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Journal Article
Odongo DO, Oura CAL, Spooner PR, Kiara H, Mburu D, Hanotte OH, Bishop RP. "Linkage disequilibrium between alleles at highly polymorphic mini- and micro-satellite loci of Theileria parva isolated from cattle in three regions of Kenya." Int. J. Parasitol.. 2006;36(8):937-46. Abstract

Theileria parva schizont-infected lymphocyte culture isolates from western, central and coastal Kenya were analysed for size polymorphism at 30 T. parva-specific variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci using a panel of mini- and micro-satellite markers. The mean number of alleles ranged from 3 to 11 at individual loci and 183 distinct alleles were observed in total, indicating high genetic diversity within the T. parva gene pool in Kenyan cattle. The frequency distribution of the length variation of specific alleles among isolates ranged from normal to markedly discontinuous. Genetic relationships between isolates were analysed using standard indices of genetic distance. Genetic distances and dendrograms derived from these using neighbour-joining algorithms did not indicate significant clustering on a geographical basis. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that the genetic variation between individual isolates was 72%, but only 2.3% when isolates from different regions were pooled. Both these observations suggest minimal genetic sub-structuring relative to geographical origin. Linkage disequilibrium was observed between pairs of loci within populations, as in certain Ugandan T. parva populations. A novel observation was that disequilibrium was also detected between alleles at three individual pairs of VNTR loci when isolates from the three regional meta-populations were pooled for analysis.

E.Odada, Onyando JO, Obudho PA. "Lake Baringo: Addressing threatened biodiversity and livelihoods." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2006;Volume 11(4):287-299. AbstractWebsite

Lake Baringo is a shallow, internal drainage, freshwater lake located in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The lake is an important source of water for humans and livestock, as well as a significant income source for local communities through activities such as tourism, biodiversity conservation, and fish sold in local markets. The lake has been subject to overfishing, as well as to greatly enhanced sedimentation as a result of land use changes in the drainage basin. This paper provides an analysis of the conditions prevailing at Lake Baringo, and examines in detail the management response to the problems facing the lake. The roles of the many and varied institutions in the lake basin's management are discussed, and an analysis of internationally funded projects designed to ameliorate the situation is provided.

Keywords: biodiversity; fishing moratorium; Global Environment Facility; Lake Baringo; lake basin management; land use change; sedimentation

Thenya, Wassmann T, R., Braun M. "Land cover change analysis in a tropical wetland." Journal of Land Use Science.. 2006.
"Land Valuation Taxation: An Applied Analysis ." Discovery and Innovation. 2006;Vol 20.
"Le programme d’enseignement à distance au Kenya." Le programme d’Research on French Teaching in Eastern Africa: Opportunities and challenges. 2006;(9966-947-03-5):132-136.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006;9(1):19-25.
Mwachaka, P. M.; Saidi OPO'; KHS; W. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: is it of surgical relevance?". 2006.
Njeru E. "La mancanza di coordinamento e armonizzazione negli interventi dei donatori per la risposta all'HIV e AIDS in Kenya: descrizione del problema." Chi fa da se: non fa per tre. 2005. Abstract

Premessa
Le ONG che operano sotto I'ombrello dell'Osservatorio Italiano per l'Azione Globale contro I'AIDS notano
con preoccupazione la mancanza di coordinamento tra i diversi progetti per la lotta all'HIV e AIDS
finanziati dai donatori. La maggior parte di questi interventi viene realizzata in modo indipendente e
scollegato dalle iniziative coordinate a livello globale 0 dalle istituzioni nazionali competenti nei Paesi
che beneficiano dei finanziamenti. Raccogliendo queste preoccupazioni, AMREF Italia e ActionAid
International hanno commissionato uno studio per valutare I'adeguatezza e il grado di coordinamento
dei differenti donatori in Kenya.
II problema del coordinamento ha assunto recentemente una rilevanza internazionale attraverso la
strategia dei "Three Ones" accettata dai maggiori donatori. I"Three Ones" costituiscono i tre principi
strategici di riferimento per gli interventi nazionali e dei donatori e consistono in: 1) un unico piano
nazionale per la lotta alia pand~mia; 2) un'unica autorita nazionale di coordinamento; 3) un unico sistema
di monitoraggio e valutazione.

"The Language of History in African Philosophy." Hekima:Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2005;II ( 2).
"Latent trait theory- from theory to practice: a descriptive approach." African Journal of Educational Studies. 2005;vol.1 no.1.
CF Otieno, FW Mwendwa VENOEOAV. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12):173-179. Abstract

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts.

Objective: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications.

Results: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45(9.4) years and that of males was 55.83(9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85(6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98(5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol >4.2mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C >2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides >1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment.

Conclusion: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total - and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.

East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(12) 2005: S173-S179

Otieno CF, Mwendwa FW, Vaghela V, OGOLA EN, Amayo EO. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(12):180-183. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.

Lodge, D. M., Rosenthal1, S. K., Mavuti, Muohi, W., Ochieng, P., Stevens, S. S., Mungai BN, Mkoji GM. "Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) in Kenyan ponds: non-target effects of a potential biological control agent for schistosomiasis." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2005;30(2):119-124.
Mwangi J. "Learning Achievement in economics in Kenyan Secondary School." Journal of the Faculty of Education (The Fountain).. 2005;2. Abstract
n/a
DK M, Sen K. "The Labor Market Effects of Globalisation in Kenya." Journal of International Development . 2004;16:29-43.
Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MJ. "Lemudong’o: a new 6 Ma paleontological site near Narok, Kenya Rift Valley." Journal of Human Evolution . 2004;44:737-742. AbstractWebsite

