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Jayne M. "Languages and Society: A Gender Perspective.". In: Proceedings of Understanding Gender Inequalities. Egerton University; Forthcoming.
Amadi H. "Local Government Functions in a Societal Perspective: Evolution of Government-Society Relations in Kenya".". In: Local Government: A Global Perspective.; Forthcoming.
Oyugi CCA. "La mise en valeur du non-dit en classe du français langue étrangère.". In: L’enseignement du français dans le contexte multilingue estafricain et kenyan (Teaching of French in a multilingual context in East Africa and Kenya). Kenyatta University; Submitted.conference_presentation-_k.u..docxconference_presentation_2-_k.u..docxconcilier_formation_doc__ku.docx
Lamu County Spatial Plan . Lamu; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute." Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Submitted. Abstract


Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Leasing: "Four-year period for transitional new accounting practice." This article discusses the official position of the Accounting Profession on capitalization of leases.". In: Management: (Ibid), (pages 28-29). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Leasing: "Four-year period for transitional new accounting practice." This article discusses the official position of the Accounting Profession on capitalization of leases.". In: Management: (Ibid), (pages 28-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Les Classes Sociales en Afrique de Iquest Pre-Coloniale in He-CHI Revue dEtudes Francaises de Iuniversite de Nairobi.". In: P. 47-53 Editorship: African in Time Perspective. Weekly Radio Talks on African History, V.O.K.; Submitted. Abstract


KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Local Authorities in Kenya (H.E.B.) . forthcoming.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi,** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi,** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
Mwai L, Onyatta J, Were FH. "Lead content in automotive paints purchased at formal and informal outlets in Kenya." Heliyon. 2023;9(1):e12831. AbstractHeliyon

Lead (Pb) is added to automotive paints to prevent corrosion on metallic surfaces, for decorative colours, and for reflective properties to heighten visibility, and enhanced drying time, and durability. However, there are substitutes for all of these applications and Pb is highly toxic to human health and the environment. Through concerted efforts, leaded gasoline was phased out and currently, the focus is on lead-based paints. Leaded automotive paint used for spray painting activities often conducted in close proximity to human habitation raises public health concerns over possible exposure. This study was therefore undertaken to assess Pb levels in automotive paints frequently used by informal spray painters. A total of thirty-two (n = 32) cans of automotive paints were purchased in 4 sets of red, blue, green and white colours from eight formal and informal retail shops. Lead levels in the paint samples were analyzed in triplicates using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. All the automotive paints from the informal retail shops had Pb levels that ranged from 220 to 2740 ppm, and exceeded the regulatory limit of 90 ppm. The blue paint from the informal store had the highest Pb levels which were 30 times of the set limit. On the contrary, the paints from the formal stores had significantly (p < 0.05) lower Pb levels that ranged from 80.7 to 580 ppm than those of the informal stores. Although only one paint sample from the former retail shop had Pb levels within the limit. In general, the elevated Pb levels in automotive paints that are used in an unregulated environment are potential sources of exposure and environmental contamination. The study urgently calls for enforcement of the regulatory limits and comprehensive Pb exposure assessments in this sector.

QURESHI ZAHIDA, Jamner A, Filippi V, Gwako G, Osoti A, Mehrtash H, Baguiya A, Bello FA, Compaoré R, Gadama L, Kim CR, Msusa AT, Tunçalp Ӧ, Calvert C. "Level and determinants of contraceptive uptake among women attending facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2022;156 Suppl 1:27-35. Abstract

To investigate the level and determinants of nonreceipt of contraception among women admitted to facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa.

Wango GM, Ngerema D, Owang S. "Languishing and Assisting People Get on their Feet." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):7-9.languishing_and_assisting_people_get_on_their_feet.pdf
Upadhyaya R, Wamalwa H. Learning and capabilities development: Case studies of East African social enterprises.; 2022.
J.G.N. K, J. NI. "Levels of Essential Elements in selected Persea Americana varieties as Potential Minerals." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). 2022;Accepted on 14th August, 2022.
Njuguna CN, Odiemo LO. "Loaded but Applauded: The Relationship between Workload and Job Satisfaction among High School Teachers in Kiambu County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2022;10(2):43-50.
Johnson L, Onjala J. "Logic of the Belt and Road Initiatives Early Eastern Africa Node: Economic, Demographic and Political Economy Rationales." Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies,. 2022;accepted January 28 2022.
Zhang Q, Nam J-S, Han J, Datta S, Wei N, Ding E-X, Hussain A, Ahmad S, Skakalova V, Khan AT, others. "Large-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Transparent Conductor Overcoming Performance–Yield Tradeoff." Advanced Functional Materials. 2022;32:2103397. Abstract
Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Joubert F, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Limited diversity in the CD8+ antigen-coding loci in Theileria parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa." Vet Parasitol. 2021;291:109371. Abstract

Theileria parva infections in cattle causes huge economic losses in the affected African countries, directly impacting the livelihood of the poor small-holder farmers. The current immunization protocol using live sporozoites in eastern Africa, is among the control measures designed to limit T. parva infections in cattle. However, the ability of the immune protection induced by this immunization to protect against field parasites has been compromised by the diversity of the parasite involving the schizont antigen genes. Previous studies have reported on the antigenic diversity of T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa, however, similar reports on T. parva parasites particularly from cattle from southern Africa remains scanty, due to the self-limiting nature of Corridor disease. Thus, we evaluated the diversity of CD8+ T-cell regions of ten schizont antigen genes in T. parva parasites associated with Corridor disease and East Coast fever (ECF) from southern and eastern Africa respectively. Regions of schizont antigen (TpAg) genes containing the CD8+ T-cell epitopes (CTL determinants) were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood of T. parva positive samples, cloned and sequenced. The results revealed limited diversity between the two parasite groups from cattle from southern and eastern Africa, defying the widely accepted notion that antigen-encoding loci in cattle-derived parasites are conserved, while in buffalo-derived parasites, they are extensively variable. This suggests that only a sub-population of parasites is successfully transmitted from buffalo to cattle, resulting in the limited antigenic diversity in Corridor disease parasites. Tp4, Tp5, Tp7 and Tp8 showed limited to absence of diversity in both parasite groups, suggesting the need to further investigate their immunogenic properties for consideration as candidates for a subunit vaccine. Distinct and common variants of Tp2 were detected among the ECF parasites from eastern Africa indicating evidence of parasite mixing following immunization. This study provides additional information on the comparative diversity of TpAg genes in buffalo- and cattle-derived T. parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa.

Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. "The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e489-e551.Website
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Language Attitude and Language Planning: Emerging Trends in Kenya since 2010." Journal of African Studies [Feizhou Yanjiu, 非洲研究], . 2021;1(2021):115-136.
Gatere AW. "The Language of Love." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):33-35.the_language_of_love.pdf
I C, P S, B N, M M, JA O’o. "Laparoscopic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: detection of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues, fluids, and surgical smoke." Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2021;406(4):1007-1014. AbstractWebsite

Background: There are still concerns over the safety of laparoscopic surgery in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients due to the potential risk of viral transmission through surgical smoke/laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of currently available literature to determine the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in abdominal tissues or fluids and in surgical smoke.

