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Forthcoming
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Kamau, Paul Kuria (forthcoming), 'Production and Trade Systems.". In: Hemisphere. University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. With Dorothy McCormick and Mary Kinyanjui: `Enhancing Institutional Capacity for Policy Development, Dialogue, and Advocacy: Role of Associations and Other Community Based Organisations. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. AbstractWebsite

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Spencer Hensen, and Romanus Opiyo: `Impact of Lake Victoria Fish Exports on Livelihoods of Fishers, and Traders.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

MARY DROMOSA. "Katumanga, M. & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) and Navigating Realities. In: P. Wanyande; M. Omosa & L. Chweya [Eds] GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: Uni.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "M. Omosa, D. McCormick & P. Alila (Forthcoming) Business in Kenya: Institutions, Interactions and Strategies. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Pres.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "McCormick; D.; P. Alila & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. & J. Onjala (Forthcoming) Kenya\.". In: Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (Forthcoming) Incorporation into the Market Economy and Food Security among the Gusii: Paradise Lost or Paradise Gained. African Journal of Sociology. Volume VI, No. 1.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (Forthcoming) The Smallholder Tea Industry in Kenya: Networks, Markets and Livelihoods. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: The Smallholder Tea Industry in Kenya: Networks, Markets and Livelihoods. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "P. Alila, D. McCormick & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Introduction. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Place, F.; M. Adato; P. Hebinck & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Agro-forestry-Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Practices and Poverty in Western Kenya. In: M. Adato & R. Meinzen-Dick [Eds.] Agricultural Research and Poverty: Economic and Social Impacts in Six C.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Mary Kinyanjui and Dorothy McCormick: `Network Brokers and Small Scale Production: The Case of Kariobangi Weighing Scales Cluster.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Walter Odhiambo: `Policies and Regulations for Business Development in Kenya.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
Submitted
Magutu PO. "CHAPTER ONE: OPERATIONIRISING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Integrated Waste Management - Volume II Edited by Sunil Kumar ISBN 978-953-307-447-4 472 pages, August 2011, 23 chapters.". In: Integrated Waste Management - Volume II. InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia; Submitted. Abstract

This book reports mostly on institutional arrangements under policy and legal issues, composting and vermicomposting of solid waste under processing aspects, electrical and electronic waste under industrial waste category, application of GIS and LCA in waste management, and there are also several research papers relating to GHG emission from dumpsites.

MWANGI MUREITHISTEPHEN. "Aboveground net primary productivity in grazed and ungrazed pastures: Grazing optimisation hypothesis or local extinction of vegetation species. Otieno, S.G., T.J. Njoka, T.P. Young, S.M. Mureithi and Ngugi, R.K. .". In: Nature Proceedings. Afr. J. Range For. Sci.; Submitted. Abstract

The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studies in the last few decades prompted our investigation to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisation hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is real. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional groups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savanna. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, wild herbivores with and without mega herbivores and combinations of cattle and wild herbivores also with and without mega herbivores. The findings revealed that at herbage level, most grazed treatments (four out of five) had higher productivity than the ungrazed control and three showed grazing optimisation curve at sixth polynomial degree between monthly productivity and grazing intensity (1-g/ng). At functional group level forbs productivity was higher in the ungrazed control than in any of the grazed treatments while at individual grass species level Themeda triandra productivity was higher in all grazed treatments than in ungrazed control. We conclude against presence of herbivore optimisation hypothesis at herbage, functional group and species level because of lack of attributable grazing effect in grazed treatments that matches complex ecological effects in the ungrazed treatment.

MBALUKA DRMUNYAOTITUS. "Common skin diseases.". In: Journal. Child Health Dialogues; Submitted. Abstract

The chapter discusses common both infectious and non infectious skin diseases in the tropical environment in a medicine text book: Medicine: Non-communicable Diseases in Adults; which widely explores common medical diseases in the tropical setting. The chapter begins with the outline, glossary of terms and introduction to the structure and function of the skin. Skin infections are discussed under bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infestations at the end of the section.The section on Allergic or immunological disorders discusses eczema in its diversity, urticaria and adverse cutaneous drug reactions.The last section discusses acne vulgaris and the papulosquamous disorders.

MALLANS PROFRAMBOCHARLES. "DR. RAMBO CHARLES, DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING MARKETING STRATEGIC PLANS: A PERSPECTIVE OF CREATING CUSTOMER VALUE ( TITLE OF THE BOOK ).". In: BOOK TITLE, Developing and Implanting Marketing Strategic Plans. European Psychiatric Journal; Submitted.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, NJIHIA JM. "Road Maintenance in Kenya: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: Conference Proceedings, all Africa Conference of Engineers,. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya.

CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Algebra 1 and 11 (O.D.L Lecture Notes).". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "An Application of The Transportation Model: The case of Inter-factory Transfer of Bulk Whole Milk at The Kenya co-operative Creameries (KCC) Limited (MBA Research project paper of the University of Nairobi).". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted. Abstract
Recent publications have demonstrated that the protease caspase-1 is responsible for the processing of pro-interleukin 18 (IL-18) into the active form. Studies on cell lines and murine macrophages have shown that the bacterial invasion factor SipB activates caspase-1, triggering cell death. Thus, we investigated the role of SipB in the activation and release of IL-18 in human alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, AM are a more important source of IL-18 than are dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes. Cytokine production by AM and DC was compared after both types of cells had been infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and an isogenic sipB mutant, which were used as an infection model. Infection with virulent Salmonella led to marked cell death with features of apoptosis while both intracellular activation and release of IL-18 were demonstrated. In contrast, the sipB mutant did not induce such cell death or the release of active IL-18. The specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK blocked the early IL-18 release in AM infected with the virulent strain. However, the type of Salmonella infection did not differentially regulate IL-18 gene expression. We concluded that the bacterial virulence factor SipB plays an essential posttranslational role in the intracellular activation of IL-18 and the release of the cytokine in human AM.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN, S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Bovill, E., Kungu, A., Bencivenga, A., Jeshirani, M.K., Mbindyo, B.S., Heda, P.M. Epidemiological study of osteogenic sarcoma variations in incidence between Ethnic groups and Geographical Regions 1966-1979.International Orthopaedics Sicot.". In: International Orthopaedics Sicot. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Challenges of camel production in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Journal. Journal of Camelid Science 3 (2010) 01-05; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Community- And Road-Kill Rabies Surveillance In Kibwezi, Kenya.". In: Conference. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association (JCVA); Submitted. Abstract
JG Kamau1, WO Ogara1, JJ McDermott2, PM Kitala*   1 Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya * Corresponding Author   Summary   We investigate the possibility of cross-infection by rabies between domestic animals and wild mammalian carnivores at a wild-domestic animal interface. The area was known to have a domestic-dog rabies but the involvement of wildlife was unknown. Four sublocations within a transect of approximately 20 km along the Nairobi-Mombasa highway were selected as the study area. A total of 202 households within the area were randomly selected and visited to collect information on wildlife abundance and habits, and for wild-life-domestic dog interactions. Forty of the 202 households were randomly selected for wildlife trapping. An eight-month long community-and road-kill-based rabies surveillance was implemented in the 4 sublocations. The white-tailed mongoose (Ischeumia albicauda), the genet cat (Genetta genetta), the common mongoose (Herpestes spp), the civet cat (Viverra civetta) and the bush squirrel (Paraxerus spp), were identified as the most prevalent species of wildlife in the area. Seventy-one percent (143/202) of the households reported having heard or witnessed their dogs fighting with unspecified wild animal species. White-tailed mongooses (11) and genet cats (11) were the species of wild carnivores trapped within the precincts of the households. The domestic dog accounted for 91% (20/22) of the rabies positive animal brain specimens collected in the community-based rabies surveillance. Only 6.2% (5/81) of the specimens from road-kills were positive for rabies including a domestic cat, a goat, a common mongoose (Herpestes spp), a genet cat, and an unidentified wildlife species.   This study has revealed that small wild carnivores are frequent in Kibwezi and interact with dogs. Dogs are currently the main species for transmission of rabies but there is some rabies in wildlife. The potential for wildlife to act as a reservoir for rabies as in other areas where dog rabies has been controlled needs further investigation.   Keywords: Rabies; Surveillance; Community-based; road-kills; Kenya  
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Contribution to books on Primary Traumatology Parts i and ii. Published by Kenya/German project for District Hospital, surgery.". In: Published by Kenya/German project for District Hospital, surgery. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya.". In: Journal. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology; Submitted. Abstract

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William O. Ogara1, Nduhiu J. Gitahi1, Samuel A. Andanje2 , Nicholas Oguge3, Dorcas W. Nduati1 and Alfred O. Mainga1

1Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya

2Kenya Wildlife services, Nairobi, Kenya

3Earthwatch Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu Community group ranches and grazing area, Lion (Panthera leo), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, and Hyaena hyaena). A total of 96 scat samples including, 8 from Lion, 16 Leopards', 2 Wild dogs', and 70 Hyaenas' were collected, identified and microscopically analyzed for prey hair characterisation. At least 50 different hairs from every scat sample were mounted on slides and microscopically characterized using details from reference hairs. Hairs from 18 depredated species both domestic and wild ungulates were recovered from the scat samples. Predated species were identified, as either domestic (Cow, Sheep, Goat, Donkey, and Camel) or wild ungulate prey (Grant's gazelle, plain zebra, Grevy's Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck, Dikdik, Eland, lesser Kudu, greater Kudu, Baboon, rock Hyraxes, Elephant and Oryx). The carnivores showed a relatively high kill of wild ungulate prey compared to domestic prey. Camel was the most preferred cow and donkey respectively. Grevy's zebra contributed highest to the lion's diet while the Plain zebra was most preferred by the leopard. Both the hyaena and Wild dog had a preference for the waterbuck. The Hyaena had the highest domestic depredation, while all the other big cats depredated more on wild ungulates.

Key words: Scat, group ranch, domestic, wild ungulate, prey, depredation.

