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2017

Hayashi, Y, Fukuda H, Matsuura T, Toda K.  2017.  Oral hygiene status among the Elderly in an area with limited access to dental services in a rural Kenyan community.. Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health 2017. 4(402)

2016

B, S, L G, E W.  2016.  Knowledge, attitude and use of mouthwash among Dental and Medical students of the University of Nairobi. International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health. 2016. 2(4):2-6.
M, M, TK M, G WE.  2016.  Salivary flow rate in adult Kenyans and its relationship with chronic periodontitis. Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene 2016. 8(7):37-42.
Fukuda, H, Saito T, Kihara E, Ogada C, Wagaiyu EG, Hayashi Y.  2016.  Oral Hygiene Status of Chewing Stick Users in a Rural Kenyan Community.. OHDM. 15(2)
Muasya, MK, Dienya TM, Wagaiyu EG, Nduati R, Kiarie JN.  2016.  Capacity of non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities selected for decentralised dental training. East African Medical Journal. 93(2) Abstract

Objective: To determine the capacity of six non-tertiary Kenyan hospitals enrolled as sites for decentralised dental education.

Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Setting: The Dental departments of six non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities.

Main outcome measures: Capacity of the hospitals to be used as sites for decentralised dental education.

Results: Five out of the six facilities had capacity for final year undergraduate students to gain learning experiences in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied. All the selected facilities had challenges of lack of specialists, broken down dental equipment and inadequate materials.

Conclusion: Although the six hospitals faced various challenges in maintenance of equipment, availability of dental materials and specialist staff, five out of the six facilities had the capacity for dental student learning in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied.

2013

2012

Kihara, EN, Opondo F, Ocholla TJ, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E.  2012.  5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Butt, FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, Wagaiyu E.  2012.  19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

2009

Wagaiyu, FG, Macigo F.  2009.  Periodontal health status of HIV infected adults in Kenyatta National Hospital. Abstract

To assess the periodontal health status ofHIV infected adults including the periodontal lesions associated with HIV infection. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study of HI V patients. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: HIV positive patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital Methods: All HIV infected adults admitted in the medical wards at KNH during the months of Aug and Sept 2005 were examined. Plaque levels were assessed and the periodontal tissues examined for gingival inflammation, probing pocket depths and recession on four sites per tooth. Examination for the presence or absence of linear gingival erythema (LGE), necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/P) was included. Results: A total of 109 patients were examined. 40 (36.7%) of them were male and 69 (63.3%) female. 43 (39.4%) of the patients were between 30-39 years. 4 (3.7%) were 17-19 years while 6 (5.5%) were 50-59 years. Only 15 patients (13.8%) were on Anti-Retrovirals. All the patients had plaque however, none had abundant plaque. The mean plaque score was 1.2 and all the individuals were found to have plaque. 95.4% of the patients had early inflammatory changes of the gingival tissues with redness but no bleeding on probing. Bleeding on probing was seen in 40.3% of the patients. Linear gingival erythema was recorded in 17.4% (19) of the patients. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis was seen in 6 (5.5%) of the patients while necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis was also seen in 6 (5.5%) individuals. 10 (9.2% ) individuals examined did not have any periodontal breakdown since they did not exhibit any clinical loss of attachment. 21 (19.3%) hadat least one site with 4mm or more loss ofattachment and of these 10 (9.2%) had one site with 5mm or more. 89 (81.7%) had mean loss of attachment of between 0.25-2.5mm. Conclusions: This group of HIV infected individuals did not exhibit extensive periodontal destruction. The presence of periodontal lesions associated with HIV like Liner Gingival Erythema was seen in 17.4%, Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis and Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis were present in 5.5%. Recommendations: The management ofHIV/AlDS patients should include periodontal therapy, oral hygiene instructions and other measures to improve periodontal health. In addition, comparative studies of HIV negative and HIV positive persons are needed so as to define the effects ofHIV on periodontal health

Wagaiyu, E G; Kemoli, AM, Ng’ang’a RN;, Kemoli AM.  2009.  HEREDITARY GINGIVAL FIBROMATOSIS: REPORT OF FAMILY CASE SERIES. Abstract

Hereditary gingival hyperplasia (HGF) is a rare condition characterised by hyperplastic, dense fibrous connective tissue with acanthotic gingival epithelium. A family presented at the School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi with a complaint that some of the children developed swollen gums very early in life and that this got worse with eruption of the permanent teeth. The first born, a 23- year- old male, had had the swellings for over ten years. Other siblings aged 5,9 and 12 years were also affected. The swellings had affected the appearance, speech and the psychosocial wellbeing of the children. The parents were unaffected with apparently negative family histories. Following oral examination and appropriate investigations, conventional gingivectomy was performed of the maxillary and the mandibular gingivae for the siblings: the 23 -12- and the nine- year olds. The fourth affected child, a five- year- old, was still in primary dentition and had just started showing mild signs of gingival hyperplasia. The histopathological examination of the specimens from the present cases confirmed features consistent with those of HGF. This article highlights a familial presentation of HGF.

