chains of IgG at 57 and 27kDa respectively together giving a relative molecular weight of 168kDa. CONCLUSION: Placental bound IgG may be crucial in immunology of pregnancy and together with the cognate antigen thereof may be useful as models for the study of maternal-fetal interaction in human pregnancy and in the development of experimental immunotherapy to immunologically compromised pregnancies in humans and livestock.

Munyoki JM, Nzuki PK, C.M.Gakuu. " International Marketing. An unpublished student manual, Department of Educational Studies., University of Nairobi.". University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.

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HEDIMBI M, KAAYA GP, CHINSEMBU KC. " Mortalities induced by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to different ticks of economic importance using two formulations." International Research Journal of Microbiology. 2011;2:141-145.
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Kotikot T, Ndalamia J, OGUTU H, B Nyaoke, MW MUREITHI, Farah B, C Perciani, Mac Donald K, Anzala O, Jaoko W. " Reproductive Tract Infections Among Low Risk Women Attending KAVI-VZV 001 Study in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES ."; 2016.
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W AEM, C. M, S.B.B O, P. A. " Sustainable environmental management for poverty alleviation in the Lake Victoria basin.". In: Workshop proceedings. ISSN 1028 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

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M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. " Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Obstet Gnecol Rep. 2018; 2: DOI(10.15761):OGR.1000127.
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JW A, J N-M, EM M, CM M. " Welfare of dairy cattle in smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and it's environs. ." Livestock Prod. for Rural Development. 2012;24(9): .
musimbi kavai M, Chepchirchir A,. RK. " Women’s Knowledge of vesicovaginal fistula. ." African journal of midwifery and womens Health. 2010;Vol. 4 number 4 (Oct-Dec ).
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Carles, A.B.;, Gachuiri CK;, Schwartz HJ. "''A Comparison Of Goat Mortality In Two Pastoral Herds In Northern Kenya''."; 1988.
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SK M, M W, JK S, CK G. ") Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Breed characteristics, Farmer Objectives and Preferences in Kenya: A correspondence analysis." Discourse Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2014;2(4):118-125.
Wagoro M.C.A.,.J. MKJ & A, C O, A K, J M. ") Structure and Process Factors that Influence Patient’s Perception of In-patient Nursing Care at Mathari Hospital.". 2008. Abstractstructure_and_process_factors_that_influence_patients_perception_of_inpatient_psychiatric_nursing_care_at_mathari_hospital__nairobi.pdf

To explore structure and process factors which influence patients' perception of quality inpatient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital. This was a cross-sectional study of 236 inpatients selected by stratified random sampling. Competence to give consent was determined by a minimum score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination. Patients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Differences in proportions of variables were determined by calculating confidence interval and summary chi-squared statistics. P-values of < or =0.05 were considered significant. Majority of patients (87%) were aged 20-49 years with 43% having stayed in the ward for over a month. Structure factors related to patients' perception of care included physical environment, being happy with the way the ward looked was significantly related to satisfaction with care (chi(2) = 5.506, P = 0002). Process factors significantly related to patients' satisfaction with care included nurses providing patients with information on prescribed medicines (chi(2) = 10.50, P = 00012). Satisfaction with care was positively related to ability to recommend someone for admission in the same ward (chi(2) = 20.2, P = 00001). Structure and process factors identified as influencing patients' perception of care were physical environment and nurses' qualities that fit within the characteristics of Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Theory.

M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. ") Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 2018;2(1).
C. A. Mumma-Martinon. "). Kenya: Examining The Real Issues At Stake In Post-Elections Crisis." Catholic Information Service In Africa (Cisa): Networking The Church In Africa And The World. (2008).21._examininig_the_real_issues_at_stake.pdf
GK G, JW A, Mbuthia P G, CM M. "). Causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya." Trop. Anim. Health. Prod.. 2010;42:1643-1647 .
Cherotich, M.G., Kalai, J.M., Kebenei PJ, Rose A. "). Prospects of Deputy Principals’ professional preparation on administrative tasks in boarding public secondary schools inBomet County, Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(2):109-117.
Cook J, Kimuyu P. "). The costs of coping with poor water supply in rural Kenya." . Water Resources Research. 2016;52(2):841-859.
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Olwendo OJ, Yosuke Y, Cilliers PJ, Baki P, Chigomezyo MN, Mito C. ", A study on the response of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly over the East Africa sector during the geomagnetic storm of November 13, 2012." . Advances in Space Research. 2015;55(12):2863-2872.
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S. RF, P. HM, C. M, M. BS, K. AF. ". “Clinical presentation and post-mortem findings of patients with AIDS at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of AIDS. 2000;Supplement 24:23-29.
CR N, T C, JA S, PA W, D F, N P, FJ K, K M. ".Coma scales for children with severe falciparum malaria.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Mar-Apr;91(2):161-5. uon press; 1997. Abstract

{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55

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C K, Ogutu O. "13. Condom acceptability and use among patients attending STC clinic in Nairobi ." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 1992;10:25-30 .
Butt FMA, Ogeng'o J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Open Journal of Stomatology . 2012; 2:54-59. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

C PROFBEBORALILLY. "1Bebora L.C. (1987): Chick morbidity and mortality.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1987.
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Mburu MM, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Alexandra Hiscox, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "2-Butanone as a carbon dioxide mimic in attractant blends for the Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus." Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):351.
Chaga H. 2. ‘Dismal performance in Kiswahili at Holy Cross Secondary School’ . Nairobi: Kenyatta University ; 2003.
was the lead consultant National Economic and Social Council(NESC). 24-Hour Economy. and Council NES, ed. Nairobi; 2010.
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Mutai P, Heydenreich M, Thoithi G, Mugumbate G, Chibale K, Yenesew A. "3-Hydroxyisoflavanones from the stem bark of Dalbergia melanoxylon: Isolation, antimycobacterial evaluation and molecular docking." Phytochem. Lett.. 2013;6:671-675.
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Chindia ML, Wagaiyu EG, ocholla Tom, Opondo F, Kihara E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Opondo F, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Ocholla TJ, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Ocholla TJ, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

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Chaga H, et al. 6. A Unified Orthography for Bantu Languages of Kenya . Cape town, South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
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Yenesew A, Mushibe EK, Induli M, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Kabaru JM, Heydenreich M, Cock A, Peter MG. "7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring--C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2005;66:653-657.
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Chohan BH, Froggett S, Emery S WD, G J-S, Majiwa M, Ng'ayo M, J. O. "8.Evaluation of a single round polymerase chain reaction assay using dried blood spots for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants in an African setting." BMC Pediatr. 2011 Feb 18;11:18. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-18.. 2011. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The aim of this study was to develop an economical 'in-house' single round polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using filter paper-dried blood spots (FP-DBS) for early infant HIV-1 diagnosis and to evaluate its performance in an African setting.
METHODS:
An 'in-house' single round PCR assay that targets conserved regions in the HIV-1 polymerase (pol) gene was validated for use with FP-DBS; first we validated this assay using FP-DBS spiked with cell standards of known HIV-1 copy numbers. Next, we validated the assay by testing the archived FP-DBS (N=115) from infants of known HIV-1 infection status. Subsequently this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay was then established in Nairobi, Kenya for further evaluation on freshly collected FP-DBS (N=186) from infants, and compared with findings from a reference laboratory using the Roche Amplicor® HIV-1 DNA Test, version 1.5 assay.
RESULTS:
The HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay could detect one HIV-1 proviral copy in 38.7% of tests, 2 copies in 46.9% of tests, 5 copies in 72.5% of tests and 10 copies in 98.1% of tests performed with spiked samples. Using the archived FP-DBS samples from infants of known infection status, this assay was 92.8% sensitive and 98.3% specific for HIV-1 infant diagnosis. Using 186 FP-DBS collected from infants recently defined as HIV-1 positive using the commercially available Roche Amplicor v1.5 assay, 178 FP-DBS tested positive by this 'in-house' single-round HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS PCR assay. Upon subsequent retesting, the 8 infant FP-DBS samples that were discordant were confirmed as HIV-1 negative by both assays using a second blood sample.
CONCLUSIONS:
HIV-1 was detected with high sensitivity and specificity using both archived and more recently collected samples. This suggests that this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol FP-DBS PCR assay can provide an alternative cost-effective, reliable and rapid method for early detection of HIV-1 infection in infants.

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CHEPCHIENG J, KYALO DN, MULWA SA. ": ‘The Influence Of Urban Transport Policy On The Growth Of Motorcycle And Tricycles In Kenya’ .". In: The 3rd African International Business And Management . Conference K.I.C.C, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2012.
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Chirchir AK, Olubayo FM, Mutua GK. "Abundance and Distribution of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated With Sugarcane in Western Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

A study was conducted to determine the factors influencing plant-parasitic nematode occurrence, abundance and distribution in the sugarcane fields. Four sugarcane growing zones; Nzoia, Mumias, West Kenya and Busia of Kenya were selected from which 81 fields randomly selected and sampled. Soil samples were taken from sugarcane rhizospheres and nematodes extracted from 200 cm3 soil using the modified Baermann funnel technique. Nematodes were then fixed and mounted on slides and identified to genera level using identification keys. Nematodes of the genera Pratylenchus, Scutellonema and Meloidogyne were predominant in the sugarcane belt of western Kenya with mean densities of 61, 54 and 39, respectively. Nzoia, which falls in a marginal sugarcane zone harboured the highest proportion of these plant parasitic nematodes (55%), while West Kenya zone had the least proportion (4%). Soil texture influenced nematodes with more than 50% occurring in sandy soils compared to other soil types. Build-up of plant parasitic nematodes occurred with subsequent ratoon crops up to the second ratoon before declining in the third ratoon. Anthropogenic effects were significant with 70% higher numbers of plant parasitic nematodes in the out-grower farms compared to the factory-managed farms. This study has revealed the influence of soil texture, crop cycle and anthropogenic factors on abundance and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in western Kenya sugarcane zones. It has also set the justification of further work to determine the economic importance of the nematodes

C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo NLPNJ & M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;Vol. 13,:pp 11 to 27.
C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo, P.N Ndegwa, Lagerlof J, Gikungu M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;13:11-27.
Chege F, Ruigu G. "Accelerating the Inflow of New Ideas to Rural People.". In: Social Sciences Conference.; 1971.
Omosa-Manyonyi G, Park H, Mutua G, Farah B, Bergin PJ, Laufer D, Lehrman J, Chinyenze K, Barin B, Fast P, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal specimen collection in clinical trial participants in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e110228. Abstract

Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

B A, C.G. G, M O. "The acceptability of camel milk and milk products from north eastern province in some urban areas of Kenya." African Journal of Food Science. 2012;6(19):465-473. Abstractpub_11_akweya_et_al.pdfWebsite

A total of 138 households were interviewed on various aspects of camel milk and camel milk products using a single-visit multiple-subject diagnostic survey in Garisa, Wajir and Eastleigh the main urban centres with high camel milk consumption. 75% of the respondents generally take camel milk or milk products every day. Raw and sour milk are the most popular products. The most important purchasing criterion for raw camel milk was taste (19 and18%) while packaging was more important for pasteurized milk (18, 18 and 16%) for Wajir, Garisa and Eastleigh respectively. For Yoghurt, the most important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of sour milk is the most important attribute in both Garisa (30%) and Eastleigh (24%). To enhance marketing of camel milk, the appropriate attributes demanded by customers needs to be seriously addressed. Promotion of camel milk and products to non conventional consumers should be done in order to increase their consumption.

