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C.K. M. The arrow poisons. Nairobi: E.A. Literature Bureau ; 1973.
C.K. M. "Management of infectious diseases in closed and semi closed communities." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14(1):1-2.
C.K. M. "Catha edulis. Epiemiologial studies on chewing patterns and habits." International Council in Alcohol and Addition. 1983;1(1):178-180.
C.K. M, Mungai NN. "Human Poisoning with Plants in Kenya." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(1):10-13.
C.K. 45. M. "Training of Pharmacists." Kenya J. Pharm.. 1978;1(1):19.
C.K. M, S. T. "Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Kenya." Kenya J. Sci and Tech . 1981;2(1):35-37.
C.K. M. "The need for a poison information centre in Kenya." East Afr Med J. . 1983;60(9):597-8.
C.K. M. "Poisoning Pattern." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2012;15(2):27-28.
C.K. K, D.S. F, C.W. L, M.M. J. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern.in Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;1(3):65-72.
C.K. M. "Utilization of Drugs in Kenya in the 1980s." Kenya J. Pharm. P21-22. 1982;1(1):21-22.
C.K. M, S. T. Local plants with known medicinal value. Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) ; 1980.
C.M K, I.W M, L.M N, P.W K. TFD 301: Sociology of Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi-ODEL; 2011.
C.M K, I.W M. Social Problems and Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi-ODEL; 2012.
C.M. MM; GR;WO; HG &. "Relationship between Age Diversity and Employee Performance of Public Universities in Western Kenya. ." International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences . 2018;8(11).
C.M. G, A. L, E. O, H.J. K. "Factors Influencing Lecturer;s Participation in Distance Education: The Case of University of Nairobi." The Fountain: Journal of School of Education, University of Nairobi. 2009;1(3):47-66.abstract_-_lecturers_participation_in_de.pdf
C.O.N K, perspective R(E) ARC. Aids: ignorance or overwhelming drive. Nairobi: USIU; 2000.
C.O.N K, Anne N. Chosing a Spouse. In Kassim A (2005) True Love Waits(Eds). Nairobi: BARA manual ; 2005.
C.O.N. K. "The influence career Interest has on academic performance." school magazine (1993).
C.O.N. K. "College student’s views about purported male chauvinism." The Fountain. . 2010;Journal of Education(University of Nairobi).
C.P.K. Basalirwa, L.J. Ogallo MF. "The Design of a Regional Minimum Raingauge Network." Water Resources Development. 1993;9(4):411-424.
C.S Ilovi, G.N Lule OIAOHM. "Correlation of WHO Clinical Staging with CD4 Counts in Adult HIV/AIDS Patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88(2):65-70. Abstract

Objective
To determine the degree of correlation between the WHO clinical staging and CD4 T cell counts in HIV/AIDS adults at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi
Design
Cross Sectional Study
Setting
Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi
Subjects
One hundred and fifty two newly diagnosed HIV patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were first staged using the 2005 WHO clinical staging and then blood drawn for CD4 cell count.
Results
The mean age in the study was 35 years, with females comprising 52.6% 0f the study group. The mean CD4 counts were 455, 420, 203, and 92 for WHO stage 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. The sensitivity of the WHO clinical staging to predict CD4 of >350cells/uL was 63% with a specificity of 82%. The most common HIV clinical events were bacterial infections (33%), severe weight loss (28%) and tuberculosis (27%).
Conclusions
There was correlation between the WHO clinical staging and expected CD4T-cell count. However the sensitivity was low and missed over a third of the patients in need of HAART. Majority of the patients presented in severe disease in need of HAART at the onset of their HIV diagnosis with 107(70.3%) of the patients with stage 3 or 4 disease and 114(75%) of patients with CD4 Counts of <350 cells/uL

C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo NLPNJ & M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;Vol. 13,:pp 11 to 27.
C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo, P.N Ndegwa, Lagerlof J, Gikungu M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;13:11-27.
C.W.Mbuli, Waqo E, Owiti PO, Tweya H, Kizito W, Edwards JK, Takarinda KC, Ogutu O. "Trends of reported outpatient malaria cases To assess The Test, Treat and Track (T3) policy in Kenya ." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
CA Omwandho, SE Gruessner FMAGT-OHRTTKRJE. " Immunoglobulin G bound to ovine placenta is eluted by surgical cannulation and acid perfusion in situ.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9):468-72.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To elute placental bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) in situ. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department, The University of Newcastle Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Twelve pregnant ewes 10 to 15 days before the onset of natural parturition. RESULTS: Placental eluates were rich in IgG, and IgG2. The relative molecular weight of placental IgG was estimated at 158kDa by gel filtration chromatography. Analysis of eluate by SDS PAGE revealed the heavy and light chains of IgG at 57 and 27kDa respectively together giving a relative molecular weight of 168kDa. CONCLUSION: Placental bound IgG may be crucial in immunology of pregnancy and together with the cognate antigen thereof may be useful as models for the study of maternal-fetal interaction in human pregnancy and in the development of experimental immunotherapy to immunologically compromised pregnancies in humans and livestock.

Calatayud PA, Okuku G, Musyoka B, Khadioli N, Ong’amo G. "Busseola segeta, a Potential New Pest of Maize in Western Kenya." ENTOMOLOGY, ORNITHOLOGY & HERPETOLOGY. 2014;3:132.
Calatayud PA, Silvain JF, Branca A, Dupas S, Gigot G, Ong'amo G, LeRu B, Campagne P, Sezonlin M, Faure N. "Phylogeography in continuous space: coupling species distribution models and circuit theory to assess the effect of contiguous migration at different climatic periods on ….". 2014.
Calatayud P-A, Njuguna E, Mwalusepo S, Gathara M, Okuku G, Kibe A, B M, Williamson D, Ong’amo G, Juma G, Johansson T, Subramanian S, Gatebe E, BP LR. "Can climate-driven change influence silicon assimilation by cereals and hence the distribution of lepidopteran stem borers in East Africa? ." AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT. 2016;224:95-103.
Calder JF, Wasunna AE. "Diverticular disease of the colon in Kenyan Africans." East Afr Med J. 1978;55(12):579-81.
Calva E, Puente JL, Calva JJ. "Research opportunities in typhoid fever: epidemiology and molecular biology." Bioessays. 1988;9(5):173-7.
Camargo; Viana, JHM; Okeyo AM, Muasa B;, Mutembei HM;, Tsuma VT;, Origa RA;, Camargo; Viana JHM;. In vitro embryo production using Boran (Bos indicus) oocytes in Kenya.; 2011.Website
Cames C, Cournil A, de Vincenzi I, Gaillard P, Meda N, Luchters S, Ruth Nduati, Naidu K, Newell M-L, Read JS, Bork K. "Postpartum weight change among HIV-infected mothers by antiretroviral prophylaxis and infant feeding modality in a research setting." AIDS. 2014;28(1):85-94. Abstract

To assess the relationship between infant feeding, triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis and weight from 2 weeks (baseline) to 6 months postpartum among HIV-infected mothers in a mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-prevention trial in five sub-Saharan African sites.

Campbell MS, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Celum C, Wong KG, Raugi DN, Sorensen S, Stoddard JN, Zhao H, Deng W, Kahle E, Panteleeff D, Baeten JM, McCutchan FE, Albert J, Leitner T, Wald A, Corey L, Lingappa JR. "Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(3):e16986. Abstract

Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.

Campbell KA, Lipinski MJ, Doran AC, Skaflen MD, Fuster V, McNamara CA. "Lymphocytes and the adventitial immune response in atherosclerosis." Circulation research. 2012;110:889-900. Abstract

Although much of the research on atherosclerosis has focused on the intimal accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells, there is an increasing amount of interest in the role of the adventitia in coordinating the immune response in atherosclerosis. In this review of the contributions of the adventitia and adventitial lymphocytes to the development of atherosclerosis, we discuss recent research on the formation and structural nature of adventitial immune aggregates, potential mechanisms of crosstalk between the intima, media, and adventitia, specific contributions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, and the role of the vasa vasorum and surrounding perivascular adipose tissue. Furthermore, we highlight techniques for the imaging of lymphocytes in the vasculature.

Campbell MS, Kahle EM, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Kapiga S, Mujugira A, Mugo NR, Fife KH, Mullins JI, Baeten JM. "Plasma viral loads during early HIV-1 infection are similar in subtype C- and non-subtype C-infected African seroconverters." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(7):1166-70. Abstract

Recent data suggest that infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C results in prolonged high-level viremia (>5 log10 copies/mL) during early infection. We examined the relationship between HIV-1 subtype and plasma viremia among 153 African seroconverters. Mean setpoint viral loads were similar for C and non-C subtypes: 4.36 vs 4.42 log10 copies/mL (P = .61). The proportion of subtype C-infected participants with viral loads >5 log10 copies/mL was not greater than the proportion for those with non-C infection. Our data do not support the hypothesis that higher early viral load accounts for the rapid spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa.