2008

W., DRGATHECELOICE, G DRMACIGOFRANCIS, KITUKU DRMULLITONNIE, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  2008.  Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi. EAMJ Vol 85(8) 378-385. East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 85(8) 378-385. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.

2006

G, DRMACIGOFRANCIS, W. DRGATHECELOICE, KITUKU DRMULLITONNIE, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  2006.  MACIGO, F.G., GATHECE, L.W., GUTHUA, S.W., NJERU, E.K. WAGAIYU, E.G. and MULLI, T.K.: Oral Hygiene Practices and Risk of Oral Leukoplakia. East African Medical Journal, 83 (4), 74-79, 2006.. East African Medical Journal, 83 (4), 74-79, 2006.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2005

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN, W. DRGATHECELOICE.  2005.  Macigo FG1, Gathece LW1, Guthua SW, Njeru EN, Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK. The influence of oral hygiene practices on the risk of oral leukoplakia. East African Medical Journal. in press. Dec 2005. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN, G DRMACIGOFRANCIS.  2005.  Wagaiyu EG, Macigo FG and Muniu EM. Pattern of bone loss in dry mandibles of individuals who died before 1957. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol. 82 No. 10 pg 509-513. 2005. East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):509-13.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract
Department of Periodontology/Community and Preventive Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To map out the pattern of periodontal disease in individuals who died before 1957 and were not exposed to formal dental services. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: National Museums of Kenya. SUBJECTS: The skeletons of people who died before independence are preserved at the National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi. Sixty four out of the 170 dry mandibles stored at the Museum were assessed for periodontal bone loss using a calibrated ruler. RESULTS: All the 64 mandibles assessed were of individuals who died before 1957. Two thousand two hundred and seventy four sites were examined. Most of the subjects were adults aged 30-45 years and the age range was 18-80 years. Majority of the mandibles examined were of the ethnic group from Central Kenya. Of the teeth examined, premolars and molars were the teeth most frequently preserved intact in the sockets. The total mean bone loss for all teeth was 2.51 (SD 1.15) with a range of 0.85-5.80. When the different sites were examined, values for bone loss were 2.59 for mesial surfaces; 2.55 buccal surfaces; 2.38 for distal surfaces. Three categories were identified as follows:- 70% of the individuals had minimal or no bone loss, 26.5% had 3-4 mm or moderate bone loss and 3.5% had >5 mm bone loss or advanced bone loss. Further analysis showed that when bone loss of >3 mm was examined, only 28.12% of the individuals were in this group, 10.93% had >4 mm bone loss and 3.12% had 5 mm or more bone loss. The first molars were the teeth most commonly affected by bone loss of 3mm or more followed by second molars then the premolars. CONCLUSIONS: In this group of individuals mainly from Central Kenya, the bone loss pattern showed that only a small number had experienced periodontal destruction as recorded by bone loss levels. Three groups were identified; those who had no or minimal destruction, those who had experienced moderate destruction and those where obvious bone destruction was evident. Thus susceptibility to periodontal disease is evident in a small proportion of individuals even in populations not exposed to modern diet and formal dental services. Periodontal destruction seems to affect a fraction of the population even when older populations are examined, thus it would save on resources both human and physical if these susceptible individuals could be identified early and treatment provided.

2004

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  2004.  Wagaiyu, E.G., Mulli, T.K. , Ngatia, E.M., Macigo, F.G., Gathece, L.W. and Mutara, L.N. Oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi, Kenya. AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. Vol. 5 No.2 June/July 2004. AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. Vol. 5 No.2 June/July 2004. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  2004.  Mutara L.N., Ngatia E.M., Macigo F.G., Gathece L.W., Wagaiyu E.G., and Mulli T.K. Oral Health Seeking Behaviour among the elderly (45-80 years) in Kenya. JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES.Vol. 5 No 2. June/July 2004. JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2003

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  2003.  Wagaiyu, E. G. Periodontal Aspect of Dentine Sensitivity and its Management. AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES Volume 4 No 2 June / July 2003 Pg 198. AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

1998

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  1998.  Ashley F.P., Usiskin L.A., Wilson R.F and Wagaiyu E.G. The relationship between irregularity of the incisor teeth, plaque and gingivitis: a study in a group of school children aged 11-14 years. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS 20: pg. 65-72, 1998. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

1997

Munenge, RW, Ngatia EM, Gathece LW, Macigo FG, Mulli TK, Mutara LN, Wagaiyu EG.  1997.  Relaxant activities of Ageratum conyzoides extract on isolated trachea and uterus.