Lemudong’o is located on the western margin of the southern Rift Valley approximately 100 km west of Nairobi (Fig. 1), an area deeply incised by three major permanent river systems. Stratified lavas, air-fall and water-laid tuffs, alluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments, and paleosols of Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene age crop out over a w25 50 km area. Wright (1967) reconstructed three paleolakes and shoreline facies, assumed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age, in the vicinity of an isolated Basement Complex inselberg. Radio- metric dating demonstrates the paleolake deposits exposed at Lemudong’o are Late Miocene in age. During archaeological surveys and excavations in this region in 1995-96 (Kyule et al., 1997) and 1999–2002 (Ambrose et al., 2000; 2002; Hlusko et al., 2002), 55 new archaeological sites (Acheulean, Middle Stone Age, Later Stone Age, Neolithic and Iron Age), and several paleontological occurrences were discovered. Here we describe the preliminary results from research at the Late Miocene fossil site of Lemudong’o. The most productive Late Miocene paleontological site in the area is exposed in Lemudong’o Gorge, GvJh15, GvJh32 (Figs. 2 and 3). Lithologic units include paludal (marsh) and lake margin claystones, lacustrine diatoma- ceous silts and claystones, and coarser alluvial deposits with interstratified tuffs. Similar ex-posures occur within tens of kilometers, though their correlation to the Lemudong’o strata is not yet confirmed, and fossils are scarce and taxonomically non-diagnostic. Lemudong’o Gorge is a fault-controlled, deeply incised gully system bounded on the east by the Enkoria fault (Wright, 1967). Fossiliferous sedi- ments are exposed at two localities approximately 500 m apart. Locality 1 (Lemudong’o 1, GvJh15, coordinates: 1(18.19S, 35(58.74E, approximate elevation 1600–1620 m) was discovered in 1994, and is located in the upper reaches of the main gully. It contains the higher levels of the depo- sitional sequence, and the main fossiliferous horizons. Locality 2 (Lemudong’o 2, GvJh32, coordinates: 1(17.98S, 35(59.04E) was discovered in 1999 and includes lower strata and a poorly- exposed horizon with sparse, generally non- diagnostic fossil material. No significant unconformities occur in the main sedimentary sequence.

J.N.Muriuki. "Linearly representable nonstationary sequences in Hilbert Spaces. ." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics,. 2004;13(2):4-15.
1. Fang G, Kuiken C WR-JPCCHKAAOBKPSMKBSF. "Long-term survivors in Nairobi: complete HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic associations." J Infect Dis. 2004. Abstractlong_term_survivors_in_nairobi_complete_hiv_1_rna_sequences_and_immunogenetic_associations.pdf