Campisano CJ, Cohen A, Asrat A, Feibel C, Kingston J, Lamb H, Olago D, Owen R, Renaut R, Schabitz F. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) drilling campaigns: the trials and triumphs of trying the unique and new." 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia. 2014. AbstractFull Text Link

Between the summers of 2013 and 2014, the HSPDP successfully completed 4 of its 5 drilling campaigns. To date, >1,200m of core has been collected with the final site at Chew Bahir, Ethiopia scheduled for the end of 2014. The initial core description and sampling have been completed on all but the Magadi cores. Despite the challenges associated with a large-scale multinational project, we have accomplished our goal of collecting lacustrine dominated cores proximate to key paleoanthropological sites. Challenges included the availability/import of suitable drill rigs and equipment in country, long supply lines in remote areas, challenging lithologies for coring and recovery, and interpretation of geophysical data. At our oldest site, 600m of Pliocene-age core was collected from 3 boreholes at 2 sites in the northern Awash, Ethiopia. This resulted in a composite depth of ~285m with significant overlap between cores and >96% core recovery. Several unexpectedly thick basalts not originally identified in seismic surveys were interbedded with lake sediments. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target of 500m when rehydrated clays made advancing impractical and work in progress will determine how much of the 2.9-3.8Ma target interval was recovered. A single 228m borehole with ~95% core recovery was drilled at the Plio-Pleistocene Tugen Hills, Kenya location. Just shy of our 250m target depth, preliminary comparisons with outcrop records suggest that this core may cover a time interval of ~2.5-3.45Ma, longer than our original target of 2.5-3.1Ma. A single 216m borehole with ~93% core recovery was drilled at the early Pleistocene West Turkana, Kenya location. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target depth of 350m due to complications likely associated with penetrating a hydrothermal fracture system. Nonetheless, tephrostratigraphic data indicates that the core covers our original target interval of ~1.45-2.0Ma. Recently, 202m of modern to Middle Pleistocene core was collected from 4 boreholes at 2 sites at Lake Magadi, Kenya. Challenging lithologies to core/collect (e.g., trona, chert) resulted in core recovery of 55-60%. Contact with the basement trachyte (~800 ka) at each site occurred at 137m and 197m, respectively, shallower than original estimates from low-resolution geophysical surveys.

Cang J, Kalatsky VA, Löwel S, Stryker MP. "Optical imaging of the intrinsic signal as a measure of cortical plasticity in the mouse." Visual neuroscience. 2005;22:685-691. Abstract

The responses of cells in the visual cortex to stimulation of the two eyes changes dramatically following a period of monocular visual deprivation (MD) during a critical period in early life. This phenomenon, referred to as ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, is a widespread model for understanding cortical plasticity. In this study, we designed stimulus patterns and quantification methods to analyze OD in the mouse visual cortex using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Using periodically drifting bars restricted to the binocular portion of the visual field, we obtained cortical maps for both contralateral (C) and ipsilateral (I) eyes and computed OD maps as (C - I)/(C + I). We defined the OD index (ODI) for individual animals as the mean of the OD map. The ODI obtained from an imaging session of less than 30 min gives reliable measures of OD for both normal and monocularly deprived mice under Nembutal anesthesia. Surprisingly, urethane anesthesia, which yields excellent topographic maps, did not produce consistent OD findings. Normal Nembutal-anesthetized mice have positive ODI (0.22 +/- 0.01), confirming a contralateral bias in the binocular zone. For mice monocularly deprived during the critical period, the ODI of the cortex contralateral to the deprived eye shifted negatively towards the nondeprived, ipsilateral eye (ODI after 2-day MD: 0.12 +/- 0.02, 4-day: 0.03 +/- 0.03, and 6- to 7-day MD: -0.01 +/- 0.04). The ODI shift induced by 4-day MD appeared to be near maximal, consistent with previous findings using single-unit recordings. We have thus established optical imaging of intrinsic signals as a fast and reliable screening method to study OD plasticity in the mouse.

Cang J, Kalatsky VA, Löwel S, Stryker MP. "Optical imaging of the intrinsic signal as a measure of cortical plasticity in the mouse." Visual neuroscience. 2005;22:685-691. Abstract

The responses of cells in the visual cortex to stimulation of the two eyes changes dramatically following a period of monocular visual deprivation (MD) during a critical period in early life. This phenomenon, referred to as ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, is a widespread model for understanding cortical plasticity. In this study, we designed stimulus patterns and quantification methods to analyze OD in the mouse visual cortex using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Using periodically drifting bars restricted to the binocular portion of the visual field, we obtained cortical maps for both contralateral (C) and ipsilateral (I) eyes and computed OD maps as (C - I)/(C + I). We defined the OD index (ODI) for individual animals as the mean of the OD map. The ODI obtained from an imaging session of less than 30 min gives reliable measures of OD for both normal and monocularly deprived mice under Nembutal anesthesia. Surprisingly, urethane anesthesia, which yields excellent topographic maps, did not produce consistent OD findings. Normal Nembutal-anesthetized mice have positive ODI (0.22 +/- 0.01), confirming a contralateral bias in the binocular zone. For mice monocularly deprived during the critical period, the ODI of the cortex contralateral to the deprived eye shifted negatively towards the nondeprived, ipsilateral eye (ODI after 2-day MD: 0.12 +/- 0.02, 4-day: 0.03 +/- 0.03, and 6- to 7-day MD: -0.01 +/- 0.04). The ODI shift induced by 4-day MD appeared to be near maximal, consistent with previous findings using single-unit recordings. We have thus established optical imaging of intrinsic signals as a fast and reliable screening method to study OD plasticity in the mouse.

CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. (2002): The concept of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure: An African Perspective, Paper Published in Geospatial Today, Vol.1(1), May/June 2002, pp. 13.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G. C.(1993): Surveying Education in the year 2000 and beyond, Paper Published in The Kenya Surveyor, Vol.3, No. 2, March 1993.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C.(2003): Capacity Building In Kenya To Meet The Challenges Of The 21st Century In Surveying And Mapping, Paper presented at the Symposium in Commemoration of the Survey of Kenya Centenary, Nairobi, Kenya, 8th October, 2003.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku. G.C. and McLaughlin, J.D. (1996): Concepts for Improving property mapping in Kenya, Paper Published in The South African Journal of Surveying and Mapping, Vol. 23, No. 10, April, 1996,pp 211-216 [ISSN 1023-5302].". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 1996. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Kiema, J.B., Karanja, F.N. and Mulaku G.C. (2004): From Surveying to Geospatial Engineering: Proposal for new degree programmes at the University of Nairobi: Paper presented at the 5th African Association of Remote Sensing of the Environment (AARSE) Confe.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. (1998): Setting up a LIS: A Systematic approach, Paper Published in the South African Journal of Surveying and Geo-information, vol.1, No. 5 & 6, August & December 2000, pp 260-264 [ISSN 1561-4026.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 1998. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G. C. (2001): Land Information Systems: An overview, Paper presented at the Kenya Institute of Surveying and Mapping seminar on Land information systems , 26th July 2001 , Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2001. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO, KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS, KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "GIS for highway engineering in developing countries.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. and Kariuki, L.W.: Mapping air pollution in Nairobi, Kenya, Paper Published in the African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, Vol. 4(1), pp. 29.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. (1992): Establishing of GIS Capability at the Ministry of Reclamation and Development of Arid and Semi-Arid areas and Wastelands, Institutional issues, Publication of the World Bank ASAL Team, Nairobi Kenya.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. (2003): Characteristics of Geospatial data, Paper Presented at the JICA Workshop on the application of Geospatial information and GIS, 19th March 2003, JKUAT, Juja, Kenya.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G. C. (1996): Land Information Management in East Africa: An integrated approach. In Proceedings of the CASTLE/ISK regional seminar, NAIROBI, Kenya, July 23.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 1996. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. and Siriba D.N.(2004): Building Geospatial Data for Multiple Purpose Applications: The Role of Standards, Paper Presented for presentation at the African Association of Remote Sensing of the Environment(AARSE) Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, Octo.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. (1997): Land Information Management in Kenya: An integrated approach, Paper Published in the ITC Journal 1997-3/4,CD annex [ISSN 0303-2434].". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 1997. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO, KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS, KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "GIS for highway engineering in developing countries.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. (2000): In search of an appropriate land tenure model for pastoral communities, Paper published in The African Pastoral Forum, September 2000, 27pp. [ISSN 1021.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2000. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. (2002): GIS data exchange and standards: Paper presented at the Kenya Institute of Surveying and Mapping international course on Geographic Information Systems, 13th August 2002, Nairobi , Kenya.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G. C.(1992): GIS Education in Kenya, In Proceedings of Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, National GIS Conference, Nairobi March 1992.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. Survey Review; 1992. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. and Wakoli, P.C. (2002): After Disaster: The role of surveying in the Assessment of building structural integrity, Paper Published in the Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT, vol. 7, pp. 125 - 136 [ISSN 1562.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G. C. (1996): Cadastral Survey integration for GIS, In Proceedings of the Conference on the application of remotely sensed data and Geographical Systems in Environmental and Natural Resources Assessment in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, March 15- 22, l.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. Survey Review; 1995. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. (2004): The Role of a Professional GIS Association in Kenya: Keynote Paper Presented at the Kenya ESRI supported GIS User Group Symposium, University of Nairobi, Kenya, August 21, 2004.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G. C. and Lodwick, G. D. (1987): Map data digitizing and Automatic Hydrological Network Reconstruction, Paper Presented at the International Geographic Information Systems (IGIS) Symposium, Crystal city, USA.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 1997. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. (2004): Accurate mapping: The first step to better spatial information Management by African utilities, Paper Published in the African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.5, no. 2, June 2004.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku G.C. (2000): Education and Training of Survey Professionals in a Technologically Changing World: The case of Kenya. Paper Published in the book, Land Survey and large Scale Mapping in Sub-Saharan Africa, by UN - Habitat, pp.100-107[ISBN 92-1-131 46.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2000. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Mulaku, G.C. (2002): Potential application of space technology to landslide study and management in Kenya, Paper Presented at the United Nations Workshop on the use of space technology for disaster management for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, research and practice Vol.1 Number 1 PP 75-88,. Survey Review; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Caprotti, O. N'ang'a SW & M. Multilingual technology for teaching mathematics.; 2005. Abstract
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CAREN MISSANGIMA. "Pension Schemes in Kenya.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Carey E;, Gichuki ST;, Oynuga MA;, Imungi JK. "Replacing pills with sweet potatoes to combat Vitamin A deficiency."; 1998.
Carl JL, Julius O, Nancy K. "Anchored vs. relative best–worst scaling and latent class vs. hierarchical Bayesian analysis of best–worst choice data: Investigating the importance of food quality attributes in a developing country.". 2012. Abstract

Applying best–worst (BW) scaling to a multifaceted feature, e.g. food quality, is challenging as attribute non-attendance or lack of attribute discrimination risks invalidating the transformation of choice data to unidimensional scale. The relativism of BW scaling also typically prevents distinction of respondents or groups of respondents based on similarities to the study object. A dual-response BW scaling method employed here to obtain an anchored scale allowed comparisons of importance ratings across individuals. Attribute importance ratings and rankings obtained were compared with those from relative BW scaling. Latent class (LC) and hierarchical Bayesian (HB) analyses of individual specific BW choice data were also compared for ability to consider within- and between-respondent choice heterogeneity. Personal interviews with 449 consumers provided data on the importance of 16 food quality attributes of kale produced in peri-urban farming in Kenya. Major findings were that the anchoring model improved individual choice predictions compared with conventional relativistic BW scaling, i.e. was more reliable in measuring consumer preferences, and that HB analysis fitted the data better than LC analysis. HB analysis also successfully obtained individual parameter estimates from sparse data and is thus a promising tool for analysis of BW choices in sensory and consumer-orientated research.

