Bio

Publications


2014

Mugendi, GA, Nyamu DG, Okalebo FA, Nyamweya NN, Ndwigah SN, Mwangi JM.  2014.  Comparison of Losartan and Enalapril Effects on Renal Function in Hypertensive Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease at a Kenyan Referral Hospital. East Afr Med J.. 91(4):125-132.
Kerama, SK, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Guantai EM, Ndwigah SN, Maru SM.  2014.  Risk Factors and Management of Stress Ulcers inthe Critical Care Unit in a Kenyan Referral Hospital. Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 3(2):51-61.
Karumi, EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukunu NA.  2014.  Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.. East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 16(4):77-82.
Onyango, MA, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Osanjo GO, Sinei KS.  2014.  Determinants of Appropriate Antibiotic Dosing in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in a Kenyan Referral Hospital. Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 3(1):19-28.
Tarkang, PA, Franzoi KD, Lee S, Lee E, Vivarelli D, Freitas-Junior L, Luizzi M, Tsabang N, Ayong LS, Agbor G, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN.  2014.  In vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang.. Biomed. Res. Int.. Article ID 835013

2013

Okalebo, FA, Ngaruiya MN, Changwony P, Oluka MO, Karume DW, Maloba KN.  2013.  The antinociceptive effects of Hydrazinocurcumin. Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2(2):66-69.
Tarkang, PA, Atchan APN, Kuiate J-R, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Agbor G.  2013.  Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value.. Adv. Pharmacol. Sci.. Article ID 678458
Sinei, K, Okalebo FA, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM.  2013.  An Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Acmella caulirhiza. Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2(4):130-133.

2012

Tarkang, PA, Okalebo FA, Agbor GA, Tsabang N, Guantai AN, Rukunga GM.  2012.  Indigenous Knowledge and folk use of a polyherbal antimalarial by the Bayang Community, South West Region of Cameroon. J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour.. 2(3):372-380.

2011

Kibwage, IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK.  2011.  Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).
Mayunzu, O, Shitanda D, Okalebo F, Simiyu L.  2011.  Quality Comparison of Mondia whytei And Vanilla Yogurt. Annals. Food Science and Technology. 12(2):130-134.
APOLOT, DROKALEBOFAITH.  2011.  Wanyama P. Juma, Hoseah M. Akala, Fredrick L. Eyase, Lois L. Muiva, Matthias Heydenreich, Faith A. Okalebo, Martin Peter, Douglas Walsh, Mabel Imbuga, Abiy Yenesew. Terpurinflavone: an antiplasmodial flavone from the stem of Tephrosia purpurea. Phytochemi. Manuscript number PHYTOL-D-00140R1. : Phytochemistry Letters Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} 1. Introduction Tephrosia Pers (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) is a large tropical and sub-tropical genus estimated to contain about three hundred species (Waterman and Khalid, 1980; Abou-Douh et al., 2005) out of which thirty species are found in Kenya (Tarus et al., 2002). The extracts of some Tephrosia species have shown various biological activities including antiplasmodial (Muiva et al., 2009), antibacterial (Abou-Douh et al., 2005) anticancer (Santram et al., 2006) and insecticidal activities (Delfel et al., 1970). The taxon T. purpurea is among the most widely used Tephrosia species in traditional medicine (Damre et al., 2003). Various biological activities including antibacterial (Hegazy et al., 2009; Chinniah et al., 2009), antidiabetic and antioxidant (Pavana et al., 2009), immunomodulatory (Damre et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory (Damre et al., 2003) and cancer chemopreventive activities (Chang et al., 2000) have been reported for extracts and pure compounds from this plant. T. purpurea. is rich in prenylated flavonoids including flavones (Hegazy et al., 2009; Pelter et al., 1981), flavanones (Pelter et al., 1981; Gupta et al., 1980), chalcones (Chang et al., 2000; Pelter et al., 1981) and rotenoids (Ahmad et al., 1999). In the search for compounds with antiplasmodial activity from Kenyan plants, the stem of T. purpurea has been investigated. This report is on the isolation and characterization of a new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone (1), with antiplasmodial activity along with three known flavonoids. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The stem extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed antiplasmodial activity against the D6 (chloroquinesensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 10.47  2.22 mg/ml and 12.06 2.54 mg/ml, respectively. A new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone, along with the known compounds lanceolatin A, -semiglabrin and lanceolatin B have been isolated from this extract. The new compound, terpurinflavone, showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.12  0.28 mM (D6) and 6.26  2.66 mM (W2). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
APOLOT, DROKALEBOFAITH.  2011.  Oscar Mayunzu, D. Shitanda, F. Okalebo and L. Simiyu. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant properties of Extracts of Mondia whytei roots. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (X): XX-XX, 2010. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (x): xx-xx, 2010 ISBN 16. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (x): xx-xx, 2010. : Pakistan Journal of Nutrition Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of Mondia whytei (M. whytei) root barks were screened for their inhibitory effects on some fungal and bacterial strains. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC25923), Escherichia coli (E. coli) 0157:H7 (PSSCMI 0032), Bacillus subtillus, Candida albicans and Asparagus niger were used as test organisms. The water extract lacked significant activity against all organisms except Staphylococcus. aureus where the water extract exhibited the highest activity. However, the ethanol extract had significant activity against Candida albicans and Asperigillus niger with minimuminhibitory values of 58.59 and 14.65 μg/ml respectively. Methanol had high Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of less than 14.65 and 14.7 μg/ml for Asperigillus niger and E. coli respectively. From the results it was concluded that activity varied with the solvent used. Contrary to previous reports, the plant seems to lack significant antibacterial activity except against E. coli. The popularity of a herbal recipe is not always a measure for its potency. However, M. whytei had antifungal activity since the ethanol and methanol extracts showed significant activity against the tested strains of fungi. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was also evaluated using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. M. whytei exhibited substantial inhibition of the DPPH activity with EC50 of 413 mg/l for the crude extracts. The results suggest that M. whytei has significant antioxidant activity as demonstrated by the DPPH assay. This antioxidant activity of the crude extracts can be attributed to the presence of 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzaldehyde that is a known antioxidant in the root extracts.  Key words: Aqueous, ethanol extract, methanol extract