Results: A total of 19 studies (15 case reports and 4 case series) comprising 29 COVID-19 patients were included. The viral RNA was positively identified in 11 patients (37.9%). The samples that tested positive include the peritoneal fluid, bile, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysate, duodenal wall, and appendix. Similar samples, together with the omentum and abdominal subcutaneous fat, tested negative in the other patients. Only one study investigated SARS-COV-2 RNA in surgical smoke generated during laparoscopy, reporting negative findings.

Conclusions: There are conflicting results regarding the presence of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues and fluids. No currently available evidence supports the hypothesis that SARS-COV-2 can be aerosolized and transmitted through surgical smoke. Larger studies are urgently needed to corroborate these findings.

M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Four. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Four: Teacher's Guide. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form One. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form one: Teacher's Guide. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Three. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Three: Teacher's Guide. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Two. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
"Learning to Positively Manage your Relationship with your Spouse." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(2):40-43.
Mavuti SK, Mbaria JM, Maina JG, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM. "Levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in farmed Oriochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2021;9(4):230-233.
Moturi C, Karuga E, Orwa D. "Leveraging Big Data Analytics." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021;DOI: 10.1504/IJBDM.2021.10036720. AbstractWebsite

This paper sought to study the extent to which telecoms within Kenya have adopted Big Data analytics to gain richer and deeper insights into their business dynamics in order to facilitate evidence decision making. A descriptive research design was employed and data was collected from ten leading telecoms using semi-structured questionnaires. The study found that Big Data could stimulate the economic growth, advance the productivity and competitiveness of the telecoms, as well as generate enormous benefits for customers. The factors with the highest significant effect on the adoption of Big Data analytics were identified. The practical implication of this paper is an increased understanding on what elements can promote Big Data adoption by large telecom companies. The study is beneficial to telecoms companies and any other organisations that would be looking at adopting data driven decision making to sustain competitiveness within the present uncertain setting.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. "Lightweight Polymer–Nanoparticle-Based Composites.". In: Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstract

The increasing demand for eco-friendly materials in various fields including the construction industry has led to increased efforts toward the development of more materials to suit such fields. In this work, a specific review of polymer–nanoparticle-based composites is presented with an emphasis on the nano-silica reinforcements. A background on applications, processing methods, and state-of-the-art review of the subject is presented. It is noted that there is limited literature focusing on the recycling of polymers using silica nanoparticle-based reinforcements for the construction industry. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the direction for future research focus is presented.

Musyoka PK, Onjala J, Mureithi LP. "Livelihood Diversification and Household Vulnerability to Climate Shocks in Rural Kenya." Climate Change and Development. 2021.
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Long-term spatial-temporal temperature characteristics of a pastoral ecosystem in Kajiado County, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(6):896-906.
S. R, M. P, V. O. "LP Fracturing: A Review on Waterless Fracturing Technology in Unconventional Reservoir." Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research (JSAER). 2021;8(1):48-54.
Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2008333. Abstract
Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging (Adv. Mater. 34/2021)." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2170267. Abstract
Ozdemir SK, Yang L, Peng B. Loss engineering to improve system functionality and output. Google Patents; 2021. Abstract
Birech Z, Ondieki AM, Opati RII, Mwangi PW. "Low cost Raman sample substrates from conductive silver paint smear for Raman spectroscopic screening of metabolic diseases in whole blood.". 2020;108:103063. AbstractWebsite

This work reports on a low cost, simple to prepare and chemically stable Raman substrates based on conductive silver paint smear. The substrates were characterized Raman spectroscopically and were found to be chemically stable within the first seven days when kept at room temperature as the spectroscopic profiles were unchanged. The substrates also suppressed the background signals emanating from glass centered around 750 cm−1 and 1370 cm−1 seen with 785 nm excitation and had negligible influence on Raman spectral profiles of rat’s blood samples applied onto them. The Raman spectral profiles of blood samples applied onto the substrates were found to be enhanced by a factor of 1.7 compared to those of thick blood smears on a clean microscope glass slide. The increased local field between the gaps formed by adjacent micron-sized silver solids in the paint smear were attributed to the observed intense signals observed from the blood samples applied onto them. The substrates were tried on Raman spectroscopic differentiation between blood from obese and normal; diabetic and normal Sprague Dawley rats. The prominent bands associated with fructose (638 and 812 cm−1), glucose (1127 cm−1) and branched chain amino acids (1033, 1217 and 1318 cm−1) were observed to vary in terms of intensity between the un-healthy (obese and diabetic) and healthy (normal) rats. The results reported here on the use of the easy to prepare, low cost Raman substrates have the potential of making surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy accessible to less resourced laboratories in developing countries. The substrates can be applied in rapid Raman spectroscopic screening of various metabolic diseases.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "LAB SCALE BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MARKET WASTES AND DAGORETTI SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE IN KENYA." International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research. 2020;8(1):12-21. Abstract

In this study, fruits and vegetable market wastes were used as substrates in biogas
production under psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Slaughterhouse waste
consisting of blood and diluted rumen fluid mixture was used as inoculum with seven days retention
time. Influence of C: N ratios of the unique mixtures of vegetables found in the market were
investigated. On average, the vegetable wastes found at the market contained >86% moisture, 5 -
12% volatile solid and 0.46 – 2.06% ash matter on a wet basis. The protein range was between
0.57 – 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado (Persea americana) wastes at
9.03%. The highest cumulative biogas was recorded in wastes mixture at 3500ml on seventh day
while low biogas yield was registered for wastes with C: N ratios greater than 35:1 like avocado
and lower than 10 like coriander and courgette wastes. The optimum operation pH was in the
range of 6.80 – 7.2.It can be concluded that the highest cumulative biogas was generated from
fruits/vegetable mixture at 3500ml in mesophillic conditions. This study recommends pH
adjustment to 6.8 – 7.2 in market wastes and C: N ratios of 20 – 25 for large scale biogas
production of wastes found in the Dagoretti Market.

"Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;2(1):1-23.
Ongong’a, A. I. GSOK & M. "Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach." International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Bioresearch. 2020;5(5):68-85.
Benjamin Nyilitya, Mureithi S, Boeckx P. "Land use controls Kenyan riverine nitrate discharge into Lake Victoria – evidence from Nyando, Nzoia and Sondu Miriu river catchments." Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 2020.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Taylor M, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25(18):4130. AbstractMolecules

Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal plant with a worldwide distribution. The species has undergone enormous taxonomic changes which caused confusion amongst plant users. In Kenya, for example, two varieties are known to exist based on morphology, ie, D. viscosa var. viscosa along the coast, and D. viscosa var. angustifolia in the Kenyan inland. These two taxa are recognized as distinct species in some reports. This prompted us to apply metabolomics to understand the relationship among naturally occurring populations of D. viscosa in Kenya, and to identify compounds that can assist in taxonomic delineation of the different varieties of D. viscosa from different parts of Kenya. The phytochemical variability of Kenyan D. viscosa var. angustifolia populations collected from four different geographical regions (Nanyuki, Machakos, Nairobi, and Narok) and one coastal D. viscosa var. viscosa (the Gazi) were analyzed by LC-MS using a metabolomics-driven approach. Four known compounds, two diterpenoids (dodonic acid (1), hautriwaic acid lactone (3), and two flavonoids (5, 7, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy-3, 6, 2′-trimethoxyflavone (2) and catechin (4)) were isolated and purified from the Gazi coastal collection. The presence of these compounds and their relative abundance in other populations was determined by LC-MS analyses. Multivariate statistical analyses of LC-MS data was used for the visualization of the patterns of variation and identification of additional compounds. Eleven discriminant compounds responsible for separating chemometric clusters were tentatively identified. In an antimicrobial assay, hautriwaic acid …

Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba, C.W., Ochieng, P., Taylor, D, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25 (18):4130.
Muthoni KC. "Learners Mental health in a Changing World." Journal Of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2020;25(2).
"Learning and Adaptation in Food Systems: Insights from Four Case Studies in the Global South." International Journal on Food System Dynamics. 2020;11(4):312-328.
Kara, A.M., Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Lecturer Quality in Public Universities in Kenya." European Journal of Education Studies. 2020;7(10).
Jennings Mayo-Wilson L, M M, Yi G, Mak’anyengo, MO, Davoust M, ML M, Stefan Baral, Fred M. Ssewamala, Glass NE. "Lessons learned from using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to assess sexual risk behaviors among Kenyan young adults living in urban slum settlements: A process evaluation." PLoS ONE . 2020;15(4).
F.H W, Wafula AG, C LB, T. KK. "Levels of PM10 and PM2.5 and Respiratory Health Impacts on School-Going Children in Kenya. Journal of Health and Pollution." . Journal of Health and Pollution. 2020;10 (27) 200912(ISSN: 2156-9614).
OLALE P, Odote C, Kibugi R. "Leveraging integrated spatial planning for sustainable regulation of coastal tourism activities in Malindi town, Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2020;Volume 19(Issue 1).
Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-scale mapping of moir$\backslash$'e superlattices by Raman imaging of interlayer breathing mode and moir$\backslash$'e phonons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2012.13820. 2020. Abstract
Guo K, Deng B, Liu Z, Gao C, Shi Z, Bi L, Zhang L, Lu H, Zhou P, Zhang L, others. "Layer dependence of stacking order in nonencapsulated few-layer CrI3." Science China Materials. 2020;63:413-420. Abstract
Peng B, Zhang Y, Lü Z, Cheng TCE, Glover F. "A learning-based memetic algorithm for the multiple vehicle pickup and delivery problem with LIFO loading." Computers & Industrial Engineering. 2020;142:106241. Abstract
Li Z, Peng B, Lin M-L, Leng Y-C, Zhang B, Pang C, Tan P-H, Monserrat B, Chen F. "Light-driven bandgap renormalization and terahertz atomic oscillations in few-layer PdSe2." arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.02034. 2020. Abstract
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Athinya DK, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Larval species diversity, seasonal occurrence and larval habitat preference of mosquitoestransmitting Rift Valley fever and malariain Baringo County, Kenya.". In: C.B.P.S. Annual conference.; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "LESSONS LEARNT FROM THERMAL DATA-LOGGING OF BUILDINGS IN NAIROBI OVER THE YEARS; HIGHLIGHT- ING THE DEMAND FUNCTIONS FOR DECI- SION-SUPPORT.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

and Mwangi, I. K., Mugo FW, Ndegwa E. "Land Fragmentation and Its Potential Effects on Maize Production in Kenya. Paper Presented at Maize for Kenya Consultative Workshop.". In: Maize for Kenya Consultative Workshop. ICRAF, Nairobi; 2019.
Osaliya. R., O. V. Wasonga., J. G. M. Mwanjalolo., Kironchi G, Adipala E. "Land conversion is changing the landscape in the semi-arid Kapir catchment, northeastern Uganda.". 2019;3(3).
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Gabiri G, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, JGMM. "Land Cover and Soil Properties Influence on Forage Quantity in a Semiarid Region in East Africa." Applied and Environmental Soil Science. 2019;2019.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two-phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi-arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution . 2019.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two‐phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi‐arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution. 2019;9(22):12779-12788.
JM Schoorl, A Veldkamp, L Claessens, JR Wijbrans, Olago DO, Lievens C. "Late Quaternary lahars and lava dams: Fluvial responses of the Upper Tana River (Kenya)." Geomorphology. 2019;341:28-45. Abstractlate_quaternery.pdfWebsite


Geomorphological and sedimentary records near the confluences of the Tana River and major tributaries draining the eastern slopes of Mt. Kenya and the Nyambeni Range, indicate impacts of Late Quaternary volcanic activity in their fluvial records. The main reconstructed event was triggered by a 366.9 ka basalt flow (40Ar/39Ar dated) which flowed along Kazita River from the Nyambeni Range blocking both Kazita River and Tana River near Kibuka Grand Falls, causing a temporary lake. Consequently, Tana River and Kazita River started to build volcanoclastic Gilbert type deltas. The preserved pro-delta sediments rich in trachytic pumice fragments display a mineralogical and age match with known Ithanguni trachytic tuffs, indicating delta build up right after a contemporary Ithanguni eruption. This trachytic eruption caused the deposition of lahars and fluvial volcaniclastic sediments in all river records draining the Eastern side of Mt. Kenya. The multiple lahars seem to be triggered by eruptions under glacial conditions (basalt age indicates MIS 10). The lava dammed lake was only short lived (estimated to have lasted only a few years to decades) and breached before a complete lake infill could occur. The current Kibuka Grand Falls can be viewed as the delayed incisional response of this lava dam breach, indicating that after >366.9 ka, Tana River is still responding and adjusting to this short-lived disruptive phase. The current Kazita River has re-incised adjacent to a MIS 4 basalt flow down into the crystalline Basement System rocks. The MIS 10 pre-volcanic sedimentary record indicates that more sediments were in the fluvial system during glacial conditions than during the interglacial conditions. An implication of our reconstruction is that the Late Quaternary fluvial record of Tana River is of only limited use to reconstruct uplift rates because reconstructed Quaternary incision rates are reflecting both volcanic disruptions as climate change trends of aridification and decreasing glaciation extents.

I MN, G N, M M. "Learners’ Written Interaction Effect on Learners’ Academic Achievement in Chemistry." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal . 2019;6(8):306-318.written_interaction.pdf
A. N, J. M, C. N. "Lessons for school principals from transformational leadership characteristics. IISTE journal of Education and Practice. Vol 10, No. 10, 2019, ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online).". 2019. Abstract

This study was carried out in selected public secondary schools in Kenya. It is on the realization that the work of the school Principal is not easy and many find themselves in leadership without proper preparation for the hard task. The school principals’ work is a high-stress job especially because he or she has to do virtually everything related to students, teachers, parents, subordinate staff and the community at large. This kind of leader would require extra-ordinary characteristics to be able to be successful. Majority of principals perform decimally in all the areas that spell success in secondary schools especially in discipline and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to find out how principals’ transformational leadership characteristics were correlates to effective school performance. Kouze’s and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory(LPI) “self” questionnaire was used to measure Principals’ transformational leadership style. LPI “others” was used to triangulate the principals’ response with the teachers. The target population consisted of 72 Principals in public schools and 139 principals in private schools. There were also 1210 teachers in public secondary schools and 1500 teachers in private secondary schools in Nairobi County. The findings indicated positive correlations between the Principals’ transformational leadership characteristics with effective school performance.