Carles, A.B.;, Gachuiri CK;, Schwartz HJ. "''A Comparison Of Goat Mortality In Two Pastoral Herds In Northern Kenya''."; 1988.
Carles, A.B.;, Gachuiri CK;, Schwartz HJ. "Comparison Of Goat Mortality Of Two Herds At Rendille And Isiolo."; 1987.
Carlet J, Ali AB, Chalfine A. "Epidemiology and control of antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit." Current opinion in infectious diseases. 2004;17:309-316. AbstractWebsite
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Carman NJ, Dossaji SF, Mabry TJ. "A populational survey of amino acids in Propsopis species from North and south America." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1974;2:73-74. Abstract

Leaf extracts of 540 plants representing 24 species of the genus Prosopis from North and South America were analyzed by 2-D PC and high voltage electrophoresis for their protein and non-protein amino acids. In addition to the presence of the usual protein amino acids, most of the species examined contained high concentrations of the non-protein amino acids, pipecolic acid, 4-hydroxypipecolic acid and proline.

CAROLE MRSATIENOMIRIAM. "Wagoro (1998), Community Mental Health Nursing;.". In: in Ndetei et al Clinical psychiatry in African context Nairobi. AMREF. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which is often under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of the variability of the clinical signs and symptoms. The imaging findings are often subtle thus the need for a high index of suspicion. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses are the most frequently involved. The correct diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis relies on neuroimaging studies. The two cases reported highlight the fact that the radiologist may be the first clinician to suspect and diagnose this condition. This ultimately affects prognosis as early diagnosis and treatment reduces morbidity and mortality.
CAROLINE MUTAI. "VERS UNE NOUVELLE APPROCHE DE L." OURNAL ON RESEARCH ON FRENCH TEACHING IN EASTERN AFRICA: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES; 2006. Abstract
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CAROLINE MUTAI. "L." KENYATTA UNIVERSITY; 2008. Abstract
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CAROLINE MSMUTAI. "RESEARCH OF FRENCH TEACHING IN EASTERN AFRICA "Opportunities and Challenges".". In: Published by United States International University. EAMJ; 2006.
Carolyne Musyoki Minoo, Ngugi CC, Oyoo-Okoth E, Muthumbi A, Sigana D, Mulwa R, Chemoiwa EJ. "Monitoring the effects of aquaculture effluents on benthic macroinvertebrate populations and functional feeding responses in a tropical highland headwater stream (Kenya)." Aquatic ecosystem health & management. 2016;19(4):431-440.
van den Carrin, G; James ADEHHKKKKC; M; O;. "Health financing reform in Kenya - assessing the social health insurance proposal.". 2007. Abstracthealth_financing_reform_in_kenya_-_assessing_the_social__health_insurance_proposal.pdf

Kenya has had a history of health financing policy changes since its independence in 1963. Recently, significant preparatory work was done on a new Social Health Insurance Law that, if accepted, would lead to universal health coverage in Kenya after a transition period. Questions of economic feasibility and political acceptability continue to be discussed, with stakeholders voicing concerns on design features of the new proposal submitted to the Kenyan parliament in 2004. For economic, social, political and organisational reasons a transition period will be necessary, which is likely to last more than a decade. However, important objectives such as access to health care and avoiding impoverishment due to direct health care payments should be recognised from the start so that steady progress towards effective universal coverage can be planned and achieved.

Carter JY, ole Kiu JMN. "Complicated pregnancy: Clinicians guide to Quality outpatient diagnosis.". In: Clinicians' guide to quality Outpatient diagnosis an manual for eastern Africa. Nairobi: AMREF; 2005.
Casals-Pascual, C HL-LTKNR; H; S. "Hepcidin demonstrates a biphasic association with anemia in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria.". 2012. Abstractabstract4.pdf

Hepcidin levels are high and iron absorption is limited in acute malaria. The mechanism(s) that regulate hepcidin secretion remain undefined. We have measured hepcidin concentration and cytokines in 100 Kenyan children with acute falciparum malaria and different degrees of anemia. Hepcidin was increased on admission and fell significantly one week and one month after treatment. The association of hepcidin with hemoglobin was not linear and hepcidin was very low in severe malarial anemia. Parasite density, IL-10 and IL-6 were significantly associated with hepcidin concentration. Hepcidin response to acute malaria supports the notion of iron sequestration during acute malaria infection and suggests that iron administration during acute malaria is futile. These data suggest iron supplementation policies should take into account the high hepcidin levels and probable poor utilization of iron for up to one week after treatment for the majority of patients with acute malaria.

Casmir EN, Ondicho TG, Ongolly FK. "HIV and AIDS in Kenya: Forty Years Later." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies (JAIS). 2018;2(5):91-100.hiv__aids_in_kenya_fourty_years_later.pdf
Casper, O. NHW, Mutsotso BM. "Masters of Survival." Nairobi, Basic Books Kenya Limited; 1994. Abstract
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Cassandra Olds, Mwaura S, Crowder D, Odongo D, van Oers M, Owen J, Bishop R, Daubenberger C. "Immunization of cattle with Ra86 impedes Rhipicephalus appendiculatus nymphal-to-adult molting ." Tick and Tick-Borne Diseases . 2012;3(3):170-8.
Cassatt JC, Marini CP, Bender JW. "The reversible reduction of horse metmyoglobin by the iron(II) complex of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N,n-tetraacetate." Biochemistry. 1975;14(25):5470-5. Abstract

The reduction of metmyoglobin by the iron(II) complex of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetate (FeCDTA2-) has been investigated. The equilibrium constant, measured spectrophotometrically, is 0.21 with a resulting reduction potential of 0.050 V for Mb0. The rate constant for the reduction is 28 M-1 sec-1 with a deltaH ++ of 13 kcal M-1 and deltaS ++ of -11 eu. Both CN- and OH- inhibit the reduction because of the relatively low reactivity of cyanometmyoglobin (Mb+CN-) and ionized metmyglobin (Mb+OH-). The rate constant for the reduction of Mb+CN- by FeCDTA2- is 4.0 X 10(-2) M-1 sec-1 and that for reduction of Mb+OH- is 4.8 M-1 sec-1. The nitric oxide complex of metmyoglobin is reduced with a rate constant of 10 M-1 sec-1. The kinetics of oxidation of oxymyoglobin by FeCDTA- were studied. The data are consistent with a mechanism where oxidation takes place entirely through the deoxy form. A rate constant of 1.45 X 10(2) M-1 sec-1 was calculated for the oxidation of deoxymyoglobin by FeCDTA-, in equilibrium constant and rate constant for reduction. The above data are discussed in terms of a simple outer-sphere reduction reaction.

de Casso MC, Lewis NJ, Rapado F. "Lymphangioma presenting as a neck mass in the adult." International journal of clinical practice. 2001;55:337-338. AbstractWebsite
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Casteels K, Beckers D, Wouters C, Van Geet C. "Rhabdomyolysis in diabetic ketoacidosis." Pediatric Diabetes. 2003;4:29-31. Abstract

Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially lethal disorder, characterized by elevated serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) due to skeletal muscle injury. In this paper a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is reported who developed rhabdomyolysis (maximum CK level, 37,700 U/L; normal, {\textless} 170 U/L), anemia (6.2 g/dL) and thrombocytopenia (16,000/microL). This combination of rhabdomyolysis with anemia and thrombocytopenia has not yet been reported in DKA. The pathogenic mechanism leading to rhabdomyolysis in DKA remains unsettled. From the literature it seems that those patients who develop rhabdomyolysis have very high glucose levels and a high osmolality on admission. Low phosphate levels can play a role as well. The etiology of anemia and thrombocytopenia in our patient remains obscure. Intravascular hemolysis could not be demonstrated but intramedullar hemolysis, due to osmolar shift or hypophosphatemia, cannot be excluded. A review of the literature data revealed that rhabdomyolysis is not so uncommon in DKA. However, to obtain incidence data in children, prospective studies are necessary.