1993

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  1993.  Jalil RA, Ashley FP, Wilson RF, Wagaiyu EG.Concentrations of thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA in resting and stimulated whole saliva of children aged 12-14 years and the relationship with plaque accu. J Periodontal Res. 1993 Mar;28(2):130-6.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Resting and stimulated whole saliva was collected from 94 children aged 12-14 years and analyzed for thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA. Clinical assessments of the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation were made, and plaque was collected for determination of dry weight. An inverse relationship was observed between salivary thiocyanate concentrations in both resting and stimulated saliva and the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation in these subjects (p < 0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amounts of plaque and gingivitis (p < 0.05). 'Total' lysozyme concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amount of plaque (p < 0.05), and the 'free' lysozyme concentration in the same saliva was directly related to the amount of gingivitis (p < 0.05). The direct relationship observed between clinical measurements and both lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in saliva may have been due to contributions from gingival crevicular fluid. Cluster analysis identified three groups of subjects with different profiles in resting whole saliva, and in particular with different levels of secretory IgA. A statistically significant difference was observed in the quantity of plaque collected from subjects in two of these groups (p < 0.05). These results from cluster analysis using resting whole saliva from children confirmed the findings of a previous study with young adults.

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  1993.  Nzioka B.M, Nyaga J.K., Wagaiyu E.G The relationship between tooth brushing frequency and personal hygiene habits in teenagers. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol. 70, No.7 pg. 445 . East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):445-8.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. A survey of 904, 14-17 year old school children from secondary schools around Nairobi was done to find out if there was any relationship between toothbrushing frequency and personal hygiene habits. The students completed a questionnaire anonymously in class. Female students brushed their teeth more often than the male students. 62.2% of the females and 50.1% of the males brushed their teeth more than once a day. Of those students who brushed their teeth more than once a day, 52% bathed daily, 22% used perfumes/deodorants daily and 50.1% always washed their hands after visiting the lavatory. No relationship was found between washing of hair and toothbrushing frequency. 69.7% males and 53.2% females gave toothache and tooth decay as the main reasons for mouth care. Those who brushed their teeth more frequently also visited the medical doctor regularly for routine check-ups. These findings indicated that toothbrushing was closely related to personal hygiene habits.
GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  1993.  Jahil R A, Ashley F P Wilson R.F. Wagaiyu E.G Concentrations of thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, . J Periodontal Res. 1993 Mar;28(2):130-6.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, United Medical School of Guy's Hospital, London, UK. Resting and stimulated whole saliva was collected from 94 children aged 12-14 years and analyzed for thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA. Clinical assessments of the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation were made, and plaque was collected for determination of dry weight. An inverse relationship was observed between salivary thiocyanate concentrations in both resting and stimulated saliva and the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation in these subjects (p < 0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amounts of plaque and gingivitis (p < 0.05). 'Total' lysozyme concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amount of plaque (p < 0.05), and the 'free' lysozyme concentration in the same saliva was directly related to the amount of gingivitis (p < 0.05). The direct relationship observed between clinical measurements and both lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in saliva may have been due to contributions from gingival crevicular fluid. Cluster analysis identified three groups of subjects with different profiles in resting whole saliva, and in particular with different levels of secretory IgA. A statistically significant difference was observed in the quantity of plaque collected from subjects in two of these groups (p < 0.05). These results from cluster analysis using resting whole saliva from children confirmed the findings of a previous study with young adults.

1992

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  1992.  Wagaiyu EG, Chindia ML. Behcet's syndrome presenting with chronic periodontitis: a case report.East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):596-8.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):596-8.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Behcet's syndrome is a disease of uncertain aetiology characterised by recurrent oral and genital ulcerations, ocular lesions and skin lesions. Although cases of this syndrome have been reported almost worldwide, the literature did not reveal any reports from this region. Management of this disorder is mainly palliative. However several treatment regimens have been tried. Following are some of the treatments considered effective. Azathioprine, corticosteroids, chlorambucil, transfusions of fresh blood or plasma and fibrinolytic therapy with phenformin and ethyloestrenol. The importance of multi-disciplinary management of such patients is emphasized.

