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Web Article
Waweru JN. Library orientation.; 2014.

Lean supply chain management thinking and practices is considered as one of the ways
recognized to achieve timely supplies and to create greater values. The application of lean supply
management principles is meant to lead to improved performance of managers of the supply
chain. The Changing consumer needs and business environment has necessitated Public
Universities in Kenya to adopt lean supply chain management practices in order to survive thus
minimizing operational costs and maximizing profits. The increased change of customer needs
and the emergence of new technologies have resulted into Public Universities adapting to those
changes so as to remain relevant and competitive.
The objectives of the study sought to; (i) determine the extent that the human resource practices
linked to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were consistent with
lean supply chain management, (ii) determine the extent that the information Technology linked
to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were consistent with
reference to lean supply chain management and (iii)determine the extent to which the supplier
relations linked to the supply chain management at the Public Universities in Kenya were
consistent with the reference of lean supply chain management.
The study used a descriptive survey research design to assess the application of lean supply
chain management practices at the Public Universities in Kenya. The survey was used to
describe the Lean Supply chains Management practices which are successfully applied in the
Public Universities so as to enhance their service delivery. The survey was a census study that
included all the Seven Public Universities in Kenya, namely; University of Nairobi, Moi
University, Egerton University, Kenyatta University, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture
and Technology, Maseno University and Masinde Muliro University. The main instruments for
data collection were structured questionnaires with both closed and open ended questions. It was
administered to the respondents through personal interviews and by dropping and picking the
questionnaires at the business premises.
The data collected was analyzed using measures of central tendency including the mean scores
and percentages and measures of dispersion. Findings were then interpreted, conclusions made
and recommendations. The study established that rigid organizational culture and resistance to
change among Public Universities is a major obstacle to successful implementation of lean
supply chain management practices in Public Universities.
The study recommends that employees of Public Universities in Kenya be involved in decision
making and be sensitized on lean supply chain management practices in order to understand the
value and the changing business environment. The study established that human resource
practices among Public Universities have not been full linked to lean supply chain management
practices due to inappropriate policies of Public Universities to develop their new and existing
staff through training on the value of lean supply chain management practices. Therefore, the
study recommends the formulation of policies by the public universities that embrace lean supply
chain management practices for competitive advantage. The study established that, integration
of information technology in every department of Public Universities in Kenya enhances
efficiency and effectiveness thus customer satisfaction. The study established that unclear
procurement policies in Public Universities in Kenya hinder efficient and effective lean supply
chain management practices and results into poor performance of Public Universities due to
increased costs associated with supply chain activities.

Munyiva NMM. Location-based multilingual mobile phone browser case: Agricultural Information System Access. Odongo PO, ed.; 2008. Abstract

There has been a drastic growth in mobile phone usage in Kenya over the past few years .In June of 1999, Kenya had 15,000 mobile phone subscribers. By the end of 2004 the country had 3.4 million subscribers, and by mid-2005 the number was estimated to be over 4 million. [2]In addition prices of {WAP}-enabled smart phones have declined drastically over the recent past. There is an immense amount of agricultural information in Kenya that has been acquired by various research institutions and Non Government organizations. This information is largely in form of books, journals and articles and only limited static information is available on the web sites. In addition there is no single website that captures all information relating to Agricultural production that is required by farmers in a user friendly, location and language localized manner. Agricultural information applications developed that utilize mobile phone technology are mainly Short Message Service ({SMS}) based which do not take advantage of the full capabilities of phones available in the market. This project sets out to develop a system that will facilitate access to Agricultural information on the internet via mobile phones through creation of an interface that is location based meaning it determines the geographical position of a user and Multilingual that is there are various choices of languages that can be used to access the system In addition it sets out to merge all information required by farmers for Agricultural production into one Agricultural information system site. Display of required information will be based on geographical location of the user. The system utilizes {WAP} technology for the web interface and J2ME technology for the mobile phone interface using the {GSM} network to acquire location information. All the theory, rnethodology and implementation of the system are highlighted and illustrated inthis project report.

Odada EO, Onyando J, Obudho PA. Lake Baringo: Experience and lessons learnt brief.; 2005.
Wasamba P. Languange in Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Fiction. Chesaina PC, Odari M, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.abstract.pdf
Manda DK. Labour Supply, Returns to Education, and The Effect of Firm Size on Wages: The Case of Kenya. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden; 1997.
Ndombi DSJ. Lipid metabolic changes in patients with pancreatitis . Shanghai Second Medical University; 1994.

This thesis studies some aspects of the learning components of linear programming in two variables. It incorporates a teaching experiment that uses an arithmetic approach to introduce linear programming. A specific strategy of identifying the optimum point is then emphasized to enhance a relational understanding of the corner point theorem. The subjects chosen for the study are four pre-commerce students at Concordia University. This group of students is selected because the subject matter they learn in linear programming comprises the learning components under study.
The subjects’ prerequisite knowledge is gauged by their performance on a pre-test. A semi standardized interview is conducted to follow up the difficulties and errors that emerge during the teaching to explain the underlying causes of the difficulties. The subjects solve one problem independently during the experiment and five others in a pre-test designed to gauge the effect of the strategy on reinforcing the understanding of the corner point theorem. Examination scripts (174) including those of the subjects are analyzed for potential difficulties and errors to provide extra data of the frequency of occurrence of the difficulties and errors. Ten text books chosen at random are also analyzed to find out how they might help alleviate or add to the difficulties

Boniface N. Learning Resource Centers in Diploma Teacher Colleges in Kenya.. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 1989.
Goro EC. Laboratory and field swelling pressures of a black cotton soil .; 1988. Abstract

The swelling pressure of a black cotton soil is investigated :n the project carried out for this thesis. SoiI as one of the materials on the earths crust is introduced; its mineralogy and atomic properties are discussed. The solid phase in soil consist of crystals whose properties are discussed paying particular attention to the structure part of it. The m1nerals in soils could be non-clay or clay, their difference with respect to structure and behaviour are considered in the thesis. The classification of clay minerals into groups and the structural differences existing between the groups are also considered. Problems encountered 1n the building industry, from black cotton soil due its swelling properties are outlined in this thesis.The various factors that influence the swelling characterlstics of soi 1 black cotton/ are considered, and thei r interrelation and influence on each other are also discussed. When an engineer undertakes to design a project, there are field and laboratory investigations ,. to be carried out before construction starts.The absence oE standard apparatus to measure swelling pressure of black cotton soil in the Eield called for the design and testing of appropriate equipment. The requirements for such equipment vary from site to site depending on both physical and environmental conditions. For this project a design was cariied out to suit the local conditions. The equipments were fabricated, tested ahd calibrated as part oE the res earch wo rk, Laboratory swelling pressure of black cotton soil was measured on soil samples obtained from all the five identified sites. In order to carry out the laboratory swelling pressure tests and be able to relate the results obtained to those from the field data, sampling apparatus had to be designed and the laboratory swelling pressure apparatus had to be modified. The pressure obtained both in the field and in the laboratory were compared and it was found that the field swelling pressure were much less than the laboratory swelling pressures, regardless of whether the laboratory soil sample was disturbed or undisturbed.