Obel OA, Camm AJ. "Accessory pathway reciprocating tachycardia.". 1998. AbstractWebsite

Patients who have an accessory pathway (AP) of atrioventricular (AV) conduction may develop circus movement tachycardia otherwise known as atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia (AVRT). Orthodromic AVRT is the most common form. It occurs as a result of antegrade conduction through the normal AV conduction system and retrograde conduction to the atria via the AP. Less commonly, conduction occurs in the opposite direction resulting in antidromic AVRT. Tachycardia may also involve multiple APs which may provide both antegrade and retrograde conduction and may alternate antegradely or retrogradely. Tachycardia may occur in which the AP simply acts as a bystander, and does not participate in the tachycardia mechanism. When atrial fibrillation is conducted to the ventricles via and AP, the resultant ventricular rate may be extremely rapid, placing the patient at risk of developing ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. This paper reviews the anatomical and physiological substrates involved in the pathogenesis of AVRT. The acute and long-term management of patients who suffer from these arrhythmias will then be discussed. The normal AV annulus is composed exclusively of electrically inert fibrous tissue. The AV node and His bundle normally act as the sole route of electrical conduction. Accessory pathways occur at all points along the AV ring, and usually occur as isolated abnormalities, although a proportion of patients have associated congenital abnormalities. This is particularly true of right-sided APs. Most APs exhibit non-decremental conduction properties, and conduct faster than normal AV conduction tissue. In many patients with APs the surface ECG reveals clear evidence of pre-excitation, and a good idea of pathway localization is possible using one or more of several algorithms which have been developed. Patients with latent pre-excitation, intermittent pre-excitation, and patients with concealed APs have not evidence of pre-excitation on a proportion or all of Their surface ECGs. Patients present with a history of paroxysmal palpitations, often with associated symptoms such as chest discomfort Syncope is a rare presenting symptom. Unless bundle branch block is present, patients with orthodromic AVRT exhibit a narrow complex tachycardia on the surface ECG. Patients with pre-excited tachycardia including antidromic AVRT, and other forms of SVT in which the AP conducts to the ventricles as a bystander but does not participate in the tachycardias mechanism, present as broad complex tachycardias on the surface ECG which may be difficult to distinguish from ventricular tachycardia. Adenosine is increasingly used for this purpose since it is highly efficacious and has an extremely short half-life. Adenosine is also very useful in the diagnosis of broad-complex tachycardia, and in unmasking latent pre-excitation during sinus rhythm. Electrophysiology study in these patients is frequently performed at the same time as an attempt at catheter ablation; it aims to diagnose, localize and determine the functional characteristics of an AP, and to characterize the role of the pathway in tachycardia. AVRT can be reliably terminated by effective AV nodal blockade. Drug therapy for the prevention of AVRT is useful for temporary control whilst awaiting more definitive measures and in certain cases as long-term management. No class of drug stands out as 'therapy of choice', and physician preference, pro-arrhythmic effects and associated conditions need to be taken into account such that an individual choice can be made in each patient. The management of patients with AVRT has been revolutionized in recent years with the advent of catheter-based techniques for their cure. Whilst this method of treatment is highly effective and has low complication rates, pathways in particular locations such as the septal region remain challenging.

Kohn, A; Bruce J, Bruce J, Kinoti G, Mutahi WT, Coles G, Katz N. "Action of oxamniquine on Schistosoma mansoni in mice experimentally infected with a strain from Kenya.". 1984.Website
Barongo J, Macheyeki AS, Mdala H, Chapola LS, Manhica VJ, Chisambi J, Feitio P, et al. "Active fault mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 seismic event." Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2015;102:233-246. AbstractFull Text

The East African Rift System (EARS) has natural hazards – earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides along the faulted margins, and in response to ground shaking. Strong damaging earthquakes have been occurring in the region along the EARS throughout historical time, example being the 7.4 (Ms) of December 1910. The most recent damaging earthquake is the Karonga earthquake in Malawi, which occurred on 19th December, 2009 with a magnitude of 6.2 (Ms). The earthquake claimed four lives and destroyed over 5000 houses. In its effort to improve seismic hazard assessment in the region, Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group (ESARSWG) under the sponsorship of the International Program on Physical Sciences (IPPS) carried out a study on active fault mapping in the region.

The fieldwork employed geological and geophysical techniques. The geophysical techniques employed are ground magnetic, seismic refraction and resistivity surveys but are reported elsewhere. This article gives findings from geological techniques. The geological techniques aimed primarily at mapping of active faults in the area in order to delineate presence or absence of fault segments. Results show that the Karonga fault (the Karonga fault here referred to as the fault that ruptured to the surface following the 6th–19th December 2009 earthquake events in the Karonga area) is about 9 km long and dominated by dip slip faulting with dextral and insignificant sinistral components and it is made up of 3–4 segments of length 2–3 km. The segments are characterized by both left and right steps.

Although field mapping show only 9 km of surface rupture, maximum vertical offset of about 43 cm imply that the surface rupture was in little excess of 14 km that corresponds with Mw = 6.4. We recommend the use or integration of multidisciplinary techniques in order to better understand the fault history, mechanism and other behavior of the fault/s for better urban planning in the area.

Macheyeki AS, Chapola LS, Manhiça V, Chisambi J, Feitio P, Ayele A, Barongo J, Ferdinand RW, Ghebrebrhan O, Goitom B, Hlatywayo JD, Kianji GK, Marohbe I, Mulowezi A, Mutamina D, Mwano JM, Shumba B, andTumwikiri. "Active Fault Mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 Seismic Event.". 2014.
Sanderson JE, Namasaka JW, Chek AK, Ojiamdo HP, Watkins HM, Mugambi M. "Acute effects of nifedipine in African hypertensives.". 1984.Website
JW A, AN K, JD M, CM M, DN K. "Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Babesiosis in a dog." . Res. J. Anim. Sci.. 2011; 5:14-16. Abstract

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

JW A, AN K, JD M, CM M, DN K. "Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to Babesiosis in a dog." Res. J. Anim. Sci.. 2011;5:14-16.
Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
Celum C, Kiarie, J.W, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated
and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to
suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels,
suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction
in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the
occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010.Website
Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

CHERONO DRMARITIMMARYBETH. "Adam AM, Maritim MC.Pseudoxanthoma elasticum in a patient with sickle cell disease: case report.East Afr Med J. 2008 Feb;85(2):98-101.". University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract

An 18 year female sickler (HbSS) presented with repeated history of epistaxis and bleeding gums. Features consistent with pseudoxanthoma elasticum were observed, such as hyper-extensile redundant skin folds in the neck, axilla, inguinal areas and abdomen. The skin biopsy showed swollen, clumped and fragmented elastic fibres and calcium deposits in the deep and mid reticular dermis, consistent with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. This is a well recognised complication of sickle cell disease which has not been described in Kenya.

Wagacha PW, Chege D. "Adaptive and Optimisation Predictive Text Entry for Short Message Service (SMS) .". In: Special topics in Computing and ICT research: Advances in Systems Modelling and ICT Applications. Kampala: Fountain publishers; 2006.
Ahuya CO;, Cartwright TC;, Ruvuna F;, Okeyo AM. "Additive and heterotic effects from crossbreeding goats in Kenya."; 1987.
Tung CS, Chu KM, Tseng CJ, Yin TH. "Adenosine in hemorrhagic shock: possible role in attenuating sympathetic activation." Life Sci.. 1987;41(11):1375-82. Abstract

Changes in plasma purine nucleoside level, autonomic activity and hemodynamic reactions were studied in pentobarbital anesthetized rabbits during hemorrhagic shock. Shock was elicited by bleeding the animals to a mean blood pressure of 40 mmHg and maintained until 60% of the maximum bleeding volume in the reservoir had been taken up spontaneously. The remaining shed blood was reinfused thereafter. Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), adenosine (AD) and uric acid were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection, fluorometry or UV absorbance. The results showed hemorrhagic shock caused a significant rise in plasma NE, E, AD, and uric acid levels, but the magnitudes and time profiles were different among them. Plasma NE and E increased during the shock compensatory period then declined in the decompensation period whereas adenosine and its metabolite uric acid were elevated persistently during both periods. It is concluded that a balance between autonomic activity and tissue metabolism is important in the maintenance of hemodynamics during shock.

Chepkonga S. "Administrative Strategies for Using Social Media in Higher Education Institutions in Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and Innovation in Education University of Nairobi.; 2019.
P G, J M, Steyn P, Njau I, Cordero J. "Adolescents’ knowledge, attitudes and practices towards family planning and contraceptive use: a qualitative study from Kilifi County, Kenya." The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2016;21(Supplement 1):83.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI, Maina S, Olima W. "Adopting a new eco-ethical philosophy of living; the diminishing options for Nairobi and humanity." Africa Habitat . 2010;Review 4 . Abstract

Burning refuse, especially plastics and other hazardous waste that affect air quality has been a common practice. Authorities point to a well balanced environmental past. During those good old days, people used to be able to throw garbage away. And garbage actually went "away." As they pose, Where is "away" now? "Away" is here. "Away" is someone's back yard. There is no place to go from here. We now see that we inhabit a smaller and smaller planet. "Away" has become very close indeed. Based on preliminary findings of a continuing research, and having used case study approaches to isolate pertinent issues, secondary data obtained through stratified random sampling points to unsustainable livelihoods. This papers objective was to highlight this problem from an eco-ethical perspective. The effect of lack of eco-ethics is numerous. From the very cradle of evolution, nature has been propagating to man in subtle ways the message 'use but don't abuse'. The ancient Bible has a message: After God created the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve, He took the two of them around and told them 'See the world I created, it is all for you, don't spoil it because no one will be there to restore it', (Genesis 2:15). This is probably the first and strongest statement, based upon which Humankind later developed ideas of nature and ecological ethics. Data reveals that humanity and designers, the case of this study, has ignored their responsibility to nurture their environment. This paper concludes that mankind has got a responsibility to future generations in the process of their current development endeavours.