Keywords: Secondary schools, transformational leadership, modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, encouraging the heart, enabling others to act

Nandonde F, Adu-Gyamfi R, Mmusi TS, Asongu SA, Opperman J, Makindara J. Linkages And Spillover Effects Of South African Foreign Direct Investment In Botswana And Kenya. WIDER Working Paper 2019/53. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER; 2019.
SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Literature as Medium for Moral Instruction: A Swahili/ Islamic Analysis of Ahmad Nassir's Utenzi wa Mtu ni Utu." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2019;Volume 4(1):17-30.
R. NID; &, M M, R I. "The Little Foxes‘ that Upset Students‘ Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology. 2019;128(2):52862-52867.
"The Little Foxes‘ that Upset Students‘ Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology . 2019;128(128):52862-52867.
Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "The Little Foxes‘that Upset Students‘Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology Journal . 2019;128.
Opande T, Olago D, Dulo SI. "Livelihood Vulnerability Approach to Assessing Climate Impacts on Smallholders in Kisumu, Kenya." International Journal of Innovation Research and Development. 2019;8(7):147-155.
PARK JEONGKYUNG. "Love and War in Alex La Guma’s “Thang’s Bicycle." Korean Association of African Studies. 2019;57:161-182.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Makanji N. "Lugha-Kati kama Mchakato wenye Manufaa: Kifani cha Matumizi ya Kiswahili na Wazungumzaji wa Kikisa kama Lugha ya Kwanza." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). Journal of Bantu Linguistics. 2019;(Special):114-128.
Mumbi M. "limate Responsive Architecture: Learning from the History of the Origin, Spread and Development of Tropical Modern Architecture.". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
"Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine Boosts Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Specific Humoral Responses Systemically and at the Cervicovaginal Mucosa of Kenyan VZV-Seropositive Women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2018;218(8):1210-1218. Abstract

Attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a promising vector for recombinant vaccines. Because human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) vaccines are believed to require mucosal immunogenicity, we characterized mucosal VZV-specific humoral immunity following VZVOka vaccination.

Ngugi CN, Mbaka, JN., Wachira PM, Okoth S. "Laboratory screening for infectivity of selected indigenous Entomopathogenic nematode isolates on Tuta absoluta in Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2018;3 (6 ):10-25.
Mwangi W, Nyika D. Land Administration, Principles and Processes. Nairobi: Quinexx Publishers; 2018.
Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Land use and land cover changes in a sub-humid Montane forest in an arid setting: A case study of the Marsabit forest reserve in northern Kenya." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;16:e00512. AbstractWebsite


There have been drastic changes in land-use patterns in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR) as a consequence of anthropogenic processes for livelihood improvement over time. The objective of this study was to assess the land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC), especially those related to the forest cover, in the MFR using multi-temporal Landsat images from Landsat 7 and 8 covering the period 1990 to 2017. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were carried out with the final classification done using the Maximum Likelihood Classifier for each period image to create six dominant land-use and land-cover classes (LULC) which included: shrubland, grassland, bare land, open forest, agriculture and settlement, closed forest, and wetland. The results showed that, between 1990 and 2010, the closed forest area had reduced from 19,599 to 9275 ha (−52.7%), open forest from 30,214 to 7345 ha (−75.7%), and shrubland from 83,288 to 65,212 ha (−21.7%). Over the same period there was, a corresponding increase in the grassland area from 35,233 to 56,066 ha (+58.7%), bare land from 19565 to 35,691 ha (+82.4%) and agriculture/settlement class from 12,842 to 24,072 ha (+87.5%). With the introduction of a forest moratorium illegalising consumptive forest use between 2010 and 2017, the closed forest area increased from 9275 to 12,133 ha (+30.8%), bare land from 35,691 to 42,275 ha (+15.6%) and shrubland 65,212 to 100, 452 ha (+35.1%), with a corresponding decrease in open forest area from 7345 to 1385 ha (−430%), grassland from 56,066 to 39,542 ha (−41.9%), and agriculture/settlement class from 24,072 to 7235 ha (−232.7%). The Focused group discussion (FGD) and Key informant interview (KII) respondents identified illegal logging, livestock incursion/foraging, inadequacies of Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and Kenya Forest Service (KFS) in forest management, forest excisions, firewood collection and illegal settlements in the Marsabit National Reserve (MNR) as the main drivers of LULCC. The study proposes the implementation of the ten-year (2015–2025) Marsabit Forest Ecosystem Management Plan in managing the drivers of LULCC in a bid to safeguard the ecosystem services (ES) provided by the MFR.

Kahi, H.C, M, M. Nyangito P, C.K.K. Gachene P. Land Use Change in Upper River Kibwezi Riparian Ecosystem From 1985 to 2015.; 2018.
• Michira JN. "Language, Resistance and Subversive Identities in Matatu Sub-culture." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018;Vol. 6(No. 3):242-253.
Garba LC, Oyieke FA, Owino EA, Mwansat GS, Houmsou RS, Chintem DGW, BE W. "Larval habitats of anopheline vectors of malaria on the highlands of Mambilla Plateau Taraba State North East Nigeria." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2018;5(1):96-100.liatu_et_al_2018.pdf
Mackatiani, Caleb Imbova NMKGDJ &. "Learning Achievement: Illusions of Teacher-Centered Approaches in Primary Schools in Kenya." The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education. 2018;9(18):46-54.
Kimeu M. "The Learning Resource Centre: Green building design in Nairobi”." Africa Habitat Review Journa. 2018;Volume 12 (Issue 12):ISSN: 2519-7851.
Chepkoech C, Onwonga RN, Wahome RG, Høgh-Jensen H. "Legume and Organic Fertilizer Effects on Soil Nutrient Availability, Uptake and Kale Yields in Kabete Sub-county Kenya." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018:1-21.
Akinyi 10. OJ, Sigana DAO, Wang’ondu V, Wambiji N, Ong’anda H, Orembo B. "Length-weight relationship of selected teleost fishes from Kilifi County, Kenya." WIO Journal of Marine Science. 2018; 17 (1):125-135.
Konneh SS, Saleem A, Awange JL, Goncalves RM, Kiema JBK, Hu KX. "Liberia's coastal erosion vulnerability and LULC change analysis: Post-civil war and Ebola epidemic." Applied Geography. 2018;101:56-67.
"The Lingering Question of Neo colonialism in Swahili Plays." International Journal of Liberal Arts and Sciences. 2018;6(2):24-41.
Mugambi MM. "Linking Constructivism Theory to Classroom Practice." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). 2018;5(9):96-104.constructivism_paper.pdf
Wairire G. "Living but Leaving: Therapy in Light and Right of Life and Death in Traditional-Cum-Contemporary Societies." International Journal of Psychological Studies. 2018;10(4):79-94.
Bhatt B, Kalambuka HAA, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "LIBS Development Methodology for Forensic Nuclear Materials Analysis." Analytical Methods. 2018. Abstract
Kanyinga K. "Lessons from nominations." Sunday Nation, May 20, 2017.
Maina. The Language of Design. Seattle: Amazon; 2017.
AB Bugah, Ndavi PM, Jaldesa G, Njoroge PL. "Large follicular cyst in pregnancy." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(9).
Loonturot PS, Mwero JN, Kabubo CK. "Laterized Quarry Dust and Crushed Bricks as Alternative Concrete Making Materials." Journal of Civil Engineering. 2017;Vol 3(1):1-14.
Kaimenyi C., Kidombo H, T. S. "Legal Framework and Implementation of Workforce Diversity Policies in Public Universities in Kenya.". In: Africa at Development Crossroads .; 2017.
Mirara A, Maitho T, Okoth UA. "Legal Setup and Performance of Post-Privatization Artificial Insemination Service Providers in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Research. 2017;7(1).
Ogeng’o J. "Lessons from a case of tubal twin pregnancy." Anatomy Journal of Africa.. 2017;6(1):817-819. Abstract

