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2000
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Living to die, Dying to Live: African Christian Insights, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000 (343 pp.).". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.the_abstract.pdf
Odada EO, Olago DO, Street-Perrott FA, Perrott RA, Ivanovich M, M.; Harkness DD. "Long-term temporal characteristics of palaeomonsoon dynamics in equatorial Africa." M.; Harkness, D.D. 2000; vol. 26( issue 1-3):159-171. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we examine the long-term temporal characteristics of palaeomonsoon dynamics in equatorial Africa from a continuous lacustrine sequence retrieved from Sacred Lake, Mount Kenya (0°03′N, 37°32′E, 2350 m a.s.l.), covering the last interglacial–glacial transition to the present. The trends in mineral magnetics and stable carbon isotopes are proxy indicators of changes in precipitation on the mountain over the last glacial–interglacial cycle. Spectral analysis by a fast fourier transform method revealed that the stable carbon isotope trend (δ13C) has strong signals at the 23,000 and 11,500 year frequencies. The mineral magnetic signature does not register the 23,000 year cycle observed in the δ13C signature. It has, however, a strong signal at an 11,500 year frequency, and sharp but relatively weak peaks at ca. 7500 and 5000 year frequencies are recorded. The dominant 23,000 year frequency recorded in the δ13C signature reflects the strong effect of the precessional cycle on tropical climate and ecosystems, and is most probably effected via global atmospheric pCO2 and temperature changes. The shorter cycles at 11,500 year (indicated by both mineral magnetics and δ13C trends), and 7500 and 5000 years BP (apparent in the mineral magnetic record) are attributed to precipitation variations, whose temporal cycles are dominated by the higher precessional harmonics.

Keywords: paleomoonsoon; mineral magnetics; stable carbon isotopes; Milankovitch forcing

DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C. & Paton, A.J., 2000. Two new species of Plectranthus L.". In: Kew Bulletin, 55 (4): 957-964.; 2000.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C., 2000. Medicinal plants: Their role and future. First Symposium on EastAfrica in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change, 4th-7th July 2000, Nairobi.". In: First Symposium on EastAfrica in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change, 4th-7th July 2000, Nairobi.; 2000.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "The Lake Victoria: A New Beginning .". In: ISBN. 9970-713-01-0. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
TOM DONDICHO. "Land alienation, land tenure and tourism in Kajiado district of Kenya.". In: African Studies monograph to be considered for publication. East African Social Science Research Review 16 (2): 49-70; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Lands on Campus, Report: African Design Perspectives as Discussed by PJ Aranador (Philippines).". In: Faculty of Architecture, Design and Development, facilitated by Product Design and Development Center, Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract

The Department of Design, University of Nairobi recently hosted internationally reknowed Filipino Design Consultant, PJ Aranador. This event was a milestone, in many ways, for design in Kenya in that we had a distinguished designer, with an equally distinguished audience, discussing an important economic aspect lof national development. PJ is a design consultant for all major Philippine Trade Fares and a product development consultant for his government. He has been interviewed by CNNs' Elsa Klench in "Style:. And, "PJ" products sell on the international market with the buy line - "Style made modern". These styles include casual wear, swim wear and youthful clothes. PJ also indulges in interior and industrial design. The lecture included slides, posters and transparencies and was attended by a record assembly of over 100 participants from the major tertiary institutions in Kenya that offer design courses such as Evelyn College of Design, Marion Institute College, The Kenya Polytechnic and the University of Nairobi itself". This is the first assembly of these various tertiary institutions in pursuit of one goal - to listen and share in the experience of a fellow designer. PJ, on his part, gave a broad overview of the design profession, touching on its importance as an economic activity and its difference and similarities with Fine art. Design engages art and other factors in conception, but is driven by market forces because design is primarily, a marketing function. Design must concern itself with production unlike Art, which is not driven by reproduction. As a function of marketing, designers need to be sensitive to consumers of their products.

WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. ""Launching of Literacy Materials Workshop".". In: UNE SCO/UNESCO/UNIT WIN CHAIR Workshop , 26 th - 28 th July,2000. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2000. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Thompson ML, Martin HL Jr, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss J.Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: clinical manifestations among women in Mombasa, Kenya.Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;30(3):486-90.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;30(3):486-90. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
The occurrence of clinical manifestations associated with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated in a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Among 103 women who seroconverted to HIV-1, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, extrainguinal lymphadenopathy, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and vaginal candidiasis were noted significantly more frequently at visits in which seroconversion first became evident. Eighty-one percent of seroconverting women had >/=1 of these 11 symptoms or signs. Among 44% of the women, the acute illness was severe enough to prevent them from working. Having >/=2 of 6 selected symptoms and signs yielded a sensitivity of 51%, specificity of 83%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.2, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 for acute HIV-1 infection. The recognition of primary HIV-1-infection illness in high-risk populations and subsequent risk-reduction counseling could potentially reduce secondary HIV-1 transmission during this highly infectious period.
KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "Learning for economic development : a case study of West African women and their potential replication: Seminar for the working group in on-formal education, University of Nairobi.". In: Seminar for the working group in on-formal education, University of Nairobi. au-ibar; 2000. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "Learning for economic development : a case study of West African women and their potential replication: Seminar for the working group in on-formal education, University of Nairobi.". In: Seminar for the working group in on-formal education, University of Nairobi. au-ibar; 2000. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "The Legal Framework for CEWARN.". In: Lawrenceville, NJ.: Red Sea Press, 2002; also in IGAD, Protocol on the Establishment of a Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism for IGAD Member States (Djibouti: IGAD, 2002). University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