Castiello M, Innocente S, Wamalwa K, Munyua SJM, Matete G, Njue S. "Sustainable Livelihood: Potential Role and Quality Assurance of Camel Export Trade in Somalia.". 2011. Abstract

Increasing market integration is an unavoidable process for most pastoral societies. The livestock sector which accounts for about 80% of Somalia’s GDP plays a significant role in food security and socio-economic development of pastoral societies relying on enhanced market integration of local livelihoods and globalization of the economy. An estimated 70,000 camels are exported annually contributing substantially to the 80% of livestock exports in normal years. These exports have, in the past, been hit by recurrent trade bans by Somalia’s major livestock importing countries in the Middle East on suspicion of the presence of transboundary animal diseases. Primary and secondary data collection was carried out through field visitation and interviews of the relevant stakeholders using pretested questionnaire. Support measures put in place by donors and international agencies, including FAO Somalia, which included capacity building, support to existing veterinary institutions; disease surveillance, livestock treatments, vaccinations, fodder and pasture establishment and conservation and establishment of water catchments have gone a long way to ensure sustainable camel export trade. According to Bosasso port veterinary officer, there has been a steady increase in camel exports since livestock trade ban was lifted by KSA in October, 2009. This is essential if regions of Somalia are to achieve self reliance at national level and improve household food and economic security, to accelerate reduction in poverty levels and nutritional security.

Catherine N. "On the efficiency of testing procedures in the linear model for multivariate longitudinal data.". 2011. AbstractOn the efficiency of testing procedures in the linear model for multivariate longitudinal data

Multivariate data collected over time on the same experimental unit, referred to as multivariate longitudinal data, are typical of many agricultural, biological, clinical and medical studies. One way to account for the correlations that exist both within and across time is to express the variance-covariance matrix as the Kroneeker product of two matrices. These matrices, denoted by [Delta] and [Omega], reflect the characteristic and time dimensions underlying multivariate longitudinal data. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the asymptotic relative efficiency (ARE) of hypothesis tests in the linear model for multivariate longitudinal data, evaluated through the trace asymptotic relative efficiency (TARE) and curvature asymptotic relative efficiency (CARE). The gain in efficiency from exploiting a Kronecker product covariance structure when it is appropriate is investigated. To estimate the TARE and CARE, a Monte-carlo simulation study is conducted. The loss of efficiency from imposing a Kronecker product model when it is not appropriate is also considered. Using a class of non-Kroneeker product covariance matrices and an index, which quantifies how far a given matrix departs from Kronecker product structure, a Monte-carlo simulation study is conducted. Ordinary least squares and generalised least squares procedures were also compared under a Kronecker product model. For the designs and covariance matrices considered, the gain in efficiency from exploiting the Kronecker product covariance structure is most pronounced when there is high correlation across time. For the class of non-Kronecker product covariance matrices defined, a noticeable loss of efficiency occurs when the covariance matrix is far from Kronecker product structure, in particular when there is a moderate departure from the null hypothesis under consideration. The use of ordinary least squares, which ignores cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations, is shown to be inefficient, especially when these correlations are high in absolute value

Cavaillon JM, Udupa TN, Chou CT, Cinader B, Haeffner-Cavaillon N, Dubiski S. "Rabbit B spleen lymphocytes and T helper cells. I. Responsiveness to mitogens of B cell subpopulations of different sedimentation velocities and subpopulations bearing or lacking Fcgamma receptors." J. Immunol.. 1979;123(5):2231-8. Abstract

The response to anti-allotype (anti-Ab4), Nocardia Water Soluble Mitogen (NWSM), pneumococcal polysaccharide type III (SSS III), and human Fc fragments of various purified and unfractionated rabbit spleen cell populations was determined in terms of 3H-thymidine up-take. B cells were isolated either from untreated suspensions of spleen cells or from suspensions from which adherent and phagocytic cells were removed. The purification factor was greater than the enhancement of 3H-thymidine uptake by anti-Ab4, NWSM, and SSS III as compared with the response of unfractionated spleen cells. It thus appears that a helper cell was involved: the mitogen response of purified B cells was enhanced by the addition of T cells. B subpopulations were separated by sedimentation or by rosetting, which allowed us to separate Fcgamma receptor-bearing cells from cells that did not possess this receptor. There were differences between cells responding to B mitogens not only in sedimentation velocity but also in the absolute number of cells. B cells bearing the Fcgamma receptor were less responsive to anti-Ab4 and more responsive to SSS III, NWSM, and human Fc than were B cells lacking the Fcgamma receptor.

CAXTON MRNYAHELA. "Published an Article entitled "EPICURUNISM".". In: In the Kenya Journal of Adult Education. Wiley Interscience; 2002. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Stivanello E, Cavailler P, Cassano F, Omar SA, Kariuki D, Mwangi J, Piola P, Guthmann JP. Efficacy of chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kajo Keji county, Sudan.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Sep;9(9):975-80. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Medecins Sans Frontieres, Geneva, Switzerland. elisasti@tin.it To provide advice on the rational use of antimalarial drugs, Medecins Sans Frontieres conducted a randomized, an open label efficacy study in Kajo Keji, an area of high transmission of malaria in southern Sudan. The efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) were measured in a 28-day in vivo study, with results corrected by PCR genotyping. Of 2010 children screened, 115 children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized into each group to receive a supervised course of treatment. Of these, 114, 103 and 111 were analysed in the CQ, SP and AQ groups, respectively. The overall parasitological failure rates at day 28 were 93.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 87.3-97.3] for CQ, 69.9% (95% CI 60.0-78.3) for SP, and 25.2% (95% CI 17.7-34.5) for AQ. These results provide important missing data on antimalarial drug efficacy in southern Sudan. They indicate that none of the drugs could be used in monotherapy and suggest that even in combination with artemisinin, cure rates might not be efficacious enough. We recommend a combination of artemether and lumefantrine as first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria cases in Kajo Keji county.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Wellde BT, Chumo DA, Reardon MJ, Mwangi J, Asenti A, Mbwabi D, Abinya A, Wanyama L, Smith DH.Presenting features of Rhodesian sleeping sickness patients in the Lambwe Valley, Kenya. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989 Aug;83 Suppl 1:73-89.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1989. Abstract
During a recent outbreak of Rhodesian sleeping sickness in the Lambwe Valley no asymptomatic Rhodesian sleeping sickness patients were found although 54% of the primary patients had mild symptoms and 9% were stuporous or comatose at presentation. The duration of symptoms was three months or less in 90% of the patients. Headache, weakness, joint and back pains and weight loss were claimed by at least 75% of the patients, while 82% of the females reported amenorrhoea and 70% of the males claimed impotency. Physical examination revealed lymphadenopathy in 86% but fever in only 36% of the patients, while chancres were found in only 16%. Patients had significantly lower levels of haemoglobin and thrombocytes than controls and their erythrocyte sedimentation rates were elevated. A comparison of both blood group and haemoglobin type between patients and controls yielded no significant differences. Fifty-seven per cent of the primary patients reporting mild symptoms had abnormal levels of leucocytes in their CSF. All relapse patients had abnormal CSF parameters. Levels of serum urea nitrogen were significantly elevated in patients, but SGOT, SGPT and total bilirubin were not. Levels of albumin and beta-globulin in patients were significantly lower than controls while gamma-globulin was elevated. Mean serum IgM levels in patients were elevated to nearly three-fold those of controls, but 35% of the individual patient values fell within the 95% range of control values. Some patients had extended prothrombin and thrombin times while fibrinogen levels were significantly elevated. No patients reported haemorrhage, and none was seen.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Khamadi SA, Ochieng W, Lihana RW, Kinyua J, Muriuki J, Mwangi J, Lwembe R, Kiptoo M, Osman S, Lagat N, Pelle R, Muigai A, Carter JY, Oishi I, Ichimura H, Mwaniki DL, Okoth FA, Mpoke S, Songok EM. HIV type 1 subtypes in circulation in northern Kenya.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Sep;21(9):810-4. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. skhamadi@nairobi.mimcom.net The genetic subtypes of HIV-1 circulating in northern Kenya have not been characterized. Here we report the partial sequencing and analysis of samples collected in the years 2003 and 2004 from 72 HIV-1-positive patients in northern Kenya, which borders Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. From the analysis of partial env sequences, it was determined that 50% were subtype A, 39% subtype C, and 11% subtype D. This shows that in the northern border region of Kenya subtypes A and C are the dominant HIV-1 subtypes in circulation. Ethiopia is dominated mainly by HIV-1 subtype C, which incidentally is the dominant subtype in the town of Moyale, which borders Ethiopia. These results show that cross-border movements play an important role in the circulation of subtypes in Northern Kenya.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Mwangi J. Blood group distribution in an urban population of patient targeted blood donors. East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1999. Abstract

Participatory Approaches to Veterinary Epidemiology Project, Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods Programme, International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, UK. andy.catley@oau-ibar.org In southern Sudan, livestock keepers identified a chronic wasting disease in adult cattle as one of their most-serious animal-health problems. Participatory-appraisal (PA) methods and conventional veterinary-investigation methods were used to characterise the chronic wasting disease and identify linkages between indigenous knowledge and modern veterinary knowledge. The local characterisation of chronic wasting encompassed trypanosomosis, fasciolosis, parasitic gastroenteritis and schistosomosis (as both single and mixed infections).A standardised PA method called matrix scoring had good reproducibility when investigating local perceptions of disease-signs and disease causes. Comparison of matrix-scoring results showed much overlap with modern veterinary descriptions of cattle diseases and the results of conventional veterinary investigation. Applications of PA methods in remote areas with very limited veterinary infrastructure are discussed. The validation of data derived from PA is discussed by reference to the low sensitivity of 'field-friendly' diagnostic tests for important cattle diseases.

CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Mbaisi A, Liyala P, Eyase F, Achilla R, Akala H, Wangui J, Mwangi J, Osuna F, Alam U, Smoak BL, Davis JM, Kyle DE, Coldren RL, Mason C, Waters NC. Drug susceptibility and genetic evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum isolates obtained in four distinct geogr.". In: Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Sep;48(9):3598-601. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
U.S. Army Medical Research Unit, Nairobi, Kenya. The drug resistance profiles of Plasmodium falciparum isolated from four regions in Kenya were analyzed for drug resistance profiles. We observed variability in resistance to a broad range of antimalarial drugs across Kenya as determined from in vitro drug susceptibility screening and genotyping analysis.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Reardon MJ, Wellde BT, Muriithi RM, Chumo DA, Towett S, Mwangi J.Effectiveness of WR 163577 against animal trypanosomes in goats and mice. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989 Aug;83 Suppl 1:171-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1989. Abstract
A bisquinaldine, 1,6-bis-(6-amino-2-methyl-4-quinolylamino) hexane, was tested against Trypanosoma brucei ssp. in goats and against T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax in mice. At doses of 25 and 100 mg kg-1, the drug protected goats for at least 90 days against blood challenge with T. brucei ssp. Fifty to sixty per cent of goats challenged 180 days after treatment were protected, but all goats challenged 270 days after treatment became infected. In mice, bisquinaldine also had a marked effect on T. brucei, but only a minimal effect on T. vivax and no apparent effect on T. congolense. No drug toxicity was noted in mice even at doses of 2000 mg kg-1. Both a short-term (25 and 100 mg kg-1) and long term (100 mg kg-1) toxicity was apparent in goats treated with bisquinaldine.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Omar SA, Mens PF, Schoone GJ, Yusuf A, Mwangi J, Kaniaru S, Omer GA, Schallig HD. Plasmodium falciparum: evaluation of a quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay to predict the outcome of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment of uncompli.". In: Exp Parasitol. 2005 May;110(1):73-9. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Nairobi, Kenya. A quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) assay was employed to predict retrospectively the outcome of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children aged <6 years in an endemic region. Blood samples were collected at initial diagnosis and during follow-up. Mutation-specific nested PCR methods to analyse DHFR (Arg-59) and DHPS (Glu-540) mutations that are associated with SP drug resistance were applied. Parasite genotyping was performed to distinguish between re-infection and recrudescence. Eighty-six patients were recruited of which 66 were available for follow-up. Nine children were classified as early treatment failure, 13 cases were classified as late clinical failure, 32 as late parasitological failure, and only 12 children had an adequate clinical and parasitological response. DHFR and DHPS mutations conferring SP resistance were abundant in the Plasmodium population. Blood samples obtained 7 days after treatment were used to predict retrospectively the outcome of SP treatment. QT-NASBA was able to give a correct prediction of treatment outcome in 85.7% of the cases. Positive predictive value (PPV) of QT-NASBA case was 95% (95% confidence interval = 88.3-100) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 63% (95% CI = 39.5-86.5). In contrast, microscopy correctly predicted outcome in only 37.5% of the cases. PPV of microscopy was 100% (95% CI = 73.9-100) and the NPV was 25.5% (95% CI = 13.0-38.0). The analysis of a day 7 blood sample with QT-NASBA allows for the prediction of late clinical or parasitological treatment failure in the majority of the cases analysed in the present study. PMID: 15804381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH, DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Ndetei DM, Rono RC, Mwangi SW, Ototo B, Alaro J, Esakwa M, Mwangi J, Kamau A, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V.Psychological effects of the Nairobi US embassy bomb blast on pregnant women and their children.". In: World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. Psychometric properties of an African symptoms check list scale: the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2006. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. <br>DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. <br>SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. <br>SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. <br>RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Mwangi J, Gatei DG.Hepatitis B virus, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):34-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common malignancy in Kenyan males occurring with a peak incidence at 40 years of age. A worldwide correlation has been noted between the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and prevalence of hepatitis B virus. Liver biopsies with histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis and the normals were reviewed by the authors. They were then stained for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis e core antigen (HBcAg). Only 2.5% of normal livers were positive for HBsAg compared with 33% of HCC and 25% of cirrhosis respectively. Hepatitis core antigen was not demonstrated in normal liver biopsies but it was present in 11.5% of HCC and 14% of cirrhosis. Background cirrhosis was noted in 52% of biopsies showing HCC. It is clear that a causal association exists between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Higher antigen markers, up to 80% have been reported in South East Asia and India. This difference may be due to the type of biopsy examined (needle biopsy vs open biopsy) but the possibility that other factors such as aflatoxin and non A/non B hepatitis viruses play a more significant role in the causation of liver disease in Kenya than has previously been assumed should be explored.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Clark KA, Kataaha P, Mwangi J, Nyamongo J. Predonation testing of potential blood donors in resource-restricted settings.". In: Transfusion. 2005 Feb;45(2):130-2. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Nairobi, Kenya. A quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) assay was employed to predict retrospectively the outcome of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children aged <6 years in an endemic region. Blood samples were collected at initial diagnosis and during follow-up. Mutation-specific nested PCR methods to analyse DHFR (Arg-59) and DHPS (Glu-540) mutations that are associated with SP drug resistance were applied. Parasite genotyping was performed to distinguish between re-infection and recrudescence. Eighty-six patients were recruited of which 66 were available for follow-up. Nine children were classified as early treatment failure, 13 cases were classified as late clinical failure, 32 as late parasitological failure, and only 12 children had an adequate clinical and parasitological response. DHFR and DHPS mutations conferring SP resistance were abundant in the Plasmodium population. Blood samples obtained 7 days after treatment were used to predict retrospectively the outcome of SP treatment. QT-NASBA was able to give a correct prediction of treatment outcome in 85.7% of the cases. Positive predictive value (PPV) of QT-NASBA case was 95% (95% confidence interval = 88.3-100) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 63% (95% CI = 39.5-86.5). In contrast, microscopy correctly predicted outcome in only 37.5% of the cases. PPV of microscopy was 100% (95% CI = 73.9-100) and the NPV was 25.5% (95% CI = 13.0-38.0). The analysis of a day 7 blood sample with QT-NASBA allows for the prediction of late clinical or parasitological treatment failure in the majority of the cases analysed in the present study. PMID: 15804381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH, DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Ndetei DM, Rono RC, Mwangi SW, Ototo B, Alaro J, Esakwa M, Mwangi J, Kamau A, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V.Psychological effects of the Nairobi US embassy bomb blast on pregnant women and their children.". In: World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Catley A, Okoth S, Osman J, Fison T, Njiru Z, Mwangi J, Jones BA, Leyland TJ. Participatory diagnosis of a chronic wasting disease in cattle in southern Sudan.". In: Prev Vet Med. 2001 Oct 11;51(3-4):161-81. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2004. Abstract

Participatory Approaches to Veterinary Epidemiology Project, Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods Programme, International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, UK. andy.catley@oau-ibar.org In southern Sudan, livestock keepers identified a chronic wasting disease in adult cattle as one of their most-serious animal-health problems. Participatory-appraisal (PA) methods and conventional veterinary-investigation methods were used to characterise the chronic wasting disease and identify linkages between indigenous knowledge and modern veterinary knowledge. The local characterisation of chronic wasting encompassed trypanosomosis, fasciolosis, parasitic gastroenteritis and schistosomosis (as both single and mixed infections).A standardised PA method called matrix scoring had good reproducibility when investigating local perceptions of disease-signs and disease causes. Comparison of matrix-scoring results showed much overlap with modern veterinary descriptions of cattle diseases and the results of conventional veterinary investigation. Applications of PA methods in remote areas with very limited veterinary infrastructure are discussed. The validation of data derived from PA is discussed by reference to the low sensitivity of 'field-friendly' diagnostic tests for important cattle diseases.

Celestine M, Patricia K-M, Winfred K, Nancy B. Promoting the Human Rights of Women in Kenya: A Comparative Review of the Domestic Laws. Nairobi: UNIFEM; 2010.
Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

Celum C, Kiarie, J.W, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated
and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to
suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels,
suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction
in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the
occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010.Website
Cerda C;, Diafas J;, Barkmann J;, Mburu J;, Marggraf R. WTP or WTA, or Both? Experiences from Two Choice Experiments for Early Planning Stages. In: Meyerhoff J., N. Lienhoop and P. Elsasser, eds. State Preference Methods for Environmental Valuation: Applications from Germany and Austria.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

The optimised design of project alternatives is a main challenge for the early stage of any real-world planning process. For participatory conservation planning procedures as required, e.g., by the CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) Ecosystem Approach, it is essential to involve concerned stakeholders – and their values – as early as possible. We argue that the utilisation of choice experiments offers an attractive solution to the problem of an optimised design of project alternatives. In particular, we report experiences from two case studies employing choice experiments to generate policy advice. In both case studies, the necessity of dealing with the ambiguities of participatory planning processes led to the adoption of a payment vehicle format that includes WTP and WTA attribute levels. Like several other studies, we found evidence of WTP/WTA disparities that argue for reporting both values to stakeholders and administrators.

Cettomai D, Kwasa JK, Birbeck GL, Price RW, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kendi C, Meyer A-CL. "Screening for HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in resource-limited settings.". 2013. Abstract

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication of HIV but is widely under-diagnosed in resource-limited settings. We investigated the utility of screening tools administered by non-physician health care workers (HCW) and quantitative sensory testing (QST) administered by trained individuals for identification of moderate/severe neuropathy. METHODS We enrolled 240 HIV-infected outpatients using two-stage cluster randomized sampling. HCWs administered the several screening tools. Trained study staff performed QST. Tools were validated against a clinical diagnosis of neuropathy. RESULTS Participants were 65% women, mean age 36.4 years, median CD4 324 cells/μL. 65% were taking antiretrovirals, and 18% had moderate/severe neuropathy. The screening tests were 76% sensitive in diagnosing moderate/severe neuropathy with negative predictive values of 84-92%. QST was less sensitive but more specific. DISCUSSION Screening tests administered by HCW have excellent negative predictive values and are promising tools for scale-up in resource-limited settings. QST shows promise for research use. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cettomai D, Kwasa JK, Birbeck GL, Price RW, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kendi C, Meyer A-CL. "Screening for HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in resource-limited settings." Muscle Nerve. 2013;48(4):516-24. Abstract

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but is widely under-diagnosed in resource-limited settings. We investigated the utility of screening tools administered by nonphysician healthcare workers (HCW) and quantitative sensory testing (QST) administered by trained individuals for identification of moderate/severe neuropathy.