Abstract To investigate African long-termsurvivors (LTSs) infected with non-subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV- 1), we obtained full-length HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic profiles from 6 untreated women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. There were no discernible sequence changes likely to cause attenuation. CCR2-V64I, an immunogenetic polymorphism linked to LTSs, was detected in 4 women, all of whom carried the HLA B58 allele. Further investigation of 99 HIV-1-infected Nairobi women found an association between CCR2-V64I and HLA B58 (P = .0048). Studying the interaction among immunogenetics, immune responses, and viral sequences from all HIV- 1 subtypes may increase our understanding of slow HIV-1 disease progression. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 70% of HIV-1-infected individuals globally, and infected women in this region outnumber men. The study of long-term survivors (LTSs) is relevant to pathogenesis and the design of an HIV-1 vaccine. The HIV- 1 subtypes and host immunogenetics of LTSs in Africa differ from those of most LTSs studied previously [6–6]; for example, the HLA types are more diverse [6], and Δ32 mutations in coreceptor CCR5 are rarely seen [4]. Recombination between different HIV-1 subtypes has been well documented [2, 3, 7] and, along with viral diversity, is also relevant to the design of a vaccine. Analysis of both viral diversity and intersubtype recombination would benefit from the sequencing of entire viral genomes derived from plasma virions. The examination of plasma HIV-1 RNA offers an opportunity to observe the replicating virus population, including recombinant genomes in circulating viral particles. Nairobi sex workers, who are exposed to a range of viral strains, may be infected with intersubtype recombinants. To investigate pathogenesis in women with non-clade B HIV-1 infection, we analyzed complete HIV-1 RNA sequences, immunogenetic traits, immune responses, coreceptor utilization, and drug resistance in untreated LTSs from Kenya. Subjects and methods. The subjects were untreated HIV- 1-infected adult women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya [1]. The research was approved by the Kenyatta National Hospital National Ethical and Scientific Review Committee, the University of Manitoba Use of Human Subjects in Research Committee, and the New York State Department of Health Institutional Review Board. Within this cohort, long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) and LTSs were identified [1]. Both LTSs and LTNPs had been infected with HIV-1 for ⩾10 years, and LTNPs had maintained CD4+ T cell counts ⩾500 cells/μL. To detect coreceptor polymorphisms, human genotyping was performed as
described elsewhere [4, 8]. Extraction of viral RNA from plasma, reverse transcription, long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, and analysis of full-length HIV-1 sequences were performed as described elsewhere [7]. Phylogenetic trees were constructed, and HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants were determined as described elsewhere [7]. Full-length HIV-1 env genes were cloned from plasma, and coreceptor usage was determined phenotypically by the use of GHOST cells [9]. The V3 loop sequence of env clones was also determined and was used to genotypically predict coreceptor utilization [10]. Molecular class I HLA types were determined as described elsewhere [6]. Neutralizing antibodies were detected as described elsewhere [11]. Genotypic resistance to antiretroviral agents was analyzed by the ADRA program [2]; phenotypic resistance was measured by the PhenoSense assay [12]. Several nonparametric tests of association were used to correlate the immunogenetic data with the virologic and clinical data. A 2-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to test differences between continuous measures such as the number of CD4+ T cells and viral load. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze HLA types and coreceptor polymorphisms. A number of genetic analyses were performed by use of the Mendel statistical package [13]. Hardy-Weinberg-equilibrium (HWE) testing was used to examine whether the genotype frequencies for single loci were equal to products of the population allele frequencies. Gamete-phase equilibrium testing, a generalization of linkage-equilibrium testing that allows one to consider loci on different chromosomes, would normally be used to examine whether the joint frequencies of different alleles at several loci derived from the same parent are the product of the underlying population allele frequencies. To test gamete-phase equilibrium (or linkage equilibrium), however, knowledge of the parental source of the alleles at a locus (i.e., phase information) is required. Because phase information was unavailable but multilocus genotypes were known, we instead tested for genetic equilibrium. Genetic equilibrium holds only when both HWE and gamete-phase equilibrium are maintained. If genetic equilibrium was violated but separate tests of HWE were not rejected at all loci, then we assumed that genetic disequilibrium was a result of gamete-phase disequilibrium. Results. Table 1 shows the clinical, virologic, immunologic, and immunogenetic characteristics of 6 subjects in the Nairobi female sex-worker cohort who had been infected with nonsubtype B HIV-1 for ⩾10 years. Virions were isolated from plasma obtained from all 6 subjects in 1997 and also from additional plasma obtained in 1986 from subject ML013. The complete RNA genome was reverse-transcribed, amplified by long PCR, and directly sequenced. View larger version: In this page
In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide Table 1. Virologic and immunogenetic characteristics in 6 untreated women in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Complete HIV-1 RNA sequences were assembled, aligned, and analyzed by computational methods [7]. GenBank accession numbers are shown in table 1. Three subjects—ML752, ML013, and ML605—were infected with HIV-1 genomes identified as entirely subtype A; both the 1986 and the 1997 samples from ML013 also displayed subtype A genomes. Subject ML415 was infected with a viral genome identified as entirely subtype D. Two subjects displayed HIV-1 genomes that were intersubtype recombinants. Virus from ML672 was composed predominantly of clade A sequences with a clade C fragment in the pol gene. Subject ML249's recombinant virus was predominantly composed of clade D but also displayed a clade C fragment in nef and the 3' long terminal repeat. Sequences were examined for mutations that might contribute to attenuation of HIV-1. It is possible that single-nucleotide changes might help to attenuate the virus, and it was reported recently that R77Q, a mutation in the HIV-1 vpr gene, is associated with both LTNP infection and impaired induction of apoptosis [14]. This mutation was present in 3 of the 6 women studied, including 2 of the LTNPs (table 1); the association, however, was not statistically significant. No other clearly attenuating mutations or deletions were detected, nor any polymorphisms common to more than 1 sequence. We determined human genotypes for HIV-1 coreceptors, coreceptor-associated genes, and HLA class I haplotypes, to examine the contribution of immunogenetics to LTSs (table 1). All 6 subjects had homozygous wild-type CCR5 genotypes. Four subjects exhibited polymorphisms in the CCR2 gene; 2 LTNPs (ML672 and ML752) were homozygous for the V64I mutation, and 2 LTS subjects (ML013 and ML605) were heterozygous for it. It is noteworthy that all 4 women who carried the V64I allele also displayed the B58 HLA haplotype. Statistical analyses showed an association between the presence of the CCR2-V64I mutation (in at least 1 allele) and HLA type B58 (P=.06). To explore this association further, we expanded our immunogenetic analysis to include a larger group of 167 women in the Nairobi sex-worker cohort [1]. In addition to CCR2 and HLA B58, we examined the SDF-1α-3' untranslated region, bringing the total to 3 human genes, each located on a different chromosome [4]. There was no significant association between the CCR2 mutation and the SDF mutation. As shown in table 2, 99 (59.3%) of the 167 women were HIV-1 seropositive and 68 (40.7%) were HIV-1 seronegative. The B58 allele was of interest; all other alleles were combined, and the locus was treated as biallelic. No significant deviations from HWE were found for either CCR2 or HLA-B, either in the entire sample of 167 women or in the groups
stratified by HIV serostatus. In contrast, we did find, in the entire sample, significant evidence for gamete-phase disequilibrium between CCR2 and HLA B (P=.00780), indicating a highly significant association between CCR2-V64I and HLA type B58. This association was also significant in the HIV-seropositive subjects (P=.00486), but not in the HIV-seronegative subjects. View larger version: In this page In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide Table 2. CCR2 mutations and HLA B58 in 167 Kenyan women in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. We determined CCR5-promoter genotypes (table 1). One LTNP (ML415) and one LTS (ML249) were homozygous for CCR5-59029G, a polymorphism associated with delayed progression of HIV-1 disease [4]. Coreceptor usage was determined for HIV-1 envelope clones obtained from 5 subjects (table 1). The majority (71/77 [92.2%]) of clones utilized CCR5. A minority of CXCR4-utilizing species were also detected in 3 subjects (ML672, ML752, and ML605). No significant drug-resistance mutations were seen. The Pheno- Sense assay was used to examine phenotypic resistance; only a specimen from subject ML415 gave a result, and no resistance was found. Although the absence of viable cells precluded functional studies of CTL activity, we were able to predict, on the basis of the donor HLA haplotype and predicted epitopes found in the immunology databases in the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oxford University, the likely sites of CTL recognition. At least half the predicted epitopes carried 1 or more amino acid changes from the consensus sequence (data not shown); however, KAFSPEVIPMF, the immunodominant target of CTL recognition through HLA-B57 and B58 in HIV-1 gag, was conserved in all donors [15]. Neutralizing antibody titers ranged from negative to 1:640 (table 1). The serum demonstrated neutralization against strain MN (clade B) but not against strain 92/UG/31 (clade A). Discussion. This study is one of the first to characterize female LTSs and LTNPs from Africa, where both HIV-1 subtypes and immunogenetic traits differ from those of LTSs studied previously. One of the remarkable features of these LTSs is their fairly high viral loads (table 1).
These Kenyan subjects managed to survive, most of them as asymptomatics, for periods of 12–16 years, without antiretroviral treatment. Computational analyses of the complete HIV-1 RNA sequences confirmed both the frequency of intersubtype recombination and the particular HIV-1 subtypes observed in a recent study from Kenya [3]. One LTNP (ML672) and 1 LTS (ML249) had recombinant genomes. The sequence data, which are derived from plasma virions, provide direct evidence of recombinant genomes in circulating viral particles. Computational analyses of the sequences did not reveal any clearly attenuating mutations except for the vpr R77Q mutation (table 1) [14]; in our small study, the association between this mutation and LTSs was suggestive but not significant. All of the sequences analyzed in this study appeared to be intact and gave no indication that they coded for nonfunctional proteins. In fact, when multiple viral env genes from these subjects were cloned into an expression system to determine coreceptor utilization, most clones yielded functional envelopes. Although it is possible that 1 or more point mutations in the viral genomes may have diminished the pathogenicity of the viruses infecting these 6 women, we did not identify any deletions or mutations that would clearly confer attenuation on any of the viruses. Immunogenetics may have contributed to LTS status in this study (table 1). CCR2-V64I, previously linked to LTSs, was detected in 4 women. A highly significant correlation between the presence of the CCR2-V64I mutation and the HLA B58 allele was found in 167 women in the Nairobi cohort. The association was particularly strong in the 99 women who were HIV-1 seropositive, although it was not significant in the 68 women who were HIV-1 seronegative. The stronger association between these 2 alleles in the infected women, compared with that in the uninfected women, may reflect, in this group, a selection for LTSs bearing both V64I and B58 genes. An alternative explanation, however, is possible, reflecting the genetics of the population under study: when 2 loci are close to each other on a chromosome, departure from gamete-phase equilibrium is often taken as evidence for linkage disequilibrium; because CCR2 and HLA B genes are on different chromosomes, departure fromgenetic equilibrium is likely due to recent ethnic admixture in these subjects; however, joint selective pressures may also be acting on the 2 genes. The association of these human genes, CCR2 and HLA B58, has not been previously noted, and it may possibly provide a clue to the manner in which CCR2 affects the pace of HIV-1 infection. Although multiple studies, including 1 focusing on the Nairobi cohort [5], have reported that the CCR2-V64I allele may slow the progression of HIV-1 disease, the mechanism by which the mutation acts is still unclear [4, 5]. The HLA B57 allele, which is related to B58, has also been associated with both slowed progression of disease and long-term survival [6, 15]. The close association, in HIV-1-infected women, between the CCR2 mutation and B58 suggests that the V64I allele may affect the pace of HIV-1 infection in part or entirely through the HLA B58 haplotype. This question necessitates further investigation. Finally, these studies suggest that
studying the interaction among immunogenetics, immune responses, and viral sequences from all HIV-1 subtypes may increase our understanding of the slow progression of HIV-1 disease.