This article explains the rationale of the various provisions of the Protocol establishing CEWARN (IGAD's conflict early warning and response mechanism).  It outlines the various levels of administration of the conflict early warning mechanism and analyses their legal and practical rationale.

ODUOR PROFOGENDOSTEPHEN. "Long term valve-related morbidity following open-heart surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Apr;77(4):199-202. The East and Central African Journal of Surgery.; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of valve morbidity associated with post-operative valve patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A combined retrospective and prospective study. Restrospective period from 1973 to 31st July 1977 and prospective period from there on to 31st July 1998. SETTING: Cardiothoracic outpatient clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. PATIENTS: All valve replacement patients attending the cardiothoracic outpatient clinic on follow up following discharge from the ward. OUTCOME MEASURES: Morbidity was assessed by incidence of: stroke, thromboembolism, valve thrombosis, bleeding episodes, valve endocarditis and re-operation for valve failure. RESULTS: For all valve surgery combined the overall follow up rate equalled 476.3 patient years. The linearised occurrence rate for thromboembolism for all valves was 1.04% per patient year. For the mechanical valves this incidence was 1.32% per patient year. The stroke free rate at one year and five years was 97.7% and 95.9% respectively. The linearised incidence rate for stroke was 0.84% per patient year for all valves. The incidence of bleeding episodes, excluding menorrhagia, for mechanical valves was 0.79% per patient year. Three episodes of valve thrombosis were observed in this study group, all occurring with mechanical valves. For mechanical valves the incidence equalled 0.79% per patient year. The incidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis equalled 0.42% per patient year for all valves combined, or 0.53% per patient year for mechanical valves. Three patients in the series had redo surgery due to valve failure (0.63%). The commutative occurrence of valve related morbidity for the study population for all valves analysed was 2.73% per patient year. CONCLUSION: The incidence of the various valve morbidity at the Kenyatta National Hospital are below the internationally quoted figures in the literature for other centres. The high incidence of drop out to clinic follow up is likely to be the main reason for this with a lot of morbidity occurring outside the hospital environment and therefore not documented. The exact estimation of this incidence is difficult to assess. To help ascertain this occurrence an accurate patient database with accurate (real time) contacts needs to be put into place.
1999
Makunda CS, et al. Learning at Morse Ranch: An interdisciplinary fun approach for fifth graders. Eugene: University of Oregon; 1999.
Preston C, Cheater F, Baker R, Hearnshaw HM. "Left in limbo: patients' views on care across the primary/secondary interface.". 1999.Website
Preston C, Cheater F, Baker R, Hearnshaw HM. "Left in limbo: patients' views on care across the primary/secondary interface.". 1999.Website
AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Land and Property ownership for Women in Kenya, presented at UN Women's Day Panel. Discussion, UN New York, March 4th.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land policy development in East Africa: a survey of recent trendes"; paper for DFID workshop on Land Rights and Sub-Saharan Africa Sunningdale, England, February 16-19.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1999. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
JAMES PROFODEK. "Land Use Planning and Management (ACTS).". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1999. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Johnson P.M., Rote N.S., Mwenda J.M., Owiti G.O. Wango E.O. and Mwenda J.M. (1999). Immunohistochemical characterisation of retroviral-related antigens expressed in normal baboon placental villous tissue. J. Medical. Primatol., 27, 278-286.". In: 25th Annual Conference, 23rd . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Johnson P.M., Rote N.S., Wango E.O., Owiti G.O.,Isahakia M.A., and Mwenda J.M., (1999). Characterisation of antigens expressed in normal baboon trophoblast and cross reactive with HIV/SIV antibodies. J. Reprod. Immunol.42, 41-58.". In: 25th Annual Conference, 23rd . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Rakwar JP, Thompson ML, Jackson DJ, Mandaliya K, Chohan BH, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK.Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of .". In: J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):330-6. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
To determine the effect of circumcision status on acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases, a prospective cohort study of 746 HIV-1-seronegative trucking company employees was conducted in Mombasa, Kenya. During the course of follow-up, 43 men acquired HIV-1 antibodies, yielding an annual incidence of 3.0%. The annual incidences of genital ulcers and urethritis were 4.2% and 15.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for demographic and behavioral variables, uncircumcised status was an independent risk factor for HIV-1 infection (hazard rate ratio [HRR=4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-8.3) and genital ulcer disease (HRR=2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3). Circumcision status had no effect on the acquisition of urethral infections and genital warts. In this prospective cohort of trucking company employees, uncircumcised status was associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection and genital ulcer disease, and these effects remained after controlling for potential confounders.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Legume cover crops for soil fertility improvement in the East African Region. AHI (African Highland Initiative) Soils Working Group Report No. 1., AHI/TSBF, Nairobi, Kenya. 25 pp.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Lewa, A.K., N. Maingi, W.K. Munyua, and T.A. Ngatia (1999). Seasonal population dynamics of gastrointestinal helminths in donkeys in Kiambu district of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 47: 19-20.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Literature at the Touch of a Key The People (Millennium Special), 31December." Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The lithospheric structure of the Kenya Rift as revealed by wide-angle seismic measurements.". In: In: Mac Caill, C. and Ryan, P.D. (eds). Continental Tectonics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 164, 254-269. Wiley Interscience; 1999. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
M PROFNGECUWILSON. "Lithostratigraphic and facies distribution of Pleistocene sediments in southern Kenya Rift Valley at Munyu wa Gicheru Formation.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 29/2. Pp. 411-421. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 1999. Abstract
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OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Locally Made Wind pumping System. A technical Report, 1987 (Revised 1992, 1997, 1999).". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract
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K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "Long term policy perspecives for Kenya:Joint IPAR/AERC Seminar report.". In: Joint IPAR / AERC Seminar Report 1999 with P. Kimuyu. uon press; 1999. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
1998
Wasamba P. Languange in Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Fiction. Chesaina PC, Odari M, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.abstract.pdf
SEBITOSI, E. N., KAAYA, G.P., Young AS, AGBEDE RIS. "Lectins in brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus: Detection and partial characterization." International journal of Acarology. 1998;24:159-164.
Dorothy McCormick. "Linkages Between Small and Large Firms In the Kenyan Food Processing and Tourism Industries.". In: Linkages Between Small and Large Firms In the Kenyan Food Processing and Tourism Industries. Hague, Netherlands.: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1998. Abstract