2010

APOLOT, DROKALEBOFAITH.  2010.  test. Vol 2 (2) pages 024-031. : eamj Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya. Key words Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability
APOLOT, DROKALEBOFAITH.  2010.  F. A. Okalebo, A. N. Guantai, C. K. Maitai, I. O. Kibwage. Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae). East African Journal of Botany. 2 (1): 279 . East African Journal of Botany. 2 (1): 279 . : East Afri. J. Botany Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The leaves and old stems of Cletmatis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) are chewed in Kenya for the management of toothache and sore throat. An infusion of the leaf is drunk for the management of headaches and abdominal disorders.  The study was done to determine the scientific rationale for the use of the plant as an analgesic and for the management of abdominal disorders.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to the hot plate and tail pressure tests for antinociceptive activity and guinea pig wheal test for local anesthetic activity.  The effects of the extracts on the isolated rabbit jejunum were also studied.  The extracts of the leaf and stem were found to have significant local anesthetic and antinociceptive activity. The extracts had spasmolytic effects on the isolated rabbit jejunum.  These findings support the traditional uses of the plant which could be subjected to bioactivity guided isolation for analgesic, local anaesthetic and spasmolytic compounds.  Key words: Clematis; Ranunculaceae; plant extracts; antinociceptive; local anesthesia; spasmolytic
Karara, MW.  2010.  Comparative tolerability and efficacy of stavudine 30 mg versus stavudine 40 mg in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy in Kenya. Journal of AIDS and HIV Research. 2(2):024-031.: Journal of AIDS and HIV Research AbstractWebsite

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This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya.
Key words
Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability

2009

Thoithi, GN, Faith A.  2009.  Country case study: Kenya.
APOLOT, DROKALEBOFAITH.  2009.  Grace N. Thoithi and Faith A. Okalebo. Country case study: Kenya. In: 2009 FIP Global Pharmacy Workforce Report. No. 5.4. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), Hage, Netherlands.. FIP Global Pharmacy Workforce Report. No. 5.4.. : International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), Hague, Netherlands Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya. Key words Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability

2008

2002

APOLOT, DROKALEBOFAITH.  2002.  F. A. Okalebo, H. A. Rabah, A. N. Guantai, C. K. Maitai, I. O. Kibwage, J. W. Mwangi and W. Masengo. The antimalarial and antimicrobial activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis brachiata extracts. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutic. Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17.. : The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial

2000

Okalebo, FA.  2000.  Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of clematis brachiata thunberg. Abstract

The leaves, stem and roots of Clematis brachiata Thunberg
(Ranunculaceae) tested positive for anthraquinones, alkaloids,
saponins, coumarins, sterols, carotenoids and flavanoids and
cardenolides. Only the stem and leaves had tannins. The root had the
highest amounts of alkaloids and anthraquinones
The stem Soxhlet methanol extract yielded 13.2 mg (0.029 % of the
dried stem powder) of quercetrin (3-0-beta-L- rhamnosyl, 3', 4', 5, 7
tetrahydroxyl flavone). In addition the extract yielded 6400 mg
(1.3 % of dried stem powder) of a precipitate, FAO-FRS. It was
composed of a mixture of non-aromatic compounds.
The roots yielded 170 mg (0.068 % of dried root powder) of a nonaromatic
unsaturated lactone.
The Soxhlet methanol extracts of the leaves and stem had very good
activity against brine shrimps (LDso66.5 ug/ml and 365.6 ug/ml
respectively). An ethyl acetate ffaction of the stem Soxhlet extract,
FES, had the greatest activity against the-shrimps (LDso= 23.08
ug/ml).
The cold methanol extract of the root showed good in vitro
antimalarial activity (LDso = 39.9 ug/ml) against highly chloroquine
resistant isolate, Plasmodium falciparum VliS.
The leaf and stem extracts showed low in vitro antimalarial activity.
Quercetrin is known to have in vivo antimalarial activity.
None of the isolates and plant extracts showed significant
antimicrobial activity.
FAO-FRS, the cold methanol extracts of the leaf and stem showed
antinociceptive and local anesthetic effects.
The cold methanol extracts of the leaf, stem and roots caused
relaxation of the isolated rabbit ileum. At low concentrations, FAOFRS
caused relaxation of the isolated rabbit ileum and at high
concentration it had a dose dependent contractile effect.
The traditional use the leaves and stems of C. brachiata Thunb as
analgesics, local anesthetics, antimalarial agents and spasmolytics,
seems tv have sound scientific rationale. The traditional use of the roots for the management of malaria and as a purgative seems to have
scientific rationale.

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