CF C, DS E, PE D, N H, BD R, LW I, H T. "Susceptibility of aposymbiotic Culex quinquefasciatus to Wuchereria bancrofti." Journal of invertebrate pathology. 1983;41(2):214-223. AbstractElsevier link

Larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus originating from Kenya were reared in 0.025 mg/ml tetracycline hydrochloride. Some of the resulting progeny were shown, by electron microscopy and crossing experiments, to have been rendered free of the rickettsia like symbiont Wolbachia pipientis and from these progeny, symbiont-free lines were established. In experimental feedings on infected human volunteers and on cryopreserved microfilariae, the aposymbiotic stocks were found to be fully susceptible to the filaria Wuchereria bancrofti. This contrasts with some recently published data on Aedes polynesiensis, from which it has been suggested that rickettsia like symbionts have an important role in the development of filaria in the mosquito.

Keywords
Culex quinquefasciatus; Wolbachia pipientis; Wuchereria bancrofti; electron microscopy; tetracycline treatment; aposymbiotic mosquitoes; filarial susceptibility; cryopreservation

CF Otieno, FW Mwendwa VENOEOAV. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12):173-179. Abstract

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts.

Objective: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications.

Results: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45(9.4) years and that of males was 55.83(9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85(6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98(5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol >4.2mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C >2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides >1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment.

Conclusion: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total - and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.

East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(12) 2005: S173-S179

CF Otieno CSIGOO, Genga EK, Otieno FO, Ilovi CS, Ilovi CS. "CF Otieno CF Otieno Clinical profiles of patients with osteoporosis in Nairobi."; 2015. Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis, a chronic, progressive disease of multifactorial aetiology and one of the most common metabolic bone diseases worldwide. Despite ample sunshine, the Middle East and Africa register the highest rates of rickets worldwide. Low levels of vitamin D are prevalent throughout the region. There is a paucity of data on osteoporosis in Africa as it’s generally thought not to affect the non Caucasian population. We sought to describe the population with osteoporosis in a Nairobi rheumatology clinic. Objective : This study sets out to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with osteoporosis seen at a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi. Methods : This was a cross-sectional study done on patients with the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of osteoporosis of a T-score of –2.5 on bone mineral density scan. The study site was a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi. The study variables were age, sex, clinical presentation and selected comorbidities. Results : Fifty six patients with a WHO definition of osteoporosis were recruited. The age distribution was 31- 95 years with a mean age of 63.95 years with the most affected being above the age of 60 years at 71.5%. Majority were female (89.3%), with the main presenting complaints as polyarthralgia (30.4%) followed by lower back pain (19.6%) and pathological fractures (12.5%). The most common comorbidity being rheumatoid arthritis (39.3%) followed by steroids therapy (25%). Others included osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, systemic lupus erythromatosus and diabetes. Seven study participants had history of fracture with lumbar leading at 42.8%. None of the study participants were smokers. The number of patients on calcium supplements was at 71.4% and bisphosphonates was low at 21.4%. Conclusion: The findings of this study from age to comorbidities on osteoporosis are in keeping with literature. The presence of fibromyalgia as a comorbidity was an interesting finding. The number of patients on bisphosphonates was low which differed from Western literature. Stratification of patients at risk should be done so that active screening and prompt early management for osteoporosis can be instituted. Attempts should be to offer cheaper bisphosphonates so that the affected can benefit from the drugs

CF Otieno, JK Kayima EOOGOO. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S197-203. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. It carries very high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, both in the treated patients and those who are presenting to hospital with diabetes for the first time. OBJECTIVE: To review the risk factors, mechanisms and management approaches in diabetes ketoacidosis in published literature and to discuss them in the context of why a significant proportion of patients who develop diabetic ketoacidosis in sub-Saharan Africa still have high mortality. DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world. DATA SYNTHESIS: The main causes or precipitants of DKA in patients in SSA are newly diagnosed diabetes, missed insulin doses and infections. The major underlying mechanism is insulin deficiency. Treated patients miss insulin doses for various reasons, for example, inaccessibility occasioned by; unavailability and unaffordability of insulin, missed clinics, perceived ill-health and alternative therapies like herbs, prayers and rituals. Infections also occur quite often, but are not overt, like urinary tract, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Due to widespread poverty of individuals and nations alike, the healthcare systems are scarce and the few available centres are unable to adequately maintain a reliable system of insulin supply and exhaustively investigate their hospitalised patients. Consequently, there is little guarantee of successful outcomes. Poor people may also have sub-optimal nutrition, caused or worsened by diabetes, more so, at first presentation to hospital. Intensive insulin therapy in such individuals mimics 're-feeding syndrome', an acute anabolic state whose outcome may be unfavourable during the period of treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality and morbidity from diabetic ketoacidosis remains high in sub-Saharan Africa, improved healthcare systems and reliable insulin supply can reverse the trend, at least, to a large extent. Individuals and populations need empowerment through education, nutrition and poverty eradication to improve self-care in health and living with diabetes

CF Otieno, V Vaghela ENOEOA. "Patterns of homocysteine in Kenyans with type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi ." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12):180-183. Abstract

Background: Increased total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The measurement of tHcy in blood is therefore of potential great importance especially in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Objective: To determine the total homocysteine levels in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. Design: Cross-sectional, prospective study.

Setting: Outpatient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Ambulatory patients with Type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular, renal, liver or other chronic disease.

Main outcome measures: Serum levels of tHcy, HbA1c, lipids and socio-demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 115 patients, 48% males, with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean (sd) age of the males was 56.85(8.96) years and of the females was 55.68(8.93) years. The mean (sd) total serum homocysteine for males of 12.97(6.06) µmol/l was significantly higher than that of the females of 10.64(4.41) µmol/l. The cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, the body mass index and blood pressure of the study subjects did not show any statistically significant influence on their homocysteine levels. However, increasing age and duration of diabetes showed a significant linear relationship with rising level of total serum homocysteine. Some study participants reported smoking habit but unreliably.

Conclusion: There was a significant proportion of the study patients with high levels of serum homocysteine, although most of them were of low to intermediate risk category. It may be prudent to assay homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are either older or have had diabetes for long duration for potential intervention.

East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(12) 2005: S180-S183

CF Otieno, AEO Otedo MYOEOOGOO. "Reasons for Change of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) Drugs: Local Experience." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12). AbstractWebsite

Background: Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) reduces morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS infected patients. HAART is used indefinitely and the regimens are changed over the course of treatment due to resistance, adverse drug reactions or access to drugs. Few studies have been done in resource constrained setting to assess these factors that have a bearing on compliance and success of treatment.
Objective: To determine the number of patients who changed HAART regimen and reasons for change, their CD4+ cell counts and clinical events in the course of HAART.
Design: A prospective, observational study.
Setting: Kisumu District Hospital and Nairobi Rheumatology Clinic.
Subjects: Twenty nine of the 101 patients who were on HAART.
Main Outcome Measures: Resistance to HAART, adverse drug reactions, change of drugs (HAART) regimen or failed response to HAART regimen.
Results: One hundred and one (60 males and 41 females) patients were screened and initiated on HAART. Twenty nine (12 males and 17 females) were included in the study. The mean age was 41.7 years, mean CD4+ cell count prior HAART initiation was 140.8 cells/µl. Thirteen patients developed treatment failure on HAART and their mean CD4+ cell count at the 12th month when the drug were changed was 96.5 cells/µl. Five patients developed neuropathy, one developed lipodystrophy, one ART related
liver injury, three pancreatitis, four changed due to cost and one due to Steven Johnson syndrome. Thirteen patients had resistance to HAART and ten of the 13 had new clinical events: - cryptococcous meningitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes zoster virus (HZV), pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and chronic diarrhoea. Five patients had a documented high HIV-RNA viral load mean of 619,919.5 copies/ml (5.792 log units) at the time of changing HAART at 12 months. Eight of the 13 did not have HIV-RNA viral load due to high cost.
Conclusion: Reasons for Changing HAART included: cost of HAART, Poor tolerability Toxicities (neuropathy, and lipodystrophy, anti-retroviral related liver injury (ARLI), Steven Johnson Syndrome, pancreatitis) and probable failure of to HAART. CD4+ cell count was declining in the HAART resistance group. Failing response to HAART in routine clinical practice is recognised. Effort must be made to put in place resistance surveillance without HAART, CD4+ cell count, HIV viral load and clinical assessment are in patients on parameters to consider when changing treatment.

CF Otieno, V Vaghela FWMJKKENO. "Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kenya: levels of control attained at the outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi ." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12):184-190. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the proportion of specific cardiovascular risk factors in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and the levels of control achieved in them.

Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study over a six month period.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Two hundred and eleven patients with type 2 diabetes.

Main outcome measures: Sociodemographic attributes, duration of diabetes, levels of glycaemia, body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and modes of treatment.

Results: A total of 211 patients were enrolled, 57.3% were females. The mean (SD) age for women was 54.45 (9.44) and that of men was 55.8 (9.02) years. About 77% of the study population were on oral glucose-lowering agents with or without insulin but less than 30% achieved HbA1c <7%; 15% were active cigarette smokers; about 50% were hypertensive with female predominance but 65% of them did not achieve desired blood pressure level inspite of treatment. Just over 50% had raised LDL-cholesterol and over 75% had raised total cholesterol but only three men were on statins without achieving desired targets. Body mass index above 30kg/m2 as a measure obesity was found in 32% of females and 16% males. Most of the study patients admitted use of Aspirin at certain times in the course of their diabetes.