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Magoha GAO. "Local infiltration and spermatic cord block for inguinal, scrotal and testicular surgery. .". In: East African Medical Journal, 75: 575-577, 1998. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract

This was a prospective study involving 372 male patients. Surgical procedures including simple inguinal hernia repair, inguinal lymph node biopsy, hydrocelectomy, testicular biopsy, testicular fixation, orchidectomy and scrotal exploration were performed under local anaesthesia using various quantities of 0.5% xylocaine with adrenaline depending on the procedure, in the form of spermatic cord block and local infiltration nerve blocks. No premedication was given to any patient and only five patients (1.34%) were given intraoperative sedation due to anxiety. No complication directly attributed to the anaesthetic agent used or the technique of spermatic cord and nerve blocks were reported during the study. Three hundred and sixty patients (96.77%) were operated on as outpatients and were happy and satisfied to return home on the same day. This experience confirms that spermatic cord block accompanied by local infiltration with 0.5% xylocaine with adrenaline is simple, safe and effective technique that should be used more widely in outpatient urological and general surgical settings in this locality. It provides excellent intra-scrotal and inguinal anaesthesia. Furthermore, the technique is cost effective, and personnel effective since no anaesthetist is required for the procedure which is usually carried out by the surgeon. This would enable many more people to afford the surgical procedures.

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "L'economie Kenyane Face a l'ajustement structural (1978-1995).". In: Frncois Grignon et Gerard Pruntier (eds). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable. PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Land Question in Kenya: Struggles, Accumulation and Changing Politics. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, International Development Studies, Roskilde University, Denmark, 1998.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Johnson P.M., Rote N.S., Owiti G.O., Wango E.O. and Mwenda J.S. (1998). Characterisation of retroviral-related antigens expressed in normal baboon placental and other tissues. African J. Health Sci. 5,139-146.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB), pp199-204. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