Unilateral tubal twin pregnancy illustrates and amplifies fundamental phenomena in developmental and
reproductive anatomy. Knowledge of this condition is also important to practicing obstetricians and
gynaecologists because it may constitute a diagnostic challenge, management dilemma, complex ethical
issues and increased risk for maternal morbidity and mortality (Benn et al., 2016). Previously considered
a rare occurence, recent data suggest that the condition is not uncommon (Svirsky et al., 2010). Indeed,
there are many reports (Vohra et al., 2014), including several from Sub-Saharan Africa (Makinde and
Ogunniyi, 1990). The case reported by Pulei et al., in Anat J Afr 2017; 6 (1) reveals several unique
features in the profile of risk factors, location, chorionicity and amnionicity, mode and time of
presentation, condition of the tube, diagnosis and fetal viability. There was no evidence of the
conventional risk factors (Sivalingam et al., 2011). This is consistent with several other reported cases
where it occurred spontaneously (Abi Khalil et al., 2016). In the present case, however, the patient had
multiple intramural and subserosal leiomyomata. Intramural myomata are known to disrupt uterine
contractility which may interfere with transport of the ovum and hence predispose to ectopic pregnancy
(Ajibade et al., 2012). It is probable, therefore, that this was the predisposing factor. Accordingly, it may
be useful to monitor patients with uterine fibroids for potential to suffer ectopic pregnancy. Family
history of twinning may have been useful, and is advocated, in view of the fact that it is one of the major
predisposing factors.

Wanjala. G, Wanjala E. "Level of Teachers’ Efficiency in Work Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir North District, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(4):23-36.abstract.pdf
Michaelina Almaz YOHANNIS, Timothy M WAEMA MHUTCHINSONAWAUSI. "Linking Climate Information to Livelihood Strategies through ICTs: the Role of Integrated Sustainable Livelihoods Framework.". 2017. Abstract

Abstract: In this paper, we propose that an Integrated Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (I-
SLF), that mainstreams ICT-driven climate information, provides the ideal means by which
such information may be leveraged to ensure sustainable enhanced livelihoods. We focus
on rural areas of Kitui County, Kenya. Guided by a range of theories such as Gender and
Development (GAD), Bourdieu's ideas of social capital, and the Information Needs
Assessment Model (INAM), we draw on the emerging variables to demonstrate that, while

Njuguna NM, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN. "A liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups." Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2017;51(2):153-158. Abstract

A simple, rapid isocratic liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups commonly available in the Kenyan market. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, ion pairing agent, buffer concentration as well as pH and column temperature on the selectivity with respect to analytes was investigated. Optimum chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Gemini NX column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40°C and a mobile phase comprising methanol –triethylamine-0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 5.0 -water mixture (50:0.15: 40:9.85, v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Upon validation, the proposed liquid chromatography method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, and robustness. The method was applied in the analysis of commercial samples obtained from Nairobi County, Kenya. The method can be used in routine analysis of cold-cough syrups containing the specified compounds.

Keywords: diphenhydramine; promethazine; chlorpheniramine; ephedrine, cold-cough syrups.

Kabinga S, Were AJO, Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Mbugua P, Ngigi J, Wambugu B, Wangombe N. "Living-Related Kidney Graft Donors Sociodemographic Characteristics and Recipients Clinical Characteristics in Kenya: A Single Centre Experience Kenyatta National Hospital 2010-2015 Audit." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2017;32(2):134-142. Abstract

This article provides summary of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the kidney transplant donors and recipients from 2010-2015 from Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. Only living-related organ donation is practiced in Kenya. Accelerated kidney transplantation activities picked up in Kenyatta national hospital from the 2010. The duration from 2010-2015 has seen more kidney transplantations undertaken in the hospital than the ones done in the same hospital from 1984 when first transplantation was performed in Kenya to 2009. The data were extracted from manual medical records. There were about 120 kidney transplantations performed during this period but only 113 complete records were traceable. There were 113 medical records for both kidney graft donors and recipients from 2010-2015. Demographic characteristics for donors and recipients captured included age, sex, and donor-recipient relationships. The mean donor age was 32.94

wa Mutiso K. "Looking at each other: The Origin of Negative Ethnicity." Mwanga wa Lugha . 2017;2(2):63-80 .
Nakami WN, Tsuma VT, Milkey K, Dickerson M, Wong M, Mutembei HM, Muthee JK, Odipo O, Ngetich W. "Lateral flow immunoassay for whole blood progesterone detection as a tool for assessment of reproductive status in cattle.". 2017. Abstract
Dommain R, S Riedl ALD, deMenocal PB, Olaka LA, Strecker MR, Potts R. "Lake level history of Paleolake Siriata and hydrological sub-basin connectivity in the Southern Kenya Rift during the African Humid Period (AHP).". In: American Geophysical Union, Fall General Assembly 2016. San Fransisco; 2016. Abstract

The AHP is one of the most dramatic examples of late Quaternary hydroclimatic change in the tropics. During this wet period numerous large and deep lakes existed in the eastern arm of the East African Rift System (EARS) as testified by paleo-shorelines and lacustrine sediments. The tempo of onset and termination as well as the duration of the AHP is a matter of ongoing research and are still poorly established for the Southern Kenya Rift. Here we present new paleo-shoreline and sedimentary evidence for the existence of a freshwater lake during the AHP to the east of alkaline Lake Magadi. The AHP lake - Paleolake Siriata - was a critical link in the paleodrainage network that connected the central with the southern Kenya rift lakes and northern Tanzania. To establish the timing and spatial extent of Paleolake Siriata we mapped elevations of paleo-shorelines and associated shoreline facies and diatomaceous lacustrine sediments along the former basin margins. Morphometric and topographic details were mapped using a dGPS and an UAV to create a DEM with a resolution of 5 cm to define shoreline elevations and the characteristics of the former basin outlet. Reservoir age-corrected radiocarbon dates of gastropod and bivalve shells and 40Ar/39Ar ages of pumice from the lacustrine strata provide the chronological framework of the Lake Siriata highstand. In addition, oxygen-isotope measurements of gastropod shells indicate past variations in the former lake water-balance. Paleolake Siriata formed abruptly immediately after the dry Younger Dryas interval and reached a maximum depth of 55 m and a surface area of 30 km2; during highstand conditions the lake overflowed into adjacent Lake Magadi while it received inflow from Lake Naivasha via the Kedong Valley and the Olorgesailie Basin in the north. This hydrological connectivity provides important context for the interpretation of the sediment records from the recently collected Olorgesailie-Koora and Lake Magadi drill cores.