Odada E, Crossland JJM, Kremer HH, Salomons W, Arthurton RS. African Basins: LOICZ Global Change Assessment and Synthesis of River Catchment-Coastal Sea Interactions and Human Dimensions.. The Netherlands: LOICZ, Texel, The Netherlands; 2002. AbstractLOICZ

The Land ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ)core project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Project, IGBP, is evaluating the physical, biogeochemical and human interactions influencing coastal change.

Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "African Pink stemborer, Sesamia calamistis (Hampson 1910).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru).: International Potato Center (CIP).; 2016.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "African Socio-religio Cultural Understanding of Family and Parenting: A Case of the Agikuyu, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2017;5(3):23-28.wachege_cherono_article2.pdf
Farquhar C, Nathanson N. "The Afya Bora Consortium: an Africa-US partnership to train leaders in global health." Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am.. 2011;25(2):399-409. Abstract

The Afya Bora Consortium is a partnership of 8 academic health institutions, 4 in Africa and 4 in the United States. The Consortium is developing a Global Health Leadership Fellowship for medical, nursing, and public health professionals, largely drawn from the 4 African partner countries. The fellowship provides trainees with practical skills to prepare them for future positions leading the design, implementation, and evaluation of large, high-impact programs in governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and academic health institutions in their own countries. This article describes a Pilot of the proposed program.

Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Kimenju JW, ph -Onyango JGP. "Agricultural Agents influence on the Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies." Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(4):219-225.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Kimenju JW, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016;1(5):45-51.extension_approaches_enhancing_improved_sorghum_uptake.pdf
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, John W. Kimenju, Gweyi-Onyango JP. "Agricultural Extension Approaches Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;5(1):45-51.
Ayuke FO, Pulleman MM, Vanlauwe B, de Goede RGM, Six J, Csuzdi C, Brussaard L. "Agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across humid to semi-arid tropical zones." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2011;148:148-154. Abstract

Earthworm and termite diversity were studied in 12 long-term agricultural field trials across the subhumid
to semi-arid tropical zones of Eastern and Western Africa. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects, including tillage intensity, organic matter and nutrient management and crop rotations. For each trial, a fallow representing a relatively undisturbed reference was also sampled. Earthworm taxonomic richness decreased in the direction fallow > high-C soil > low-C soil and earthworm abundance was higher in fallow than under continuous crop production. Termite abundance was not significantly different between fallow and high and low-C treatments and termite taxonomic richness was higher in fallow soil than in the two cropping systems. We concluded that fewer species of earthworms and termites were favored under agricultural management that led to lower soil C. Results indicated that the soil disturbance induced by continuous crop production was more detrimental to earthworms than to termites, when compared to the fallow.
Keywords: Soil biodiversity, Earthworms, Termites, Agriculture, Crop management, Soil carbon, Climate

CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Agriculture and Development in Zambia, Economic Affairs, Vol.25, Nos.1 - 3, January-March.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1980. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
C N. "AIDS control policies in Kenya: a crit ical perspect ive on prevent ion.". In: AIDS: Foundations for the future. London: Taylor and Francis Publishers; 1994.
Piot PM, Kapita B, Ngugi EN, Mann JM, Colebunders R, Wabitsch R. "AIDS in Africa A Manual for Physicians, World Health Organization, Geneva.". 1994.Website
C.O.N K, perspective R(E) ARC. Aids: ignorance or overwhelming drive. Nairobi: USIU; 2000.
FH W, GN K, PM S, A WG, CM M. "Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya." J. Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9(5):340-344. AbstractWebsite

The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

Agandaa AA, Coneyb JER, Sheppard CGW. "Airflow maldistribution and the performance of a packaged air conditioning unit evaporator.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

The performance of an evaporator for a packaged air conditioning unit has been investigated. A heat transfer program ACOL5 validated in an earlier study, was used to predict the performance. Non-uniform velocity distribution measurements taken in a typical air conditioning unit were employed in the prediction of the evaporator performance. It was found that this maldistribution reduced the performance of an evaporator circuit, as compared to uniform flow. Circuits at the edges of the evaporator, where the velocity was low, did not perform well. With the refrigerants controlled by one thermostatic valve, the worst performing circuit affected the performance of the whole evaporator, the evaporator performance being reduced by as much as 35%. The performance of the evaporator, where the circuits had different numbers of passes, depended on the position of the circuit in the evaporator.

Chindia ML, Ng'ang'a PM. "Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.". 1994. AbstractWebsite

The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.

CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Algebra 1 and 11 (O.D.L Lecture Notes).". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
Lund JF;, Carlsen K;, Thorsen BJ. "Alternative indkomster til skovbruget på Vallø Stift.". 2009. Abstract

Denne arbejdsrapport er et af produkterne fra projektet ”Alternative indkomster til skovbruget: Case- og feasibility-studier”. Projektet er finansieret af Skov- og Naturstyrelsen og bliver realiseret af Skov & Landskab, Københavns Universitet, i samarbejde med Centre for Tourism and Culture Management, Handelshøjskolen København. Vallø Stift er en af projektets case-ejendomme og nærværende rapport er et resultat bl.a. af et tæt produktudviklingssamarbejde mellem Vallø Stift, Skov & Landskab og Centre for Tourism and Culture Management. Der blev i Juni 2008 afholdt en temadag på Vallø Stift for at give et praktisk eksempel på en oplevelsesøkonomisk produktudviklingsproces. Vallø Stift har en særlig historie som Kongeligt Frøkenstift for ugifte døtre af dansk adel og med Dronning Margrethe II som nuværende protektor. Vallø Slot kan som ejendom dateres tilbage til 1200-tallet, og det nuværende slot og omkringliggende bygninger kan dateres tilbage til 1700 tallet. Med et jordtilliggende på 4 200 ha er Vallø Stift blandt landets største godser. Ejendommens primære produktion er landbrug og skovbrug. Den sekundære produktion indbefatter bl.a. salg af fødevareprodukter med et særligt Vallø brand, som indbefatter garanti for dyreetisk forsvarlige produktionsmetoder og høj kvalitet. Ejendommen ligger umiddelbart Syd for Køge, skovene har et højt besøgstal, parken, slottet og bygningerne heromkring har en række æstetiske og landskabelige kvaliteter og en spændende historie. Disse egenskaber giver mulighed for at udbyde en række oplevelser, som er særlige for Vallø Stift. Der udbydes allerede nu en række oplevelsesrelaterede produkter på ejendommen. De inkluderer udlejning af jagt, udlejning af arealer til campingplads, tilladelse til fotografering og filmoptagelser omkring hovedbygningen, større selskaber og events i parken, absolut eksklusive arrangementer på slottet, udstedelse af ridekort til skovene samt mulighed for benyttelse af betalingshundeskov. I forbindelse med dette projekt er yderligere muligheder for oplevelsesrelaterede produkter blevet analyseret og i enkelte tilfælde allerede afprøvet. Hen gengives kort en samlet konklusion for de analyserede produkter: - Sæsonmarked: Vallø Stift’s produktion og afsætning af udvalgte kvalitetsfødevarer er allerede i god gænge. Med udgangspunkt i erfaringer indsamlet i dette projekt, fx fra Løndal, vurderes det at det på sigt kan danne rygraden i fx et påskemarked (æg og lam) med fokus på kvalitetsmadvarer - Tematiserede børnefødselsdage: Vallø Stift’s beliggenhed, opland, historie og slottets og skovenes æstetiske kvaliteter er et godt grundlag for denne ydelse. Det vurderes dog, at skal det lønne sig for alvor skal der satses på ret eksklusive versioner og etableres velfungerende samarbejder med en guide/instruktør. - Hundeskove har allerede her under projektet vist sig interessante som nye betalingsydelser målrettet specielle grupper af hundeejere. Det vurderes, at kan man fastholde det gode samarbejde kan der være grundlag for udvidelser både rettet mod almindelige hundeluftere såvel som hundesportsfolk. 3 - Live Rollespil er en mulig udnyttelse af de to pladser i Skovhusvænge. Det vurderes dog, at beliggenhed og rollerspillernes efterspørgsel gør, at en rentabel brug nok primært vil kunne lade sig gøre ved at udleje arealet til enkeltstående lejre og spil. - Mountainbikere anvender ganske ofte Skovhusvænge. Størstedelen af brugerne er ikke organiserede og ikke bosiddende i det umiddelbare opland. Det betyder manglende ejerskabsfølelse og ansvar for lokaliteterne på Vallø, og mulighederne for konstruktive aftaler med og selvjustits blandt brugerne begrænsede. Det vurderes derfor der p.t. ikke er basis for rentable samarbejdsaftaler med de mountainbikere, der bruger området. Muligheden for mountainbikerute kan overvejes når/hvis mountainbikere i/omkring Køge organiserer sig. - Træklatring er en lille niche-sportsgren, der potentielt kan vokse sig større og Skovhusvænge er igen et interessant område. På grund af de store krav til sikkerhed mv. vurderes det, at aktiviteter på dette område alene kan gøres rentable gennem samarbejde med professionelle specialister, som lejer adgang til skovparten. - Eventarrangementer er en mulig videreudvikling af de eksklusive selskabsarrangementer Vallø Stift allerede har. Det vurderes dog at muligheden skal anvendes med omtanke for fortsat at sikre betalingsvilje for netop det eksklusive brand. - Nye aktiviteter omkring campingpladsen kan være med til at øge dens værdi og dermed forpagtningsindtægterne. Skovlegepladser, trætophytter og andre ting er mulige måder at differentiere campingpladsen fra andre, men det vurderes som en risikabel investering umiddelbart.