Wahome EW. Later Iron Age in Nyeri District, Kenya.. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1985.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. Law, Morals and the Individual in Kenya .; 1980.
Research Paper
Upadhyaya R, Wamalwa H. Learning and capabilities development: Case studies of East African social enterprises.; 2022.
Nandonde F, Adu-Gyamfi R, Mmusi TS, Asongu SA, Opperman J, Makindara J. Linkages And Spillover Effects Of South African Foreign Direct Investment In Botswana And Kenya. WIDER Working Paper 2019/53. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER; 2019.
Kahi, H.C, M, M. Nyangito P, C.K.K. Gachene P. Land Use Change in Upper River Kibwezi Riparian Ecosystem From 1985 to 2015.; 2018.
Nielsen, MR; Lund JF; BTA; I. Locally-based monitoring and its relevance to management and research.; 2012. Abstract

Locally-based monitoring (LBM) has been pro posed as a solution to overcome the costs of monitoring the condition and development of natural resources and ecosystems in developing countries. Based on a recent empirical study on LBM, this brief argues that careful attention should be paid to the incentives and power struggles surrounding the particular context within which LBM schemes are based as they will invariably shape the information produced and communicated.

Ackello-Ogutu, Chris; Okoruwa V; BGN. Long-term challenges to food security and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa.; 2012. Abstract

This briefing paper is one of the 10-part Global Development Network (GDN) Agriculture Policy Series for its project, ‘Supporting Policy Research to Inform Agricultural Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia’. It is based on a longer synthesis paper, Long-term challenges to food security and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa, which draws on extensive published and unpublished research. It will be of value to policymakers, experts and civil society working to improve agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 180 million food-insecure people live in Sub-Saharan Africa, over 21 per cent of the African population. These are among the world’s most vulnerable people, poorly equipped to respond to the threat of climate change, demographic stresses, or spikes in global food prices. This briefing examines how improvements in agriculture might help to achieve g

Nkonya, E; Jawoo K; MLP; R. Land under pressure..; 2011. Abstract

This chapter presents and discusses the causes of land degradation, and ways of sustainable land development and agricultural productivity. The evidence presented here suggests several avenues for achieving a world without land degradation. First, efforts to promote sustainable land management need to improve locally and nationally. Second, instead of focusing solely on fertilizer subsidies, countries should use broader and more cost-effective incentives to encourage farmers to adopt integrated soil fertility management.

Lund, JF; Helles MNI; TF; H; I. Landsbyskovbrug i Tanzania : hvem vinder, hvem taber?.; 2008.
Mureithi, J G; Gachene WCKK; J. Legume research network project: a sythensis report of phase 1 (1994-2000).; 2004. Abstract

The Legume Research Network Project (LRNP) was started in 1994 (by then known as the Legume Screening Network) to evaluate suitable legume species for different agro-ecological environments and to subsequently incorporate the “best bets” into the existing farming systems. Initial Network activities included the screening of about 40 legume species, among them, green manuring species, food legumes and forage species. The screening trials were conducted in 11 sites across the country especially where soil infertility had been identified as a major constraint to crop production. The Network extended its activities to include research on legume residue management, integrated nutrient management, livestock feeding and cowpea screening trials. Each site had the task of bulking seeds of promising legume species. The Network members are from KARI, University of Nairobi (UoN), Environmental Action Team (EAT, an NGO based in Kitale) and Community Mobilisation Against Desertification (C-MAD, an NGO based in Rongo near Kisii). The main collaborators are the Ministry of Agriculture, and Rural Development staff, and the farmers from different regions of Kenya. The following are the major highlights of phase 1 activities: ♦ Promising green manure (GM) legume species: The most outstanding green manure legume species across Network sites based mainly on biomass accumulation are Mucuna pruriens, Lablab purpureus, Crotalaria ochroleuca, and Canavalia ensiformis. ♦ Inoculation of best-bet legume species: The rhizobia inoculation study concluded that inoculation of best-bet legumes in the study sites was not necessary but further systematic studies to characterise the native rhizobia and to determine their levels in the soil should be undertaken. ♦ Response of legume species to phosphorus: Three Network sites participated in this trial, namely Kakamega, Kisii and Gatanga. In Kakamega and Kisii, legumes did not respond to application of P. In Gatanga they responded to application of P at the rate of 20 kg ha-1 but did not respond substantially to application beyond this rate. ♦ Potential benefits of GM legume technologies for improved maize yields: Incorporating mucuna biomass (4 - 11 t DM ha-1) into the soil for maize production increased maize yields by 120%. The additional labor required for digging mucuna into the soil was compensated by increased maize yields. Returns to labour were higher in mucuna (US$ 11.50) than in maize only plots (US$ 8.00). Besides, farmers in Gatanga and Kisii Network sites reported that additional labour required for incorporation of legume biomass was minimal because incorporation and land preparation for the companion crop were done simultaneously. ♦ Potential for soil moisture conservation: In a semi-arid site Machakos,mucuna on the surface as mulch gave better yields than incorporating it in the soil probably because of the moisture conservation effect. A farmer in Embu reported that soil moisture was retained for a longer time in plots where mucuna was grown than in plots without mucuna. ♦ Potential for soil improvement: Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) at three sites, Kakamega, Embu and Mtwapa, mucuna and crotalaria were evaluated in field studies that involved the combinations of green manure, FYM and inorganic fertilisers. Higher maize yields were obtained by combining green manure legume with FYM and inorganic N. ♦ Potential for feeding livestock: Livestock feeding studies at, Mtwapa and Katumani showed that performance of cattle and goats improved when fed on legume forage. In Mtwapa, dairy cows fed on mucuna and lablab forage had a daily DM intake of about 9.2 kg cow-1, which was similar to cows fed on Gliricidia sepium forage, a proven fodder tree for the coastal Kenya. Milk yield (6.5 kg day-1) was only 8% less than that produced by cows fed on gliricidia forage. In Katumani, goats supplemented with Neonotonia wightii gained on average 16.37 g while those on basal diet alone lost 23.81g daily.