Patel SC, Jumba GF, Akmal S. "Laparoscopic appendicectomy at the {Aga} {Khan} {Hospital}, {Nairobi}." East African medical journal. 2004;80:447-451. AbstractWebsite
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Naidu SI, McCalla MR. "Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck in adults: a case report and review of the literature." Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2004;113:218-222. AbstractWebsite
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Gradus-Pizlo I, Bigelow B, Mahomed Y, Sawada SG, Rieger K, Feigenbaum H. "Left anterior descending coronary artery wall thickness measured by high-frequency transthoracic and epicardial echocardiography includes adventitia." The American journal of cardiology. 2003;91:27-32. Abstract

{High-frequency, 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (HR-2DTTE) measurements of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery wall thickness are larger than measurements obtained by intravascular ultrasound. We hypothesize that this difference is due to inclusion of the third vascular layer, which may represent adventitia by HR-2DTTE, and that this layer must be increasing in thickness with the development of atherosclerosis. We evaluated the contribution of this third layer to the wall thickness of the normal and atherosclerotic LAD artery imaged by HR-2DTTE using high-frequency epicardial echocardiography (HFEE) as the reference standard. Eighteen patients (10 men, mean age 62 years), 13 with coronary atherosclerosis and 5 with normal coronary arteries, referred for open-heart surgery, underwent preoperative HR-2DTTE evaluation of the LAD artery (SONOS 5500; 3- to 8-MHz transducer) and intraoperative HFEE of the LAD artery (SONOS 5500; 6- to 15-MHz transducer). Wall thickness was greater in patients with coronary atherosclerosis than in those with normal coronary arteries by both HR-2DTTE (1.9 +/- 0.3 vs 1.0 +/- 0.1 mm

Odada EO, Olago DO, Street-Perrott FA, Perrott RA. "LATE HOLOCENE SEDIMENTOLOGY AND PALAEOENVIRONMENT OF KILULI SWAMP, MOUNT KENYA." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2003;Vol. 4,(No. 2,):pp. 12-23. AbstractWebsite

Kiluli Swamp is an extensive valley swamp near the lower limit of the montane forest on the eastern slopes of Mount Kenya, East Africa. The swamp is fed by a small spring on the northeastern margin, and the water table lies a few centimetres below the surface. The swamp’s sediments modify water chemistry: the Na-Mg-HCO3 water-type at the input changes to a Ca- Mg-HCO3 water-type in the central parts of the swamp. A short sediment core (2.12m) was retrieved from the central part of the swamp using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The sediments were mainly composed of silty organic mud, silty clay and coarse silt. Three radiocarbon dates were obtained. A suite of sedimentological analyses was carried out in order to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental history of the area, and these included: mineral magnetic characteristics (susceptibility, IRM etc.); total organic carbon (TOC); total nitrogen (TN), and stable carbon isotopes. The sediment record stretches from about 4,000 yr BP (before present) to present. Indications are that the valley was initially dry and the catchment vegetation was characterised by dominant C4-type grassland. The initiation of true swamp conditions occurred at ca.470 yr BP immediately following a phase of deep ponding and high diatom productivity within the swamp between 600 and 470 yr BP. A high incidence of charcoal from 470 to 0 yr BP probably marks the period of persistent anthropogenic activities within the catchment. There is a change in vegetation type from a predominantly C4-type to predominantly C3-type at about 130 yr BP that is attributed to crop cultivation within the swamp rather than due to climate change, since the arid phase which marks this zone would have, under natural conditions, abetted the continued dominance of C4 plants which are more drought-resistant than C3 plants. The changes observed are broadly synchronous with other palaeoenvironmental records from Mount Kenya and the surrounding region.