MALLANS DRRAMBOCHARLES. "DR. RAMBO CHARLES, SMALL ENTERPRISES MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ( TITLE OF THE BOOK ).". In: BOOK TITLE, Small Enterprises Management and Development. European Psychiatric Journal; Submitted.
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Extraction of vernonia oil from Vernonia galamensis seeds and it.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Factors Influencing Adoption of Dairy Goats in Meru County, Kenya: Prospects And Constraints.". In: Journal. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association; Submitted.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Gakuu, L.N., Mbindyo, B.S., Heda P.M., Atinga, J.E.O. Rigid internal fixation in management of fractures of the radius and ulna shafts. Indications and techniques.Proc.Ass. of Surgeons of E.A.". In: Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "The impact of rangeland livestock manure on nutrient depleted soils in highland small-holder croplands in Central Kenya. Kirigia, AK, Njoka, JT, Kinyua PID Young, TP and Mureithi, SM.". In: Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems; Submitted. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Institutional and organisational requirements for implementing the Livestock Identification and Traceability System in Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, J M Gathuma, G Muchemi, W Ogara, N Maingi, W Maritim* and B Moenga* Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya   Abstract Livestock Identification and Traceability Systems (LITS) contribute to reduction, control or eliminated safety scares that result from transbounadry diseases outbreaks.  Recent studies on LITS in Kenya have been focused on testing  innovative technology, information and traceability system management, and examining the determinants for effective implementation. This paper analyzes the strengths and limitations of the operating a LITS institutional and organisational mechanisms in Kenya.   The result revealed that a disarticulated intitutional and organisational environment was the main constraint to effective implementation of LITS.  It proposes that for successful implemenation, a regional approach covering multiple countries, substantial private sector involvement and intensive stakeholder education are essential. Keywords: Institutional and organisational mechanisms, livestock identification, traceability  
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Integrated Flood and Drought Management for Sustainable Development in the Nile Basin the Case of Nzoia River Basins.". In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Re-orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training, September 2008, pp, 113-118.; Submitted.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries, Nairobi, Kenya, Presented a paper.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, MILE DRJUSTUSKITHEKA. "Justus K. Mile, Bernard M. Nzimbi and S.K. Moindi, On the characterization of Class R_1 of non-normal operators in a Hilbert space, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Knowledge Management & Institutional Framework: Kenyan Veterinary Services.". In: Journal. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice; Submitted.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Koech KJ, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA, Gathece LW. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV infection and their relationship with CD4 count at a Nairobi centre. African journal of oral health sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9. Hekima III (1) 27-42; Submitted. Abstract
Savanna ecosystems and origins of modern human behavior Hekima III (1) 27-42: (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi).
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K. "Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques", Ph.D. Thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A., Dec. 1991.". In: Published in a Journal Kenyan Geographer. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Mbindyo, B.S. Snake bite in Kenya Dissertation presented in part fulfilment of MMed. in Surgery university of Nairobi.". In: MMed. in Surgery university of Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Mbindyo, B.S., Malibo, J. Some considerations in cases of fractures of he femur treated by intramedullary nailing. Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Mbindyo, B.S., Okelo, G.B.A. Common Venomous Bites and Stings in Kenya A book published by Health Education Division and audio-visual Centre, Serial No. 1/79.". In: A book published by Health Education Division and audio-visual Centre, Serial No. 1/79. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Misingi Ya Hisabati1,2,3.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Moindi, S.K., Pokhariyal, G.P. and Nzimbi, B.M., W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold, Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS), accepted Feb 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Mr. Nicky Nzioki,Mrs.Catherine Kariuki: An Investigation into the process of Compulsory Acquisition and suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Peak Revision Mathematics.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "The Physical Ditribution Problems: The Need and th Application of Linear Programming Techniques (An M.B.A. Independent Paper of the University of Nairobi,.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Population policy Guidelines for the National Council on Population and Development (NCPD), GoK, April 1983 - (now Sessional Paper No. 4 of 1984) - was a Member of the Task Force.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Preliminary Suggestions on the implementation of the Land Section of Chapter five of the Constitution of Kenya through Research and Training.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
The New Constitution of Kenya, Chapter five states that land in Kenya will be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable. The construction also sets out a number of principles, which will be implemented through a national land policy that developed and reviewed regularly by the government and through legislation. The National Land Policy for Kenya is Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009, it presents the issues and policy recommendations that were identified, analyzed and agreed by stakeholders. The sessional paper forms the foundation upon which administrative and legislative framework will be built. This is the framework that will drive the critically required land reforms for Kenya. This paper gives a detailed outline of the training and capacity building and research requirements in land management and administration. Its main emphasis being the setting up of a Land Policy research Centre in the light of the new institutional framework suggested in chapter 5 of the Constitution of Kenya and the Sessional paper No.3 of 2009. A suitable land policy centre will undertake research and training for the National Land Commission, in the light of the suggested functions. The paper concludes by suggesting the training and research programmes fro governments and individuals in Kenya and within the continent on land.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Simth, WCS and Mwanthi, MA: Tick borne disease .". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009).; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, W_2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian manifold, Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS) accepted in May 2012. Paper under review.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics Guides1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.E.A.E.P.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 E.AE.P.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES.". In: Journal. Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa; Submitted. Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.
2014
"Mureithi, SM, Njoka, JT, Gachene CKK, Verdoodt, A., Wasonga, VO, de Naave, S. and Van Ranst E. Impact of enclosure management on soil properties and microbial biomass in a restored semi-arid rangeland, Kenya." Journal Arid Land. 2014;6(5):561-570. AbstractWebsite

Rangeland degradation is a serious problem throughout sub Saharan Africa and its restoration is a challenge for the management of arid and semi-arid areas. In Lake Baringo Basin in Kenya, communities and individual farmers are restoring indigenous vegetation inside enclosures in an effort to combat severe land degradation and address their livelihood problems. This study evaluated the impact of enclosures’ management on soil properties and microbial biomass, being key indicators of soil ecosystem health. Six reseeded communal enclosures using soil embankments as water-harvesting structures and strictly regulated access were selected, varying in age from 13 to 23 years. In 6 private enclosures, ranging from 3 to 17 years in age, individual farmers emulated the communal enclosure strategy and restored areas for their exclusive use. Significant decreases in bulk density, and increases in the organic carbon, total nitrogen and microbial biomass contents and stocks were found in the enclosures as compared with the degraded open rangeland. In the private enclosures, the impact of rehabilitation on the soil quality was variable, and soil quality was in general lower than that obtained under communal management. The significant increase of absolute content stocks of carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass compared to the degraded open rangeland indicates the potential for the restoration of soil quality through range rehabilitation. Over-sowing with indigenous legume fodder species could improve total nitrogen content in the soil and nutritional value of the pastures as well.

"Ngugi RK, Kilonzo JM, Kimeu JM, Mureithi SM. 2014. Seasonal botanical characteristics of the diets of Grant’s (Gazella granti Brooke) and Thompson’s (Gazella thompsoni Guenther) in the dryland habitats." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2014;6(5):581-588. Abstract2014_ngugi_et_al_ijbc-6-8_seasonal_botanical_characteristics_of_gazelles_diets.pdfWebsite

Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an
increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009).
This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.

2013
Kyule MD, Gona GM. "Introduction to Mizizi Book Project.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in Honor of Prof. Godfrey Muriuki. University of Nairobi Press; 2013. Abstract

in M.D. Kyule and G. Gona (Eds), MIZIZI: Essays in honor of Professor Godfrey Muriuki, Nairobi University Press.

2012
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Abubakar LU, Kyallo M, Pelle R. "Vector genomics and arthropod-borne diseases in Africa.". In: Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Congress. Drakensberg, South Africa: 1. Abubakar L.U., Mwangi C. N., Uku J., Ndirangu S.; 2012. Abstractabstract_fasbmb.pdf

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.
Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

Atieno LV, Moturi CA, Wagacha PW, Orwa DO, Ogutu JO, Wausi A. "Successful Implementation of Digital Village Projects: A Factor to Economic Empowerment at the Community Level.". In: 3rd African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. KICC, Nairobi, Kenya: AIBUMA; 2012. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. Agoya-Wotsuna, C.N. (2012):. Muenster: Waxmann ; 2012.
Onyango CM, Kahiu EN. "Analysis of the Molecular Diversity of Kenyan Sorghum Germplasm Using Microsatellites.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2012. Abstract

The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of the genetic diversity present in sorghum germplasm grown in Kenya using simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 139 accessions were genotyped using 11 microsatellite markers or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and the genetic diversity was estimated. The markers showed a wide range of differences in quality index from 0.005 to 0.39. The average Polymorphic Information Content value observed was 0.6241 indicating a high level of diversity. The gene diversity index ranged between 0.2419 and 0.9313 with a mean of 0.6627 per locus. A total of 105 alleles were observed with an average of 10.4 alleles per locus. The average heterozygosity level per locus was low at 0.1717. The variability within accessions among the populations was 74.85% and within individual accessions was 18.67%. The results showed that genetic diversity within Kenyan sorghum germplasm accessions is higher than that between the different populations. It is implied that such genetic diversity can be exploited as such or in hybridization programs to improve sorghum varieties currently grown by subsistence farmers in Kenya.

Abubakar LU, Mwangi CN, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2012;1(1): 19-23. Abstractabstract-ajpt.pdfWebsite

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.
Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta Medica. 2012; 78:31-35. AbstractWebsite

Milkyas Endale, John Patrick Alao, Hoseah M. Akala, Nelson K. Rono, Fredrick L. Eyase, Solomon Derese,
Albert Ndakala, Martin Mbugua, Douglas S.Walsh, Per Sunnerhagen, Mate Erdelyi, Abiy Yenesew

Planta Med 2012; 78: 31–35

The dichloromethane/methanol (1 :1) extracts of the roots of Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata showed low micromolar (IC50 = 0.9–3 μg/mL) in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquineresistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract of Pentas longiflora led to the isolation of the pyranonaphthoquinones pentalongin (1) and psychorubrin (2) with IC50 values below 1 μg/mL and the naphthalene derivative mollugin (3), which showed marginal activity. Similar treatment of Pentas lanceolata led to the isolation of eight anthraquinones (4–11, IC50 = 5–31 μg/mL) of which one is new (5,6-dihydroxydamnacanthol, 11), while three – nordamnacanthal (7), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (9), and damnacanthol (10) – are reported here for the first time from the genus Pentas. The compounds were identified by NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Air Mass on Device Performance." International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER). 2012;2(3):369-375. AbstractWebsite

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WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Radiation Intensity and Temperature on DSSC Performance." International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research (IJARER). 2012;1(2):17-25. AbstractWebsite

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FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Are Weather and Climate Forecasts by National Meteorological Centres Reliable?" Bulletin of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2012.Website
Khoda A, Moturi CA. "Benefits of Adopting Knowledge Management in the Key Contributor to the Kenyan Economy." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2012;2. AbstractWebsite

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

KISAKA ES, MWASARU A. "The Causal Relationship between Exchange Rates and Stock Prices in Kenya." Research of Finance and Accounting, Vol 3, N0. 7, 2012. 2012;3(7):121-130. AbstractWebsite

This study examined the causal relationship between foreign exchange rates and stock prices in Kenya from November 1993 to May 1999. The data set consisted of monthly observations of the NSE stock price index and the nominal Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rates. The objective was to establish the causal linkages between leading prices in the foreign exchange market and the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). The empirical results show that foreign exchange rates and stock prices are non-stationary both in first differences and level forms, and the two variables are integrated of order one, in Kenya. Secondly, we tested for co-integration between exchange rates and stock prices. The results show that the two variables are co-integrated. Thirdly, we used error-correction models instead of the classical Granger-causality tests since the two variables are co-integrated. The empirical results indicate that exchange rates Granger-causes stock prices in Kenya.