Gachene, C K K; Mureithi JG. Lost and reclaimed: A case study of gully rehabilitation in central Kenya highlands using low-cost measures.; 2004. Abstract

Gully control and reclamation activities using low-cost measures were carried out in early March 2001 at Gatanga division, Kenya. The study area was selected on the basis of previous work carried out in farmers fields by the Legume Research Network Project (LRNP). The project’s main objective is to introduce green manure legume species that perform well in different agro ecological zones of Kenya mainly for the purpose of soil fertility improvement and erosion control in smallhold farms. Area studied is characterized by a mean annual rainfall of about 1100 mm with a bimodal distribution, deep red soils, steep slopes and intensive landuse. Field activities were carried out in one of the farms which had literally been abandoned due to gully erosion. The length of the gully was 130 m with an average width and depth of 1.62 and 1.4 m, respectively. Work involved planting of grasses (mainly Brachira humidocola) and mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) on the floor and sides of the gully. In addition ‘macro-contour lines’ were constructed in the farm which involved planting lines of mucuna, sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) along the terrace embankments. Through photographs taken over a 3 year period, evidence is given to show that the gully has completely healed and that the farm has been brought back to productivity.

Stelfox, John G; Kufwafwa JMSPDW; W; G. Livestock and wild herbivore populations in the Kenya rangelands in 1977 compared with 1978.; 1979. Abstract

Compares wild herbivore and livestock poulation data collected during the aerial suveys throughout the rangelands areas during 1977 and 1978. rangelands which were flown in straight line belt transects the first year at l0km spacing and the second at 5km apart. Elephant population estimates according to the ecoregions were: Northern Rift Valley 1,600 in 1977 but not included in 1978; Northern volcanics 1,600 in 1977 and 110 in 1978; Northern Central 4,170 in 1977 and 1,930 in 1978; North East 9,500 in 1977 and 3,060 in 1978; South Central 2,800 in 1977 and 4,130 in 1978, East Central-Coastal 13,900 in 1977 and 8,450 in 1978; South East 25,500 in 1977 and 21,900 in 1978; South West 1,800 in 1977 and 3,180 in 1978 providing a total estimate for 1977 of 59,800 and for 1978 of 42,800.

Lamu County Spatial Plan . Lamu; Submitted.
National Gender and Equity Commission(NGEC) K. The Land Area Dimension of Resource Allocation: A Review of the Formula by Commission on Resource Allocation (CRA), Kenya. Nairobi: National Gender and Equity Commission (NGEC), Kenya ; 2012.
Odada E.O., Olago DO, W. O. Lake Victoria Basin Environment Outlook: Environment and Development. Nairobi: UNEP; 2006.
Makunda CS, et al. Learning at Morse Ranch: An interdisciplinary fun approach for fifth graders. Eugene: University of Oregon; 1999.
Newspaper Article
Kanyinga K. "Lessons from nominations." Sunday Nation, May 20, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Let's strengthen the rule of law to crush impunity." Sunday Nation, May 20, 2012.
Ozdemir SK, Yang L, Peng B. Loss engineering to improve system functionality and output. Google Patents; 2021. Abstract
Yang L, Ozdemir SK, Peng B. Loss engineering to improve system functionality and output. Google Patents; 2016. Abstract
Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
Magazine Article
Wango GM, Ngerema D, Owang S. "Languishing and Assisting People Get on their Feet." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):7-9.languishing_and_assisting_people_get_on_their_feet.pdf
Gatere AW. "The Language of Love." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):33-35.the_language_of_love.pdf
"Learning to Positively Manage your Relationship with your Spouse." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(2):40-43.
Shah PS. "Life of Wangari Maathai." OERB Reach 16 (2013):9-11.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Life Begins at Forty, Even for ISK:." Land and Property Digest. Special Issue No 9 (2010).
"The Long Road to a PhD: Choices Changes or Chances." Commonwealth Scholarship News. 2007;1(1):9.
Journal Article
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute." Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Submitted. Abstract


Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
Mwai L, Onyatta J, Were FH. "Lead content in automotive paints purchased at formal and informal outlets in Kenya." Heliyon. 2023;9(1):e12831. AbstractHeliyon

Lead (Pb) is added to automotive paints to prevent corrosion on metallic surfaces, for decorative colours, and for reflective properties to heighten visibility, and enhanced drying time, and durability. However, there are substitutes for all of these applications and Pb is highly toxic to human health and the environment. Through concerted efforts, leaded gasoline was phased out and currently, the focus is on lead-based paints. Leaded automotive paint used for spray painting activities often conducted in close proximity to human habitation raises public health concerns over possible exposure. This study was therefore undertaken to assess Pb levels in automotive paints frequently used by informal spray painters. A total of thirty-two (n = 32) cans of automotive paints were purchased in 4 sets of red, blue, green and white colours from eight formal and informal retail shops. Lead levels in the paint samples were analyzed in triplicates using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. All the automotive paints from the informal retail shops had Pb levels that ranged from 220 to 2740 ppm, and exceeded the regulatory limit of 90 ppm. The blue paint from the informal store had the highest Pb levels which were 30 times of the set limit. On the contrary, the paints from the formal stores had significantly (p < 0.05) lower Pb levels that ranged from 80.7 to 580 ppm than those of the informal stores. Although only one paint sample from the former retail shop had Pb levels within the limit. In general, the elevated Pb levels in automotive paints that are used in an unregulated environment are potential sources of exposure and environmental contamination. The study urgently calls for enforcement of the regulatory limits and comprehensive Pb exposure assessments in this sector.

QURESHI ZAHIDA, Jamner A, Filippi V, Gwako G, Osoti A, Mehrtash H, Baguiya A, Bello FA, Compaoré R, Gadama L, Kim CR, Msusa AT, Tunçalp Ӧ, Calvert C. "Level and determinants of contraceptive uptake among women attending facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2022;156 Suppl 1:27-35. Abstract

To investigate the level and determinants of nonreceipt of contraception among women admitted to facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa.