Waweru JN. "Leading versus managing libraries in Kenya.". In: Kenya Library Association international conference. Nairobi safari club; 2016.
Mutuma M, Muthomi JW, Stasiewicz M. "Low-cost Optical Sorting to Remove Mycotoxins from Maize in Local Kenyan Mills.". In: Nairobi Innovation Week 2016. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
Waruiru RM, Murigu MM, Nana P, Nga’nga’ CJ, Ekesi S, N. M. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz- resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus." Veterinary Parasitology. 2016;225:12-18.
Murigu MM, Nana P, Waruiru RM, Nganga CJ, Ekesi S, Maniania NK. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz-resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus." Veterinary Parasitology. 2016;225:12-18.
F. M, J.W. K, Warinwa & F. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Chyulu Watershed Ecosystem, Makueni-Kajiado Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;4(3):17-26.
Warinwa F, mwaura F, Kiringe JW, Ndubi AO. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Kirisia Forest Ecosystem, Samburu County, Kenya. ." Advances in Remote Sensing. 2016;5::168-182.
Kibugi R, Makathimo M, Mwathane I. Large Scale Land Acquisitions for Investments in Kenya: Is the Participation, and benefits for affected local communities meaningful, and equitable? A case study of the situation in Lamu, Isiolo and Siaya Counties . Nairobi: Land Development and Governance Institute ; 2016. Abstractlarge_scale_land_acquisitions_for_investment_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Land acquisitions, either driven by foreign investments or domestic investment needs have continued to polarize opinions. When this research was proposed, it was premised on arguments by scholars Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Helen Markelova, who had analysed agricultural land deals, and argued that there were potentially two schools of thought about foreign acquisitions over agricultural land. Their school of thought regards them as “beneficial investments” whereby investors are viewed as bringing needed investment, possibly improved technology or farming knowledge, thereby generating employment and increasing food production. Meinzen-Dick and Markelova further argued that because these land acquisitions, foreign and domestic, are ongoing at a very fast rate, it is necessary for host countries to focus on what they can do to seize the opportunities and mitigate the risks associated with the deals.
During implementation of the research project in Kenya, it became clear that although prior illustrations of land deals included foreign acquisitions (e.g. Dominion farms), a government economic policy focusing on mega- infrastructure projects was driving (or expected to drive) a much higher pace of land acquisitions either for primary infrastructure, or for the economic activities that flowed from the primary infrastructure. This is in the context of the Lamu South Sudan Ethiopia Transportation Corridor (LAPSSET) project, which is a flagship means for realization of Vision 2030; Kenya’s current national development plan. Thus, a national conversation is necessary to debate the crucial question of how to provide safeguards to protect the interests of local communities directly affected by these investments, including compensation of land that is taken, and their place in the socio-economic and environmental continuum of investment projects from design to implementation.
The following findings and recommendations have resulted from this research, and it is anticipated they will be valuable in setting the agenda and tone of such a useful national conversation, as well as tangible actions:

A. Lessons, Conclusions and findings requiring policy level interventions

1. Regularization of landholding and tenure systems.
The absence or weakness of formal landholding, and land registration systems was evident in most of the research sites, in Isiolo and Lamu. This is despite Kenya having put in place new land laws in 2012 to give effect to constitutional provisions to protect land rights. This has resulted either in emergence of informal land administration and conveyance systems (Lamu), or the emergence of a complex system of formal land allocation that brings about multi-allocation of land through repeated issuance of allotment letters, (Isiolo), or non-adjudication and registration of community lands (Isiolo, Lamu). In either instance this results in undermining security of tenure, and enhances the vulnerability of concerned communities who will face difficulties securing their interests in the land ahead of any large scale land acquisitions, due to the entry of speculators, and persons interested in grabbing the land by being first to obtain formal registration. The Kenyan national government should consider partnering with the County government in Isiolo in order to identify the nature and extent of, and take steps to resolve the problem of multi-allocations of land there. In addition, putting in place a programme for regularization of tenure rights by addressing the challenges of those without title is important as it will enhance the security of tenure of people affected by compulsory acquisition.

2. Enhancing tenure of certain communities through implementation of the provisions of Community Land Act.
This conclusion is drawn from findings in research amongst the Aweer (Bargoni), and Turkana communities (Ngare Mara) where residents expressed apprehension over their tenure security in the face of land acquisition for LAPSSET infrastructure. This is because the land has not been (fully) adjudicated or registered in favour of the community notwithstanding existence of the Land (Group Representatives) Act that preceded the 2016 community land law. It is recommended that the government expedites the application of the provisions of the Community Land Act for the Lamu and Isiolo communities faced by these land acquisition projects as a first step to guaranteeing the beneficial interests of the community members, first by protecting tenure rights, and subsequently providing for equitable community land governance mechanisms.

3. Clarification on the practice and methodology of valuation of land and non-land assets for compensation.
The repeal of the Land Acquisition Act, and with that the Schedule that defined the methodology of valuation of land requires to be resolved. In any event, based on the analysis in the research, and findings, there is need to formally resolve the entitlement to compensation for persons without legal title. In addition, it is imperative for Kenya to state in law or regulations the methodology to be applied in valuation of non-land assets, including the loss of livelihoods. Application of the full replacement cost methodology, as discussed, provides a viable option because, in addition to anchoring on the market value of the land, the replacement cost approach extends compensation to non-land assets, using the real cost of full replacement, and not factoring in any depreciation of the non-land assets being replaced, and takes into account all the transaction costs of purchasing (conveyancing fees, etc), or logistical costs of replacement of non-land assets.

4. Internalization of resettlement safeguards principles and practice into Kenyan law of compulsory acquisition of land
A review of the current legal situation in Kenya concerning compulsory acquisition of land discloses the absence of safeguards governing interaction with host community, as well as involuntary resettlement safeguards in the event of displacement by land acquisition. This includes exploring the possible application of an FPIC process that emphasizes the quality and meaningfulness of affected community participation, including the impact that views obtained during consultations have on the final decision. Equally critical is the decision to vertically integrate the process by requiring the consultation of the affected public during project planning. In the sense of feasibility studies, and project designs, this suggests that community participation may add value to the process by being conducted much earlier on in the process, and contribute to analysis of project sites, and alternatives.

For practical purposes, Kenya could consider a legal requirement for a national Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) that would govern internalization of resettlement safeguards, including participation of communities. Key to this is that if a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) is required, in terms of EMCA, both the RAP and RPF would have undergo a Strategic Environmental Assessment thereby providing a means for risk assessment in advance of major implementation steps being underway.

5. Policy linkage of investment promotion rules with investments flowing from land acquisitions to secure community benefit through contracts and business models
At a policy level, it is important for Kenya to revisit, in a framework sense, how to use investment promotion rules and binding contracts to safeguard socio-economic, environmental benefits and livelihoods of local communities. This is mainly in context of the continuum of an investment, from land acquisition, and during its implementation. The Investment Promotion Act, while addressing the benefit to Kenya threshold, is not aggressively applied, and as evidenced by the Dominion contracts, critical socio-economic safeguards were not included. A clear policy evaluation of business models application, either contracts in the context of farming investments, or other types, should be undertaken and public disclosure of the proposed business model(s) should be undertaken early enough, to ensure affected project communities do not experience anxiety over their future.