JANET MSAYUGIROSE. "Law Reform Initiatives in Kenya: The Environmental Management and Coordination bill 1995/1998. South African Journal of Environmental Law and Policy.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Legal, ethical and Gender implications of implementation of programmes on the Reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1998. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Legislating land rights for the poor. A preliminary assessment of Uganda's Land Act 1998, paper for the Uganda Land Alliance Strategic Planning Workshop Mukono 6-8, September.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1998. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Lending Policies and the Use of Credit Funds among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya". In: Savings and Development, Vol. 22, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
WAKONYU DRKANJAL, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Levels of organochlorine Pesticide residues in milk of Urban Mothers in Kenya.". In: journal. de Gruyter; 1998.
WAKONYU DRKANJAL, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Levels of organochlorine Pesticide residues in milk of Urban Mothers in Kenya.". In: journal.; 1998.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lewis P, Nduati R, Kreiss JK, John GC, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J.Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan;177(1):34-9.". In: J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan;177(1):34-9. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
{ Breast-feeding may be an important route of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vertical transmission in settings where it is routinely practiced. To define the prevalence and quantity of HIV-1 in cell-free breast milk, samples from HIV-1-seropositive women were analyzed by quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QC-RT-PCR). HIV-1 RNA was detected in 29 (39%) of 75 specimens tested. Of these 29 specimens, 16 (55%) had levels that were near the detection limit of the assay (240 copies/mL), while 6 (21%) had >900 copies/mL. The maximum concentration of HIV-1 RNA detected was 8100 copies/mL. The prevalence of cell-free HIV-1 was higher in mature milk (47%) than in colostrum (27%
N PROFNYAGAP. "Lilly C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga and C.O. Kimoro. (1998). Comparason of immune responses of two Salmonella gallinarum strains viewed as posssible vaccines for fowl typhoid in Kenya. Onderspoort Journal of Vet. Res. Vol. 65.67-73.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1998. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Lown B, Bukachi F, Xavier R. Health information in the developing world. Lancet. 1998 Oct;352 Suppl 2:SII34-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 1998. Abstract

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OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcome of successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in patients with poor ventricular function. METHODS: Analysis of angiographic, echocardiographic and clinical records of patients with severe LV dysfunction who underwent PTCA from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1997 was undertaken. Forty-one patients aged 63+/-10 years, 36 men, all with significant coronary artery disease and impaired LV function (fractional shortening, FS<or=20%) were identified. Patients' data before and after angioplasty were analyzed. RESULTS: Post PTCA: angiographic success was 95.2%. Major complications occurred in 19.5% and hospital mortality was 2.7%. At 6 months after PTCA:LV fractional shortening (FS) increased from 15.9+/-3.4% to 19.6+/-6.6%

PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Luo Biological Dictionary (Jointly authored with Prof. Timothy Johns of McGill University, Canada).". In: A well researched ethnobiological lexicon describing all the plants and animals known to and used by the Luo community in East Africa. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Luo Biological Dictionary; 264pp 1998 East African Educ. Publ.". In: Journal Of Ethnobiology Volume 25, Issue 1 (March 2005) Pp. 129. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Luscher MA, Choy G, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, Anzala AO, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ball TB, Wade JA, Plummer FA, Barber BH, MacDonald KS.Naturally occurring IgG anti-HLA alloantibody does not correlate with HIV type 1 resistance in Nairobi prostitutes.AIDS Res Hum Retro.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan 20;14(2):109-15. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
In an effort to identify an immunological basis for natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, we have examined serum antibody responses to HLA class I antigens in female prostitutes of the Nairobi Sex Workers Study. Anti-HLA antibodies are known to block HIV infectivity in vitro and can be protective against SIV challenge in macaques immunized with purified class I HLA. Thus, it was postulated that broadly cross-reactive alloantibodies recognizing common HLA alleles in the client population might contribute to the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. In fact, 12% of the women were found to have serum IgG antibodies against class I alloantigens. However, this alloantibody did not correlate with the HIV status of the women and was found in a similar proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-resistant women. The observed levels of alloantibody did not increase with HIV infection in susceptible individuals, suggesting that potential antigenic mimicry between HIV and host HLA class I antigens does not significantly increase levels of anti-class I antibodies. The lack of correlation between serum anti-allo-class I HLA antibodies and the risk of sexual transmission indicates that this humoral immune response is unlikely to be the natural mechanism behind the HIV-resistance phenotype of persistently HIV-seronegative women. This result, however, does not preclude the further investigation of alloimmunization as an artificial HIV immunization strategy.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Luscher MA, Choy G, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, Anzala AO, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ball TB, Wade JA, Plummer FA, Barber BH, MacDonald KS.Naturally occurring IgG anti-HLA alloantibody does not correlate with HIV type 1 resistance in Nairobi prostitutes.AIDS Res Hum Retro.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan 20;14(2):109-15. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1998. Abstract
In an effort to identify an immunological basis for natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, we have examined serum antibody responses to HLA class I antigens in female prostitutes of the Nairobi Sex Workers Study. Anti-HLA antibodies are known to block HIV infectivity in vitro and can be protective against SIV challenge in macaques immunized with purified class I HLA. Thus, it was postulated that broadly cross-reactive alloantibodies recognizing common HLA alleles in the client population might contribute to the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. In fact, 12% of the women were found to have serum IgG antibodies against class I alloantigens. However, this alloantibody did not correlate with the HIV status of the women and was found in a similar proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-resistant women. The observed levels of alloantibody did not increase with HIV infection in susceptible individuals, suggesting that potential antigenic mimicry between HIV and host HLA class I antigens does not significantly increase levels of anti-class I antibodies. The lack of correlation between serum anti-allo-class I HLA antibodies and the risk of sexual transmission indicates that this humoral immune response is unlikely to be the natural mechanism behind the HIV-resistance phenotype of persistently HIV-seronegative women. This result, however, does not preclude the further investigation of alloimmunization as an artificial HIV immunization strategy.
1997
Manda DK. Labour Supply, Returns to Education, and The Effect of Firm Size on Wages: The Case of Kenya. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden; 1997.
Mohamed A. "Language in Contras.". 1997.Website
Miano K. "Leroy Newman on Safari". Nanyuki & Maasai Mara): Book Chronicling Neiman's work in Kenya; 1997.
4. Adams E, R. Schepers LWGKRHREJ. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of a formulation containing Polymyxin, Gramicidin, and Neomycin. Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical Analysis ." . Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical Analysis . 1997;15:505-511.
Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of hexopyranosylated cytosine nucleosides from their degradation products." J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.. 1997;16:533-540.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "The Land Question and Politics of Tenure Reforms in Kenya, in IRDCurrents, No. 12, Department of Rural Development Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 1997.". In: The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From Kanu to Narc. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Land Question and Politics of Tenure Reforms in Kenya, in IRDCurrents, No. 12, Department of Rural Development Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 1997.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Johnson P.M., Rote N.S., Mwenda J.M., Owiti G.O.,Wango E.O. (1997). Characterisation of HIV/SIV cross-reactive antigens expressed in normal baboon placental villous tissue. J. Reprod.Immunol. 34, 66.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Johnson P.M., Rote N.S., Owiti G.O., Wango E.O. and Mwenda J.S.(1997). Localisation of HIV/SIV cross-reactive antigens expressed in normal baboon placental tissues. J. Mol. Medicine, 75,(7):B178.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Law of Torts, a Booklet for paralegal trainees (Claripress Ltd, Nairobi.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1997. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Law of Torts, a Booklet for paralegal trainees (Claripress Ltd, Nairobi,).". In: Lesotho Law Journal, 177-198 (2000).; 1997. Abstract
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PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Law, colonialism and Environmental Management in Africa 6 Review of Europea Community & International Environmental Law 1997), p. 23 (with Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Law, Consumer Protection and Education', The Kenya Adult Educator, Vol. 3, No. 2, 21-33.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1997. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
WAFULA DRMUYILAJACKSON. "Leadership from the Grave with Special Reference to the Bukusu Traditional Society".". In: Mila (N.S.) Vol.2 1997. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
JOHN DRMWANGI. "Learning Achievement in Economics in Kenyan Secondary Schools.". In: Article for publication in Independent. au-ibar; 1997. Abstract
   
P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "Legal Framework for Conservation,ownership,Access and Utilization of African Biodiversity:Medical plant and Food Crops,A paper presented at the OAU scientific Technical and Research Commission/Kenya Industrial Property Office/Development partners workshop."; 1997. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