Onyango CM, Onwonga RN, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Dark J-V Characterization of a Dye-Sensitized Module." International Journal of Professional Practice (IJPP),. 2012;3(1&2):165-168. AbstractWebsite

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Onyango CM, Imungi JK, Onwonga RN. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012.
DR. OYIEKE FLORENCEAWINO. "Electric nets and sticky materials for the study of gravid Anopheles mosquitoes.". In: Malaria Journal. Sissay Dugassa et al; 2012. Abstract

Background & objectives: Bancroftian filariasis in Kenya is endemic in coastal districts with anestimated number of 2.5 million people at risk of infection. The main mosquito genera involved intransmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in these areas are Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. Thestudy was envisaged to compare the infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors between thehigh transmission (wet) and the low transmission (dry) seasons.Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled from houses and compounds from two study sites, Gazi andMadunguni, on the Kenyan coast. Day resting indoor collection (DRI), pyrethrum spray catch(PSC) and CDC light traps were used to collect mosquitoes. After identification, female mosquitoeswere dissected to search for W. bancrofti III stage larvae.Results: A total of 1832 female mosquitoes were dissected. Infectivity rates of vectors in Madunguniwere 1.49 and 0.21% in wet and dry seasons respectively, whereas in Gazi, these were 1.69 and0%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the infectivity rates between the two seasonsin both Madunguni and Gazi villages (p <0.05). Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the main vector inboth study sites followed by Culex quinquefasciatus and An. funestus.Conclusion: There was a difference in infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors betweenthe wet and dry seasons. The abundance of An. gambiae s.s. during the transmission season couldbe responsible for the increased infectivity rates of vectors in this season.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Four isoflavanones from the stem bark of Platycelphium voense." Phytochemistry Letters. 2012; 5(1):150-154. AbstractScienceDirect

From the stem bark of Platycelphium voënse (Leguminosae) four new isoflavanones were isolated and characterized as (S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2′,4′-dimethoxy-3′-(3″-methylbut-2″-enyl)-isoflavanone (trivial name platyisoflavanone A), (±)-5,7,2′-trihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3′-(3″-methylbut-2″-enyl)-isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone B), 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-2″-(2‴-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano-[4″,5″:3′,2′]-isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone C) and 5,7,2′,3″-tetrahydroxy-2″,2″-dimethyldihydropyrano-[5″,6″:3′,4′]-isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone D). In addition, the known isoflavanones, sophoraisoflavanone A and glyasperin F; the isoflavone, formononetin; two flavones, kumatakenin and isokaempferide; as well as two triterpenes, betulin and β-amyrin were identified. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Platyisoflavanone A showed antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) with MIC = 23.7 μM, but also showed cytotoxicity (IC50 = 21.1 μM) in the vero cell test.

N.M.MARIKA, H.OCHANDA. "Impact of ICT on education.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2012. Abstract

test

Onyango CM, Imungi JK, Shibairo SI. "Influence of organic and mineral fertilization on germination, leaf nitrogen, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth.". In: Journal of Plant Nutrition. Taylor & Francis; 2012.
Omina J, Kahonge AM, Moturi CA. "An Intelligent Traffic Light Control System Based on Fuzzy Logic Algorithm.". In: 1st Annual International Interdisciplinary Conference. Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya: Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2012. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K. "OUTCOME OF DAY-CARE SURGERY FOR AGE-RELATED CATARACTS, GARISSA GENERAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012;16(1):12-17d. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: To determine the outcome of surgeries for age related cataracts at Garissa Provincial General Hospital for the last four months of the year 2008.
Design: Retrospective record review
Setting: Eye clinic, Garissa Provincial General Hospital
Methods: Records for 182 surgeries for age related cataracts were retrieved and analysed retrospectively.
Results: A total of 182 surgeries were reviewed, 81 (44.5%) were for male patients and 101 (55.5%) were for female patients. The average age for the patients undergoing the cataract surgeries was 67 years( SD 11.2). All operated eyes had a vision of 6/60 or worse before surgery. Fifty four patients (29.4%) were blind before surgery and 56 operated eyes (30.8%) had significant ocular co-morbidity. One month after surgery, 124 eyes (68%) were reviewed and 87eyes (70.2%) had a good outcome, 24(19.4%) moderate and 13(10.5%) poor outcome after refraction/pinhole. Causes of poor outcome included ocular co-morbidity (7 eyes), surgical complications (4 eyes) and post-operative complications (2 eyes). The visual recovery rate for the blind patients was 81%. The eyes with good vision one month after surgery increased from 74 (59.7%) to 87(70.2%) after refraction underscoring the need for routine biometry.
Conclusion: The outcome was below the WHO recommendation of at least 90% of operated eyes attaining good best corrected vision after surgery.
Recommendation: Patient selection, good management of surgical complications and proper biometry are needed to improve on the outcome of cataract surgery at Garissa Hospital

MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Prevalence, intensity and spectrum of helminths of free range pigs in Homabay District, Kenya F O Obonyo, N Maingi, S M Githigia and C J Ng." Livestock Research for Rural Development 24 (3) 2012. 2012;24(2). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity and spectrum of helminths of free range pigs in Homabay District, Kenya. Faecal samples from 372 pigs were examined using the modified McMaster technique and post-mortem examination of 30 pigs carried out.

Out of the 372 pigs examined, 308 (83%) were excreting nematode eggs. The nematode eggs encountered were those of Strongyles (75%), Strongyloides spp (26.6%), Trichuris spp (7.8%), Ascaris spp (5.4%) and Metastrongylus spp (0.3%). Coproculture of Strongyle-type nematode egg positive faecal samples revealed the presence of Oesophagostomum spp (74%), Hyostrongylus rubidus (22%) and Trichostrongylus spp (4%). The post-mortem examination revealed presence of Hyostrongylus rubidus, Physocephalus sexalatus, Trichostrongylus axei, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomun dentatum, Trichuris suis and Metastrongylus pudendodectus. The highest prevalence of helminth infections was recorded in finishers (88%) and the lowest in adults (79%). The highest mean helminth egg per gram of faeces (epg) was recorded in adults (1,175) and the lowest was in piglets (526). Pigs from Riana division had the highest prevalence (91%) of infection and mean epg (1,109), while those from Asego Division had the lowest prevalence (50%) and mean epg (100). Female pigs recorded a higher mean epg (567) compared to males (416). Age had significant influence on infection with Strongyles (p = 0.04) with growers and finishers recording higher levels of infection than adults. Sex had significant effect on the prevalence of infections with Strongyles (p = 0.028) and Ascaris suum (p = 0.012) with females recording higher levels of infection than males. Division of origin of pigs had significant influence on the prevalence of infection with Ascaris suum (p = 0.000) and Strongyles (p = 0.000) with the mean epgs for Riana and Ndhiwa divisions being significantly higher than those of Pala Division. This study indicates that helminths are highly prevalent in the study area with low to moderate levels of infections and may be one of the contributing factors to low productivity. Therefore, there is need to formulate appropriate control measures for the parasites in order to increase livestock productivity.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Structural and Optical Characterization of Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis on Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO) Coated Glass Slides." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2012;2(3):67-72. AbstractWebsite

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NZUVE SNM, Omolo E. "A Study Of The Practice Of The Learning Organization And Its Relationship To Performance Among Kenyan Commercial Banks.". In: Problems of Management in the 21st Century. Scientific Methodical Center (SMC), Scientia Educologica, Lithuania, 2012; 2012.
NZUVE SNM, MBUGUA SM. "A Survey of Competitiveness in the Passenger Road Transport Sector in Nairobi-Kenya." Problems of Management in the 21st Century. 2012. Abstracta_survey_of_competitiveness_in_the__passanger_road_transport_sector_in_nairobi_kenya.pdfWebsite

The purpose of the study was to identify the key competitive dimensions employed by players in the low cost, mass market commuter road transport sector in Nairobi, Kenya. The theoretical framework for this study was Michael Porter’s Industry Analysis model. This model assumes five competitive forces, which determine the attractiveness of a given industry. These forces are: the barriers of entry into the industry, threat of substitute products,
bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers and industry rivalry. The Porter’s Five Forces Industry Analysis model is a strategy tool that is used to make an analysis of the ttractiveness (value) of an industry structure.
The study used a survey design. The population of the study consisted of all public service vehicle owners operating in Nairobi and registered under the Public Service Vehicle Owners Welfare Association of Kenya; the City buses namely, Citi Hoppa, Express Connections, KBS, and other formal and informal public commuter transport providers. The sample of the study was restricted only to the motorized providers of low unit cost mass-market public passenger road transportation. These include public service vehicle owners registered under the Public Service Vehicle Owners Welfare Association of Kenya and city buses. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics.
The key finding of the study was that there was a lot of activity in the PSV sector that has influenced the industry’s competitiveness. The threat from other competing means of transportation had the lowest levels of activity and it was determined from the low mean
values on all the parameters used as proxies to the threat. The sector was also seen to be very active in employing marketing strategies to enhance competitiveness. The study recommended that the passenger transport sector increase innovative use of alternative means of transport.
Key words: Matatu, the term Matatu is derived from a local Kikuyu vernacular word mang’otore Matatu, which literally means “thirty cents’ that was the standard charge for every trip made in the 1970’s.

KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Development, Acceptability and Nutritional Characteristics of Low-cost, Shelf-stable Supplementary Food Product for Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.". In: Food and Nutrition Bulletin. Kunyanga CN; 2012. Abstract
                                    Abstract
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Dulo S. O and Njunguna W. S. Modelling Chenge in Development on Urban Runoff.". In: National Hydrological Society Conference. UNESCO - HSK; 2012. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW. "Makanya AN, Koller T, Hlushchuk R, Djonov V. Pre-hatch lung development in the ostrich. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012 Mar 15;180(2-3):183-92.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT. 2012. DSM for mapping soil classes in Somalia. In Vargas et al. Workshop Proceedings for "GSP / e-SOTER Workshop: Towards Global Soil Information: Activities within the GEO Task Global Soil Data". 20-23 March 2012. FAO. Rome.". In: SR-CRSP Technical Report Series No. 43 pp. 64. (Co-authored with Rex Campbell and Herbert Lionberger). FAO; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Review on Health Benefits of Nut Consumption with Special Reference to Body Weight Control.". In: Nutrition Journal.; 2012. Abstract
                                    Abstract
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Elsevier; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Elsevier; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Elsevier; 2012.
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS/BiovisionAlexandria. NXT Conference. Alexandria Egypt. Elsevier; 2012.
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Total phenolic content, antioxidant ant antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed Kenyan indigenous food ingredients.". In: LWT - Food Science and Technology. Kunyanga CN; 2012. Abstract
                                    Abstract
2011
Mureithi SM, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Verdoodt A, Warinwa F, Ranst VE. "Impact of rehabilitated sites on herbivore dynamics in a livestock-wildlife interface in Laikipia, Kenya. CBD Technical Series. 62. p.78-80.". In: CBD SBSTTA 15 - Fifteenth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice. Montreal, Canada: Rangeland Ecology & Management; 2011. Abstract

Refer Website

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Training on Photovoltaic Application and Installations.". In: PV TRAINING AND INSTALLATION. Department of Physics, University of Nairobi: Elsevier; 2011. Abstract

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WAITA SEBASTIAN. Workshop on Research Grant and Project Grant Training on proposal writing. NAIROBI: Elsevier; 2011. Abstract

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Magutu PO, Omondi GO. "The Adoption of Strategic Human Resource Management Practices In Commercial Banks: The Process And Challanges In Kenya.". In: Journal of Human Resources Management Research. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

Developing an effective human resource system that is compatible with organizational strategy is critical for the functioning and success of an organization in the competitive business arena. The main objectives of the study were to establish the extent of adoption of strategic human resource management practices among commercial banks in Kenya; and to determine the factors that influence adoption of strategic human resource management practices by commercial banks in Kenya. The research questions were systematically generated from the objectives. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics and factor analysis were used to help draw comparisons and conclusions based on the results. It was assumed in the data analysis that the results obtained were quite representative for the general population considering the sampled size.
The conclusions of the study are based on the research questions leading to the main purpose of the study. First, a number of human resource practices can be used as strategic weapons for organization to remain competitive. The key strategic resources management practices can be broken into two components. The first component is post-entry/ on-the-job strategic human resources management practices, which include the implementation of chosen human resources management strategy. The second component is pre-entry strategic human resources management practices, which include the recognition of the individual roles of employees before they are employed, keen selection and development. Secondly, the factors that have discouraged the adoption of strategic human resource management practices by commercial banks in Kenya can be broken into three components. The first component is poor communication and decision making process, which include failure of union representatives and managers to meet often to discuss concerns and cooperate in finding solutions to human resources issues. The second component is poor planning on HR issues, which include the failure to cover employees by a "non-traditional" incentive pay plan which applies across shifts of workers. The third component is on poor job orientations which includes lack of extensive efforts to set clear expectations about required work behaviors of the new workers.
Keywords: Strategic Human Resource Management Practice, Commercial Banks and Kenyas.

KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant and Type II Diabetes Related Functional Properties of Phytic Acid Extract from Kenyan Indigenous Food Ingredients: Effects of Traditional Processing Methods.". In: Ecology of Food Nutrition.; 2011. Abstract

Emerging scientific evidences reveal that phytic acid has several positive ef fects on human health. The antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related enzyme inhibition pr operties of phytic acid extract prepar ed from raw and traditionally processed local grains and vegetables collected from Kenya were evaluated. Phytic acid content of raw grains and vegetables ranged between 2.81–3.01 and 0.29–3.23 g/100 g DM, respectively. The phytic acid extract from raw s amples revealed 59%–89% of DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 27–3,526 mmol Fe(II)/g e xtract of reducing power, 20%–72% ofα-amylase inhibition activity and 8%–91% of α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Cooking and roasting impr oved the antioxidant and health relevant functionality of phytic acid extracts obtained from Kenyan local vegetables and grains, respectively

Ngugi RK, Mureithi SM, Kamande PN. "Climate forecast information: the status, needs and expectations among smallholder agro-pastoralists in Machakos District, Kenya." Intern. J. Current Res. . 2011;6(11):006-012. Abstract2011_ngugi_et_al_ijcr-3-11_climate_forecast_information.pdfWebsite

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied
in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that
smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This
study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the
aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District,
Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal
forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The
results show high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and
potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of
the El Niño tendency to increase the rainfall as in the case of 1997/98 El Niño was clear from their
emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-or below-normal rainfall. Applications of
information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as
interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of
concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds.
We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information
may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal
phenomenon such as droughts or floods, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning
campaigns with clear guidelines of how to prepare, distributed through the FM radio in local
languages order to abate human suffering

Keywords: Climate forecast, Smallholders, Agro-pastoralists, El Niño, Kenya.

Magutu PO, Mwangi M. "E-Commerce Products And Services In The Banking Industry: The Adoption And Usage In Commercial Banks In Kenya.". In: Journal of Electronic Banking Systems. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

Globalization, collaboration and wireless technologies have led to stiff competition. As a result,
commercial banks have generally adopted the use of e-commerce products and services in their delivery
of services to customers. This study’s main objective was to explore the challenges faced and benefits that
accrue from adoption and usage of e-commerce products and services banking by commercial banks in
Kenya. A survey was carried out to achieve the envisaged aims of the study. A total of 100 questionnaires
were distributed however only 70 banks responded. Overall, research showed that while the majority of
the banks in Kenya have adopted e-commerce products and services, usage levels have remained
relatively low, as not many customers are using this innovation in Kenya.
To establish benefits and challenges in the adoption and usage of e-commerce, 32 variables were used to
measure the level of application among these banks. These variables were analyzed using factor analysis
procedure and in order to achieve a simple and meaningful structure, that is, have a nonzero loading of
the explained variance for each individual factors, varimax rotation was done. As a result, 10 critical
factors were established as the best practices which include: improved customer service, reduced number
of customers in the banking hall, reduced operating costs and increased market share. The challenges
faced in the adoption of e-commerce products and services include compatibility with existing legacy
systems, cost of implementation and security concerns ranked high, ensuring desired levels of security
and privacy. Unreliable telecommunication as well as lack of legislation governing e-commerce
transactions rated highly.
Keywords: e-commerce, e-commerce products and services, benefits and challenges, commercial banks

Magutu PO, Ondimu GM. "Effects of Cybercrime on State Security:Types, Impact and Mitigations with the Fiber Optic Deployment In Kenya.". In: Journal of Information Assurance & Cybersecurity. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

The identification of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an essential tool for sustainable development has proved to be worth every investment. As a result of this, Internet usage in Kenya has grown rapidly resulting in the explosion of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and Internet access points. The general objective of this study was to model the impact of Cybercrime on security in Kenya, Nairobi as the case study. This was a census study on modeling the effects of Cybercrime on the security in Nairobi. Thirty one (31) out of the 3ifty one (51) responded giving a response rate of 60.78% percent. It was found that the Cybercrime is prevalent in Nairobi although largely unreported. To a great extent, it was discovered that
Internet Service Providers had established basic measures in order to curb the growing cyberspace crimes; as spamming activities remain prevalent in Kenya. Also, to a great extent the Criminal Investigation department (CID) and Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) have recognized that cybercrime is a growing threat to security in Nairobi and have collaborated with ISP’s to implement measures.
Keywords: State Security, Cybercrime, Types, Impact & Mitigations

Kisipan ML, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW. "The Functional Morphology and Adaptations of the Epididymis in a Testicondid Mammal, The Rufous Sengi (Elephantulus rufescens)." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35:52-58. AbstractWebsite

Sengis are testicondid African mammals that constitute order Macroscelidae. Epididymal morphology in the rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) was studied with focus on features and adaptations that make it suitable for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The three topographic regions were distinct with the caput and cauda epididymis placed further apart and the two are connected by a slender corpus. The caput occurred as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the testis while the caput occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells; the former exhibiting granules and apical blebing in the caput. The lumen of cauda was densely packed with spermatozoa, with occasional masses that appeared to engulf them, and its principal cells had numerous vacuoles. This study demonstrates that beside merocrine secretion, principal cells of the caput exhibit apocrine secretion as shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, with the vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid re-absorption and phagocytosis.

and Opiyo FEO MSMNRK. "The influence of water availability on pastoralist’s resource use in Mwingi and Kitui Districts in eastern Kenya." Journal of Human Ecology. 2011;35(1):43-52. AbstractWebsite

Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an
increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009).
This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Investigation of some medicinal plants traditionally used for treatment of malaria in Kenya as potential sources of antimalarial drugs." Experimental Parasitology. 2011;127(2):609-626. AbstractScienceDirect

Malaria is a major public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries and the burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against the widely available antimalarial drugs. There is an urgent need for discovery of new antimalarial agents. Herbal medicines for the treatment of various diseases including malaria are an important part of the cultural diversity and traditions of which Kenya′s biodiversity has been an integral part. Two major antimalarial drugs widely used today came originally from indigenous medical systems, that is quinine and artemisinin, from Peruvian and Chinese ancestral treatments, respectively. Thus ethnopharmacology is a very important resource in which new therapies may be discovered. The present review is an analysis of ethnopharmacological publications on antimalarial therapies from some Kenyan medicinal plants.

"Maximal rank for the Cotangent bundle over a general projective space.". In: International Mathematical Forum journal. Hikari Ltd; 2011. Abstract

This is a generalization after my work on the projective space of dimension 4 to n.

Wambugu SN, Mbaabu M, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya." Journal of Etnopharmacology. 2011;137:945-955. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya

Wambugu SN, MBAABU MP, Gakuya DW, Kanui TI, SG K. "Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya

UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Abubakar LU, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. Microalgae species biodiversity and abundance and their potential for biofuel in Kenya. Nairobi, KENYA; 2011. Abstractabstract-ncst.pdf

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts.
Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

Damian. "The Minimal Resolution Conjecture for an ideal of general points in a projective space." International Journal of Algebra. 2011;4(9-12):477-500. AbstractLink

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture (MRC) of Lorenzini predicts that the minimal free resolution of the homogeneous ideal I of S general points in a projective space of dimension n, contains no ghost terms, i.e. as predicted by Anna Lorenzini. I used the "la method d'Horace" to prove that a given evaluation map is of bijective and deduced maximal rank.