This could be done in context of section 12 of the Land Act, which requires the National Land Commission to make regulations to govern how investments on public land will safeguard community benefits and livelihoods. The details of these considerations have been discussed at length earlier in this report.

6. Regulations to regulate methodology for assessment of just compensation
Kenya is currently engaged in a number of infrastructural projects that call for the compulsory acquisition and compensation of land. As noted in the study, Section 111 of the Land Act requires the National Land Commission to develop rules to regulate the assessment of just compensation where land is compulsorily acquired. As at the time of this report, these rules had not yet been developed. The rules will help to standardize the methodology for the anticipated assessment and make the process more predictable and, in an environment where the government is involved in the development of infrastructure calling for massive compensation of compulsorily acquired land, the development of these rules should have been accorded priority.

It is however noted that regulations to operate the entire Land Act have not yet been developed. Perhaps the development of these regulations, and the rules to govern assessment for just compensation, may have been delayed by the amendments recently effected to the Land Act. Now that the amendments were concluded, it is recommended that the development of the rules to govern the assessment of just compensation payable to landowners affected by large scale investments on land be expedited.

B. Lessons, conclusions and findings requiring direct actions at community level
In this category, the conclusions and findings are drawn to highlight matters that directly affect the voice and equitable benefit or participation of affected local communities, either in land acquisition process, or in the continuum of investments introduced in their midst.

1. A community dissemination manual for transfer of knowledge about land laws, policies and land administration processes
In focus group discussions held in the course of field work, the research team got similar feedback multiple times that the (potentially) affected “had heard” on radio, or through other fora that Kenya had new land laws in place, they did not really know the content of these laws. A similar sentiment was expressed with regard to knowledge of details about the components of the various LAPSSET projects. Communities indicated that they would want to have some form of civic education on this, especially regarding tenure rights, the land administration system (surveying, adjudication and registration), the implications and contents of the new community land law, and legal protection of community rights during land acquisition. One key finding was a preference by community members to have some of their own members trained in order to pass the knowledge to the communities, a sentiment that arose from a desire to receive information from a trustworthy source who was part of the community. Another finding was that community members did not have clear details on available grievance mechanisms on the land administration system, and while some had managed to access the National Land Commission, they lamented that it was based in Nairobi.

This finding suggests there is a need to develop a basic community dissemination manual, that includes a provision for empowerment of community based trainers (through a Training of Trainers concept). In such an approach, the dissemination manual can be published in simple language, including translation to Kiswahili or local languages where preferable.

2. Enhancement of meaningful public participation in the entire continuum through effective consultations and disclosure of relevant information

In order to enhance the voice of the community ahead of any process of land acquisition, it will be helpful to integrate a constructive and meaningful process of consultation with potentially affected communities, from early on during project planning, feasibility studies to onboarding of investments. This would particularly aid in providing value on local circumstances and risks that may not be obvious to technical teams. Occurrences such as in the Isiolo Kiwanjani settlement (displaced for the airport) where residents of Kiwanjani Zone G Squatter complained that maps generated during the acquisition process continued to record their land as being part of the airport complex despite there being a 75 feet road between the airport boundary, and the plots in question, would be avoided.

Enhanced community participation would further provide a valuable avenue through which the [potentially] affected local community can enhance its voice by having an opinion (which is taken into account) early on in the stages of the project design. However, this approach would also require protection from speculative behavior, that could result in an artificial increase in market value of land, due to market behavior triggered by anticipation of a project, and land acquisition. Access to information requires that this type of information is made available to the public, but in order to control speculative behaviour that drives up the cost of land compensation, government can apply the new 2016 Access to Information Act to sieve out aspects that are either confidential or considered deliberative and therefore not to be publicly disclosed. Another helpful approach would be to undertake the feasibility studies focusing on multiple alternative sites, without showing preference for any particular site.

Meaningful community participation requires a legal or policy definition of how to ensure consultations are effective. This could include possibility of requiring consulting (public) agencies to return to the host community and disclose how they considered the various opinions, and provide feedback. The community dissemination manual proposed above would provide a valuable tool through which to structure techniques that affected local communities can apply in order to have meaningful consultations. The manual could also include implications of the procedures set out in the new 2016 Access to Information Act.

3. Promotion of Networking by Project Affected communities in various parts of Kenya to build knowledge and exchange thoughts
There are multiple instances of compulsory acquisition of land in Kenya (e.g. For LAPSSET projects), or the allocation of land by government for private investments (Siaya – Dominion). The processes are at various stages, either at conceptual point, or having gone through various steps of acquisition and onboarding of investments. Equally, others are complete and the investment has been operational for a number of years. In all these cases, there multiple lessons to be learnt between the various affected local communities. In both Lamu and Isiolo for instance, the research engaged with multiple focus groups drawn from within the same project locality but in different geographical sections – and there was evidence that there was no integrated system to promote consultations and learning from each other. Further, even where acquisition and investments have been undertaken in separate parts of the country, people from Isiolo or Lamu could learn coping techniques from those in Siaya, or by learning the adverse impacts in Siaya, become more interested in enhancing their voices in the local context to avoid a similar outcome. Therefore, the idea of a network that brings together representatives of the various communities is useful to consider. Such a network would also include policy makers drawn from the national and county governments. Already in most of these local communities, the research observed that chiefs (who are national government administration officers) are an integral part of the community process. Learning forums could be organized, and a feedback process put in place such that when representatives return to their local communities, they can provide details to their neighbours. Such a network would however require that policy makers also commit to provide valuable information and feedback to any questions and problems raised by participating communities.

An alternative to utilization of physical meetings for such a network is application of internet-based technology. In this case, a network can be developed through low cost options, such as through the WhatsApp Platform. Although this requires internet access through a smartphone, the Land Development and Governance Institute has been piloting a WhatsApp based platform that creates a Network aptly named Community Land Matters. The experience with this platform is discussed at length in section 9.

4. Involvement of Women in Community Interventions
The study exposes some good lessons in the involvement of women in community interventions and leadership on communal land rights. It was instructive that for instance in the discussion with the Aweer group in Bargoni, Lamu, some women participants in the focus group discussions were very active and made crucial contributions. In addition, the women also made distinguished contributions too during discussions with the Turkana community at Ngare Mara, Isiolo County, where critical leadership positions in the community are held by women.

Yet, the two communities, like many others in Kenya, are largely patriarchal. This experience provides a good benchmarking lesson that, despite the cultural practices that have informed many communities in the past, given opportunity, women may play critical roles in helping communities protect and mitigate their communal land rights where circumstances so demand.

5. Compensation to “occupants in good faith” without title to land
As noted in the study, Article 40(4) of the Constitution of Kenya states that ‘provision may be made for compensation to be paid to occupants in good faith of land acquired under clause (3) who may not hold title to the land”. While the rules to govern how the discretion implied by this Article are yet to be developed, the study reveals that the State has exercised this discretion positively in the studied Port site in Lamu and the Airport site in Isiolo. Despite land owners not holding title to their land in the two places, cash-for-land and land-for-land compensation was made to the claimants in Lamu and Isiolo respectively.