J.G.N. K, J. NI. "Levels of Essential Elements in selected Persea Americana varieties as Potential Minerals." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). 2022;Accepted on 14th August, 2022.
Njuguna CN, Odiemo LO. "Loaded but Applauded: The Relationship between Workload and Job Satisfaction among High School Teachers in Kiambu County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2022;10(2):43-50.
Johnson L, Onjala J. "Logic of the Belt and Road Initiatives Early Eastern Africa Node: Economic, Demographic and Political Economy Rationales." Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies,. 2022;accepted January 28 2022.
Zhang Q, Nam J-S, Han J, Datta S, Wei N, Ding E-X, Hussain A, Ahmad S, Skakalova V, Khan AT, others. "Large-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Transparent Conductor Overcoming Performance–Yield Tradeoff." Advanced Functional Materials. 2022;32:2103397. Abstract
Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Joubert F, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Limited diversity in the CD8+ antigen-coding loci in Theileria parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa." Vet Parasitol. 2021;291:109371. Abstract

Theileria parva infections in cattle causes huge economic losses in the affected African countries, directly impacting the livelihood of the poor small-holder farmers. The current immunization protocol using live sporozoites in eastern Africa, is among the control measures designed to limit T. parva infections in cattle. However, the ability of the immune protection induced by this immunization to protect against field parasites has been compromised by the diversity of the parasite involving the schizont antigen genes. Previous studies have reported on the antigenic diversity of T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa, however, similar reports on T. parva parasites particularly from cattle from southern Africa remains scanty, due to the self-limiting nature of Corridor disease. Thus, we evaluated the diversity of CD8+ T-cell regions of ten schizont antigen genes in T. parva parasites associated with Corridor disease and East Coast fever (ECF) from southern and eastern Africa respectively. Regions of schizont antigen (TpAg) genes containing the CD8+ T-cell epitopes (CTL determinants) were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood of T. parva positive samples, cloned and sequenced. The results revealed limited diversity between the two parasite groups from cattle from southern and eastern Africa, defying the widely accepted notion that antigen-encoding loci in cattle-derived parasites are conserved, while in buffalo-derived parasites, they are extensively variable. This suggests that only a sub-population of parasites is successfully transmitted from buffalo to cattle, resulting in the limited antigenic diversity in Corridor disease parasites. Tp4, Tp5, Tp7 and Tp8 showed limited to absence of diversity in both parasite groups, suggesting the need to further investigate their immunogenic properties for consideration as candidates for a subunit vaccine. Distinct and common variants of Tp2 were detected among the ECF parasites from eastern Africa indicating evidence of parasite mixing following immunization. This study provides additional information on the comparative diversity of TpAg genes in buffalo- and cattle-derived T. parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa.

Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. "The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e489-e551.Website
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Language Attitude and Language Planning: Emerging Trends in Kenya since 2010." Journal of African Studies [Feizhou Yanjiu, 非洲研究], . 2021;1(2021):115-136.
I C, P S, B N, M M, JA O’o. "Laparoscopic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: detection of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues, fluids, and surgical smoke." Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2021;406(4):1007-1014. AbstractWebsite

Background: There are still concerns over the safety of laparoscopic surgery in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients due to the potential risk of viral transmission through surgical smoke/laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of currently available literature to determine the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in abdominal tissues or fluids and in surgical smoke.

Results: A total of 19 studies (15 case reports and 4 case series) comprising 29 COVID-19 patients were included. The viral RNA was positively identified in 11 patients (37.9%). The samples that tested positive include the peritoneal fluid, bile, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysate, duodenal wall, and appendix. Similar samples, together with the omentum and abdominal subcutaneous fat, tested negative in the other patients. Only one study investigated SARS-COV-2 RNA in surgical smoke generated during laparoscopy, reporting negative findings.

Conclusions: There are conflicting results regarding the presence of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues and fluids. No currently available evidence supports the hypothesis that SARS-COV-2 can be aerosolized and transmitted through surgical smoke. Larger studies are urgently needed to corroborate these findings.

Mavuti SK, Mbaria JM, Maina JG, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM. "Levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in farmed Oriochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2021;9(4):230-233.
Moturi C, Karuga E, Orwa D. "Leveraging Big Data Analytics." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021;DOI: 10.1504/IJBDM.2021.10036720. AbstractWebsite

This paper sought to study the extent to which telecoms within Kenya have adopted Big Data analytics to gain richer and deeper insights into their business dynamics in order to facilitate evidence decision making. A descriptive research design was employed and data was collected from ten leading telecoms using semi-structured questionnaires. The study found that Big Data could stimulate the economic growth, advance the productivity and competitiveness of the telecoms, as well as generate enormous benefits for customers. The factors with the highest significant effect on the adoption of Big Data analytics were identified. The practical implication of this paper is an increased understanding on what elements can promote Big Data adoption by large telecom companies. The study is beneficial to telecoms companies and any other organisations that would be looking at adopting data driven decision making to sustain competitiveness within the present uncertain setting.

Musyoka PK, Onjala J, Mureithi LP. "Livelihood Diversification and Household Vulnerability to Climate Shocks in Rural Kenya." Climate Change and Development. 2021.
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Long-term spatial-temporal temperature characteristics of a pastoral ecosystem in Kajiado County, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(6):896-906.
S. R, M. P, V. O. "LP Fracturing: A Review on Waterless Fracturing Technology in Unconventional Reservoir." Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research (JSAER). 2021;8(1):48-54.
Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2008333. Abstract
Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging (Adv. Mater. 34/2021)." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2170267. Abstract
Birech Z, Ondieki AM, Opati RII, Mwangi PW. "Low cost Raman sample substrates from conductive silver paint smear for Raman spectroscopic screening of metabolic diseases in whole blood.". 2020;108:103063. AbstractWebsite

This work reports on a low cost, simple to prepare and chemically stable Raman substrates based on conductive silver paint smear. The substrates were characterized Raman spectroscopically and were found to be chemically stable within the first seven days when kept at room temperature as the spectroscopic profiles were unchanged. The substrates also suppressed the background signals emanating from glass centered around 750 cm−1 and 1370 cm−1 seen with 785 nm excitation and had negligible influence on Raman spectral profiles of rat’s blood samples applied onto them. The Raman spectral profiles of blood samples applied onto the substrates were found to be enhanced by a factor of 1.7 compared to those of thick blood smears on a clean microscope glass slide. The increased local field between the gaps formed by adjacent micron-sized silver solids in the paint smear were attributed to the observed intense signals observed from the blood samples applied onto them. The substrates were tried on Raman spectroscopic differentiation between blood from obese and normal; diabetic and normal Sprague Dawley rats. The prominent bands associated with fructose (638 and 812 cm−1), glucose (1127 cm−1) and branched chain amino acids (1033, 1217 and 1318 cm−1) were observed to vary in terms of intensity between the un-healthy (obese and diabetic) and healthy (normal) rats. The results reported here on the use of the easy to prepare, low cost Raman substrates have the potential of making surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy accessible to less resourced laboratories in developing countries. The substrates can be applied in rapid Raman spectroscopic screening of various metabolic diseases.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "LAB SCALE BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MARKET WASTES AND DAGORETTI SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE IN KENYA." International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research. 2020;8(1):12-21. Abstract