IRUNGU LUCYW. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control. Malaria Journal. 2011;10(1):121.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Mala AO, Irungu LW, Shililu JI, Muturi EJ, Mbogo CC, Kiambo JK, Mukabana WR, Githure JI; 2011.
Magutu PO, LISHENGA JL, Barasa JL. "Profitability Of Momentum Strategies In Emerging Markets: Evidence From Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: Journal of Financial Studies & Research. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

This paper tests the profitability of momentum strategies in Kenya, an emerging market for the period 1995 to 2007. Both relative strength strategies (RSS) and (weighted relative strength strategies (WRSS) are employed to implement momentum-based trading strategies. Analysis revealed that Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) exhibit medium term return continuation over the entire sample period and the sub-periods. We used RSS results to evaluate the influence of transaction costs, calendar effects, risk factors and other reported momentum characteristics on momentum profitability. We employ WRSS results to discriminate between the two diametrically opposed causes for the profitability of momentum strategies: behavioral factors (time-series continuation in the firm-specific component of returns), and risk factors (cross-sectional variation in expected returns and systematic risks of individual securities). Our results show that, consistent with the evidence elsewhere, momentum is an anomaly; the evidence is consistent with momentum being driven by continuation in the idiosyncratic component of individual-security, rather than by cross-sectional differences in expected return and risks.
Keywords: Profitability, Momentum Strategies Emerging Markets, Nairobi Stock Exchange

Magutu PO. "Quality Management Practices in Kenyan Educational Institutions: The Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: 12th IBIMA Conference, . Malaysia: IBIMA Publishing; 2011.
MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. 1. Kagira, J.M.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Githigia,S.M.; Maingi,N.: Nganga, J.C.; Gachohi, J.M." Trop Anim Health Prod (August 2011). 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Nematode infections are a serious constraint to pig production, especially where free range pig keeping is practiced. This study investigated the epidemiology of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs from 135 farms were sampled for faeces that were analysed for nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces using the McMaster technique. The nematode eggs were also identified to genus and species based on morphology. A questionnaire on risk factors was also administered to the pig owners. The overall prevalence and mean nematode EPG were 84.2% and 2,355, respectively. The nematode eggs were identified as those belonging to Oesophagostomum spp. (75%), Strongyloides ransomi (37%), Ascaris suum (18%), Metastrongylus spp. (11%), Trichuris suis (7%) and Physocephalus sexalatus (3%). The prevalence of nematodes was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with the amount of rainfall in the division of the pigs' origin (all nematodes except S. ransomi). The prevalence of nematodes was also associated with the age of the pigs. A lower burden of nematodes was associated (p < 0.05) with a history of deworming (A. suum) and the provision of night housing (S. ransomi and Metastrongylus spp.). In conclusion, this study has provided information on nematode infections and the associated risk factors for free range pigs in Busia District, which can be used when

Opiyo FEO, Ekaya WN, Nyariki DM, Mureithi SM. "Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya. Afr. J. Plant Sci. 5(8): 460." African Journal of Plant Sciences. 2011;5(8):460-468. Abstract2011_opiyo_et_al_ajps-5-8_seedbed_influence_on...pdfWebsite

Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals.
However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis
superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an
alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little
success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to meet
germination and plant growth requirements. A study was undertaken in the semi-arid environment of
eastern Kenya to determine the effects of land treatment on morphometric characteristics of E. superba, C. ciliaris and E. macrostachyus. Seed viability of the grasses was estimated by germination tests. Land treatments involved soil ripping using a tractor and hand-clearing. Thirty-five plants were randomly selected per sub-plot and tagged for sampling. Morphometric characteristics of the grass species were measured weekly. Aboveground biomass was estimated by harvesting standing biomass three months after establishment. Seed viability tests showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the three grass species. This was attributed to intrinsic properties of the grass seeds such as dormancy and tegumental hardness. Seedling survival, foliage cover, plant height, leaf and tiller numbers, and aboveground biomass were significantly higher in ripped plots than hand-cleared plots. It was concluded that soil disturbance influences plant morphometric characteristics and plays an important role in the success rate of restoration attempts in semi-arid rangelands.

Key words: Perennial grasses, morphometric characteristics, hand-clearing, reseeding, ripping, semi-arid
rangelands.

MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Strategies for Mitigating Drought-induced Resource Use Conflicts among Pastoralists of Northwestern Kenya. Climate change and conflict: Where to for conflict sensitive climate adaptation in Africa? EXPERT SEMINAR: 15 & 16.". In: ACCORD. Johannesburg, South Africa: Rangeland Ecology & Management; 2011. Abstract

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Magutu PO, MBECHE IM, NYAMWANGE SO. "A survey of Benchmarking Practices in Higher Education in Kenya: The Case of Public Universities.". In: IBIMA Business Review. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

Benchmarking has been used as a tool, a methodology and a technique for continuous improvements in sectoral operations to gain and maintain competitive advantage. This was a survey of benchmarking practices in higher education in Kenya, the case of public universities, whose objectives were; to document the benchmarking activities in the public universities; to establish the challenges facing the public universities in benchmarking. Cross sectional survey was used in this study to collect data from the six public universities with their respective campuses/schools in the population of interest. The respondents were senior administrators and the academic staff. Of the 53 informants who were sampled, 31 responded, thus, a response rate was of 58 percent. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize the data before presenting it in the form of proportions, means, tables and graphs. This was in line with the first and second objectives, which were actually answered in relation to the benchmarking practices in the academic function of public universities in Kenya. The study found out that continuous improvement systems in Kenyan public universities are good, not excellent. The external drivers of change/continuous improvements in public universities are the customers/students as opposed to legislation, while the major internal trigger of change is the actual performance. The public universities effectively and successfully benchmark for continuous improvement.
The Kenyan public universities use action research and performance indicators as the sources of referencing information on benchmarks. The most common type of benchmarking in use is development/improvement benchmarking and planning to make use of international benchmarking. Finally, the three critical factors that have influenced the success of benchmarking practices are: time and resource availability: limited duration, comparability and compatibility, which are reasons why the institutions don’t practice international benchmarking.
Keywords: Benchmarking, Continuous Improvement, Quality, Higher Education

Michira IN, Richard A, Priscilla B, Immanuel I. "Synthesis, characterization and Application of Sulfonated polyaniline in Construction of a biosensor for Diazinon." International Journal of Polymeric Materials. 2011;60:469-489. AbstractWebsite