JAMES PROFODEK. "Legal Issues on Ownership of Forest and Wildlife Resources in Transmara District, January, Konrad Adenaeur Stiftung.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1997. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L. (1997): The application of Multitemporal Remote Sensing Data and Aerial Photographs in the management and monitoring of Coastal areas and parks in Kenya,.". In: the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remote sensing And Costal Environment, Orlando, Florida, USA. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.; (): Copper mineralization in East Equatorial province, South.". In: A case Study of Aswa Shear Zone, Lugari, Chekalini Area Western Kenya. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.; (1997): Copper mineralization in East Equatorial province, South Sudan, Brussels, Belgium.". In: presentment at the In. Conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Lets share with Others: Developing Radio and Illustration Materials with and for Rural Women. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1997. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Linking Policy and Research: Towards Enhancing the Policy Advocacy Capacity of Civil Society in Kenya. An IPAR project proposal submitted to a number of Donors in 1997.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
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N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lodenyo H.A, McLigeyo S.O OGOLA E.N.Cardiovascular disease in elderly patients at the Kenyatta national hospital. East Africa. J.741: 647,1997.". In: East Africa. J.741: 647,1997. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
A prospective study to determine the prevalence and profile of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients admitted into the medical wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, was carried out between July 1991 and January 1992. Two hundred and two patients over 60 years of age were admitted into the medical wards over this period. This formed seven per cent of the total medical admissions. Two of these refused to take part in the study. Of the 200 elderly patients evaluated for cardiovascular disease, 146 (73%) were between 60 and 75 years of age with only 26 (13%) being over 85 years. Fifty seven per cent were males. Clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease was present in 79 (39.5%) of the patients evaluated. There was no sex difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease as judged from clinical evaluation (37.7% males versus 41.9% females, p > 0.05). Cardiovascular diseases in our medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital are common and especially so with hypertension which plays an important role in the aetiology of congestive heart failure and cerebravascular accidents. Cardiac arrhythmias are also common though not necessarily symptomatic. Rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies were uncommon in our study population. A community-based survey is needed to determine the true prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly and their contribution to morbidity in this sector of the population.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Lodenyo HA, McLigeyo SO, Ogola EN.Cardiovascular disease in elderly in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi-Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1997 Oct;74(10):647-51.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(10):605-606, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
A prospective study to determine the prevalence and profile of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients admitted into the medical wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, was carried out between July 1991 and January 1992. Two hundred and two patients over 60 years of age were admitted into the medical wards over this period. This formed seven per cent of the total medical admissions. Two of these refused to take part in the study. Of the 200 elderly patients evaluated for cardiovascular disease, 146 (73%) were between 60 and 75 years of age with only 26 (13%) being over 85 years. Fifty seven per cent were males. Clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease was present in 79 (39.5%) of the patients evaluated. There was no sex difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease as judged from clinical evaluation (37.7% males versus 41.9% females, p > 0.05). Cardiovascular diseases in our medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital are common and especially so with hypertension which plays an important role in the aetiology of congestive heart failure and cerebravascular accidents. Cardiac arrhythmias are also common though not necessarily symptomatic. Rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies were uncommon in our study population. A community-based survey is needed to determine the true prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly and their contribution to morbidity in this sector of the population.
1996
Odada EO, Johnson TC. The Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African lakes. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers,; 1996.
KINYANJUI DRMURIITHIMOSES. "Labour Economics: Text for Distance learners. University of nairobi.". In: A study of Nyeri. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Lake Victoria Wetlands Programme: "An Inventory Assessment and Mapping Programme" in Dying Lake Victoria (1996) Annex VI pp 70.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenure and land administration in Tanzania: a paper for a Workshop on Land Use Planning and Land Tenure System", Sokoine University of agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, February.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1996. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenure and natural resource management: the Kenya experience", paper for the OSS/IGADD/ECA Workshop on Land tenure, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, March.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1996. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenure and resource management: a comment:" in ENTWICKLUNG LANDLICHER RAUM Vol. 3 No. 2 Bonn, Germany.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1996. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. ""Land Tenure and Water Resources," in In Land We Trust: Environment, Private Property & Constitutional Change, Juma, C & Ojwang J.B. (eds) Initiatives Publishers/ACTS press, (1996), at p. 143, with A.F. Juma & C Torori).". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1996. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D., Mwenda J., Chege G., and Wango E.O. (1996).Characterisation of retroviral related antigens expressed in normal baboon placental and other tissues. .". In: Kenya Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society, 21st Annual Scientific Conference, 21st-23rd February. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Mwenda J.M., Owiti G.E.O. and Wango E.O. (1996).Biochemical characterisation of retroviral-related antigens expressed in normal baboon placental tissues.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. I-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Law and the Status of Women in Kenya' in Janet K. Macharia ed., Women Laws, Customs and Practices in East Africa: Laying the foundation (1996) (with Victoria Mucai-Kattambo & Janet Kabeberi-Macharia).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1996. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.,J.O. Barongo, N. Opiyo-Aketch, E.M. Mathu, i.O. Nyambok, (1996):Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". In: Joint Special Publication, Commission on Geosciences Education and Training of IUGS, AGID Special Publication Series No.10; 49-51. Balkema, Rotterdam. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1996.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN. "Lema VM, Rogo KO, Kamau RK. Induced abortion in Kenya: its determinants and associated factors. East Afr Med J 1996; 73: 164-68.". In: East Afr Med J 1996; 73: 164-68. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Leslie PW, Campbell KL, Little MA, Kigondu CS. Evaluation of reproductive function in Turkana women with enzyme immunoassays of urinary hormones in the field.Hum Biol. 1996 Feb;68(1):95-117.". In: Hum Biol. 1996 Feb;68(1):95-117. uon press; 1996. Abstract
Department of Anthropology and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27516, USA. The frequently reported observation that nomadic populations have lower fertility than their settled counterparts is often attributed to what are perceived as harsh, stressful conditions under which the nomads live. But the consequences of the hypothesized stresses for the reproductive biology or demography of these populations have been documented only a little. Traditionally, the Turkana of northwest Kenya are nomadic herders, but increasing numbers have settled on agricultural development schemes. We used an array of hormonal assays along with anthropometric indexes of nutritional status and interviews covering reproductive history, recent menstruation, diet, and health to compare reproductive function in nomadic and settled Turkana women. First morning urine samples were collected for three consecutive days during a series of surveys. Human choriogonadotropin (hCG; a marker for pregnancy), luteinizing hormone (LH; an indicator of ovulation), and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG; an indicator of postovulatory luteal function) were assessed in the field with commercially available dipstick enzyme immunoassays. These assays along with the interview data allowed us to determine the reproductive status (e.g., pregnant or cycling, and if cycling, which phase of the ovarian cycle) of 166 nomadic and 194 settled Turkana women. The cross-sectional classifications allowed inferences of conception rates and normality of ovarian function. Follow-up surveys provided rates of pregnancy loss. Compared with the settled women, the nomadic women exhibited lower pregnancy rates and cycling nomadic women were less likely to show evidence of ovulation or luteal function. These results suggest that reproductive function of the nomadic women is diminished relative to the settled women. However, the settled women experienced a much higher rate of pregnancy loss, which may mean that their effective fecundability is in fact lower than that of the nomadic women. This study is the first to apply such a wide range of hormonal assays in the field. It demonstrates that field-based assays are feasible and robust and can play an important role in epidemiological and biodemographic studies, even in remote locations under conditions that would ordinarily be considered incompatible with on-site laboratory analysis.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Let the Factory Close in Our Secret Lives. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1996.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Linkage relationships among loci controlling morphological traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Euphytica 92: 307-311.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1996. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Lomo PO, Makawiti DW, Konji VN.Thyroid status and adenosine triphosphatase activity in experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection in rabbits. Br Vet J. 1996 Nov;152(6):659-67.". In: Br Vet J. 1996 Nov;152(6):659-67. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1996. Abstract
The effect of trypanosome infection on the plasma levels and ratios of tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) as well as the activity of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were investigated. Three groups of sexually mature white New Zealand rabbits were used. Group 1 consisted of the normal non-infected rabbits, group 2 were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense and group 3 were infected but given replacement doses of thyroxine. The infected animals (group 2) showed a rapid decline in both T3 and T4 but an increase in the T3/T4 ratio indicating differential production or clearance rates between the two hormones. The mitochondrial ATPase activity was found to be depressed in the infected group whereas there was no significant difference in the ATPase activity between the non-infected (group 1) and infected-treated animals (group 2). It is postulated that trypanosome induced hypothyroid status may play a role in the impairment of mitochondrial ATPase activity, a key enzyme in energy metabolism.
ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, A MRKABURIAHF. "A longitudinal study of milk somatic cell counts and bacterial culture from cows on smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1996. Abstract
As part of an integrated study on health and production of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in central Average milk yield was low (5.8 kg/day; median = 5kg/day) and lactation length was long (20 months). Clinical mastitis risk was low (1% per month). Somatic cell counts (SCC) were high (median = 620 x 103); the previously suggested threshold of 300 000 cells/ml would classify 71% of quarters as positive for subclinical mastitis. Bacteria were commonly isolated, with S. aureus as the most common pathogen isolated (22.1% of all samples). Infections with mastitis pathogens, cow-age and milk yield were associated with increases in SCC. However, S. aureus was the only mastitis pathogen associated with decreased milk yield. Few specific mastitis control measures were applied. The only farm-level variable associated with high SCC was the method of drying off. Gradual drying off decreased SCC.
1995
Kaduki KA, Ghiti A, Batty W, Allsopp DWE. "Laser applications of exact expressions for hole subband effective mass in arbitrarily shaped quantum wells grown along arbitrary crystal axes.". In: National Quantum Electronics Conference, QE-12 `95. Southampton, U.K.; 1995.
H.J. OJWANG. "Life and Message of a Biography."; 1995. Abstract