Conclusion: The study showed that specific cardiovascular risk factors of hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity were prevalent although not adequately controlled to targets. Statin use was extremely low in people who already needed them. Regular Aspirin use was infrequent because many patients did not quite understand its role in their diabetes treatment. It is recommended that a more pro-active approach in multifactorial address of cardiovascular risk factors be used in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes to forestall future cardiovascular events.

East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(12) 2005: S184-S190

Chacha P, Muchapondwa E, Wambugu A, Abala DO. "Pricing of National Park Visits in Kenya: The Case of Lake Nakuru National Park.". In: ERSA working paper no. 357.; 2013.
Chaga H, et al. 6. A Unified Orthography for Bantu Languages of Kenya . Cape town, South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
Chaga H. Peremende’ in Kurudi Nyumbani na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2007.
CHAGA MRSMWALIWAHANNAH. ""Dismal performance in Kiswahili at Holy Cross secondary school - A case study" - A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment for Post Graduate Diploma in Education of Kenyatta University.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2003.
Chaga H. CLS 101 Module: Introduction to Swahili Language Skills . Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
Chaga H. Kutiwa Jando’ in Mizungu ya Manabii na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers ; 2010.
CHAGA MRSMWALIWAHANNAH. ""Ulinganishi wa fonolojia ya Kiswahili na Kidawida" - A dissertation for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master of Arts degree in Kiswahili studies at the University of Nairobi 2000.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2000.
Chaga H. 2. ‘Dismal performance in Kiswahili at Holy Cross Secondary School’ . Nairobi: Kenyatta University ; 2003.
Chaga MH. Ulinganishi wa mofofonolojia ya Kiswahili na Kidawida. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2000.
CHAGA MRSMWALIWAHANNAH. ""The Veil and morlal integrity in Islam"- a dissertation for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for award of Bachelor of Arts degree in Religious studies at the University of Nairobi. 1997.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 1997.
Chai D, Farah I, Muchemi G. "Sparganosis in non-human primates.". 2011. Abstract

The spargana were recovered from two vervets (Cer-copithecus aethiops), one olive baboon (Papio anubis anubis), and one Highland syke (Cercopithecus mi¬tis albortorquas). The animals were in good physical condition and, upon opening the abdominal cavities, numerous unattached white and soft, ribbon-like, motile tape-worm larvae were found (Fig. 1). Many were lying on the mesentery and on most of the abdominal organs, and some were found unattached on the ab¬dominal muscles and subcutaneous tissues.

CHAIRMAN PROFJOHNHURIANDERITU, MEMBER DRRONALDMAATHAI, MEMBER DRJOHNSHIUNDU, MEMBER MADAMBIBIANNEWANJA, MEMBER DRKIMAMOGITHUI, MEMBER DRPAMELAOCHIENG, MEMBER DRFRANCISMUREGI, PERSON MRMULATINYUKURIRESOURCE, PERSON PROFPAULOKEMORESOURCE, PERSON PRORAPHAELWAHOMERESOURCE, SECRETARY MRAFUBWAMUSUMI. TASKFORCE REPORT ON MKU POSTGRADUATE TRAINING . Nairobi: MKU; 2012.report_on_postgraduate_training_at_mku_updated.pdf
Challenges Facing the Language Issue in Implementation of The New Constitution of Kenya Mukhwana A. "Challenges Facing the Language Issue in Implementation of The New Constitution of Kenya Mukhwana, Ayub .". 2011.Website
Chalo DM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji, S. F. "Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants of Losho, Narok County, Kenya. ." Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2017;Vol 15((1)):pp. 29-43.
Chalo C, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial activity, Toxicity and Phytochemical composition of selected medicinal plants of Losho, Narok county, Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovation week. university of nairobi; 2015. Abstract

In Kenya, microbial infections remain a threat to millions of lives of those individuals

Antibiotic effectiveness is threatened by increasing resistance of pathogenic microbes against most available drugs as new pathogens continue to emerge.

•Plants are a possible source of antimicrobial agents and could lead to the isolation of new and potentially effective antimicrobial compounds.

However for majority of herbal drugs, information on the efficacy, dosage safety and active principles is not well documented.

Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical analysis of 4 most commonly used medicinal plants for treatment of ear, nose and throat infections (ENT), gastrointestinal disorders and skin ailments namely, Schrebera alata (Bark), Omorcarpum kirkii (Aerial part) ,Cussonia holstii (Bark)& Helichrysum forskahlii (Whole plant) was carried out .

Chalo M, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Losho, Narok County, Kenya." International Research Journal of Pharmacy . 2015;6 (12):797-801.in_vitro_antimicrobial_chalo_et_al_2015.pdfWebsite
Chalya, PL; Ssentongo KR; I. "HIV seroprevalence and its effect on outcome of moderate to severe burn injuries: A Ugandan experience.". 2011. Abstracthiv_seroprevalence_and_its_effect_on_outcome...pdf

BACKGROUND: HIV infection in a patient with burn injuries complicates the care of both the patient and the treating burn team. This study was conducted to establish the prevalence of HIV among burn patients in our setting and to compare the outcome of these patients who are HIV positive with those who are HIV negative. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study involving burn injury patients admitted to Mulago Hospital between November 2005 and February 2006. Patients were stratified into HIV positive (exposed) group and HIV-negative (unexposed) group. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS statistical computer software version 11.5. RESULTS: Of the 130 patients included in the study, 17 (13.1%) patients tested HIV positive and this formed the study (exposed) group. The remaining 113 patients (86.9%) formed the control (unexposed) group. In the HIV positive group, females outnumbered males by a ratio of 1.4:1 and the mean age was 28.4 ± 21.5 years (range 3 months-34 years). 64.7% of HIV positive patients reported to have risk factors for HIV infection. Of these, multiple sexual partners [Odds Ratio 8.44, 95% C.I. (3.87-143.23), P = 0.011] and alcoholism [Odds Ratio 8.34, 95% C.I. (5.76-17.82), P = 0.002] were found to be independently and significantly associated with increased risk to HIV infection. The mean CD4 count for HIV positive and HIV negative patients were 394 ± 328 cells/μL and 912 ± 234 cells/μL respectively which is statistically significant (P = 0.001). There was no difference in the bacteria cultured from the wounds of HIV positive and negative patients (P = 0.322). Patients with clinical signs of sepsis had lower CD4+ counts compared to patients without sepsis (P < 0.001). ). Skin grafting was carried out in 35.3% of HIV negative patients and 29.4% of HIV positive patients with no significant difference in skin graft take and the degree of healed burn on discharge was the same (P = 0.324). There was no significant difference in hospital stay between HIV positive and negative patients (P = 0.674). The overall mortality rate was 11.5%. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, mortality rate was found to be independently and significantly related to the age of the patient, HIV positive with stigmata of AIDS, CD4 count, inhalation injury, %TBSA and severity of burn (p-value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: HIV infection is prevalent among burn injury patients in our setting and thus presents an occupational hazard to health care workers who care for these patients. All burn health care workers in this region need to practice universal precautions in order to reduce the risk of exposure to HIV infection and post-exposure prophylaxis should be emphasized. The outcome of burn injury in HIV infected patients is dependent upon multiple variables such as age of the patient, inhalation injury and %TBSA and not the HIV status alone.

Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Nguku E, Raina SK. "Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae), an Opportunist Parasitoid of Honey Bees in Cameroon." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):254-258.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Nguku E, Raina SK. "Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae), an Opportunist Parasitoid of Honey Bees in Cameroon." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):254-258.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina SK. "Scientific note on the first report of Varroa destructor in Cameroon." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(4):397-399.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina SK. "Scientific note on the first report of Varroa destructor in Cameroon." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(4):397-399.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina S. "Diversity of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies and their pests in Cameroon.". 2015.
Chandi JR, Atisa E. "Organisational Behaviour Model."; 2010.
Chandi J, Ndiritu A, Kidombo H, Mbwesa J, Keiyoro P. "The effect of time management on academic performance of Distance learners: A case of the University of Nairobi Distance Learners.".; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of time management of academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between time management and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that time management accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words: Time management, Distance Learning

Chandler M, Bebber DP, Castro S, Lowman MD, Muoria P, Oguge N, Rubenstein DI. "International citizen science: making the local global." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment . 2012;10:328-331.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "A Review of Structural Adjustment Programmes in Developing Countries: The Case of Kenya - under publication by International Institue for Development Studies, Perth Australia.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Land Characteristics, Economic Policy and Rhodesian Dualism, Africa Quarterly, Vol.20, Nos. 1 - 2 April,.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1982. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Indigenous Economics, a Cultural Approach, C. Chipeta, a Review, Rural Africana.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1984. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Current Status and Future Role of the Planning Department of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral, Published in the Report on the Ministry's Annual meeting, Nov.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1988. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Devaluation - a few safeguids, Published in the Journal of Economics and Business, University of Zambia Business and Economic Association,.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1981. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Parastatal Agriculture of Zambia, a Performance Analysis, Africa Quarterly, 1983.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1983. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "The Economic Integration of an island economy: The Case of Zanzibar to Tanganyika.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1986. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Agriculture and Development in Zambia, Economic Affairs, Vol.25, Nos.1 - 3, January-March.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1980. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Private Sector in Zambia - its Growth and Problems, UNZABECA.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1983. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Chandravanshi BS, Yenesew A, Kebed Z. "Simultaneous determination of iron(III) and vanadium(V) with N-phenylcinnamohydroxamic acid and thiocyanate by extraction-spectrophotometry.". 1985. AbstractWebsite

N-Phenylcinnarnohydroxamic acid (PCHA) reacts with iron(III) and vanadium(V) in the presence of thiocyanate to form water-insoluble orange and green complexes, respectively. The iron(III)-PCHA and vanadium(V)-PCHA-thiocyanate complexes can be quantitatively extracted into toluene and other common organic solvents at pH 1.5–2.0. The absorption spectra and composition of both complexes are described. The effects of foreign ions and of experimental variables on the extraction and determination of the two metal ions are studied. A simple, selective method is described for the simultaneous determination of iron(III) and vanadium(V) by extraction-spectrophotometry; absorbances are measured at 440 and 580 nm. Mixtures can be determined over the range 10−4–10−5 M in each metal. The method was applied successfully to the analysis of standard steels for iron and vanadium.