In this study, fruits and vegetable market wastes were used as substrates in biogas
production under psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Slaughterhouse waste
consisting of blood and diluted rumen fluid mixture was used as inoculum with seven days retention
time. Influence of C: N ratios of the unique mixtures of vegetables found in the market were
investigated. On average, the vegetable wastes found at the market contained >86% moisture, 5 -
12% volatile solid and 0.46 – 2.06% ash matter on a wet basis. The protein range was between
0.57 – 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado (Persea americana) wastes at
9.03%. The highest cumulative biogas was recorded in wastes mixture at 3500ml on seventh day
while low biogas yield was registered for wastes with C: N ratios greater than 35:1 like avocado
and lower than 10 like coriander and courgette wastes. The optimum operation pH was in the
range of 6.80 – 7.2.It can be concluded that the highest cumulative biogas was generated from
fruits/vegetable mixture at 3500ml in mesophillic conditions. This study recommends pH
adjustment to 6.8 – 7.2 in market wastes and C: N ratios of 20 – 25 for large scale biogas
production of wastes found in the Dagoretti Market.

"Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;2(1):1-23.
Ongong’a, A. I. GSOK & M. "Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach." International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Bioresearch. 2020;5(5):68-85.
Benjamin Nyilitya, Mureithi S, Boeckx P. "Land use controls Kenyan riverine nitrate discharge into Lake Victoria – evidence from Nyando, Nzoia and Sondu Miriu river catchments." Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 2020.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Taylor M, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25(18):4130. AbstractMolecules

Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal plant with a worldwide distribution. The species has undergone enormous taxonomic changes which caused confusion amongst plant users. In Kenya, for example, two varieties are known to exist based on morphology, ie, D. viscosa var. viscosa along the coast, and D. viscosa var. angustifolia in the Kenyan inland. These two taxa are recognized as distinct species in some reports. This prompted us to apply metabolomics to understand the relationship among naturally occurring populations of D. viscosa in Kenya, and to identify compounds that can assist in taxonomic delineation of the different varieties of D. viscosa from different parts of Kenya. The phytochemical variability of Kenyan D. viscosa var. angustifolia populations collected from four different geographical regions (Nanyuki, Machakos, Nairobi, and Narok) and one coastal D. viscosa var. viscosa (the Gazi) were analyzed by LC-MS using a metabolomics-driven approach. Four known compounds, two diterpenoids (dodonic acid (1), hautriwaic acid lactone (3), and two flavonoids (5, 7, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy-3, 6, 2′-trimethoxyflavone (2) and catechin (4)) were isolated and purified from the Gazi coastal collection. The presence of these compounds and their relative abundance in other populations was determined by LC-MS analyses. Multivariate statistical analyses of LC-MS data was used for the visualization of the patterns of variation and identification of additional compounds. Eleven discriminant compounds responsible for separating chemometric clusters were tentatively identified. In an antimicrobial assay, hautriwaic acid …

Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba, C.W., Ochieng, P., Taylor, D, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25 (18):4130.
Muthoni KC. "Learners Mental health in a Changing World." Journal Of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2020;25(2).
"Learning and Adaptation in Food Systems: Insights from Four Case Studies in the Global South." International Journal on Food System Dynamics. 2020;11(4):312-328.
Kara, A.M., Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Lecturer Quality in Public Universities in Kenya." European Journal of Education Studies. 2020;7(10).
Jennings Mayo-Wilson L, M M, Yi G, Mak’anyengo, MO, Davoust M, ML M, Stefan Baral, Fred M. Ssewamala, Glass NE. "Lessons learned from using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to assess sexual risk behaviors among Kenyan young adults living in urban slum settlements: A process evaluation." PLoS ONE . 2020;15(4).
F.H W, Wafula AG, C LB, T. KK. "Levels of PM10 and PM2.5 and Respiratory Health Impacts on School-Going Children in Kenya. Journal of Health and Pollution." . Journal of Health and Pollution. 2020;10 (27) 200912(ISSN: 2156-9614).
OLALE P, Odote C, Kibugi R. "Leveraging integrated spatial planning for sustainable regulation of coastal tourism activities in Malindi town, Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2020;Volume 19(Issue 1).
Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-scale mapping of moir$\backslash$'e superlattices by Raman imaging of interlayer breathing mode and moir$\backslash$'e phonons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2012.13820. 2020. Abstract
Guo K, Deng B, Liu Z, Gao C, Shi Z, Bi L, Zhang L, Lu H, Zhou P, Zhang L, others. "Layer dependence of stacking order in nonencapsulated few-layer CrI3." Science China Materials. 2020;63:413-420. Abstract
Peng B, Zhang Y, Lü Z, Cheng TCE, Glover F. "A learning-based memetic algorithm for the multiple vehicle pickup and delivery problem with LIFO loading." Computers & Industrial Engineering. 2020;142:106241. Abstract
Li Z, Peng B, Lin M-L, Leng Y-C, Zhang B, Pang C, Tan P-H, Monserrat B, Chen F. "Light-driven bandgap renormalization and terahertz atomic oscillations in few-layer PdSe2." arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.02034. 2020. Abstract
Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Osaliya. R., O. V. Wasonga., J. G. M. Mwanjalolo., Kironchi G, Adipala E. "Land conversion is changing the landscape in the semi-arid Kapir catchment, northeastern Uganda.". 2019;3(3).
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Gabiri G, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, JGMM. "Land Cover and Soil Properties Influence on Forage Quantity in a Semiarid Region in East Africa." Applied and Environmental Soil Science. 2019;2019.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two-phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi-arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution . 2019.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two‐phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi‐arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution. 2019;9(22):12779-12788.
JM Schoorl, A Veldkamp, L Claessens, JR Wijbrans, Olago DO, Lievens C. "Late Quaternary lahars and lava dams: Fluvial responses of the Upper Tana River (Kenya)." Geomorphology. 2019;341:28-45. Abstractlate_quaternery.pdfWebsite