Cruickshank DL, Y. Y, Njuguna NM, Ongarora DSB, Chibale K, Caira MR. "Alternative solid-state forms of a potent antimalarial aminopyridine: X-ray crystallographic, thermal and solubility aspects." CrystEngComm. 2014;16:5781-5792.
Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Dimba E, Chindia ML. "Ameloblastoma of the jaws in Kenyan children – a review of seventy cases.". 2009.Website
Osundwa TM, Chindia ML, W GS, Awange DO. "Amelogenesis imperfecta in Kenya.". 1999.Website
Epiu I, Tindimwebwa JV, Tindimwebwa JV, Mijimbi C, Chokwe T, Lugazia E, Ndarugirire F, Twagirumugabe T, Dubowitz G. "Anaesthesia in Developing countries ." Value in Health . 2015;18(7):A679.
Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, D.W Gakuya, C.G. Githiji, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2013; 2(6): 41-45. 2014. Abstractanalgesic_activity_of_aqueous_extract_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdf

The main aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Vernonia hymenolepis leaves to validate its use for the treatment of toothache. The plant is widely used as a traditional herb by communities in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya for treatment of various infections including toothache. However its efficacy has not been established. Leaves of the plant were collected from Trans Nzoia County, Kenya and identified at University of Nairobi Herbarium. An aqueous extraction of leaves was prepared. Formalin test was carried out using 30 male albino wister mice to determine antinociceptive effect and the painful response at 0 – 10 min (Early) and 15 – 60 min (late phase). Acetylsalicylate at dose of 100 mg/Kg was used as a positive control. The dose significantly (p<0.05) reduced the time spent in pain behavior in both phases hence indicating that the plant posses antinociceptive activity. It’s concluded that Vernonia hymenolepis possesses analgesic property.

Keywords: Vernonia hymenolepis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive.

Aketch ON, Lee L, Chou J, Huang S, Chang S, Wu Y, et al. "Analyses of the ISUAL Dancing Sprites and Secondary Sprites." American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2013. 2013. AbstractFull Text

From July 2004 to May 2012, about 1,700 sprites were recorded by ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning). Most of them were singly occurring sprites that were not followed by other sprites; while about 7% of them were multi-sprites, which typically start with a sprite and then followed by another sprite that showed a spatial displacement relative to the preceding sprites. Almost all of these events show horizontal shifts between the preceding sprites and the follow-up ones, which previously have been called the dancing sprites. In contrast to the majority cases of dancing sprites with horizontal displacements, three follow-up sprites were found to exhibit a vertical displacement relative to the preceding sprites, which are termed as the secondary sprites in in this report. These three secondary sprites exhibit similar occurring sequences and characteristics; with the preceding clustering sprite spanning the altitudes of ~60-85 km, and then 30 ms or more later, a secondary sprite appears at ~40-65 km altitudes and seems to be connected to the dimming channels of the preceding sprite. From analyzing the spectral and the ULF data, possible generating mechanisms for dancing sprites and secondary sprites are proposed in this report. Several researches [Lyons, 1994; Lyons, 1996; Lu et al., 2012] had indicated that the successive sprite production in the dancing sprites aligned with the lateral leader propagation direction of lightning. We consider that the successively occurring dancing sprites and the secondary sprites are related to the extending leaders of the cloud-to-ground lightning, which are often followed by a continuing current or even a second stroke. The dancing sprites may be induced by the subsequent leaders in the cloud extending mainly in the horizontal direction, while the secondary sprites may be triggered by the leaders extending primarily in the vertical direction. In addition, a numerical quasi-electrostatic (QE) field model is developed with the aim to validate the occurring scenario of the secondary sprites. Based on the information inferred from the associate ULF data of a secondary sprite, salient parameters, including the charge, the charge height, and the discharging time constant, are estimated and used in the QE model calculations. Through performing QE modeling with the ULF inferred parameters, we find that the electric field in the region below the preceding sprites could be enhanced by the continuing current.

J B, B N, O G, E N, C N. "Analysis and evaluation of poverty in Kenya.". In: Poverty Revisited: Analysis and Strategies towards Poverty Eradication in Kenya. Nairobi: Ruaraka Printing Press; 1998.
Maina EN, Webb T, Soni S, Whittington J, Boer H, Clarke D, Holland A. "Analysis of candidate imprinted genes in PWS subjects with atypical genetics: a possible inactivating mutation in the SNURF/SNRPN minimal promoter." J. Hum. Genet.. 2007;52(4):297-307. AbstractWebsite

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities of chromosome 15q11q13. The majority of cases result either from a deletion approximately 4 Mb in size, affecting chromosome 15 of paternal origin or from UPD(15)mat; these account for approximately 70 and approximately 20-25% of PWS cases, respectively. In the remaining 3-5% of PWS cases where neither the deletion nor UPD is detectable, PWS is thought to be caused either by a defect in the imprinting centre resulting in a failure to reset the paternally inherited chromosome 15 derived from the paternal grandmother or, very occasionally, from a balanced translocation involving a breakpoint in 15q11q13. Nine probands with a firm clinical diagnosis of PWS but who had neither a typical deletion in the PWS region nor UPD(15)mat were investigated for inactivating mutations in 11 genes located in the PWS region, including SNURF and SNRPN, which are associated with the imprinting centre. Other genes studied for mutations included MKRN3, NDN, IPW, HBII-85, HBII-13, HBII-436, HBII-438a, PAR1 and PAR5. A possibly inactivating mutation in the SNRPN minimal promoter region was identified. No other inactivating mutations were found in the remainder of our panel of PWS subjects with atypical genetics. Expression levels of several of the candidate genes for PWS were also investigated in this series of probands. The results indicate that PWS may result from a stochastic partial inactivation of important genes.

Prakash, Teluve Nagarajarao; Mburu J;, Chandrashekar H;, Abebaw D. Analysis of Farmers' Willingness to Conserve Traditional Rice Varieties in the Western Ghats of South India.; 2013. Abstract

Conservation of crop genetic resources is a major preoccupation of the Indian government in particular and the international community at large. Drawing on a random sample of 228 farm households from two regions in the Western Ghats of Southern India, this study reports the main factors influencing farmers' willingness to conserve traditional rice varieties of different levels of survival ability (survivability). Estimated results of a logit model indicate that factors influencing decisions to conserve the varieties on-farm depend mainly on farmers' socio-economic characteristics, and vary between the two regions and among incentive or policy scenarios assumed. The factors do not however vary so much from the perspective of the survivability of the traditional rice varieties. Therefore, the study concludes that on-farm conservation in the two study areas requires a mix of different conservation strategies and policy incentives which may not be dependent on the levels of survivability of the traditional rice varieties.

Kamau, L., Mukabana, W.R., Hawley, W.A., Lehmann, T., Irungu, L.W., Orago AA, Collins, F.H. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatelite loci. ." Insect Molecular Biology. 1999;8:287-297.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Analysis of Power Output Curves from Five Wind Energy Converters at the wind farm in Norden, Germany.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Oldenburg, Germany. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1989.
Otieno AC, Carter AB, Hedges DJ, Walker JA, Ray DA, Garber R, Anders BA, Stoilova N, Laborde ME, Fowlkes JD, Huang CH, and B. Perodeau, Batzer MA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage." Journal of Molecular Biology. 2004;342:109-118.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
Kachlik D, Baca V, Bozdechova I, Cech P, Musil V. "Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights." Surgical and radiologic anatomy: SRA. 2008;30:459-466. Abstract

The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

Carl JL, Julius O, Nancy K. "Anchored vs. relative best–worst scaling and latent class vs. hierarchical Bayesian analysis of best–worst choice data: Investigating the importance of food quality attributes in a developing country.". 2012. Abstract

Applying best–worst (BW) scaling to a multifaceted feature, e.g. food quality, is challenging as attribute non-attendance or lack of attribute discrimination risks invalidating the transformation of choice data to unidimensional scale. The relativism of BW scaling also typically prevents distinction of respondents or groups of respondents based on similarities to the study object. A dual-response BW scaling method employed here to obtain an anchored scale allowed comparisons of importance ratings across individuals. Attribute importance ratings and rankings obtained were compared with those from relative BW scaling. Latent class (LC) and hierarchical Bayesian (HB) analyses of individual specific BW choice data were also compared for ability to consider within- and between-respondent choice heterogeneity. Personal interviews with 449 consumers provided data on the importance of 16 food quality attributes of kale produced in peri-urban farming in Kenya. Major findings were that the anchoring model improved individual choice predictions compared with conventional relativistic BW scaling, i.e. was more reliable in measuring consumer preferences, and that HB analysis fitted the data better than LC analysis. HB analysis also successfully obtained individual parameter estimates from sparse data and is thus a promising tool for analysis of BW choices in sensory and consumer-orientated research.

M.M. O, C.M R. and Procedures in Project Planning and Management. Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Anne Muthanje and Collette A. Suda Gender Relations and the Utilization of Family Planning Services in Nyan.". In: MILA. VOL.5 Pp:1-8, 2003. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Chege NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma farzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research . 2010;1(3):47-54. Abstract

Species in the genus Trichoderma are important as commercial source of several enzymes and as biofungicides/growth promoters. The most common biological control agents of the genus are strains of T. harzianum, T. viride and T. viriens. In this study, sixteen selected isolates of T. harzianum from different land use types in Embu, Kenya were tested for anatognism against five soil borne phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp, Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp phaseoli and F. oxysporum f. sp Lycopersici) using dual culture assay and through production of nonvolatile inhibitors. Seven isolates were further characterized using RAPD-PCR procedure to determine genetic variability. All T. harzianum isolates had considerable antagonistic effect on mycelial growth of the pathogens in dual cultures compared to the controls. Maximum inhibitions occurred in Pythium sp- 055E interactions (73%).The culture filtrates obtained from Czapek’s liquid medium reduced the dry weight (mg) of the mycelia significantly while those from the potato dextrose broth showed minimum inhibition growth. Pythium sp was inhibited the most compared to other pathogens. Genetic similarities generated using Jacquard’s coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.231 between isolates 055E and 011E to 0.857 between isolates 010E and 015E. The technique of RAPD was efficient in demonstrating the DNA polymorphism in the isolates of T. harzianum tested showing intraspecific genetic variability. Since all T. harzianum isolates evaluated were effective in controlling colony growth of the soil borne pathogens both in dual cultures and in culture filtrates they could be tried as a broad spectrum biological control agent in the green house and under field conditions.

Siameto E. N., Okoth S, Amugune N. O, Chege NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research. 2010;1(3):47-54.
Ouma PO, van Eijk AM, Hamel MJ, Sikuku ES, Odhiambo FO, Munguti KM, Ayisi JG, Crawford SB, Kager PA, Slutsker L. "Antenatal and delivery care in rural western Kenya: the effect of training health care workers to provide "focused antenatal care.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Background

Maternal mortality remains high in developing countries and data to monitor indicators of progress in maternal care is needed. We examined the status of maternal care before and after health care worker (HCW) training in WHO recommended Focused Antenatal Care.