A series of sulfonated polyaniline=derivatized polyaniline nanocomposites was chemically synthesized in the presence of anthracene and naphthalene sulfonic acids. UV-vis and FTIR results indicated the emergence of new bands at 420 and 700nm and1100cm-1 in their spectra, respectively, meaning the dopant/polymer intercalations involved electronic interactions between dopant/polymer sub-lattices. The electroactive
composites displayed moderately fast electrode kinetics. A composite-based biosensor for hydrogen peroxide reached a steady state current of 9.2 and 5.3 mA, and when fine-tuned for diazinon detection gave % inhibitions to be 41 and 81% for thepolyaniline and poly-o-methoxyaniline biosensors, respectively.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "The .". In: Microbial Biotechnology. 1751-7915. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2011. Abstract
The oleochemical industry is currently still dominatedby conventional chemistry, with biotechnology onlystarting to play a more prominent role, primarily withrespect to the biosurfactants or lipases, e.g. as detergents,or for biofuel production. A major bottleneckfor all further biotechnological applications is theproblem of the initial mobilization of cheap and vastlyavailable lipid and oil substrates, which are thento be transformed into high-value biotechnological,nutritional or pharmacological products. Under theEU-sponsored LipoYeasts project we are developingthe oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica into a versatileand high-throughput microbial factory that, byuse of specific enzymatic pathways from hydrocarbonoclasticbacteria, efficiently mobilizes lipidsby directing its versatile lipid metabolism towardsthe production of industrially valuable lipid-derivedcompounds like wax esters (WE), isoprenoid-derivedcompounds (carotenoids, polyenic carotenoid ester),polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and free hydroxylatedfatty acids (HFAs). Different lipid stocks (petroleum,alkane, vegetable oil, fatty acid) and combinationsthereof are being assessed as substrates in combinationwith different mutant and recombinant strains ofY. lipolytica, in order to modulate the composition andyields of the produced added-value products.
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant and Antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of raw and processed food ingredients from Kenya.". In: Journal of Food Science.; 2011. Abstract
                                    Abstract
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant Potential and type II Diabetes Related Enzyme Inhibition of Cassia obtusifolia L.: Effect of Indigenous Processing Methods.". In: Food Bioprocess Technology. Vadivel, V., Kunyanga C.N., and Biesalski, H.K.; 2011. Abstract
                                    Abstract
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Assessment of Urban Water Supply: Case Study of Athi Town.". In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Re-orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training, September 2008, pp, 113-118. Lulu Publishers. ISBN- 978-1-105-09985-4; 2011.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Biosensors in: Handbook of Food Safety Engineering.". In: Handbook of Food Safety Engineering. Da-Wen Sun, Springer Verlag; 2011.
KAVITI DRLILIANKATUNGE. "A Communications Strategy and Marketing Handbook for the International Peace Support Training Centre: Kenya,.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Noel Design and Publishing, Nairobi.; 2011.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "A Community Health Worker Program for the Prevention of Malaria in Eastern Kenya.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Stromberg DG, Frederiksen J, Hruschka J, Tomedi A, Mwanthi M.; 2011. Abstract
Objective: To assess whether the development and implementation of a community health worker (CHW) project in rural Kenya was associated with an increase in knowledge about malaria and the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in children under five years of age.Methods: A baseline knowledge and behavior questionnaire, adopted from the Kenyan Demographic Health Survey, was conducted in August 2007 by Kenyan health officials in 75 villages. Two CHWs were chosen from each village and trained in appropriate use of ITNs. The CHWs provided educational sessions and ITNs to mothers in their respective villages. A follow-up survey was conducted in March 2008 of all families with children less than five years of age within randomly selected villages. The main questions addressed during the follow-up survey included knowledge about malaria and the practice of correctly using ITNs.Findings: There were 267 surveys compiled for knowledge assessment before the intervention and 340 in the post-intervention analysis with an approximate 99% family participation rate. Of the families surveyed, 81% correctly knew the cause for malaria before the study and 93% after the CHW intervention (p < 0.01). Of those surveyed before the intervention, 70% owned and correctly used mosquito nets compared with 88% after the CHW intervention (p < 0.01).Conclusions: There was a significant increase in knowledge about malaria and use of ITNs after the implementation of the CHW program. Keywords: Community health aides, insecticide-treated bednets, malaria/diagnosis, malaria/prevention andcontrol, Kenya, rural health services, infant, child/preschool, questionnaires
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Diversity and Characteristics of Supplementary Foods Sold and Consumed by Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences. Kunyanga CN; 2011. Abstract
                                    Abstract
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in Baringo, Kenya.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O Mala 1,2*; 2011. Abstract
{ Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time.   Methods: Larval habitats were mapped and larvae sampled longitudinally using standard dipping techniques. Larvae were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Physical characteristics of larval habitats, including water depth, turbidity, and presence of floating and emergent vegetation were recorded. Water depth was measured using a metal ruler. Turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperatures salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in the field using the hand-held water chemistry meters.   Results: Mean larval densities were higher in the dry season than during the wet season but the differences in density were not statistically significant (F = 0.04
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Enrichment of PUFA in Nile perch free fatty acids by selective enzymatic esterification and subsequent analysis using HPLC-ELSD.". In: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 29 MAR 2011 DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201000560. Wiley; 2011. Abstract
PUFA from oil extracted from Nile perch viscera were enriched by selective enzymatic esterification of the free fatty acids (FFA) or by hydrolysis of ethyl esters of the fatty acids from the oil (FA-EE). Quantitative analysis was performed using RP-HPLC coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector (RP-HPLC-ELSD). The lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus discriminated against docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) most, resulting in the highest DHA/DHA-EE enrichment while lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia discriminated against eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) most, resulting in the highest EPA/EPA-EE enrichment. The lipases discriminated between DHA and EPA with a higher selectivity when present as ethyl esters (EE) than when in FFA form. Thus when DHA/EPA were enriched to the same level during esterification and hydrolysis reactions, the DHA-EE/EPA-EE recoveries were higher than those of DHA/EPA-FFA. In reactions catalysed by lipase from T. lanuginosus, at 26 mol% DHA/DHA-EE, DHA recovery was 76% while that of DHA-EE was 84%. In reactions catalysed by lipase from P. cepacia, at 11 mol% EPA/EPA-EE, EPA recovery was 79% while that of EPA-EE was 92%. Both esterification of FFA and hydrolysis of FA-EE were more effective for enriching PUFA compared to hydrolysis of the natural oil and are thus attractive process alternatives for the production of products highly enriched in DHA and/or EPA. When there is only one fatty acid residue in each substrate molecule, the full fatty acid selectivity of the lipase can be expressed, which is not the case with triglycerides as substrates.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Enzymatic Synthesis of Lipophilic Rutin and Vanillyl Esters From Fish By Products. Accepted.". In: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2011. Abstract
p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; font-size: 12pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; } Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of lipophilic phenolic antioxidants was carried out with a concentrate of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), recovered from oil extracted from Salmon (Salmon salar) by-products. Vanillyl alcohol and rutin were selected for the esterification reaction and obtained esters yields were 60 and 30 %, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the esters were compared with those of commercial butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol using DPPH radical scavenging and thiobarbituric acid assays. In DPPH assay, rutin esters showed better activity than vanillyl esters and on the contrary in lipophilic medium, vanillyl esters were found to be superior to rutin esters. In bulk oil system, the antioxidant activities of rutin and vanillyl derivatives were lower than that of BHT and α-tocopherol but in emulsion, they showed better activity than α-tocopherol. By attaching PUFAs to natural phenolics, the PUFAs are protected against oxidation while PUFA improves the hydrophobicity of the phenolic which could enhance its function in lipid systems.
E. DROWAKAHFRANCIS. "The Ethics of Deontology in Corporate Communication.". In: Thought & Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. The Philosophical Association of Kenya/AJOL; 2011. Abstract
This paper seeks to provide guidelines on how to respond to the ethical challenges entailed in corporate communication. It argues for the need for an ethical grounding for the practitioner of corporate communication, before critically examining the two broad ethical theories - deontology and teleology - and their place in ethical judgment. The authors underscore the importance of deontological ethics in the practice of corporate communication
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Evaluation of the role of flavanoids present in indigenous foods regarding health and nutrition of vulnerable groups in Kenya.". In: II World Congress of Public Health Nutrition and I Latin-American Congress of Community Nutrition.; 2011. Abstract
                                    Abstract
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Factors influencing differential larval habitat productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in a western Kenyan village.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O. Mala & Lucy W. Irungu; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background & objectives: The study was undertaken to characterize factors influencing differential productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in a rural village in western Kenya . Methods: Longitudinal larval sampling was done using an area sampler for 3 months. Emerged adults were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nutrient content was analyzed using persulphate oxidation method. Water pH was measured using an Orion pH/conductivity meter. Turbidity was measured using a Hach 2100A turbidity meter. Algal count density was estimated using a sedge-wick rafter cell.   Results: A total 3367 larvae were harvested. Out of 500 adults subjected to PCR analysis 358 (71.6%) were Anopheles gambiae s.s., 127 (25.4%) An. arabiensis while PCR amplification failed for 15 (3%) specimens.  Rainwater pools were the most productive habitat type. There was a positive association between algal density and larval density (p<0). Total nitrogen, water pH and turbidity were positively correlated with larval density (p<0.01) and pH was negatively associated with larval density.   Conclusion: Results indicate water nutrient and algal content in larval habitats of An. gambiae play crucial, dual roles in the resource ecology of these mosquitoes. Overall, the findings of this study support the notion that anti-larval source reduction measures aimed at manipulating physicochemical variables in larval habitats to eliminate larval production have a chance of succeeding in an integrated vector control program.   Key words Anopheles gambiae; larval productivity, nutrients; rainwater pools
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Feasibility and effectiveness of supplementation with locally available foods in prevention of child malnutrition in Kenya.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Angelo Tomedi, Felisha Rohan-Minjares, Kate McCalmont, Rebecca Ashton, Rose Opiyo, Mutuku M; 2011.
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Flavonoid content of Ethanolic Extract of Indigenous Foods Consumed by Vulnerable Groups in Kenya: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities.". In: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition.; 2011. Abstract
                                    Abstract
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU , C.M. & OMONDI, B. (2011), Learner Support Services, Master in Distance Education, Distance learning Study module, University of Nairobi.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "GAKUU C.M. & KIDOMBO H.J. (2011), Research Methods In Distance Education, Masters Distance Education; Study module, University of Nairobi.". In: E-content Study Modules.; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Golden Sunbeams in Shadowy Storms.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. WordAlive; 2011.
NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW. "Hlushchuk R, Ehrbar M, Reichmuth P, Heinimann N, Styp-Rekowska B, Escher R, Baum O, Lienemann P, Makanya A, Keshet E, Djonov V. Decrease in VEGF expression induces intussusceptive vascular pruning. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Dec;31(12):2836-44.". In: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW. "Hlushchuk R, Makanya AN, Djonov V. Escape mechanisms after antiangiogenic treatment, or why are the tumors growing again? Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55(4-5):563-7.". In: Int J Dev Biol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "INSTITUTIONS AND GENDER INEQUALITY: A CASE STUDY OF CONSTITUENCY DEVELOPMENT FUND IN KENYA.". In: Regional Development Studies, Vol. 14, pp. 29-44. OSSREA; 2011.
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Institutions and Gender Inequality: A Case Study of the Constituency Development Fund in Kenya.". In: Regional Development Studies, Vol. 14, pp. 29-44. OSSREA; 2011.
MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. "Karsenti, Collins, Harper, Gakuu, Barry, Hafkins (2011). Pedagogical Integration of ICT: Successes and Challeges from 87 African Countries. Ottawa, ON: IDRC.". In: Text Book.; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Kirori, G. N.. Mariara, J. W. and Kiriti-Nganga, T. (2011), .". In: Journal of International Business and Finance, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-27. Serials Publications; 2011. Abstract
This paper investigates the impact of social capital on consumption expenditure of households in rural
W. MSKIVUTI-BITOKLUCY. "Kivuti, L. and Chepchirchir, A. (February 2011). Computerization readiness. Online Journal of Nursing Informatics(OJNI), 15,Available at http://ojni.org/issues/?p=178.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol 38 No.1 June,. UoN; 2011. Abstract
This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among middle and functional level nurse managers at a National Referral Hospital with the aim of establishing their preparedness for computerization of nursing services, their attitudes towards computerization, their training needs, and their preferred mode of study. A purposive sample of all 112 nurse managers was obtained for this study. The response rate was 95.5 % (n=107). Data was collected using structured, selfadministered questionnaires. The study revealed that nurse managers had positive attitudes toward use of computers. Their attitudes toward use of computers were not significantly influenced by accessibility to computers or competence in computer use, but nursing experience and the age of the respondents had a negative influence on attitudes toward computerization of nursing services (p=0.05). Eighty-five percent of the respondents (n=91) did not have computer studies during their training in basic nursing; 51% (n=55) had sought training in computers after their basic training; 98% (n=105) desired to be trained in computer applications; and 69.1% (n
NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW. "Makanya AN, El-Darawish Y, Kavoi BM, Djonov V. Spatial and functional relationships between air conduits and blood capillaries in the pulmonary gas exchange tissue of adult and developing chickens. Microsc Res Tech. 2011 Feb;74(2):159-69.". In: Microsc Res Tech. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW. "Makanya AN, Hlushchuk R, Djonov V The pulmonary blood-gas barrier in the avian embryo: inauguration, development and refinement. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011 Aug 31;178(1):30-8.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "Munyaneza, O., Ndayisaba, C., Wali, U.G., Mulungu, M.M. D., and Dulo, O. S., 2011. Integrated Flood and Drought Management for Sustainable Development in the Kagera River Basin.". In: Nile Water Science and Engineering Journal, 4(1): 60-70. Nile Water Science and Engineering Journal; 2011.
MBALUKA DRMUNYAOTITUS. "Mycosis fungoides presenting at eight years of age East African Medical Journal 2011(In press).". In: Journal. Archives of Dermatology; 2011. Abstract
The chapter discusses common both infectious and non infectious skin diseases in the tropical environment in a medicine text book: Medicine: Non-communicable Diseases in Adults; which widely explores common medical diseases in the tropical setting. The chapter begins with the outline, glossary of terms and introduction to the structure and function of the skin. Skin infections are discussed under bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infestations at the end of the section.The section on Allergic or immunological disorders discusses eczema in its diversity, urticaria and adverse cutaneous drug reactions.The last section discusses acne vulgaris and the papulosquamous disorders.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Paron P., Vargas Rojas R. and Omuto C.T. 2011. Integrated landform mapping: methodology and application for digital soil mapping in Somalia. IAG/AIG REGIONAL CONFERENCE 2011, .". In: IAG/AIG REGIONAL CONFERENCE. International Association of Geomorphologists; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch) Sorok and Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire) in the laboratory.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Philip M. Ngumbi 1,2, Lucy W. Irungu2, Paul N. Ndegwa2 & Nguya K. Maniania3 1Kenya Medical Research; 2011.
KAVITI DRLILIANKATUNGE. "Perspectives in Bantu Grammar-The Case of Kikamba. VDM-Verlag Dr. Muller, Gmblt & Co, Saabrucken, Germany.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. VDM-Verlag Dr. Muller, Gmblt & Co, Saabrucken, Germany.; 2011.
WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Family Size in Nyeri District of Rural Kenya.". In: Regional Development Studies, Vol. 14, pp. 29-44. UNCRD; 2011.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2011.
2010
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Extraction of Resistances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputtered TiO2 Films,.". In: Opto-Electronics Devices: Their potential for Sustainable Development, conference held at the Department of Physics, University of Nairobi. DEPT OF PHYSICS, UON: Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