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  1992.  Wagaiyu E.G and Wagaiyu C.K. Prevalence of juvenile periodontitis in National Youth Service Trainees, EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 69:pg 31-33 1992. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jan;69(1):31-3.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. The prevalence of juvenile periodontitis was studied in a group of young adults aged 18 to 26 years from the National Youth Service. The study group consisted of a random sample of 350 trainees, 250 males and 100 females. The subjects were examined for plaque scores, gingivitis and pocket depths. Radiographs were used to show bone loss and confirm diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis. Only one subject was diagnosed as having juvenile periodontitis. This represents a prevalence of 0.28% which falls within the range of published prevalence of 0.1% to 3.4% among young adults.
GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  1992.  Wagaiyu, E.G. and Chindia, M.L. Behcet. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. The prevalence of juvenile periodontitis was studied in a group of young adults aged 18 to 26 years from the National Youth Service. The study group consisted of a random sample of 350 trainees, 250 males and 100 females. The subjects were examined for plaque scores, gingivitis and pocket depths. Radiographs were used to show bone loss and confirm diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis. Only one subject was diagnosed as having juvenile periodontitis. This represents a prevalence of 0.28% which falls within the range of published prevalence of 0.1% to 3.4% among young adults.

1991

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  1991.  Wagaiyu E.G, Ashley F.P, Mouthbreathing, lip seal and upper lip coverage and their relation to gingival Inflammation in 11-14 year old school children, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY Vol. 18 page 698 - 702 October 1991. J Clin Periodontol. 1991 Oct;18(9):698-702.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract
Department of Periodontology, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. The gingival health of 201 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years was assessed at 6 sites on all the incisor and first molar teeth by recording separately the presence or absence of redness and bleeding on probing. Crowding of the incisor teeth was recorded as labio-lingual displacement and mesio-distal overlap. A 2nd examiner recorded the presence or absence of plaque at these sites and assessed mouthbreathing, lipseal and upper lip coverage of the maxillary incisors. Mouthbreathing, increased lip separation and decreased upper lip coverage at rest were all associated with higher levels of plaque and gingival inflammation. Multivariate analysis indicated that this association was statistically significant for mouthbreathing and lip coverage but increased lip separation was not independently related to plaque and gingivitis. The relationship of mouthbreathing and decreased upper lip coverage with gingivitis was most evident in the upper anterior segment and was still evident after covariate analysis to take account of variations due to gender, overcrowding and amount of plaque. However, allowance for these factors also suggested that the influence of mouthbreathing was restricted to palatal sites, whereas lip coverage influenced gingival inflammation at both palatal and labial sites.

1989

GACERI, DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  1989.  Wagaiyu, E.G. and Kaimenyi, J.T. Frequency of Alveolar Osteitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Dental Outpatient EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol. 66 No.10 pg.: 658-662 Oct. 1989. East Afr Med J. 1989 Oct;66(10):658-62.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of alveolar osteitis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), most affected age group and the reasons for underlying extractions. Out of 8,393 extractions 273 (3.3%) developed alveolar osteitis. 98.5% of the teeth that developed alveolar osteitis were molars and premolars. 52% of the patients that developed alveolar osteitis were females and 48% were males. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. The percentage distribution of alveolar osteitis according to age groups 10-19 year, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years and 60-69 years were 6.2%, 53.1%, 23.8%, 5.5%, 4.8% and 2.9% respectively. On the average, patients reported with alveolar osteitis 5.7 days following extraction. Out of 8,393 extractions, 72.5% were due to dental caries, 18% were due to periodontitis and the rest were due to other causes. It was concluded that the frequency and average, patients reported with alveolar osteitis 5.7 days following extraction. Out of 8,393 extractions, 72.5% were due to dental caries, 18% were due to periodontitis and the rest were due to other causes. It was concluded that the frequency and pattern of development of a alveolar osteitis at KNH was similar to that reported in developed countries.

1987

T., PROFKAIMENYIJACOB, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN.  1987.  Kaimenyi JT, Wagaiyu EG, Ndungu FL.Efficacy of traditional chewing sticks in plaque control.East Afr Med J. 1987 Sep;64(9):624-7. Review.. East Afr Med J. 1987 Sep;64(9):624-7.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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