Methods

An initial cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2002 in Asembo and Gem in western Kenya among a representative sample of women with a recent birth. HCW training was performed in 2003 in Asembo, and a repeat survey was conducted in 2005 in both areas.

Results

Antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance was similar in both areas (86%) in 2005 and not significantly different from 2002 (90%). There was no difference in place of delivery between the areas or over time. However, in 2005, more women in Asembo were delivered by a skilled assistant compared to Gem (30% vs.23%, P = 0.04), and this proportion increased compared to 2002 (17.6% and 16.1%, respectively). Provision of iron (82.4%), folic acid (72.0%), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (61.7%), and anthelminths (12.7%) had increased in Asembo compared to 2002 (2002: 53.3%, 52.8%, 20.3%, and 4.6%, respectively), and was significantly higher than in Gem in 2005 (Gem 2005: 69.7%, 47.8%, 19.8%, and 4.1%, respectively) (P < 0.05 for all). Offering of tests for sexually transmitted diseases and providing information related to maternal health was overall low (<20%) and did not differ by area. In 2005, more women rated the quality of the antenatal service in Asembo as very satisfactory compared to Gem (17% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions

We observed improvements in some ANC services in the area where HCWs were trained. However, since our evaluation was carried out 2 years after three-day training, we consider any significant, sustained improvement to be remarkable.

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Background.

Maternal mortality, the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, remains disturbingly high in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that 270 000 maternal deaths occurred in the region in 2005 [1]. The UN millennium Development goal (MDG) on maternal health aims to reduce the number of women who die in pregnancy and childbirth by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015 [2]. To achieve this goal, it is estimated that an annual decline in maternal mortality of 5.5% is needed; however between 1990 and 2005 the annual decline was only 0.5% in the sub-Saharan region, compared to 4.2% for the middle income countries of Asia [1,3].

Maternal mortality occurs from risks attributable to pregnancy and child birth as well as from poor availability and quality of health services [4]. The most common causes of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa include haemorrhage (34%), sepsis/infections (10%), hypertensive disorders (9%), HIV/AIDS (6%), and other direct causes (5%); other indirect causes contributed approximately 17% [5].

Experiences from different countries have shown that reducing maternal mortality may depend in part on the availability and use of a professional attendant at labour and delivery and a referral mechanism for obstetric care for managing complications, or the use of basic essential obstetric care facilities for all deliveries [6]. In many developing countries however, the majority of births occur at home, frequently without the help of a skilled assistant (midwife, nurse trained as midwife or a doctor) [7].

The effect of antenatal care on maternal mortality is unclear [8-10]. However, there is broad agreement that antenatal care interventions can lead to improved maternal and newborn health, which can also impact on the survival and health of the infant [11]. Additionally, the ANC visit, which many women in sub-Saharan Africa attend, is an opportunity to reach pregnant women with messages and interventions. A global evaluation of antenatal care has resulted in the recommendation to deliver antenatal services in 4 focused visits (Focussed antenatal care; FANC), one within the first trimester and 3 after quickening, and this schedule is now endorsed by WHO [12,13]. Proven effective antenatal interventions include serologic screening for syphilis, provision of malaria prevention, anti-tetanus immunization, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV [14,15]. To fully benefit from these interventions, it is important that women start visiting the antenatal clinic (ANC) early in pregnancy.

We evaluated maternal care in western Kenya in 2002 and showed that preventive interventions received at the ANC were inadequate in spite of high (90%) ANC attendance [16]. After this evaluation, the Kenyan Ministry of Health in conjunction with the Johns Hopkins Organization for International Education in Training and Reproductive Health (JHPIEGO) trained healthcare workers in FANC and malaria in pregnancy in part of the study area (Asembo). FANC emphasizes goal-oriented and women-centred care by skilled providers, whereby the quality instead of the quantity of visits is important [17]. The FANC training in 2003 emphasized identification of pre-existing health problems, early detection of danger signs arising from pregnancy, health promotion, provision of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), provision of iron and folate, birth preparedness, blood pressure measurement, growth monitoring, urine albuminuria and preparation for post-partum family planning. The training was short (3 days) and focused on need-to-know information. An interactive training approach with user-friendly materials was used. These materials enabled the providers to cascade the training to their colleagues in the place of work. Supportive supervision to reinforce skills was undertaken following the training in May-June 2003 in a random sample comprising of 25% of the health facilities in which health care workers had been trained (because of resource constraints not all health facilities received supportive supervision). The focus of the supportive supervision was to identify any gaps and to reinforce knowledge on focused antenatal care and malaria in pregnancy.

In April 2005, we conducted a repeat cross-sectional survey among a random sample of women with a recent birth living in the same areas as the previous survey to assess whether there were improvements in antenatal and delivery care and if there were differences between the area where service providers were trained in FANC and the area where training did not occur.

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Methods.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Kenya Medical Research Institute (CDC/KEMRI) conduct a demographic surveillance system (DSS) in western Kenya, since 2002. The DSS area is located in Asembo (Rarieda Division, Bondo district) and Gem (Yala and Wagai Divisions, Siaya District), of Nyanza province in western Kenya, and covers 217 villages (75 in Asembo and 142 in Gem) spread over approximately 500 km2 along the shores of Lake Victoria. The vast majority of the population are members of the Luo tribe who earn their living through subsistence farming and fishing [18]. Residents of the DSS are visited in their homes every 4 months to record births, deaths, pregnancies, pregnancy outcomes, immigration and out-migration [19]. Health indicators are poor in the area when compared to national figures, with infant mortality rate estimated at 125 per 1000 live births compared to the national figure of 77 per 1000 live births, under-five mortality rate of 227 per 1000 live births compared to 115 nationally, and overall life expectancy at birth at 38 years (36 for men and 39 for women) compared to 48 nationally [19]. The maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 753 per 100,000 live births in 2003 compared to 414 per 100,000 live births nationally [20]. This area traditionally experienced intense perennial malaria transmission with an estimated entomological inoculation rate of ≈ 60-300 infectious bites per person per year [21]. However, the widespread provision of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) during a bed net efficacy trial reduced transmission in the study area by about 90% and continuous provision of ITNs has maintained malaria transmission at a low level [22,23]. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anaemia was 36% and 53% respectively among pregnant women in a community survey in 2003 [24]. In the 2003 Demographic and Health Survey, the seroprevalence of HIV/AIDS in Nyanza Province (15%) was about twice as high as the national average of 7% [25]. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of HIV in men and women 13-34 years old in the DSS area were 11% and 21%, respectively (P. Amornkul, personal communication). A survey among 13 antenatal clinics in Asembo in 2005 revealed that 7 ANCs did not charge for ANC visits, and 9 provided treatments such as iron and folic acid without charge (P. Ouma, personal communication). We do not have this information for ANCs in Gem.

The sample size estimate for this study was based on a comparison of IPTp use in Asembo and Gem, and aimed to detect at least 50 percentage point difference in IPTp use in Asembo compared to Gem after FANC training, with 80% power and 95% confidence interval. Allowing for 15% failure to recruit, a random sample of 830 women was selected using a list of women who had delivered between 30th of September 2004 and 30th of March 2005 in the DSS [26]. Interviews were conducted by experienced interviewers in the local language using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked questions on ANC clinic visits, services received at the clinic, where their last delivery occurred, who assisted with the delivery and satisfaction with antenatal and delivery services. Interviewers were instructed not to probe with options. Questions were similar to the 2002 survey, except for the quality assessment of the maternal services, which had not been included in the 2002 survey.

Data management and statistical methods

We first compared the two areas in the survey in 2005, and then compared the results of the survey in 2005 to the survey in 2002. We examined the use of antenatal and delivery care, and the type of ANC services received, and the satisfaction with the services (2005 only).

Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. For the comparisons of medians, we used the Wilcoxon two sample test (non-parametric). Education level was dichotomized as < 8 years or ≥ 8 years, the minimum number of years required to complete primary education in Kenya. We used Principal Components Analysis (PCA) method to generate weights for the following broad household characteristics: occupation of participant and spouse, source and quality of water, source of fuel for cooking, livestock and asset ownership, and dwelling/housing structure. The scores were used to rank the study participants in socio-economic status (SES) quintiles [27]. A medium/low SES was defined as a rank in the bottom three quintiles of the wealth index. The statistical program SAS was used for all analyses (SAS for windows version 8; SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA).

Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the institutional review boards of the Kenya Medical Research Institute (Nairobi, Kenya) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, USA).

Kinoti, G.K., Maingi N, Coles GC. "Anthelmintics usage in Kenya and its implications." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1994;42:71-73.1994._anthelmintics_usage_in_kenya_and_its_implications.pdf
Ngugi K, Jerono Cheserek, Muchira C, Chemining’wa G. "Anthesis to silking interval usefulness in developing drought tolerant." Journal of Renewable Agriculture . 2013;, 1(50):84-90.anthesis_to_silking_interval_usefulness_in_developing_drought.pdf
Musi, C, MIRIKAU, N, D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;11(8):1003-1014 . Abstractantibacterial_antifungal_plectranthus_2017.pdfWebsite

Background Information: Plectranthus L’Hér. is an economically important genus with horticultural, medicinal and food uses. Most Plectranthus species are used in traditional medicine and have attracted the interest of researchers who have studied them in attempt to explore the bioactivities of their phytoconstituents.
Materials and Methods: The current study investigated the antimicrobial activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species through disc diffusion and broth dilution method.
Results:Results indicated that, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) total leaf extracts from Plectranthus barbatus displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the other nine Plectranthus species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25, 40, 100, 50, and 100 mg/ml against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. At a concentration of 200 mg/ml, the antibacterial activity of total leaf extracts of P. barbatus (MIC value = 25 mg/ml) and Plectranthus lanuginosus (MIC value = 40 mg/ml) againstMRSA was not significantly different from positive control drug; amoxicillin. Similarity, at a concentration of 200 mg/ml,total leaf extracts from Plectranthus ornatus (MIC value= 50 mg/ml) and P. barbatus (MIC value = 50 mg/ml) exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans which was not significantly different from that of the positive control; ketoconazole.
Conclusion: The study reports for the first time, the antimicrobial activity of Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides, Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus aegyptiacus, Plectranthus Otostegioides, and Plectranthus lanuginosus. The study has demonstrated broad bacteriostatic activity of P. barbatus and thus recommends further studies on this plant aimed at discovery of novel antimicrobial agents.
KEY WORDS: Antimicrobial activity, Bioguidance, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Plectranthus