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Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of diamino analogues of 2'- or 3'-deoxyadenosine from adenine on a poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) polymer column." J. Chromatogr. A. 1995;689:247-254.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "L. Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in roots and leaves of Vigna unguiculata L., Walp. under imposed water stress.". In: Legume Research J. 33:11-13. NISC Pty Ltd; 1995.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LANGMAN, V.A., ROBERTS, T.J., BLACK, J., MALOIY, G.M.O., HEGLUND,N.C., WEBER, J.M. KRAM, R. and TAYLOR, C.R.(1995) Moving cheaply: energetics of walking in the African elephant.Journal of Experimental Biology 198, 629-632.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Larsen, M., Nansen, P., Henriksen, S.Aa., Gr.". In: Joint Meeting of the Am. Soc. of Parasitologist and the Am. Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, July 6-10. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
OLUOCH PROFATINGAJOHNERNEST. "Lateral Condylar Mass Fracture of the Elbow in Children.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice, Vol. 2: 160 - 162. E Afr Med J; 1995. Abstract
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OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Legal Research for Public Awareness: A View', UNLJ No. 3, 92-102.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Lindley RI, Amayo EO, Marshall J, Sandercock PA, Dennis M, Warlow CP.Acute stroke treatment in UK hospitals: the Stroke Association survey of consultant opinion. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1995 Nov-Dec;29(6):479-84.". In: J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1995 Nov-Dec;29(6):479-84. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
The aim of the Stroke Association survey was to document United Kingdom consultant opinion of the immediate treatment for patients with acute stroke. A national postal survey of all UK hospital consultant general physicians, geriatricians and neurologist was carried out in 1992/3. We identified 1,953 consultants who routinely cared for patients with acute stroke; 39% of them regularly used aspirin for patients with acute stroke and 10% used low-dose subcutaneous heparin. Other treatments were rarely used. There was much uncertainty about the effectiveness of all currently available acute stroke treatments; 73% of physicians were prepared to start aspirin before a CT scan, but a much smaller proportion would start heparin therapy without one. Twenty-seven percent of consultants would actively treat hypertension in the initial 24 hours after stroke. Routine aspirin for secondary prevention after ischaemic stroke was widely accepted, but blood cholesterol lowering by drugs was not. In conclusion, aspirin and heparin alone are the only routinely used treatments for the immediate treatment of acute stroke; other treatments are used sparingly or not at all. The great uncertainty about the value of all available acute stroke treatments should encourage participation in randomised controlled trials.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Load-Deformation Behaviour of Soils and En-Masse Grains. Proceedings of the Symposium on Unsaturated Soil Behaviour and Applications. Nairobi, Kenya. 22 - 23 August.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Lomo PO, Makawiti DW, Konji VN. The effect of L-thyroxine on the anaemia response in Trypanosoma congolense infected rabbits. Vet Parasitol. 1995 Jun;58(3):227-34.". In: Vet Parasitol. 1995 Jun;58(3):227-34. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1995. Abstract