Geomorphological and sedimentary records near the confluences of the Tana River and major tributaries draining the eastern slopes of Mt. Kenya and the Nyambeni Range, indicate impacts of Late Quaternary volcanic activity in their fluvial records. The main reconstructed event was triggered by a 366.9 ka basalt flow (40Ar/39Ar dated) which flowed along Kazita River from the Nyambeni Range blocking both Kazita River and Tana River near Kibuka Grand Falls, causing a temporary lake. Consequently, Tana River and Kazita River started to build volcanoclastic Gilbert type deltas. The preserved pro-delta sediments rich in trachytic pumice fragments display a mineralogical and age match with known Ithanguni trachytic tuffs, indicating delta build up right after a contemporary Ithanguni eruption. This trachytic eruption caused the deposition of lahars and fluvial volcaniclastic sediments in all river records draining the Eastern side of Mt. Kenya. The multiple lahars seem to be triggered by eruptions under glacial conditions (basalt age indicates MIS 10). The lava dammed lake was only short lived (estimated to have lasted only a few years to decades) and breached before a complete lake infill could occur. The current Kibuka Grand Falls can be viewed as the delayed incisional response of this lava dam breach, indicating that after >366.9 ka, Tana River is still responding and adjusting to this short-lived disruptive phase. The current Kazita River has re-incised adjacent to a MIS 4 basalt flow down into the crystalline Basement System rocks. The MIS 10 pre-volcanic sedimentary record indicates that more sediments were in the fluvial system during glacial conditions than during the interglacial conditions. An implication of our reconstruction is that the Late Quaternary fluvial record of Tana River is of only limited use to reconstruct uplift rates because reconstructed Quaternary incision rates are reflecting both volcanic disruptions as climate change trends of aridification and decreasing glaciation extents.

I MN, G N, M M. "Learners’ Written Interaction Effect on Learners’ Academic Achievement in Chemistry." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal . 2019;6(8):306-318.written_interaction.pdf
A. N, J. M, C. N. "Lessons for school principals from transformational leadership characteristics. IISTE journal of Education and Practice. Vol 10, No. 10, 2019, ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online).". 2019. Abstract

This study was carried out in selected public secondary schools in Kenya. It is on the realization that the work of the school Principal is not easy and many find themselves in leadership without proper preparation for the hard task. The school principals’ work is a high-stress job especially because he or she has to do virtually everything related to students, teachers, parents, subordinate staff and the community at large. This kind of leader would require extra-ordinary characteristics to be able to be successful. Majority of principals perform decimally in all the areas that spell success in secondary schools especially in discipline and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to find out how principals’ transformational leadership characteristics were correlates to effective school performance. Kouze’s and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory(LPI) “self” questionnaire was used to measure Principals’ transformational leadership style. LPI “others” was used to triangulate the principals’ response with the teachers. The target population consisted of 72 Principals in public schools and 139 principals in private schools. There were also 1210 teachers in public secondary schools and 1500 teachers in private secondary schools in Nairobi County. The findings indicated positive correlations between the Principals’ transformational leadership characteristics with effective school performance.

Keywords: Secondary schools, transformational leadership, modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, encouraging the heart, enabling others to act

SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Literature as Medium for Moral Instruction: A Swahili/ Islamic Analysis of Ahmad Nassir's Utenzi wa Mtu ni Utu." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2019;Volume 4(1):17-30.
R. NID; &, M M, R I. "The Little Foxes‘ that Upset Students‘ Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology. 2019;128(2):52862-52867.
"The Little Foxes‘ that Upset Students‘ Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology . 2019;128(128):52862-52867.
Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "The Little Foxes‘that Upset Students‘Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology Journal . 2019;128.
Opande T, Olago D, Dulo SI. "Livelihood Vulnerability Approach to Assessing Climate Impacts on Smallholders in Kisumu, Kenya." International Journal of Innovation Research and Development. 2019;8(7):147-155.
PARK JEONGKYUNG. "Love and War in Alex La Guma’s “Thang’s Bicycle." Korean Association of African Studies. 2019;57:161-182.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Makanji N. "Lugha-Kati kama Mchakato wenye Manufaa: Kifani cha Matumizi ya Kiswahili na Wazungumzaji wa Kikisa kama Lugha ya Kwanza." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). Journal of Bantu Linguistics. 2019;(Special):114-128.
"Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine Boosts Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Specific Humoral Responses Systemically and at the Cervicovaginal Mucosa of Kenyan VZV-Seropositive Women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2018;218(8):1210-1218. Abstract

Attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a promising vector for recombinant vaccines. Because human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) vaccines are believed to require mucosal immunogenicity, we characterized mucosal VZV-specific humoral immunity following VZVOka vaccination.

Ngugi CN, Mbaka, JN., Wachira PM, Okoth S. "Laboratory screening for infectivity of selected indigenous Entomopathogenic nematode isolates on Tuta absoluta in Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2018;3 (6 ):10-25.
Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Land use and land cover changes in a sub-humid Montane forest in an arid setting: A case study of the Marsabit forest reserve in northern Kenya." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;16:e00512. AbstractWebsite


There have been drastic changes in land-use patterns in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR) as a consequence of anthropogenic processes for livelihood improvement over time. The objective of this study was to assess the land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC), especially those related to the forest cover, in the MFR using multi-temporal Landsat images from Landsat 7 and 8 covering the period 1990 to 2017. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were carried out with the final classification done using the Maximum Likelihood Classifier for each period image to create six dominant land-use and land-cover classes (LULC) which included: shrubland, grassland, bare land, open forest, agriculture and settlement, closed forest, and wetland. The results showed that, between 1990 and 2010, the closed forest area had reduced from 19,599 to 9275 ha (−52.7%), open forest from 30,214 to 7345 ha (−75.7%), and shrubland from 83,288 to 65,212 ha (−21.7%). Over the same period there was, a corresponding increase in the grassland area from 35,233 to 56,066 ha (+58.7%), bare land from 19565 to 35,691 ha (+82.4%) and agriculture/settlement class from 12,842 to 24,072 ha (+87.5%). With the introduction of a forest moratorium illegalising consumptive forest use between 2010 and 2017, the closed forest area increased from 9275 to 12,133 ha (+30.8%), bare land from 35,691 to 42,275 ha (+15.6%) and shrubland 65,212 to 100, 452 ha (+35.1%), with a corresponding decrease in open forest area from 7345 to 1385 ha (−430%), grassland from 56,066 to 39,542 ha (−41.9%), and agriculture/settlement class from 24,072 to 7235 ha (−232.7%). The Focused group discussion (FGD) and Key informant interview (KII) respondents identified illegal logging, livestock incursion/foraging, inadequacies of Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and Kenya Forest Service (KFS) in forest management, forest excisions, firewood collection and illegal settlements in the Marsabit National Reserve (MNR) as the main drivers of LULCC. The study proposes the implementation of the ten-year (2015–2025) Marsabit Forest Ecosystem Management Plan in managing the drivers of LULCC in a bid to safeguard the ecosystem services (ES) provided by the MFR.