C. WG, W. GD, O. NM, K. NF, G. N, M. MJ. "Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of some Kenyyan medicinal plants.". In: 6th Biennial Scientific Conference.; 2008.
Plummer F, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Nagelkerke NJ, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibodies to opacity proteins (Opa) correlate with a reduced risk of gonococcal salpingitis."; 1994. Abstract

Acute salpingitis complicating cervical gonococcal infection is a significant cause of infertility. Relatively little data are available concerning the pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease. A cohort of 243 prostitutes residing in Nairobi were followed between March 1985 and April 1988. Gonococcal cultures were performed at each visit, and acute salpingitis was diagnosed clinically. Serum at enrollment was tested by immunoblot for antibody to gonococcal outer membrane proteins. 8.6% (146/1689) of gonococcal infections were complicated by salpingitis. Increased risk of salpingitis was associated with younger age, shorter duration of prostitution, HIV infection, number of gonococcal infections, and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis. Rmp antibody increased the risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa decreased the risk of salpingitis. By logistic regression analysis, antibody to Opa was independently associated with decreased risk of gonococcal salpingitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.17-0.76); HIV infection (adjusted OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.96-12.8) and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.4) were independently associated with an increased risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa appears to protect against ascending gonococcal infection, perhaps by interfering with Opa mediated adherence and endocytosis. The demonstration of natural immunity that protects against upper genital tract infection in women suggests that a vaccine to prevent gonococcal salpingitis is possible.

Plummer FA, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibody to Rmp (outer membrane protein 3) increases susceptibility to gonococcal infection.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

The severe adverse effects of gonococcal infection on human fertility suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae would exert powerful selection for the development of a protective immune response in humans. N. gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and must persist in humans to survive. Since it is an ecologically successful organism, it must have evolved strategies to evade any human immune response it elicits. In a longitudinal study among 243 women working as prostitutes and experiencing frequent gonococcal infection, younger women, women with HIV infection, and women with antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp) were at increased risk of infection (adjusted odds ratio 3.4, CI95% 1.1-10.4, P < 0.05). Rmp is highly conserved in N. gonorrhoeae and the blocking of mucosal defences may be one of its functions. As similar proteins occur in many gram negative mucosal pathogens, the enhancing effect of such proteins may be a general strategy whereby bacteria evade human immune responses.

PIP:

Between March 1985 and July 1986 researchers enrolled 243 female prostitutes in Pumwani community of Nairobi, Kenya, in a longitudinal study to examine the relationship between the antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp Ab) and gonococcal mucosal infection. Few women used condoms. 69% were HIV-1 seropositive. Just 9.5% (23) of the women had not had any gonococcal infections, despite probable exposure to them, indicating the possibility of some acquired protective immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoea. 90.5% had had at least 1 gonococcal infection. Women with Rmp Ab faced a greater risk of gonococcal infection than those who were Rmp Ab negative (OR = 3.4;l p .05), denoting that Rmp Ab increases susceptibility to gonococcal mucosal infections. Women older than 29 years were at lower risk of gonococcal infection than those younger than 29 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3; p .03). Women who used oral contraceptives (OCs) were also likely to be infected with N. gonorrhoea (OR = 3; p = .062). Further, 31% of OC users had cervical ectopy compared to just 14% of nonusers (OR = 2.8; p .005), suggesting that the effect of OCs on the cervix make it more susceptible to gonococcal infection. Rmp Ab also exists in many other gram-negative mucosal pathogens, often playing the same role as it does in N. gonorrhoea infection. Thus, Rmp Ab may be a common scheme bacteria used to elude human immune responses. These findings provide more understanding as to why N. gonorrhoea is an ecologically successful human pathogen

Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Antifungal activity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Gladiolus watsonoides Baker (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(9):1218-1222.
Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Antifungal activity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Gladiolus watsonoides Baker (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(9):1218-1222.
Okalebo FA, Rabah HA, Guantai AN, C.K. M, Kibwage IO, J.W. M, Masengo W. "The antimalarial and antimicrobial and Brine shrimp toxicity of Clematis brachiata extract. ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5:15-18.
Ongarora DSB, Strydom N, Wicht K, Njoroge M, Wiesner L, Egan TJ, Wittlin S, Jurva U, Masimirembwa CM, Chibale K. "Antimalarial benzoheterocyclic 4-aminoquinolines: Structure-activity relationship, in vivo evaluation, mechanistic and bioactivation studies." Bioorg. Med. Chem.. 2015;23(17):5419-32. Abstract

A novel class of benzoheterocyclic analogues of amodiaquine designed to avoid toxic reactive metabolite formation was synthesized and evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against K1 (multidrug resistant) and NF54 (sensitive) strains of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the identification of highly promising analogues, the most potent of which had IC50s in the nanomolar range against both strains. The compounds further demonstrated good in vitro microsomal metabolic stability while those subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic studies had desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. In vivo antimalarial efficacy in Plasmodium berghei infected mice was evaluated for four compounds, all of which showed good activity following oral administration. In particular, compound 19 completely cured treated mice at a low multiple dose of 4×10mg/kg. Mechanistic and bioactivation studies suggest hemozoin formation inhibition and a low likelihood of forming quinone-imine reactive metabolites, respectively.

Ndakala AJ, Gessner RK, Gitari PW, October N, White KL, Hudson A, Fakorede F, Shackleford DM, Kaiser M, Yeates C, Charman SA, Chibale K. "Antimalarial Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles." Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2011;54:4581-4589.Website
Chalo DM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji, S. F. "Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants of Losho, Narok County, Kenya. ." Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2017;Vol 15((1)):pp. 29-43.
Claeys G, Taelman H, Gichangi P, Tyndall M, Ombete J, Verschraegen G, Temmeperman M. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from men with urethritis in Kenya." Sex Transm Infect. 1998;74(4):294-5.
Okalebo FA, Ngaruiya MN, Changwony P, Oluka MO, Karume DW, Maloba KN. "The antinociceptive effects of Hydrazinocurcumin." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2013;2(2):66-69.
Okalebo FA, Ngaruiya MN, Changwony P, Oluka MN, Karume DW, Maloba KN. "The antinociceptive effects of Hydrazinocurcumin." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2013;2(2):66-69.
OW M, KA B, GK K, er CS G. "Antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with venous thrombosis at Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol . 2013;2013(1(2): ):52-56.
CN M, Keriko JM, Mutai C, A Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Nyangacha R, Mungai GM, s. D. "Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya." J Ethnopharmacol.. 2015;175(3):15-23. Abstract

J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Dec 4;175:315-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.017. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya.
Muthaura CN1, Keriko JM2, Mutai C3, Yenesew A4, Gathirwa JW5, Irungu BN5, Nyangacha R5, Mungai GM6, Derese S4.
Author information
Abstract
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Medicinal plants play a major role in many communities across the world, in the treatment and prevention of disease and the promotion of general health. The aim of the study was to escalate documentation from an earlier study of medicinal plants, traditionally used to combat malaria by the Ameru community of Imenti Forest area and Gatunga in Eastern Region of Kenya, and validate their ethnopharmacological claims by evaluating their antiplasmodial efficacies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study was carried out in Meru County at Imenti Forest Game Reserve and in Tharaka Nithi County at Gatunga. Traditional health practitioners (THP) were interviewed with a standard questionnaire to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for management of malaria. Group interviews were also held among THPs and members of the community. The antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum were determined using the semi-automated micro-dilution technique that measures the ability of the extracts to inhibit the incorporation of (G-3H) hypoxanthine into the malaria parasite.
RESULTS:
Ninety nine (99) species in eighty one (81) genera and forty five (45) families were documented and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Compositae, Fabaceae, Meliceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae had the highest number of species mentioned in treatment of malaria in Meru/Tharaka Nithi study area. Twenty four (24.2%) species showed antiplasmodial efficacy of IC50≤5µg/ml and were considered to have potential for isolation of antimalarial compounds. Eight plant (8) species with moderate antiplasmodial activity namely; Cordia africana, Commiphora africana, Elaeodendron buchananii, Gomphocarpus semilunatus, Tarena graveolens, Plectranthus igniarius, Acacia senegal and Ziziphus abyssinica were documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. The antiplasmodial activity of MeOH root bark extract of Maytenus obtusifolia was very promising (IC50<1.9µg/ml) and this is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and antimalarial activity.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results seem to indicate that ethnopharmacological inquiry used in search for new herbal remedies as predictive and could be used as the basis for search of new active principles. Eight plant (8) species are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. This is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and evaluation of its antiplasmodial activity.

Muiva-Mutisya LM, Atilaw Y, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Akala HM, Cheruiyot AC, Brown ML, Irungu B, Okalebo FA, Derese S, Mutai C, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial prenylated flavanonols from Tephrosia subtriflora." Natural product research. 2018;32(12):1407-1414. AbstractJournal article

Abstract
The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1.4–4.6 μM without significant cytotoxicity against Vero and HEp2 cell lines (IC50 > 100 μM). The new compound (1) showed weak antiplasmodial activity, IC50 12.5–24.2 μM, but also showed selective anticancer activity against HEp2 cell line (CC50 16.9 μM).