These are good precedents for other parts of the country where formal processes to register communal land have not been applied or completed. Lessons learnt from these two Counties may be borrowed to inform and improve similar compensation exercises elsewhere.

6. Protection of interests of legitimate beneficiaries during compensation

Incidents were recounted of husbands and fathers pocketing the proceeds of compensation and departing home with the entire compensation sum. This leaves the wives and children vulnerably exposed and without alternative livelihoods. Such people become a problem for the community and State. To avoid such negligence, the government should consider regulating the release of compensation funds. The practice under the Land Control Act Chapter 302 of the Laws of Kenya which regulates transactions of agricultural land could be borrowed. Though not written into the law, Land Control Boards always require the proprietor’s spouse to be in attendance before approval to any application for approval of a transaction such as subdivision or sale of family property. And where they are in doubt about the facts to any application, they will usually refer to an area elder or the Assistant Chief for pertinent information in an effort to ensure that spouse and children are in agreement. Such a procedure could be enforced in the case of compensation following acquisition.

It is recommended that the Government, in liaison with the National Land Commission, puts in place modalities to explore how a similar social safeguard procedure could be instituted in the proceedings for compensation under the Land Act to protect legitimate beneficiaries in instances where acquisition of land for projects has to be done with requisite compensation to landowners.

7. Preservation of indigenous and local knowledge:
Project activities involving large scale land acquisition have the inevitable consequence, in some cases, of interfering or totally defacing available traditional/indigenous knowledge from the affected site. This is the case in some parts of Lamu and Isiolo where invaluable oral and cultural knowledge, including some cultural sites, have been preserved over the years. In any event, if enhanced community participation is adopted, and a threshold placed to examine if the participation is meaningful, the indigenous and local knowledge of the communities will also benefit the project at the point of local risk assessment. In this case, recording of such knowledge can be undertaken for posterity use.
It is therefore recommended that the implementation of such projects be preceded by a quick knowledge mapping to determine and document such knowledge before destruction or adulteration, together with enhanced community participation. Where possible, such knowledge can be proactively preserved in collaboration with the relevant state organs. Such a mapping can still be done for the LAPSSET Corridor and Isiolo Resort City before implementation takes off.

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In the coming century the world's high tropical mountains are predicted to experience a magnitude of climate change second only to the Arctic due to amplification of warming with elevation in the tropics. Proxy data suggest that substantial changes in tropical temperature and hydroclimate also occurred during the last deglaciation, the most recent time period when rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused large changes in global climate. Determining whether the rate of temperature change with elevation (the lapse rate) was different from today during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is therefore critical to understanding the future of tropical mountain environments and resources. Here we present a new 25,000-year temperature reconstruction based upon organic geochemical analyses of sediment cores from Lake Rutundu (3,078 m asl), Mount Kenya, East Africa. Through comparison with regional reconstructions of lower elevation temperature, we show that LGM cooling was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our lapse rate reconstructions with equilibrium line altitude reconstructions from glacial moraines indicates that temperature, rather than precipitation, was the dominant control on tropical alpine glacier fluctuations at this time scale. Nevertheless, our results have important implications for the tropical hydrological cycle, as changes in the lapse rate are intimately linked with changes in atmospheric water vapour concentrations. Indeed, we attribute the steeper lapse rate to drying of the tropical ice-age atmosphere, a hypothesis supported by palaeoclimate models. However, comparison of our data to these simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models significantly underestimate tropical temperature changes at high elevation and therefore the lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than currently predicted.

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comABSTRACTSeborrhoiec Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids, usually affecting elderly females. Typically, the lesions start as discrete, tan-dark brown, flat lesions starting on the face and progressing to other sun-exposed areas. The natural progression is generally an increase in size, thickness and pigmentation of these lesions. A variant of SK, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN), has been described in black people, characterized by an earlier and more severe manifestation with multiple, profuse lesions. The diagnosis is clinical, although histopathological examination may be sought to confirm the diagnosis. These lesions are benign and usually only removed for cosmetic reasons. However, in some patients, concern or discomfort may warrant removal. Cryosurgery, electrodesiccation, curettage or shave excision are all effective methods of management. When eyelid lesions are excised, the resulting anterior lamellar defect can be repaired by primary closure, local skin flaps or Full-Thickness Skin Grafts (FTSG). We report a 60 year old female patient who presented with DPN and thick pigmented lesions on the eyelids of both eyes, causing mechanical ptosis, left lower lid ectropion and interfering with vision. She was successfully managed with excision and lid reconstruction for both eyes.Keywords: Seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis papulosa nigra, Eyelid tumours, Eyelid reconstruction, Eyelid excisional biopsy, Glabellar flap INTRODUCTIONSeborrhoeic Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids1. It usually affects elderly people, with a female preponderance and some cases of reported family history2. The exact cause is unknown and has been linked to sunlight exposure3. Typically, lesions are small, discrete and tan-brown flat macules, most frequently on the face and trunk4. With time, these lesions exhibit increase in size, thickness and level of pigmentation5. As they grow, the lesions become papules with the characteristic verrucous “stuck-on” appearance4. A variant of seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN) has been described in black people2. This variant manifests earlier, with multiple and profuse lesions which are larger, thicker and exhibit a more chronic and worsening course than classic SK. SK lesions are benign and do not usually require removal5. However, many patients present to dermatologists due to concern about possible skin malignancy when there is growth or increased pigmentation of the lesions6. Reasons for removal include cosmetic reasons, discomfort, itchiness or documented growth in the lesions. The diagnosis is clinical in majority of cases. However, especially if lesions are going to be removed, histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis may be sought. Histology of lesions is characterized by hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis, acanthosis with intraepithelial horn or pseudohorn cysts3. There are several options for

and Muthama AKH, W MJ, N MUTHAMAJ. "Long Term Change Point Detections in Total Ozone Column over East Africa via Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform." American Research Journal of Physics. 2016;2(2):1-9.
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"Labour Mobility and Deconstruction of Kenya Emigration Streams." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2015;Vol 4 (Issue 9).labour_mobility_and_deconstruction_of_kenya_emigration_sreams.pdf
Mogambi H, Onchiri H. "The Language of graffiti on Public Transport Vehicles in Kenya: Issues and perspectives." International Journal of Education and Research. 2015;3(6):47-56.
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Waweru JN. "Leading versus managing libraries in Kenya ." Maktaba Journal of the Kenya Library Association . 2015;Vol.3 (No.1, ): 105-109.
Kimeli P, Nguhiu MJ, Mogoa ME, Onono JO, Serem JK. "lEffects of Floor Characteristics on Locomotion Scores in Dairy Cows under Smallholder Zero-Grazing Units in Kikuyu District, Kenya." Global Veterinaria. 2015;16(6):837-841.
MALUSI BENERDETAMWIKALI, Mungai C, Odiemo L. "LEFT-HANDEDNESS AS AN OVERLOOKED SPECIAL LEARNING NEED." IJBRITISH. 2015;2(4):70-90.left-handedness-as-special-need-b-m-malusi.pdf
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