• Michira JN. "Language, Resistance and Subversive Identities in Matatu Sub-culture." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018;Vol. 6(No. 3):242-253.
Garba LC, Oyieke FA, Owino EA, Mwansat GS, Houmsou RS, Chintem DGW, BE W. "Larval habitats of anopheline vectors of malaria on the highlands of Mambilla Plateau Taraba State North East Nigeria." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2018;5(1):96-100.liatu_et_al_2018.pdf
Mackatiani, Caleb Imbova NMKGDJ &. "Learning Achievement: Illusions of Teacher-Centered Approaches in Primary Schools in Kenya." The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education. 2018;9(18):46-54.
Kimeu M. "The Learning Resource Centre: Green building design in Nairobi”." Africa Habitat Review Journa. 2018;Volume 12 (Issue 12):ISSN: 2519-7851.
Chepkoech C, Onwonga RN, Wahome RG, Høgh-Jensen H. "Legume and Organic Fertilizer Effects on Soil Nutrient Availability, Uptake and Kale Yields in Kabete Sub-county Kenya." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018:1-21.
Akinyi 10. OJ, Sigana DAO, Wang’ondu V, Wambiji N, Ong’anda H, Orembo B. "Length-weight relationship of selected teleost fishes from Kilifi County, Kenya." WIO Journal of Marine Science. 2018; 17 (1):125-135.
Konneh SS, Saleem A, Awange JL, Goncalves RM, Kiema JBK, Hu KX. "Liberia's coastal erosion vulnerability and LULC change analysis: Post-civil war and Ebola epidemic." Applied Geography. 2018;101:56-67.
"The Lingering Question of Neo colonialism in Swahili Plays." International Journal of Liberal Arts and Sciences. 2018;6(2):24-41.
Mugambi MM. "Linking Constructivism Theory to Classroom Practice." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). 2018;5(9):96-104.constructivism_paper.pdf
Wairire G. "Living but Leaving: Therapy in Light and Right of Life and Death in Traditional-Cum-Contemporary Societies." International Journal of Psychological Studies. 2018;10(4):79-94.
Bhatt B, Kalambuka HAA, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "LIBS Development Methodology for Forensic Nuclear Materials Analysis." Analytical Methods. 2018. Abstract
AB Bugah, Ndavi PM, Jaldesa G, Njoroge PL. "Large follicular cyst in pregnancy." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(9).
Loonturot PS, Mwero JN, Kabubo CK. "Laterized Quarry Dust and Crushed Bricks as Alternative Concrete Making Materials." Journal of Civil Engineering. 2017;Vol 3(1):1-14.
Mirara A, Maitho T, Okoth UA. "Legal Setup and Performance of Post-Privatization Artificial Insemination Service Providers in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Research. 2017;7(1).
Ogeng’o J. "Lessons from a case of tubal twin pregnancy." Anatomy Journal of Africa.. 2017;6(1):817-819. Abstract

Unilateral tubal twin pregnancy illustrates and amplifies fundamental phenomena in developmental and
reproductive anatomy. Knowledge of this condition is also important to practicing obstetricians and
gynaecologists because it may constitute a diagnostic challenge, management dilemma, complex ethical
issues and increased risk for maternal morbidity and mortality (Benn et al., 2016). Previously considered
a rare occurence, recent data suggest that the condition is not uncommon (Svirsky et al., 2010). Indeed,
there are many reports (Vohra et al., 2014), including several from Sub-Saharan Africa (Makinde and
Ogunniyi, 1990). The case reported by Pulei et al., in Anat J Afr 2017; 6 (1) reveals several unique
features in the profile of risk factors, location, chorionicity and amnionicity, mode and time of
presentation, condition of the tube, diagnosis and fetal viability. There was no evidence of the
conventional risk factors (Sivalingam et al., 2011). This is consistent with several other reported cases
where it occurred spontaneously (Abi Khalil et al., 2016). In the present case, however, the patient had
multiple intramural and subserosal leiomyomata. Intramural myomata are known to disrupt uterine
contractility which may interfere with transport of the ovum and hence predispose to ectopic pregnancy
(Ajibade et al., 2012). It is probable, therefore, that this was the predisposing factor. Accordingly, it may
be useful to monitor patients with uterine fibroids for potential to suffer ectopic pregnancy. Family
history of twinning may have been useful, and is advocated, in view of the fact that it is one of the major
predisposing factors.

Wanjala. G, Wanjala E. "Level of Teachers’ Efficiency in Work Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir North District, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(4):23-36.abstract.pdf
Michaelina Almaz YOHANNIS, Timothy M WAEMA MHUTCHINSONAWAUSI. "Linking Climate Information to Livelihood Strategies through ICTs: the Role of Integrated Sustainable Livelihoods Framework.". 2017. Abstract

Abstract: In this paper, we propose that an Integrated Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (I-
SLF), that mainstreams ICT-driven climate information, provides the ideal means by which
such information may be leveraged to ensure sustainable enhanced livelihoods. We focus
on rural areas of Kitui County, Kenya. Guided by a range of theories such as Gender and
Development (GAD), Bourdieu's ideas of social capital, and the Information Needs
Assessment Model (INAM), we draw on the emerging variables to demonstrate that, while

Njuguna NM, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN. "A liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups." Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2017;51(2):153-158. Abstract

A simple, rapid isocratic liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups commonly available in the Kenyan market. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, ion pairing agent, buffer concentration as well as pH and column temperature on the selectivity with respect to analytes was investigated. Optimum chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Gemini NX column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40°C and a mobile phase comprising methanol –triethylamine-0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 5.0 -water mixture (50:0.15: 40:9.85, v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Upon validation, the proposed liquid chromatography method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, and robustness. The method was applied in the analysis of commercial samples obtained from Nairobi County, Kenya. The method can be used in routine analysis of cold-cough syrups containing the specified compounds.

Keywords: diphenhydramine; promethazine; chlorpheniramine; ephedrine, cold-cough syrups.