Keywords: Tephrosia subtriflora, Leguminosae, prenylated flavanonol, subtriflavanonol, antiplasmodial, cytotoxicity

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Okombo J, Singh K, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Peter M. Njogu, Mireille V, Keiser Jennifer, Egan T, Chibale K. "Antischistosomal activity of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and correlation with inhibition of β-hematin formation." ACS Infect. Dis.. 2017;3:411-420.
Patrice K, Gideon NN, Paul NN, Christopher A, Robert K. "Apis mellifera adansonii Is the Most Defensive Honeybee in Uganda." Psyche. 2018;201:6.
Hassan S, Chavda SK, Magoha GA. "Appendicectomy for recurrent and chronic appendicitis." Tropical doctor. 2007;37:56-57. AbstractWebsite
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Clegg-Lamptey JN, Naaeder SB. "Appendicitis {In} {Accra}: {A} {Contemporary} {Appraisal}." Ghana medical journal. 2003;37:52-6. Abstract
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Cheruiyot EK, Mito CO, Kaduki KA. "Application of Multispectral Imagery in Monitoring of Aquatic Vegetation and Water Quality Parameters in Large Inland Waters.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
Ocholla S, Jumba G, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Wadegu MO, Mukunzi S, Majanja JM, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Coldren R. The Appropriateness of WHO influenza B vaccine component to Kenya in 2011-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: In the 1980’s, influenza B viruses were discovered to belong to two evolutionary groupings (B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses) that continue to co-circulate globally in the human population. These viruses exist as independent lineages. Information about lineage of circulating influenza B viruses in a country is important for determination of the appropriateness of either a trivalent or a quadrivalent vaccine composition for that country.Objective: To genetically analyze the HA1 of influenza B viruses isolated in Kenya during the 2011-2012 season with reference to WHO vaccine strains recommended for Kenya.Method: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens obtained from patients meeting WHO definition criterion for ILI were screened by real-time PCR for influenza B viruses. Influenza B virus positive samples were inoculated onto MDCK cells and the lineages of the isolates determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI). To confirm the lineages, HA1 gene segments of selected isolates were amplified by PCR and sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics tools.Results: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all the 24 influenza B viruses that circulated between 2011- 2012 were closely related to B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine Strain. Comparison of the HA1 amino acid sequences of influenza B viruses with the reference vaccine strain (B/Brisbane/60/2008 lineage) revealed substitutions at 19 amino acid positions. FLU-MBG-11-02-010 had R188K amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to B/Brisbane vaccine reference strain. FLU-MBG-12-05-011 had V124I amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to the vaccine reference strain. The majority (87.5%) had I146V/A amino acid change in the 150-loop antigenic receptor binding site. All the Kenyan isolates had D197N amino acid change in the 190-helix antigenic receptor site. The other fifteen positions that showed polymorphisms were outside of the antigenic sites with these mutations being randomly distributed among the isolates.Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that the WHO vaccine strain recommendations for the southern hemisphere were appropriate for use in Kenya.

Cheruiyot EK, Mito CO, Kaduki KA, Laneve G, Khoshelham K. "Aquatic vegetation prediction models based on water quality parameters and meteorological conditions.". Forthcoming.
Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. "Are Blind People More Likely to Accept Free Cataract Surgery? A Study of Vision-Related Quality of Life and Visual Acuity in Kenya." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17(1):41-49. Abstract

Purpose: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and visionrelated Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.
Methods: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.
Results: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.
Conclusion: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person’s decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO, L K, A.K VH, C S, K K, K H, H T. "Are cell lines a suitable model for studying endometriosis.". 2010.
Maithya JM, I.Mugivane F, Busienei JR, Chimoita E, Nyang’ang HT. "Are commercial crops displacing food crops and compromising Kenya’s food security?" Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM. 2015;Vol. 5(3): 1794-1797.smallholding_farming_and_diversification__in_mumias_kenya.pdf
C.K. M, S. T. Aromatic Plants of East Africa.. Nairobi: Kenya National Sci & Tech. Council.; 1982.
C.K. M. The arrow poisons. Nairobi: E.A. Literature Bureau ; 1973.
Njuguna NM, Ongarora DSB, Chibale K. "Artemisinin derivatives: a patent review (2006 - present)." Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 2012;22(10):1179-1203.
Chantler PD, Lakatta EG. "Arterial-{Ventricular} {Coupling} with {Aging} and {Disease}." Frontiers in Physiology. 2012;3. AbstractWebsite

Age is the dominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the coupling between the left ventricle (LV) and arterial system, termed arterial–ventricular coupling (EA/ELV), provides important mechanistic insights into the complex cardiovascular system and its changes with aging in the absence and presence of disease. EA/ELV can be indexed by the ratio of effective arterial elastance (EA; a measure of the net arterial load exerted on the LV) to left ventricular end-systolic elastance (ELV; a load-independent measure of left ventricular chamber performance). Age-associated alterations in arterial structure and function, including diameter, wall thickness, wall stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction, contribute to a gradual increase in resting EA with age. Remarkably there is a corresponding increase in resting ELV with age, due to alterations to LV remodeling (loss in myocyte number, increased collagen) and function. These age-adaptations at rest likely occur, at least, in response to the age-associated increase in EA and ensure that EA/ELV is closely maintained within a narrow range, allowing for optimal energetic efficiency at the expense of mechanical efficacy. This optimal coupling at rest is also maintained when aging is accompanied by the presence of hypertension, and obesity, despite further increases in EA and ELV in these conditions. In contrast, in heart failure patients with either reduced or preserved ejection fraction, EA/ELV at rest is impaired. During dynamic exercise, EA/ELV decreases, due to an acute mismatch between the arterial and ventricular systems as ELV increases disproportionate compared to EA (≈200 vs. 40%), to ensure that sufficient cardiac performance is achieved to meet the increased energetic requirements of the body. However, with advancing age the reduction in EA/ELV during acute maximal exercise is blunted, due to a blunted increase ELV. This impaired EA/ELV is further amplified in the presence of disease, and may explain, in part, the reduced cardiovascular functional capacity with age and disease. Thus, although increased stiffness of the arteries itself has important physiological and clinical relevance, such changes also have major implications on the heart, and vice versa, and the manner in the way they interact has important ramifications on cardiovascular function both at rest and during exercise. Examination of the alterations in arterial–ventricular coupling with aging and disease can yield mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of these conditions and increase the effectiveness of current therapeutic interventions.

Ngatia TA, Mugera GM, Njiro SM, Kuria JK, Carles AB. "Arteriosclerosis and related lesions in rabbits.". 1989. Abstract

Eleven female rabbits, mainly of the NZW breed, aged between 1 and 3.5 years, were examined post mortem. All had originated over the years 1982 to 1987 from the same rabbitry where they had been fed on pellets from the same manufacturer. Apart from one rabbit, all had a history of progressive loss of bodily condition and six of them had also been infertile. Grossly, most of them were emaciated and their arteries were hardened. In some, hepatopathy, nephropathy and pulmonary emphysema were evident. In one case, mummified foetuses were recovered from the abdominal cavity. Microscopically, degenerative changes and calcification were found in the walls of arteries, kidneys, lungs, hearts and ovaries.

ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "As-cast and heat-treated alloys of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner." The Journal of Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.
Clough JM, Midiwo JO. Aspects of African Biodiversity.; 2008.
Bergin P, Langat R, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Farah B, Ouattara G, Park H, Coutinho H, Laufer D, Fast P, Verlinde C, Bizimana J, Umviligihozo G, Nyombayire J, Ingabire R, Kuldanek K, Cox J, McMorrow M, Fidler S, Karita E, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Assessment of anti-HIV-1 antibodies in Oral and Nasal Compartments of Volunteers from Three different Populations." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of collecting standardized nasal and salivary samples at centers in Nairobi (Kenya), Kigali (Rwanda) and London (UK) using different collection devices and media (Synthetic absorptive matrices versus flocked swabs, and Salimetrics Oral swabs versus whole oral fluid collection). We detected anti Gag (p24) and envelope (gp140) antibodies in both nasal fluid and salivary collections from all HIV-infected individuals, and cross-reactive anti-p24 antibodies were detected in 10% of HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled at one site. Collections from the nasal turbinates were comparable to samples collected deeper in the nasopharyngeal tract, and the yield of anti-p24 IgA in the whole oral fluid samples was higher than in samples collected from the parotid gland. We noted a trend toward reduced levels of anti-HIV antibody in the volunteers receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Levels of antibodies were stable over multiple collection visits. Overall, this study shows that nasal and salivary samples can be collected in a standardized manner over repeated visits in both low and high resource settings. These methods may be used in support of future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

Ndambiri HK;, Ritho C;, Mbogoh SG;, Ng’ang’a SI;, Muiruri EJ;, Nyangweso PM;, Kipsat MJ;, Ogada JO;, Omboto PI;, Kefa C;, Kubowon PC;, Cherotwo FH. "Assessment of Farmers' Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change in Kenya: the Case of Kyuso District.". 2012. Abstract

The study was carried out to assess how farmers in Kyuso District have adapted to the effects of climate change. Survey data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations that were sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The probit regression model was fitted into the data in order to assess factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to the effects of climate change. The analysis revealed that 85% of the farmers had adapted in various ways to the effects of climate change. In this regard, the age of the farmer, gender, education, farming experience, farm income, access to climate information, household size, local agro-ecology, distance to input/output market, access to credit, access to water for irrigation, precipitation and temperature were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to adapt to climate change. The study suggests that more policy efforts should thus be geared towards helping all the farmers in the district to adapt to climate change.

I M, A A, S M, C B, J W, E M, Onyango N, Nyagol J. Assessment of MNCH services provided by private health care providers in Kibra Sub-county of Nairobi County. . Nairobi: Kibra Private Health Care Providers Study Report; Ministry of Health Report, Kenya; 2017.
EK Mmboneiza, Chege MN, Omuga BO. "Assessment of Parents’ Perception of Quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital." Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2017;2017 Jan-Mar; (4(1):): 29-37. Abstractassessment_of_parents_perception_of_quality_of_pediatric_oncology_inpatient_care_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Assessment of Parents’ Perception of Quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital

Eunice Mmbone Keiza, MSN, Margaret Njambi Chege, and Blasio Osogo Omuga

Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2017 Jan-Mar; 4(1): 29–37.
doi: 10.4103/2347-5625.199071

Abstract
Objective:
Adequate knowledge of parents’ perception of quality of pediatric cancer care helps to identify the areas of care improvement which would contribute to disease outcome in regard to the quality of life and satisfaction with the care provided. The aim of the study was to assess the parents’ perception of the quality of Pediatric Oncology Inpatient Care at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods:
A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative and qualitative study was undertaken using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and a focused group discussion guide. Assessment of parents’ perception of quality of care was done in relation to the institution's structures and care delivery processes. These included the ward environment, resources for cancer treatment, care processes, service providers, and parents’ knowledge empowerment. Participants were systematically selected. Parents’ perception was defined as satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the care provided. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) and presented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square was used to test the significant association between variables. Level of significance was set at a P ≤ 0.05.
Results:
A total of 107 respondents were interviewed and 57.9% were satisfied with the overall quality of care they received. The determinants of overall satisfaction in this study were found to be related to resources for cancer treatment (odds ratio [OR] =3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.39–6.90; P = 0.005), care delivery processes (OR = 2.87; 95% CI = 1.28–6.43; P = 0.009), and the ward environment (OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.17–5.74; P = 0.018).
Conclusions:
The parents were moderately satisfied with the oncology care services their children received. The gaps identified in service delivery included those related to the availability of the required resources for efficient care delivery and also educational as well as psychosocial needs of the parents.
Keywords: Parents, pediatric oncology, perception, quality of care