Salem A-H, Myers JS, Otieno AC, Watkins WS, Jorde LB, Batzer MA. "LINE-1 preTa elements in the human genome." Journal of Molecular Biology . 2003;326:1127-1146.
KABUBO-MARIARA JANE. "The Linkages between Property Rights, Migration and Productivity: The case of Kajiado District, Kenya." Ninth Annual Global Development Conference "Security for Development: Confronting Threats to Survival and Safety"; Brisbane, Australia. January 29-31, 2008.. 2003;8(4):621-636.Website
Wasunna A, Mohammed K. "Low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(10):543-6. Abstract

To compare some socio-demographic and obstetric factors between adolescent mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight (birthweight < 2000 gm) babies.

Obala LM, Kimani MW. "Land-use Conflicts and Urban Land Management in Kenya.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Protected areas throughout the world are key for conserving biodiversity, and land use is key for providing food, fiber, and other ecosystem services essential for human sustenance. As land use change isolates protected areas from their surrounding landscapes, the challenge is to identify management opportunities that maintain ecological function while minimizing restrictions on human land use. Building on the case studies in this Invited Feature and on ecological principles, we identify opportunities for regional land management that maintain both ecological function in protected areas and human land use options, including preserving crucial habitats and migration corridors, and reducing dependence of local human populations on protected area resources. Identification of appropriate and effective management opportunities depends on clear definitions of: (1) the biodiversity attributes of concern; (2) landscape connections to delineate particular locations with strong ecological interactions between the protected area and its surrounding landscape; and (3) socioeconomic dynamics that determine current and future use of land resources in and around the protected area.

Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MAJ. "Lemodong'o A late Miocene fossil site in southern Kenya." American Journal of Physical Anthropology. . 2002;Supplement 34.:37.
Gona G, Kailembo AMM. "The Life and Times of an African Trade Unionist." Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa. 2002.
Thoithi G, Kibwage IO, Kingondu O, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin on a reversed-phase silica column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2002;5:8-14.
SWALEH AMIRI. "Lugha ya Kiswahili Pijini au Krioli ?" aasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili, Dar es Salaam. 2002.
Sun W, Li N, He S. "Large-scale morphological survey of mouse retinal ganglion cells." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2002;451:115-126. AbstractWebsite

Five hundred twenty ganglion cells in an isolated whole-mount preparation of the mouse retina were labeled using the “DiOlistic” method (Gan et al. [2000] Neuron 27:219–225) and were classified according to their morphological properties. Tungsten particles coated with a lipophilic dye (DiI) were propelled into the whole-mount retina using a gene gun. When a dye-coated particle contacted the cell membrane, the entire cell was labeled. The ganglion cells were classified into four groups based on their soma size, dendritic field size, and pattern and level of stratification. Broadly monostratified cells were classified into three groups: RGA cells (large soma, large dendritic field), RGB cells (small to medium-sized soma, small to medium-sized dendritic field), and RGC cells (small to medium-sized size soma, medium-sized to large dendritic field). Bistratified cells were classified as RGD. This study represents the most complete morphological classification of mouse retinal ganglion cells available to date and provides a foundation for further understanding of the correlation of physiology and morphology and ganglion cell function with genetically manipulated animals. J. Comp. Neurol. 451:115–126, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Mungania BG. "Language Issues in a Multi-lingual Society: The Kenyan Experience." Occasional papers in language and lingustics. 2001;Vol. 1:30-40.
O. OE, Tyson PD, C PT. "Late Quaternary Environmental Change in Southern Africa." South African Journal of Science 97. 2001;97(3 &4):139-150.
Keraita JN, Oyango HJ, Misoi GK. "Lathe stability charts via acoustic emission monitoring.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Signal parameters characterizing acoustic emission (AE) detected during metal cutting have been theoretically correlated in a simple manner, to the work material properties, cutting conditions, and tool geometry. During chatter, the cutting conditions and the tool geometry change considerably. Self-exited chatter, an instability of the cutting process in combination with the machine structure, is a basic performance limitation of machine tools. In the research findings presented in this paper, changes occurring to AE signal parameters have been used to detect the onset of chatter and hence plot stability charts, during a turning operation. Apart from showing the borderlines of stability, such charts can be used to identify the necessary changes required to eliminate chatter at minimum or no loss of production. The signal parameters investigated include AE mean intensity level, the skew and kurtosis of the power spectrum; as well as the count rate of the emissions.

Syagga PM, Kamau GN. "Letters and Viewpoints.". 2001.Website
Marani M, Ouma OK. "Linking Disasters and Development.". 2001.Website
Njeru G. "Livelihood Diversification and Agricultural Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of Production and Marketing Innovations in Smallholder Farming in a Rural Kenyan District, Mbeere." An Analysis of Production and Marketing Innovations in Smallholder Farming in a Rural Kenyan District, Mbeere. 2001;(539).
Muchai M, Bennun L, Lens L, Rayment M, Pisano G. "Land-use and the conservation of Sharpe's Longclaw Macronyx sharpei in central Kenya." Bird Conservation International. 2001;12:107-121. Abstract
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Spranger J, Osterhoff M, Reimann M, Möhlig M, Ristow M, Francis MK, Cristofalo V, Hammes H-P, Smith G, Boulton M. "Loss of the antiangiogenic pigment epithelium-derived factor in patients with angiogenic eye disease." Diabetes. 2001;50:2641-2645. AbstractWebsite
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de Casso MC, Lewis NJ, Rapado F. "Lymphangioma presenting as a neck mass in the adult." International journal of clinical practice. 2001;55:337-338. AbstractWebsite
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KAAYA GP. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomogenous fungi for tick control." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2000;916 : 559-564.
KAAYA GP, SAMISH M, ITAMAR G. "Laboratory Evaluation of Pathogenicity of Entomogenous nematodes to African tick species. ." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci . 2000;916:303-308.
Ng’ang’a RN, Wakiaga J N’ang’a PMVW-HMAMJT. "Laboratory fabricated (indirect) composite veneers in the aesthetic management of severe dental florosis:." Africa Journal of Oral Health sciences. 2000;1(2):8-11.
A.Duraiappah, G.K.Ikiara, Manundu M, Nyangena W, R.Sinange. "Land Tenure, Land Use, Environmental Degradation and Conflict Resolution: a PASIR Analysis for the Narok District, Kenya." International Institute for Environment and Develo pment, London and Institute for Environmental Studies. 2000.
Odada EO, Olago DO, Street-Perrott FA, Perrott RA, Ivanovich M, M.; Harkness DD. "Long-term temporal characteristics of palaeomonsoon dynamics in equatorial Africa." M.; Harkness, D.D. 2000; vol. 26( issue 1-3):159-171. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we examine the long-term temporal characteristics of palaeomonsoon dynamics in equatorial Africa from a continuous lacustrine sequence retrieved from Sacred Lake, Mount Kenya (0°03′N, 37°32′E, 2350 m a.s.l.), covering the last interglacial–glacial transition to the present. The trends in mineral magnetics and stable carbon isotopes are proxy indicators of changes in precipitation on the mountain over the last glacial–interglacial cycle. Spectral analysis by a fast fourier transform method revealed that the stable carbon isotope trend (δ13C) has strong signals at the 23,000 and 11,500 year frequencies. The mineral magnetic signature does not register the 23,000 year cycle observed in the δ13C signature. It has, however, a strong signal at an 11,500 year frequency, and sharp but relatively weak peaks at ca. 7500 and 5000 year frequencies are recorded. The dominant 23,000 year frequency recorded in the δ13C signature reflects the strong effect of the precessional cycle on tropical climate and ecosystems, and is most probably effected via global atmospheric pCO2 and temperature changes. The shorter cycles at 11,500 year (indicated by both mineral magnetics and δ13C trends), and 7500 and 5000 years BP (apparent in the mineral magnetic record) are attributed to precipitation variations, whose temporal cycles are dominated by the higher precessional harmonics.