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Kisipan ML, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW. "The epididymis of rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens): Structure, adaptations and role in sperm maturation and storage.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibitions. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L., Makanya, A.N., Oduor-Okelo, D. and Onyango, DW; 2010. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Electrochemical Characterization of TiO2 Blocking Layers Prepared by Reactive DC Magteron Sputtering.". In: African School on Nanoscience for solar Energy Conversion, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. AKAKI CAMPUS, ADDIS ABABA: Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

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SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antimicrobial and antiparasitic abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Clerodendrum eriophyllum." Natural Products Communication. 2010;5(6):853-858. AbstractWebsite

Machumi F, Samoylenko V, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Wiggers FT, Jacob MR, Tekwani BL, Khan SI, Walker LA, Muhammad I.; Nat Prod Commun. 2010 5(6), pp. 853-8.

Chromatographic separation of the roots of a Kenyan medicinal plant, Clerodendrum eriophyllum, led to the isolation of ten abietane diterpenoids (1-10), one of which (1) was isolated for the first time from a natural source. Using spectroscopic data, the structure of 1 was determined to be 12-hydroxy-8,12-abietadiene-3,11,14-trione. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the stereochemistry of compounds 1, 3, and 6-8 belongs to the normal series of abietane diterpenes, which confirmed the absolute stereochemistry of the isolated compounds. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, antifungal and antibacterial activities. Compounds 3 and 7 exhibited potent antifungal activity (IC50/MIC 0.58/1.25 and 0.96/2.5 microg/mL, respectively) against C. neoformans, whereas 3, 6 and 7 showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with IC50/MIC values between 1.33-1.75/2.5-5 and 0.96-1.56/2.5 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 9 exhibited potent antileishmanial activity (IC50 0.08 and 0.20 microg/mL, respectively) against L. donovani, while 3 and 7 displayed weak antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, but 9 was inactive.

E.N. PN. "Antiretroviral therapy in a core transmission group of Kenyan female sex workers is not associated with increased sexual risk taking.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) prolongs life and reduces infectiousness, in some contexts it has been associated with increased sexual risk taking. We compared self-reported condom use, client numbers, and STI incidence in HIV-infected Kenyan female sex workers (FSW) before and after starting ART (n=62), as well in control FSWs not starting ART (n=40). Sexual behaviour with casual clients did not change after ART initiation; condom use increased and STI incidence decreased in both cases and controls, likely due to successful cohort-wide HIV prevention efforts. ART provision was not associated with increases in unsafe sex in this core transmission group.

MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya John M. Kagira & Paul W. N. Kanyari & Ndicho Maingi & Samuel M. Githigia & J. C. Ng." Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:865. 2010;42:865-873. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Free-range pig farming is common amongst the small-scale farmers in western Kenya. In order to determine the characteristics of this type of production system, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on farm characteristics and management was collected from 182 farmers in Busia District. The mean farm size was one acre, while the mean number of pigs per farm was 3.6. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income (98%) and majority were of cross breed variety (64%). The production systems included farrow to weaner (12%), porker to finisher (36%), and mixed (46%). Sixty five percent (65%) of the pigs were tethered and housing was not provided in 61% of the farms. Most of the feeds were sourced locally. Lack of castration and delayed weaning of pigs was observed on 49% and 30% of the farms, respectively. The main production constraints included pig diseases (81%) and high cost or lack of feed (81%). Haematopinus suis infestations and worm infections were considered to be the most important diseases by 71% and 55% of the farmers, respectively. Farmers had moderate knowledge on parasitic disease diagnosis with 31% and 62% not having a history of either deworming or spraying pigs with acaricides, respectively. Marketing constraints were common amongst the farmers and included poor prices and inadequate market information. In conclusion, the production system was characterized as low-input with an income objective. Future research and development approaches should focus on the integration of free-range farmers into the country's market chains through access to extension services.

Wagacha JM, Steiner U, Dehne H-W, Zuehlke S, Spiteller M, Muthomi J, Oerke E-C. "Diversity in Mycotoxins and fungal species infecting wheat in Nakuru District, Kenya." Journal of Phytopathology. 2010;157:527-535.Website
I.M. M, PE EKWOM, G OYOO, E A. "Ekwom PE, Oyoo G, Amayo E and Muriithi IM. Prevalence and Characteristics of Articular Manifestations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. EAMJ. 2010;87:408-414.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. EAMJ; 2010. Abstract

Background: Articular manifestations have been reported in HIV infection with a prevalence ranging from 2.5 to 68%.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence, types and characteristics of articular manifestations in the anti-retroviral treatment naive HIV infected patients.

Design: Cross sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Comprehensive care clinic (HIV outpatient clinic) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) from October 2007 to March 2008.

Subjects: One hundread and ninety three patients; 135 females and 58 males, aged between 19 to 65 years with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were naive to anti - retroviral drug therapy.

Main outcome measure: Presence of articular manifestations that included HIV associated arthritis, HIV associated spondyloarthropathies, HIV associated arthralgia, painful articular syndrome and avascular necrosis.

Results: Thirty three of these 193 patients had articular manifestation with a prevalence of 17.1 %. The type prevalence was; HIV associated arthralgia, 15.6%; undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, 1 % and HIV associated arthritis; 0.5%. Their mean age was 36± 9 years, range 23-63 years; majority were female, male to female ratio of 1: 2.3 and the majority were in World health organization (WHO) clinical staging of HIV infection, class II and III with a mean CD4 cell count of 330 cells/mm3. Seventeen (51.5%) of the
patients with articular disease had oligo - articular presentation, 10(30.3%) mono-articular while 6(18.2%) had poly - articular presentation. The mean duration of joint pains was 53.3 days (range of 2-365 days). Six (18.2%) of these 33 patients missed work, home making activities or school due to the articular disease.

Conclusion: Articular manifestations are common in HIV infection with a prevalence of 17.1 %. HIV associated arthralgia was the most common manifestation. Majority of these patients were female, male to female ratio of 1: 2.3. The mean age of these patients was 36 years with a mean CD4 cell count of 330 cells/mm3 with 18.2 % of them missing school or work.

E.N. PN. "ENTERING SEX WORK IN THE INFORMAL URBAN SETTLEMENT OF KIBERA, NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Female sex work has long been recognized as an important factor in the urban sub-Saharan Africa HIV/AIDS pandemic, and in some cities remains a driving force for HIV transmission. However, despite a long history of epidemiological studies, there are still gaps in our knowledge of the social epidemiology of African female sex work. For example, the basic question of why some women enter into sex work, while others in the same socio-economic environment never do, remains under researched. We investigated this question for two samples of same-aged women, one of whom is currently practicing commercial sex, and another who has never done so. Both come from the informal urban settlement of Kibera, located in Nairobi, Kenya. Inclusion of another sample of women who can serve as comparisons to female sex workers is a notable feature of our research design, and one missing from many ecological and intervention studies. Using respondent driven sampling, we collected socio-economic and sexual behavioural data for a total for 320 women, evenly divided between female sex workers and Kibera women working in other occupations (e.g. hair-dressing, tailoring, hotel workers and food servers) from all ten Kibera communities to test the hypothesis that past and present family ties and structure are important predictors of entry into sex work. Results of univariate and multivariate analyses testing this hypothesis are discussed with respect to the African cultural practice of child fostering and future interventions.

Magutu PO, MBECHE IM, NYAMWANGE SO. "Formulation and Implementation Of Operation Strategies Used In Solid Waste Management: Case Study Of City Council Of Nairobi.". In: Journal of African Research in Business & Technology. IBIMA Publishing; 2010. Abstract

be serious

MWANGI DRGAKUUCHRISTOPHER. GAKUU C.M. (2010), Distance Learning in Higher Education: An African Perspective. VDM Verlag Dr. M.; 2010. Abstractphd_book-_4.pdfWebsite

ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Gelaw Y, Kollmann M, Irungu NM, Ilako DR. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness on Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Among Selected Ethiopian Communities. J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print].". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

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BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages.
RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012

PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "IN VITRO EFFECTS OF WARBURGIA UGANDENSIS, PSIADIA PUNCTULATA AND CHASMANTHERA DEPENDENS ON LEISHMANIA MAJOR PROMASTIGOTES.". In: Afr. J. Trad. CAM 7 (3): 264-275. Edward K. Githinji, Lucy W. Irungu, Willy K. Tonui, Geoffrey M. Rukunga, Charles Mutai, Charles N. M; 2010. Abstract

Plant extracts from Warburgia ugandensis Sprague (Family: Canellaceae), Psiadia punctulata Vatke (Family: Compositae) and Chasmanthera dependens Hoschst (Family: Menispermaceae) were tested for activity on Leishmania major promastigotes (Strain IDU/KE/83 = NLB-144) and infected macrophages in vitro. Plants were collected from Baringo district, dried, extracted, weighed and tested for antileishmanial activity. Serial dilutions of the crude extracts were assayed for their activity against Leishmania major in cell free cultures and in infected macrophages in vitro. Inhibitory concentrations and levels of cytotoxicity were determined. Warburgia ugandensis, Psiadia punctulata and Chasmanthera dependens had an IC(50) of 1.114 mg/ml, 2.216 mg/ml and 4.648 mg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the drugs on BALB/c peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant as compared to the highly toxic drug of choice Pentostam(®). The supernatants from control and Leishmania infected macrophages were analyzed for their nitrite contents by Griess reaction and nitrite absorbance measured at 540 nm. Warburgia ugandensis (stem bark water extract), Chasmanthera dependens (stem bark water extract) and Psiadia punctulata (stem bark methanol extract) produced 112.3%, 94% and 88.5% more nitric oxide than the untreated infected macrophages respectively. Plant crude extracts had significant (p<0.05) anti-leishmanial and immunomodulative effects but insignificant cytotoxic effects at 1mg/ml concentration. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis of the differences between mean values obtained from the experimental group compared to the controls was done by students't test. ANOVA was used to determine the differences between the various treatment groups. The analysis program Probit was used to determine IC(50)s.