Kabinga S, Were AJO, Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Mbugua P, Ngigi J, Wambugu B, Wangombe N. "Living-Related Kidney Graft Donors Sociodemographic Characteristics and Recipients Clinical Characteristics in Kenya: A Single Centre Experience Kenyatta National Hospital 2010-2015 Audit." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2017;32(2):134-142. Abstract

This article provides summary of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the kidney transplant donors and recipients from 2010-2015 from Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. Only living-related organ donation is practiced in Kenya. Accelerated kidney transplantation activities picked up in Kenyatta national hospital from the 2010. The duration from 2010-2015 has seen more kidney transplantations undertaken in the hospital than the ones done in the same hospital from 1984 when first transplantation was performed in Kenya to 2009. The data were extracted from manual medical records. There were about 120 kidney transplantations performed during this period but only 113 complete records were traceable. There were 113 medical records for both kidney graft donors and recipients from 2010-2015. Demographic characteristics for donors and recipients captured included age, sex, and donor-recipient relationships. The mean donor age was 32.94

wa Mutiso K. "Looking at each other: The Origin of Negative Ethnicity." Mwanga wa Lugha . 2017;2(2):63-80 .
Nakami WN, Tsuma VT, Milkey K, Dickerson M, Wong M, Mutembei HM, Muthee JK, Odipo O, Ngetich W. "Lateral flow immunoassay for whole blood progesterone detection as a tool for assessment of reproductive status in cattle.". 2017. Abstract
Waruiru RM, Murigu MM, Nana P, Nga’nga’ CJ, Ekesi S, N. M. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz- resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus." Veterinary Parasitology. 2016;225:12-18.
Murigu MM, Nana P, Waruiru RM, Nganga CJ, Ekesi S, Maniania NK. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz-resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus." Veterinary Parasitology. 2016;225:12-18.
F. M, J.W. K, Warinwa & F. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Chyulu Watershed Ecosystem, Makueni-Kajiado Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;4(3):17-26.
Warinwa F, mwaura F, Kiringe JW, Ndubi AO. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Kirisia Forest Ecosystem, Samburu County, Kenya. ." Advances in Remote Sensing. 2016;5::168-182.
Olago D, Russell JM, Verschuren D, Kelly MA, Loomis SE, Jackson MS, Morrill C, Damsté SJS, et al. "Late Pleistocene temperature, hydrology, and glaciation in equatorial East Africa." American Geophysical Union, Fall General Assembly 2016. 2016. AbstractFull Text Link

In the coming century the world's high tropical mountains are predicted to experience a magnitude of climate change second only to the Arctic due to amplification of warming with elevation in the tropics. Proxy data suggest that substantial changes in tropical temperature and hydroclimate also occurred during the last deglaciation, the most recent time period when rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused large changes in global climate. Determining whether the rate of temperature change with elevation (the lapse rate) was different from today during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is therefore critical to understanding the future of tropical mountain environments and resources. Here we present a new 25,000-year temperature reconstruction based upon organic geochemical analyses of sediment cores from Lake Rutundu (3,078 m asl), Mount Kenya, East Africa. Through comparison with regional reconstructions of lower elevation temperature, we show that LGM cooling was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our lapse rate reconstructions with equilibrium line altitude reconstructions from glacial moraines indicates that temperature, rather than precipitation, was the dominant control on tropical alpine glacier fluctuations at this time scale. Nevertheless, our results have important implications for the tropical hydrological cycle, as changes in the lapse rate are intimately linked with changes in atmospheric water vapour concentrations. Indeed, we attribute the steeper lapse rate to drying of the tropical ice-age atmosphere, a hypothesis supported by palaeoclimate models. However, comparison of our data to these simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models significantly underestimate tropical temperature changes at high elevation and therefore the lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than currently predicted.

Gitao CG, Kihu SM, Muse AE, Wanjohi M. "Lessons from interaction of researchers with pastoralists from eastern Africa." African Journal of Rural Development. 2016;1(3):271-280.
Omoko BJ, Onyatta J, Nyabaro O, Kenanda OE. "Level of Metal Pollutants in Water from Nyakomisaro Stream through Kisii Town.." International Journal of Science and Research . 2016;5(7):464-565.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Levels Of 17β Steroid and Alkylphenol Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting compounds in Nairobi River." Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies. 2016;2(3):46-49.
Mwangi H, Williams D, Waema T, Nganga Z. "Leveraging HIV advancement in the light of Tuberculosis and Malaria using System Dynamics." Advances in Computer System. 2016;5:47-54.
E NYENZE, J MUSTAPHA. "Lid reconstruction after tumour excision in a patient with seborrhoiec keratosis: A case report." JOECSA. 2016;20(1):40-44. Abstractlid_sebarrhoiec.pdfWe

comABSTRACTSeborrhoiec Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids, usually affecting elderly females. Typically, the lesions start as discrete, tan-dark brown, flat lesions starting on the face and progressing to other sun-exposed areas. The natural progression is generally an increase in size, thickness and pigmentation of these lesions. A variant of SK, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN), has been described in black people, characterized by an earlier and more severe manifestation with multiple, profuse lesions. The diagnosis is clinical, although histopathological examination may be sought to confirm the diagnosis. These lesions are benign and usually only removed for cosmetic reasons. However, in some patients, concern or discomfort may warrant removal. Cryosurgery, electrodesiccation, curettage or shave excision are all effective methods of management. When eyelid lesions are excised, the resulting anterior lamellar defect can be repaired by primary closure, local skin flaps or Full-Thickness Skin Grafts (FTSG). We report a 60 year old female patient who presented with DPN and thick pigmented lesions on the eyelids of both eyes, causing mechanical ptosis, left lower lid ectropion and interfering with vision. She was successfully managed with excision and lid reconstruction for both eyes.Keywords: Seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis papulosa nigra, Eyelid tumours, Eyelid reconstruction, Eyelid excisional biopsy, Glabellar flap INTRODUCTIONSeborrhoeic Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids1. It usually affects elderly people, with a female preponderance and some cases of reported family history2. The exact cause is unknown and has been linked to sunlight exposure3. Typically, lesions are small, discrete and tan-brown flat macules, most frequently on the face and trunk4. With time, these lesions exhibit increase in size, thickness and level of pigmentation5. As they grow, the lesions become papules with the characteristic verrucous “stuck-on” appearance4. A variant of seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN) has been described in black people2. This variant manifests earlier, with multiple and profuse lesions which are larger, thicker and exhibit a more chronic and worsening course than classic SK. SK lesions are benign and do not usually require removal5. However, many patients present to dermatologists due to concern about possible skin malignancy when there is growth or increased pigmentation of the lesions6. Reasons for removal include cosmetic reasons, discomfort, itchiness or documented growth in the lesions. The diagnosis is clinical in majority of cases. However, especially if lesions are going to be removed, histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis may be sought. Histology of lesions is characterized by hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis, acanthosis with intraepithelial horn or pseudohorn cysts3. There are several options for

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