Keywords: paleomoonsoon; mineral magnetics; stable carbon isotopes; Milankovitch forcing

Preston C, Cheater F, Baker R, Hearnshaw HM. "Left in limbo: patients' views on care across the primary/secondary interface.". 1999.Website
Preston C, Cheater F, Baker R, Hearnshaw HM. "Left in limbo: patients' views on care across the primary/secondary interface.". 1999.Website
SEBITOSI, E. N., KAAYA, G.P., Young AS, AGBEDE RIS. "Lectins in brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus: Detection and partial characterization." International journal of Acarology. 1998;24:159-164.
Mohamed A. "Language in Contras.". 1997.Website
4. Adams E, R. Schepers LWGKRHREJ. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of a formulation containing Polymyxin, Gramicidin, and Neomycin. Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical Analysis ." . Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical Analysis . 1997;15:505-511.
Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of hexopyranosylated cytosine nucleosides from their degradation products." J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.. 1997;16:533-540.
Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of diamino analogues of 2'- or 3'-deoxyadenosine from adenine on a poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) polymer column." J. Chromatogr. A. 1995;689:247-254.
Abdulaziz MH, Alfa SI. "Language and Social Change.". 1993.Website
Gatumu HN. "Latent Trait Theory from a confirmatory factor analysis point of view of a Criterion referenced University Examinations." Ife Psychology IA International Journal. 1993;vol. 1 No. 2:59-68.
Amugune NO, Gopalan HNB, Bytebier B. "Leaf disc regeneration of passion fruit." African Crop Science Journal. 1993;1(2):99-104.
Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of monoamino analogues of 2'- or 3'-deoxyadenosine from adenine." Chromatographia. 1993;35:451-454.
Shihembetsa L. "Land Utilisation in Inner City Areas: The case of Nairobi Kenya in Forum." CARDO Research Group. 1992;(University of Newcastle Upon Tyne).
Odada EO. "Lithology, colour and mineralogy of pelagic sediments from the Romanche fracture zone (RFZ) in the equatorial atlantic." Journal of African Earth Sciences . 1992;14(1):13-23. AbstractWebsite

Sediment cores from the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ) in the equatorial Atlantic have been described visually and microscopically as well as analyzed by X-ray diffraction techniques in order to study the main controls on their lithology, colour and mineralogy. The sediments display graditional changes in colour, mineralogy and lithology. Water depth and biogenic dissolution appear to play an important role in controlling the lithology and mineralogy of the sediments. Distance from continental and volcanic sources of sediment appear to play secondary roles. Changes of colour downcore largely reflect variation in the Mn and Fe oxides content of the sediments.

Odada EO. "Lithology, colour and mineralogy of pelagic sediments from the Romanche fracture zone (RFZ) in the equatorial atlantic." Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East). 1992;14(1):13-23. AbstractSCIENCE DIRECT

Sediment cores from the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ) in the equatorial Atlantic have been described visually and microscopically as well as analyzed by X-ray diffraction techniques in order to study the main controls on their lithology, colour and mineralogy. The sediments display graditional changes in colour, mineralogy and lithology. Water depth and biogenic dissolution appear to play an important role in controlling the lithology and mineralogy of the sediments. Distance from continental and volcanic sources of sediment appear to play secondary roles. Changes of colour downcore largely reflect variation in the Mn and Fe oxides content of the sediments.

and Onyari JM WSONJO. "Lead contamination in street soils of Nairobi city and Mombasa island,." , Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., . 1991;46:782-789.
Kithaka WM. "Language.". 1990.Website
Kithaka WM. ""Literature.". 1990.Website
and 1. Elias R. M., G. Wandolo REJNSJMG. "Lymphatic Pumping in response to changes in transmural pressure is modulated by erythrolysate/haemoglobin." Circulation Research 1990. 1990;(67):1097-1106. Abstract

1) Elias R. M., G. Wandolo, N. S. Ranadive, J. Eisenhoffer and M. G. Johnston: Lymphatic Pumping in response to changes in transmural pressure is modulated by erythrolysate/haemoglobin. Circulation Research 1990; 67: 1097 – 1106. - 1990
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
Circulation Research 1990; 67: 1097 – 1106.

Olima WHA. "Leisure policies and urban residential development in Kenya: experiences and possibilities.". 1989. AbstractWebsite

The relationship between urbanization and provision of leisure facilities in developing countries is examined, taking Nairobi, Kenya, as a case study. The growth of urban areas in Kenya has been phenomenal and there has been a widespread feeling that the performance of the agencies with regard to the provision and maintenance of recreational facilities has been below par. Reasons for the deficiency of recreational facilities in Nairobi include the lack of a recreation policy, uncontrollable high population growth rate, increasing urbanization and financial hardship by the local authority.