Chang TT, Chen KP. "A field survey on home environmental sanitation in two districts of Kaohsiung city, Taiwan." Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 1975;74(4):302-9.
Changalwa, C. N. NBMMPL, Poipoi MW. "The parental relationship between parenting styles and alcohol abuse among college students in Kenya." The Greener Journal of Educational Research. ISSN 2276-7789, Vol. 2(2) 013-020; 2012. Abstract
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Chantada GL, Qaddoumi I, Canturk S, Khetan V, Ma Z, Kimani K, Yeniad B, Sultan I, Sitorus RS, Tacyildiz N, Abramson DH. "Strategies to Manage Retinoplastoma in Developing Countries.". 2011. Abstract

Survival of retinoblastoma is >90% in developed countries but there are significant differences with developing countries in stage at presentation, available treatment options, family compliance, and survival. In low-income countries (LICs), children present with advanced disease, and the reasons are socioeconomic and cultural. In middle-income countries (MICs), survival rates are better (>70%), but there is a high prevalence of microscopically disseminated extraocular disease. Programs for eye preservation have been developed, but toxicity-related mortality is higher. Although effective treatment of microscopically extraocular disease improved the outcome, worldwide survival will be increased only by earlier diagnosis and better treatment adherence.

Chantler PD, Lakatta EG. "Arterial-{Ventricular} {Coupling} with {Aging} and {Disease}." Frontiers in Physiology. 2012;3. AbstractWebsite

Age is the dominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the coupling between the left ventricle (LV) and arterial system, termed arterial–ventricular coupling (EA/ELV), provides important mechanistic insights into the complex cardiovascular system and its changes with aging in the absence and presence of disease. EA/ELV can be indexed by the ratio of effective arterial elastance (EA; a measure of the net arterial load exerted on the LV) to left ventricular end-systolic elastance (ELV; a load-independent measure of left ventricular chamber performance). Age-associated alterations in arterial structure and function, including diameter, wall thickness, wall stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction, contribute to a gradual increase in resting EA with age. Remarkably there is a corresponding increase in resting ELV with age, due to alterations to LV remodeling (loss in myocyte number, increased collagen) and function. These age-adaptations at rest likely occur, at least, in response to the age-associated increase in EA and ensure that EA/ELV is closely maintained within a narrow range, allowing for optimal energetic efficiency at the expense of mechanical efficacy. This optimal coupling at rest is also maintained when aging is accompanied by the presence of hypertension, and obesity, despite further increases in EA and ELV in these conditions. In contrast, in heart failure patients with either reduced or preserved ejection fraction, EA/ELV at rest is impaired. During dynamic exercise, EA/ELV decreases, due to an acute mismatch between the arterial and ventricular systems as ELV increases disproportionate compared to EA (≈200 vs. 40%), to ensure that sufficient cardiac performance is achieved to meet the increased energetic requirements of the body. However, with advancing age the reduction in EA/ELV during acute maximal exercise is blunted, due to a blunted increase ELV. This impaired EA/ELV is further amplified in the presence of disease, and may explain, in part, the reduced cardiovascular functional capacity with age and disease. Thus, although increased stiffness of the arteries itself has important physiological and clinical relevance, such changes also have major implications on the heart, and vice versa, and the manner in the way they interact has important ramifications on cardiovascular function both at rest and during exercise. Examination of the alterations in arterial–ventricular coupling with aging and disease can yield mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of these conditions and increase the effectiveness of current therapeutic interventions.

Chanzu HA, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM. "Brewers’ spent grain in adsorption of aqueous Congo Red and malachite Green dyes: Batch and continuous flow systems." Journal of hazardous materials. 2019;380:120897. Abstract

Abstract

Sorption of Congo Red (CR) and Malachite Green (MG) dyes currently used in pigments and clothing industries were investigated using brewers’ spent grain (BSG) from a local brewery. Adsorption increased with a higher adsorbent weight and lower colorant concentrations. Accumulation of CR and MG was optimal at acidic pH and neutral pH respectively. Sorption decreased with an increase in temperature signifying an exothermic process. Batch adsorption data fitted better to Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. Maximum monolayer coverage capacities (
were found to be 2.55 mg/g for MG and 36.5 mg/g for CR dye. Column studies using BSG were also conducted for both dyes. Fixed bed breakthrough was fast with an increase in dye concentration, adsorbent surface area, and flow rate and with a decrease in column depth. BSG are effective, simple in design and inexpensive adsorbing material from renewable sources.

Chanzu HA, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM. "Brewers’ spent grain in adsorption of aqueous Congo Red and malachite Green dyes: Batch and continuous flow systems." Journal of hazardous materials. 2019;380:120897. AbstractJournal article

Description

Abstract Sorption of Congo Red (CR) and Malachite Green (MG) dyes currently used in pigments and clothing industries were investigated using brewers’ spent grain (BSG) from a local brewery. Adsorption increased with a higher adsorbent weight and lower colorant concentrations. Accumulation of CR and MG was optimal at acidic pH and neutral pH respectively. Sorption decreased with an increase in temperature signifying an exothermic process. Batch adsorption data fitted better to Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. Maximum monolayer coverage capacities (Q O)) were found to be 2.55 mg/g for MG and 36.5 mg/g for CR dye. Column studies using BSG were also conducted for both dyes. Fixed bed breakthrough was fast with an increase in dye concentration, adsorbent surface area, and flow rate and with a decrease in column depth. BSG are effective, simple in design …

Chanzu, Oliver. KCIJKWNK. "Current Status of Pre-slaughter, Slaughtering and Post-slaughter Practices of Fresh Beef in Pastoral Areas of Kenya." Journal of Food Science and Quality Management;. 2018;78:17-22.
Chanzu NM, Mwanda W, Julius Oyugi, Anzala O. "Mucosal Blood Group Antigen Expression Profiles and HIV Infections: A Study among Female Sex Workers in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):e0133049. Abstract

The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed 'secretors') while 20% do not (termed 'non-secretors'). Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status.

Chanzu NM, Mwanda W, Julius Oyugi, Anzala O. "Mucosal Blood Group Antigen Expression Profiles and HIV Infections: A Study among Female Sex Workers in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):e0133049. Abstract

The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed 'secretors') while 20% do not (termed 'non-secretors'). Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status.

CHARLES DRNYANDWI. "Dr. Nyandwi Charles, Doctorate Thesis; Use of Special functions in Representations ( Expansions) of Entire Functions.". In: East African educational Publishers; Nairobi. au-ibar; 2003. Abstract
Alcohol and Substance Abuse has increased greatly globally resulting in increased numbers of drug addicts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of the rehabilitation programmes for drug addicts at the Asumbi Treatment Centre (ATC) in the Nairobi (Karen) and Kiambu facilities. The target population included the counselors at the centre, recovering addicts, and selected parents of clients of ATC. The sample was selected purposively, while data was gathered through interviews, observations and focus group discussions. Data analysis was done through qualitative methods.  The study established that ATC facilities are in great demand. The clients were from all walks of life including professionals such as lawyers, engineers, doctors, lecturers and students.  The main approach to treatment was found to be the drug free approach, anchored on the 12 steps programme. Major challenges include inadequate funding. A success rate for the programme could not be established, since there was no follow-up of the clients after discharge.  Family support was found to be crucial in the recovery process.  The study recommends that in developing curricular for rehabilitation programmes, it is important to consider the addicts characteristics.
Charles W. "Influence of Repetition on Academic Performance of pupils: A Case of Primary Schools in Turbo Division, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya.". In: Africa for Research in Comparative Education (AFRICE). UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, KENYA SCIENCE CAMPUS; 2015.abstract_2.doc
CHARLES DROWUOROLUNGAH. "Differential behaviour patterns between men and women in a social gathering: The case of a discotheque.". In: Reveu de Psychosomatique, Paris 1992. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
CHARLES DROWUOROLUNGAH. "The Interaction between Ethnomedicine and Biomedicine in community healthcare.". In: Reveu de Psychosomatique, Paris 1992. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
Charles W. "Factors Influencing Implementation of Major Infrastructure Projects in Kenya: A Case of the Southern By-Pass Road Project, Kenya.". In: African International Business and Management (AIBUMA). UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, SCHOOL OF BUSINESS; 2015.abstract.doc
CHARLES DROWUOROLUNGAH. "Caring for the Un-born: Antenatal Care in a Socio-cultural context.". In: Reveu de Psychosomatique, Paris 1992. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract
Caring for the Un-born: Antenatal Care in a Socio-cultural context.
Charles N. Chunge, Ruth N. Chunge MJAMS. "An outbreak of schistosomiasis following a church retreat to Mwanza, Tanzania." Journal of Travel Medicine. 2011;189(6):408-410.
Charles Opiyo Ayieko, Musembi RJ, Alex Awuor Ogacho, Benard Odhiambo Aduda, Boniface Mutua Muthoka, Jain PK. "Controlled Texturing of Aluminum Sheet for Solar Energy Applications." Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2015;5:458. Abstract
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