J. K. Lelon1*, I. O. Jumba2, J. K. Keter2, Chemuku W, Oduor2 FDO. "Assessment of physical properties of gum arabic from Acacia Senegal varieties in Baringo District, Kenya." African Journal of Plant Science . 2010;Vol. 4(4),(ISSN 1996-0824 © 2010 Academic Journals):pp. 95-98. Abstract

A study was conducted to assess the physical properties of gum arabic obtained from two Acacia Senegal varieties (var.Senegal and Mar.kerensis). in Marigat division, Baringo district. Gum arabic samples from the experimental sites at Solit, Kapkun, Kimorok and Maoi were collected, dried and analysed to establish their physical characteristics. Moisture content in gum arabic obtained from variety kerensls in Kimorok and Maoi (17.5 ± 1.00 and 15.4 ± 0.50%) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (15.0 ± 0.50 and 14.9 ± 1.80%), while internal energy (33.4 and 33.76%) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of variety Senegal found in Kapkun and Solit (33.0 and 32.96%), respectively. Ash content in gum arabic from variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (2.94 and 3.16%) was higher (P < 0.05) than those of variety kerensis found in Kimorok and Maoi (2.88 and 2.72%). In Kapkun, volatile matter in gum arabic from variety Senegal (64.2%) was higher (P < 0.05) than the quantities of variety kerensis found in Kimorok, Solit and Maoi (63.8, 63.7 and 63.6%), respectively. Moisture content in gum arabic from variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun (15.0 ± 0.40 and 14.9 ± 1.80%) fell within international specifications (13 to 15%), while variety kerensis in Kimorok and Maoi (17.5 and 15.4%) fell outside the specifications. Moisture, ash and volatile matter contents in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal were 14.9, 3.16 and 64.24%, while A. Senegal variety kerensis had 15.2, 2.88 and 63.8%, respectively. Moisture content in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal fell within international specifications while A. Senegal variety kerensis fell outside the specifications. Ash, volatile matter and internal energy contents in gum arabic from A. Senegal variety kerensis and variety Senegal fell within the specifications. The gum arabic from A. Senegal variety Senegal in Solit and Kapkun was of better quality than that of A. Senegal variety kerensis in Kimorok and Maoi.

Jennifer NM, Kinyamario JI, Chira RM, Musila W. "Assessment of soil seed bank from six different vegetation types in Kakamega forest, Western Kenya." Afr. J. Biotech. . 2011;10(65):14384-14391.
Muthumbi W, De Boever P, D'haese I, D'hooge W, Verstraete W, Comhaire F, Pieters JG, Top EM. "Assessment of the estrogenic activity of flue gases from burning processes by means of the yeast based human estrogen receptor (hER) bioassay.". 2002.Website
E. K. Genga, C.F.OTIENO, E. N. Ogola, Maritim MC. "Assessment of the Perceived Quality of Life of Non insulin Dependent D iabetic patients attending t he Diabetes Clinic in Kenyatta National H ospital." IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy. 2014;4(3):15-21. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a common and demanding health related problem that has a wide effect on every day’s life of the patients. It can have a profound effect on quality of life in terms of social and psychological well-being as well as physical ill-health. It is one of the most psychologically demanding of the chronic diseases; with psychosocial factors pertinent to nearly every aspect of the disease and its treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To Assess the perceived Health-related quality of life of diabetic patients not on insulin therapy using the WHOQoL-Bref (World Health Organization Quality of Life – Brief).
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.
STUDY SITE: The study was conducted on patients attending the Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
RESULTS: Study recruited 139 patients with type2 diabetes not on insulin therapy. The study population was predominantly female (61%) , majority were 40-60yrs, having had diabetes for less than 5yrs, 75% having more than one complication. Most (75%) of the study participants were poorly controlled with HbA1C mean score of 8.04% .Majority of the study participants( 84%) achieved a good score on the HRQoL scale using the WHOQoL-Bref tool. The determinants of HRQoL in our study were: age of study participants, duration of diabetes, presence of complications and income related factors. Age of the study subjects had significant association only in the social domain of HRQoL with a p-value of 0.037. Level of income had a significant association with overall HRQoL score (p-value of 0.029), psychological domain (p value of 0.023) and in the social domain (p-value of 0.029). Health care financing was significantly associated with psychological domain (p-value 0.006) and environmental domain (p-value 0f 0.04) and overall score (p-value 0.011). There was an association between employment status and HRQoL. Having a job improved the scores in physical domain (p-value of 0.013) and social domain (p value of 0.020). Duration with diabetes had significant association with physical domain where the p value was 0.007. The HRQoL of the study subjects was associated significantly with the number of complications. Indeed the association of complications with the HRQoL involved physical domain (p-value of <0.0001) and psychological domain (p-value of 0.041) which directly impacted on the overall total score (p value of 0.041).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that diabetes affected HRQoL of our study participants. There is a need for interventions programs to improve glycemic control and inclusion of HRQoL assessment as part of patients on follow up. Age and duration of disease are not modifiable but complications can be reduced by better health care initiaves. Income-related factors can be modifiable through poverty alleviation and pooled health care financing.

Baden LR, Karita E, Mutua G, Bekker L-G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Page-Shipp L, Walsh SR, Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Roux S, Laher F, Innes C, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Peter L, Frahm N, McElrath JM, Hayes P, Swann E, Grunenberg N, Grazia-Pau M, Weijtens M, Sadoff J, Dally L, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Dolin R, Fast P, Barouch DH, Laufer DS. "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial." Ann. Intern. Med.. 2016;164(5):313-22. Abstract

A prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is a global health priority.

Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland SR. "Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections." Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34(6):384-8. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1.

Bose S, Yap L-F, Fung M, Starzcynski J, Saleh A, Morgan S, Dawson C, Chukwuma MB, Maina E, Buettner M, Wei W, Arrand J, Lim PVH, Young LS, Teo SH, Stankovic T, Woodman CBJ, Murray PG. "The ATM tumour suppressor gene is down-regulated in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma." J. Pathol.. 2009;217(3):345-52. Abstract

A micro-array analysis using biopsies from patients with EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and from cancer-free controls revealed down-regulation of tumour suppressor genes (TSG) not previously associated with this disease; one such gene was the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Q-PCR confirmed down-regulation of ATM mRNA and ATM protein expression in tumour cells was weak or absent in almost all cases. In NPC cell lines, however, ATM was down-regulated only in the EBV-positive line, C666.1, and in none of five EBV-negative lines. In vitro infection of EBV-negative NPC cell lines with a recombinant EBV was followed by the down-regulation of ATM mRNA and protein, and only EBV-positive cells showed a defective DNA damage response following gamma-irradiation. Our data suggest that loss of ATM function could be an important step in the pathogenesis of NPC, and may have implications for the treatment of this disease.

CM M, MV G, C K. "Attitude and practices of sedation amongst critical care nurses working in a Kenyan national hospital." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2014;14(2):35-41.
JW A, AG T, TO A, CM M. "Atypical Actinobacillosis in a cow. A case report. Bull." Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. . 2011;50:471-473.
J.K. W, C.M. M, N.P. G, M.J. N, A.G. T, J. N. "Atypical dermatophilosis of sheep in Kenya ." 0038-2809 Tydskr.S.Afr.vet.Ver.. 2007;78(3):181-182.dr._pauline_gitonga_publication_5-atypical_dermatophilosis_of__sheep_in_kenya.pdf.pdf
Kimutai B, Kihara EN, Mutave R, Chindia ML. "Audit of imaging request forms at a teaching dental hospital." African Journal of oral Health Sciences. 2015;2(2):10-15.
Chindia ML, A. WK, Limo AK, Dimba EAO, Gichana J. "audit of oral diseases at a Nairobi center 2004 - 2005.". 2007.
Chindia M, Butt FM, Kenyanya T, Rana F, Gathece LW. "An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infecton.". 2010.
B
ucci E, Onnis A CDFIGCCMMGFA, Cantisani R, Nyagol J MIOSBLLWRMK. "B-cell differentiation in EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma is impaired at posttranscriptional level by miRNA-altered expression." International Journal of cancer. 2010;126(6):1316-1326.
Nyachieo A, Spiessens C, Chai DC, Kiulia NM, Mwenda JM, D'Hooghe TM. Baboon spermatology: basic assessment and reproducibility in olive baboons (Papio anubis).. Vol. 41.; 2012. J. Med. Primatol. 41(5). Abstract

Development of a reproducible baboon in vitro fertilization (IVF) system require optimized and reproducible sperm parameters. The objective of this study was to document basic spermatology values and investigate the reproducibility of these variables in the same baboons 1 or 3 months later in a larger number of baboons.

Bebora L.C, E K, M N, N K, E K’ethe, C.J L, P.G M, L. N, J.J O. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs.". In: 10th African Crop Science Society Conference. Maputo, Mozambique; 2011.2011_-_bacterial_contamination_of_kale_from_farm_and_market.pdf
Ndiritu A, Chandi R, RUGENDO CAROLINE. "Balancing work and study: A necessity for successful Distance Learning.". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference .; 2015. Abstract

ABSTRACT
As the country re- evaluates the achievement of Millennium goals, it becomes important for Kenya to take its toll. One of the intentions was to increase gross enrolment rate in higher education. The projection was to increase the number of students joining the universities to 450,000 by end of 2015 from 130,000 in 2008. This number was to be increased through expansion of courses done through distance education. The targeted population was of those already in employment. This group has to be able to balance the demands of their workplace and their social demands for the back to school agenda to be achieved. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. However It has been noted that among the students who sit for university exams, many do not score 40% which is a minimum score for students to progress to the next level. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases scoring below 40%, which is a very high failure rate. This failure rate prohibits students from graduating. it is worth finding out the cause of this failure rate. This study was carried out to find out if distance learners had a problem managing their time given the demands of the same among competing ends. An effort was also made to find out if this problem had an effect on their academic performance. From a total number of 4500 of students from the University of Nairobi in different levels of their B.Ed degrees, a sample of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique .Data was collected using a mixed mode method and analyzed using Pearson correlations. The findings indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic performance (r=0.569)
Key words : work study balance, distance education, time management, Academic performance

Connerley E;, Nathan I;, Schroeder L. Bangladesh Rural and Feeder Roads Sector Assessment.; 1989.
Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).

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