Magoha GAO. "Low dose clomiphane citrate therapy in oligospermic men with idiopathic primary infertility. ." Nairobi Journal of Medicine.. 1988;15:42-45. Abstract

Eighty-one Nigerian patients with testicular torsion presented at the Urology Unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital between May 1983 and May 1985. The majority (62%) were young adults of 21 years and above with a mean of 21.3 +/- 5.2 years. Fifty-four testes found to be clinically non viable at exploration were excised and microscopically confirmed as haemorrhagic infarction due to the torsion. Twenty-six clinically viable testes at exploration were salvaged giving a low salvage rate of 32%. This appears to be due to delayed or mistaken diagnosis by the first doctor to see the patient as a result of low index of suspicion. The clinical importance of high index of suspicion for testicular torsion in all patients with testicular pain of recent onset irrespective of age is emphasized in this locality.

Musoke RN. "Low birthweight.". 1986.
Klauss, V; Bhatt SM. "Lipaemia retinalis: a case report.". 1985.
Broberg G, Wachira TM, et al. "Laboratory observations of the actions of "Glinus" (Fam. Aizoacea) fruit on snails, hosts of Fasciola and Schistosoma in Kenya." Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1984;73:663.
Levin AG, Jones M, Kirkham DM, Shah T, Peters TJ, Hill ID, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "Lymphocyte enzyme activities in East African blacks: decrease in 5'nucleotidase and possible relation to immunosuppression." Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.. 1983;77(6):840-4. Abstract

Microanalysis of subcellular organelle marker enzymes was applied to cryopreserved lymphocytes (obtained and processed in the field) from East African blacks with moderate to severe malnutrition and subject to locally endemic parasitic and infectious diseases. An initial study demonstrated that activities of these enzymes, with the partial exception of catalase, were stable to cryopreservation. Cryopreserved and thawed lymphocyte specimens (1 to 3 X 10(6) viable cells) from 26 Africans and 20 Caucasian controls were studied. There was a highly significant decrease in 5'nucleotidase activity in these African subjects. Activity of another plasma membrane enzyme, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and of marker enzymes for other intracellular organelles, was not significantly different between the two groups, indicating that the nucleotidase alteration is highly specific. 5'Nucleotidase activity in a group of 17 East African blacks of high socio-economic status lay between the values obtained in the other two groups and was not significantly different from either. Further studies on 5'nucleotidase showed no evidence that the enzyme is functionally different in Africans. The differences in activity of this enzyme in Africans may reflect the known immuno-suppressive effects of infectious disease and malnutrition or may have a genetic basis which may in turn be associated with the pathogenesis of secondary immunodeficiency.

Gichaga FJ. "Laboratory Study of Deformation Modulus/Time Relationship for Various Subgrade Soils Under Road Pavement Structure." Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. 1982;3(No. 2):63-74.
Odingo- Ambio RS. "Land Evaluation.". 1982.Website
Onyango OW. "Lake Basin Shallow Wells.". 1981.Website
Vadher A, Ndetei DM. "Life events and depression in a Kenyan setting.". 1981.
Mohamed PA,(ed) AIS. "Language Situation in Kenya." Languages et PolitiQues en Afrique Noire. 1977.
Raffle A, Gray J, MacDonald HR. "Letter: First-aid treatment of poisoning." Br Med J. 1976;1(6001):93.
Thornton JA, Harrison MJ. "Letter: Duration of action of AH8165." Br J Anaesth. 1975;47(9):1033.
Mier PD, van den Hurk JJ. "Lysosomal hydrolases of the epidermis. 2. Ester hydrolases." Br. J. Dermatol.. 1975;93(4):391-8. Abstract

Five distinct ester hydrolases (EC 3-1) have been characterized in guinea-pig epidermis. These are carboxylic esterase, acid phosphatase, pyrophosphatase, and arylsulphatase A and B. Their properties are consistent with those of lysosomal enzymes.

Mier PD, van den Hurk JJ. "Lysosomal hydrolases of the epidermis. I. Glycosidases." Br. J. Dermatol.. 1975;93(1):1-10. Abstract

Seven distinct glycosidases (EC 3.2) have been characterized in guinea-pig epidermis. Their properties indicate them to be of lysosomal origin. The 'profile' of the epidermal glycosidases is significantly different from that reported for whole skin, the activities of beta-galactosidase and beta-acetylglucosaminidase being very high and those of the remaining enzymes relatively low in epidermis.

Van Gorkom HJ, Pulles MP, Wessels JS. "Light-induced changes of absorbance and electron spin resonance in small photosystem II particles." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;408(3):331-9. Abstract

Photosystem II reaction center components have been studied in small system II particles prepared with digitonin. Upon illumination the reduction of the primary acceptor was indicated by absorbance changes due to the reduction of a plastoquinone to the semiquinone anion and by a small blue shifts of absorption bands near 545 nm (C550) and 685 nm. The semiquinone to chlorophyll ratio was between 1/20 and 1/70 in various preparations. The terminal electron donor in this reaction did not cause large absorbance changes but its oxidized form was revealed by a hitherto unknown electron spin resonance (ESR) signal, which had some properties of the well-known signal II but a linewidth and g-value much nearer to those of signal I. Upon darkening absorbance and ESR changes decayed together in a cyclic or back reaction which was stimulated by 3-(3,4 dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. The donor could be oxidized by ferricyanide in the dark. Illumination in the presence of ferricyanide induced absorbance and ESR changes, rapidly reversed upon darkening, which may be ascribed to the oxidation of a chlorophyll a dimer, possibly the primary electron donor of photosystem II. In addition an ESR signal with 15 to 20 gauss linewidth and a slower dark decay was observed, which may have been caused by a secondary donor.