MBURU STEPHENNGANGA. "Longhorn ICT for Teacher Training Colleges (manuscript).". In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences. Longhorn; 2010.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2010). Pastoral Regimes for Scarce Water Management in Drylands - the Boran of Kenya. A paper presented at a Workshop on ``Land Grab." HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

Buregeya A, Ochoki B. "Misuse of prepositions in Kenyan English: Further evidence of the difficulty in choosing the "right" preposition." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2010;2(1):71-85. Abstract

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SOLOMON DRDERESE. "neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia." Phytochemistry Letters. 2010;3(4):217-220. AbstractWebsite

Leonidah K. Omosa, Jacob O. Midiwo, Solomon Derese, Abiy Yenesew, Martin G. Peter, Matthias Heydenreich.

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are morphologically similar.

"On the minimal number of generators of an Ideal of general points in a projective space, P4.". In: ICM2010 Conference Proceedings. 2010; 2010. Abstract

A short Communication presented at the ICM2010 in Hyderabad - India, on the 21st  of August 2010 .
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ONYAMBU DRKWAMBOKACALLEN, MATHENGE DRMURIITHIIAN. "Onyambu CK, Muriithi IM, Ngare SM. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: A Report of Two Cases. EAMJ.2010;87:220-224." EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 2010;87(5):220-224. AbstractWebsite

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which is often under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of the variability of the clinical signs and symptoms. The imaging findings are often subtle thus the need for a high index of suspicion. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses are the most frequently involved. The correct diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis relies on neuroimaging studies. The two cases reported highlight the fact that the radiologist may be the first clinician to suspect and diagnose this condition. This ultimately affects prognosis as early diagnosis and treatment reduces morbidity and mortality.

MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoa and association with risk factors in free range pigs in Kenya Kagira, J.M.; Githigia,S.M.; Nganga, J.C.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Maingi,N.; Gachohi, J.M." Journal of Protozoology Research 20, 1-9.. 2010;20:1-9. AbstractWebsite

The current study investigated the occurrence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) protozoa and associated risk factors in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. A total of 306 pigs from 135 farms in 6 Divisions were sampled for feces, which were analysed for parasites using direct smear and McMaster floatation methods. Associations between the occurrence of the parasites and explanatory variables (sex, age, division of origin and rainfall) were undertaken using ANOVA, chi-square and Pearson’s correlation statistics. The following gastrointestinal protozoan parasites were identified: Entamoeba spp. (87%), Balantidium coli (64%), Tritrichomonas suis (42%) and Coccidia spp (33%). The mean coccidial oocysts per gram (OPG) of all the sampled pigs was 1,276 (range = 0-28,000 OPG) and the proportions of the species included: Eimeria debliecki (40%), E. suis (26%), E. porci (16%), E. scabra (13%) and E. polita (5%). There was negative correlation between the amount of rainfall in the division of pig origin and prevalence of Eimeria spp, Tt. suis, and Entamoeba spp, but a positive correlation with prevalence of B. coli. The prevalences of Eimeria spp., Entamoeba spp. and Tt. suis were higher in males than females; but it was only the sex-differences for Tt. suis which were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The prevalences of Tt. suis in sows were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of growers and piglets. It was concluded that GIT protozoan parasites of economic and zoonotic significance occur in pigs in the study area and effective control strategies should be implemented.

MUNYAO ML. "Remittances from Abroad: Do they promote investment or they are just used for consumption.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2010. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Rose O. Opiyo, Mutuku A. Mwanthi, Mary K. Kinoti, Prescilla S. Migori. Intestinal Worm Infections and Nutritional Status of School Children in Nairobi Province, Kenya.". In: African Journal for Community Health and Development. Vol. 1; NO.1. 52-56, 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract

.Helminthic infections among children are subtle and insidious constraints on normal physical development. They impact negatively on children's genetic potential growth, with clinical consequences of iron.deficiency anaemia and other nutritional deficiencies (Awasthi et al., 2003). School-age children are particularly at risk of parasitic infections and under-nutrition, yet they have not been the focus of nutritional surveys. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Nairobi among school children 5-14 years in early 2006 from 39 randomly selected schools. 32 were public, five were private and two were informal schools. Stool samples from 1632 pupils were microscopically examined (Katz et a!. 1972) to establ ish the presence or absence of soil transmitted helminthic eggs and Schistosoma manson; while nutritional status data were analysed for 1574 pupils because their anthropometry data were correctly recorded. i, The prevatenceof .chton ic malnutrition .. (stunting) among the children was determined using Height-for-Age nutrition status indicator while being underweight or overweight was determined using the BMI-for-Age indicator. 12.8% of the children were infected by at least one of the three soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and S. mensoni. 33% were underweight while 10.7% were stunted. Children with parasitic infections were three times more likely to be underweight than those without infections (p>O.OS). Children with over one parasitic infections were 1.6 times more likely to be underweight than those exposed to one type. Exposure to parasitic infection contributes to both underweight and stunting among school children ..

MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Seroprevalence of cysticercus cellulosae and associated risk factors in free range pigs in Kenya Kagira, J.M.; Maingi,N.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Githigia,S.M.; Nganga, J.C.; Gachohi, J.M." Journal of Helminthology. 2010;84:398-403. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging zoonosis with public health and economic importance. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the disease in free-range pigs on 182 smallholder farms in Busia District, Kenya. The survey households were selected using a snowballing technique. Serum samples were obtained from 284 pigs of all ages at farm level and 37 pigs from slaughter slabs in the study area. The samples were analysed for the presence of cysticercus antigen using an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A structured questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors for porcine cysticercosis on the study farms. At pig level, the total number of pigs testing positive were 11, resulting in a seroprevalence of 4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-6.2%), while the farms with a positive pig were 9% (95% CI: 3.9-14.1%). All pigs examined in the slaughter slab survey were seronegative. The distribution of possible risk factors for porcine cysticercosis that were observed at farm level was as follows: free-range pig keeping (100%), history of human taeniosis infection in a family (51%), slaughtering of pigs at home (20%), lack of meat inspection (15%) and absence of latrines (15%). The only significant (χ2 = 4.4, P = 0.034, odds ratio (OR) = 3.8) risk factor associated with the occurrence of cysticercosis was lack of latrines at household level. The study shows that porcine cysticercosis is prevalent in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya and thus control measures need to be instituted.

Charles Walter (Eds.). Sur la conjecture de la minimale résolution de l’ideal d’un arrangement general d’un grand nombre de points dans un espace projectif. Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis; 2010. Abstract

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture is known and has been verified for Projective Spaces of dimension 2 and 3. Also there many counter examples for example for 11 points in a Projective Space of dimension 6, 12 points in a Projective Spaces of dimension 7. However, for Projective Spaces of dimension 4, it is believed to be true but the complete proof has not been written up so far. F Lauze tackled part of the resolution in his thesis.

MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "A survey of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in Kwale district, Kenya. Kamanja, I.T.; Githigia, S.M.; Muchemi, G.M. and Mwandawiro." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2010;7(1). AbstractWebsite

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and possible public health importance of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in Kwale District. Abattoir surveys were carried out where the mesenteric veins of the carcasses were visually examined for the presence of adult S. bovis worms. Three abattoirs were visited. These were Ngombeni and Kwale slaughter houses in Matuga division and Mwambungo slaughter house in Msabweni division. Identification of S. bovis eggs was done after sedimentation of rectal faecal samples. A total of 492 samples from various divisions in the district were analyzed. Snails were sampled using the scooping method in the water bodies and digging in riverbeds. They were put in 24-well microtitre plates under the shade for at least two hours to induce shedding of cercariae. Stool and urine samples from school going children from Matuga Msabweni and Kinango divisions were analyzed for S. bovis eggs. The prevalence of S. bovis eggs as 16.9% while the prevalence of S. bovis adult worms was 25.1%. Snails of the genus Bulinus were recovered from the various water bodies. No S. bovis eggs were recovered from the stool samples. Eggs of S. haematobium were recovered from urine samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that the adult worms recovered from slaughtered cattle were S. bovis. It was concluded that S.bovis is prevalent in cattle in Kwale district. The water bodies were infested with the snail intermediate host.

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Rahbar N, Obwoya SK, Zimba J, Yakub I, Soboyejo WO. "Thermal Shock Resistance of a Kyanite-Based (Aluminosilicate) Ceramic." Experimewntal Mechanics. 2010;DOI 10(April 2010). AbstractWebsite

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Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. 
Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
 
The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively.
The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.
 KEY WORDS
Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial

E. DROWAKAHFRANCIS. "African Social and Political Philosophy.". In: Thought & Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. Centre for Open & Distance Learning, University of nairobi; 2010. Abstract
An Instructional Manual for teaching African Social and Political Philosophy, a fourth year course in the department of Philosophy.
NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Agnes N Wausi & Timothy M. Waema (2010) Implementing IS in Developing Country HE Context: Towards Creating A Favourable Implementation Context.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2010. Abstract
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KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Antioxidant activity of phenolics in indigenous foods.". In: International Conference on .; 2010. Abstract
                                    Abstract
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Bioavailability of Essential Trace elements in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Eastern parts of Kenya as determined using the EDXRF Technique. B. K. Nyilitya1, D. M. Maina1, L. W. Njenga2 and J. M. Onyari2.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
R. DRILAKODUNERA, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya.Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):41-9.". In: PMID: 20100099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

R. DRILAKODUNERA, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya.Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):41-9.". In: PMID: 20100099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

MALLANS DRRAMBOCHARLES. "Charles M. Rambo and Paul A. Odundo; FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE LEARNERS.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol. IV No. 2. European Psychiatric Journal; 2010.

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