Van Gorkom HJ, Pulles MP, Wessels JS. "Light-induced changes of absorbance and electron spin resonance in small photosystem II particles." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;408(3):331-9. Abstract

Photosystem II reaction center components have been studied in small system II particles prepared with digitonin. Upon illumination the reduction of the primary acceptor was indicated by absorbance changes due to the reduction of a plastoquinone to the semiquinone anion and by a small blue shifts of absorption bands near 545 nm (C550) and 685 nm. The semiquinone to chlorophyll ratio was between 1/20 and 1/70 in various preparations. The terminal electron donor in this reaction did not cause large absorbance changes but its oxidized form was revealed by a hitherto unknown electron spin resonance (ESR) signal, which had some properties of the well-known signal II but a linewidth and g-value much nearer to those of signal I. Upon darkening absorbance and ESR changes decayed together in a cyclic or back reaction which was stimulated by 3-(3,4 dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. The donor could be oxidized by ferricyanide in the dark. Illumination in the presence of ferricyanide induced absorbance and ESR changes, rapidly reversed upon darkening, which may be ascribed to the oxidation of a chlorophyll a dimer, possibly the primary electron donor of photosystem II. In addition an ESR signal with 15 to 20 gauss linewidth and a slower dark decay was observed, which may have been caused by a secondary donor.

Wanjala C. "Literature and Society: A View in Approach." Busara. 1973;5(2):70-76.
ODHIAMBO DRALFRED, BYAKIKA DRBESSIE, GACHIE DRANDREW, OLIECH PROFJOSEPH. "Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as the initial presentation for colorectal malignancy.". Abstractluts_presentation.pdf

The presenting features of colorectal carcinoma in the African patient are not different from reports worldwide although the majority present late with features of advanced disease (1). Increasing frequency of diagnosis may be attributed the twin effects of changing diets and easier access particularly by the elite population to modern diagnostic imaging tools.
A 72 year old African male presented to a private practitioner with a 2 week history hematuria, frequency, nocturia and subsequently a 2 day history of retention of urine (AUR). Imaging studies demonstrated a tumour mass invading the roof of the urinary bladder. Following surgical extirpation the mass was subjected to histopathological evaluation.

Magazine Article
Wango GM, Ngerema D, Owang S. "Languishing and Assisting People Get on their Feet." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):7-9.languishing_and_assisting_people_get_on_their_feet.pdf
Gatere AW. "The Language of Love." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):33-35.the_language_of_love.pdf
"Learning to Positively Manage your Relationship with your Spouse." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(2):40-43.
Shah PS. "Life of Wangari Maathai." OERB Reach 16 (2013):9-11.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Life Begins at Forty, Even for ISK:." Land and Property Digest. Special Issue No 9 (2010).
"The Long Road to a PhD: Choices Changes or Chances." Commonwealth Scholarship News. 2007;1(1):9.
Manuscript
Miscellaneous
Ozdemir SK, Yang L, Peng B. Loss engineering to improve system functionality and output. Google Patents; 2021. Abstract
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Yang L, Ozdemir SK, Peng B. Loss engineering to improve system functionality and output. Google Patents; 2016. Abstract
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Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Newspaper Article
Kanyinga K. "Lessons from nominations." Sunday Nation, May 20, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Let's strengthen the rule of law to crush impunity." Sunday Nation, May 20, 2012.
Report
Lamu County Spatial Plan . Lamu; Submitted.
National Gender and Equity Commission(NGEC) K. The Land Area Dimension of Resource Allocation: A Review of the Formula by Commission on Resource Allocation (CRA), Kenya. Nairobi: National Gender and Equity Commission (NGEC), Kenya ; 2012.
Odada E.O., Olago DO, W. O. Lake Victoria Basin Environment Outlook: Environment and Development. Nairobi: UNEP; 2006.
Makunda CS, et al. Learning at Morse Ranch: An interdisciplinary fun approach for fifth graders. Eugene: University of Oregon; 1999.
Research Paper
Upadhyaya R, Wamalwa H. Learning and capabilities development: Case studies of East African social enterprises. https://www.ikeasocialentrepreneurship.org/en/useful-reads/learning-capabilities-development; 2022.
Nandonde F, Adu-Gyamfi R, Mmusi TS, Asongu SA, Opperman J, Makindara J. Linkages And Spillover Effects Of South African Foreign Direct Investment In Botswana And Kenya. WIDER Working Paper 2019/53. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER; 2019.
Kahi, H.C, M, M. Nyangito P, C.K.K. Gachene P. Land Use Change in Upper River Kibwezi Riparian Ecosystem From 1985 to 2015.; 2018.
Nielsen, MR; Lund JF; BTA; I. Locally-based monitoring and its relevance to management and research.; 2012. Abstract

Locally-based monitoring (LBM) has been pro posed as a solution to overcome the costs of monitoring the condition and development of natural resources and ecosystems in developing countries. Based on a recent empirical study on LBM, this brief argues that careful attention should be paid to the incentives and power struggles surrounding the particular context within which LBM schemes are based as they will invariably shape the information produced and communicated.

Ackello-Ogutu, Chris; Okoruwa V; BGN. Long-term challenges to food security and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa.; 2012. Abstract

This briefing paper is one of the 10-part Global Development Network (GDN) Agriculture Policy Series for its project, ‘Supporting Policy Research to Inform Agricultural Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia’. It is based on a longer synthesis paper, Long-term challenges to food security and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa, which draws on extensive published and unpublished research. It will be of value to policymakers, experts and civil society working to improve agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 180 million food-insecure people live in Sub-Saharan Africa, over 21 per cent of the African population. These are among the world’s most vulnerable people, poorly equipped to respond to the threat of climate change, demographic stresses, or spikes in global food prices. This briefing examines how improvements in agriculture might help to achieve g

Nkonya, E; Jawoo K; MLP; R. Land under pressure..; 2011. Abstract

This chapter presents and discusses the causes of land degradation, and ways of sustainable land development and agricultural productivity. The evidence presented here suggests several avenues for achieving a world without land degradation. First, efforts to promote sustainable land management need to improve locally and nationally. Second, instead of focusing solely on fertilizer subsidies, countries should use broader and more cost-effective incentives to encourage farmers to adopt integrated soil fertility management.

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