{ The development of anaemia is a major pathological manifestation in chronic trypanosomosis. The anaemia in African trypanosomosis coincides with a marked decrease in plasma concentration of both thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3' triiodothyronine (T3). To evaluate the effect of trypanosome-induced hypothyroidism on the development of anaemia, sexually mature white New Zealand rabbits were used. Three groups were set up, each of ten rabbits: one group was infected with Trypanosoma congolense; the second group was infected but given replacement doses of thyroxine (treated); the third group was not infected. Small volumes of blood were collected for the determination of parasitaemia and packed cell volume (PCV). The concentrations of T3 and T4 were measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay. The decrease in PCV correlated closely (y = -0.38x + 15.2; r = 0.82

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Low dose erythromycin regimen for the treatment of chancroid. Kimani J; Bwayo JJ; Anzala AO; MacLean I; Mwatha A; Choudri SH; Plummer FA; Ronald AR. East Afr Med J. 1995 Oct;72(10):645-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Oct;72(10):645-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Low dose erythromycin regimen for the treatment of chancroid. Kimani J; Bwayo JJ; Anzala AO; MacLean I; Mwatha A; Choudri SH; Plummer FA; Ronald AR. East Afr Med J. 1995 Oct;72(10):645-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Oct;72(10):645-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1995. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Low dose of erythromycin in the treatment of chancroi. Kimani J, Maclean I, Anzala A, Bwayo J.J. East-AfricanMedical Journal. 1995 Oct; 72(10): 645-8.". In: East-AfricanMedical Journal. 1995 Oct; 72(10): 645-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
1994
Ndombi DSJ. Lipid metabolic changes in patients with pancreatitis . Shanghai Second Medical University; 1994.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenure, agrarian legislation and environmental management systems"; in Bakama, R. J. (Ed.) Land Tenure and Sustainable Land Use (Chapter 2) KIT Bulletin 221, The Netherlands.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1994. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Law and Development in the Third World, pp. 614 (Co-editor & Contributor, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1994. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Law and Development in the Third World, pp.614 (Co-editor & Contributor, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi,.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1994. Abstract
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DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Law, Ethics and HIV: Kenya.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Law, Ideology and Development: Dialectics or Eclectics at Play?', in Yash Vyas, Kivutha Kibwana, Okech-Owiti and Smokin Wanjala (eds): Law and Development in theThird Wolrd (Nairobi, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi).". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1994. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Learning as a Participatory Process in Kenya: One Experience in University Pedagogy', UNLJ NO. 1, 1994 152-159.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1994. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "Literacy and Post Literacy Print and Visual Materials with a Gender Perspective,.". In: UNESCO sub-regional seminar Arusha, Tanzania.- 3 rd to 13 th October, 1994. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
  
SHEM MRON&#39;GONDO. "LL.M Course Work Essay (1994), Humanitarian law and the International Protection of victims of Armed Conflicts.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
JAMES PROFODEK. ""Lome IV: Dynamic or Static Improvement on the Previous conventions? The Sub-Saharan Africa Perspective" 27 Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa at 164-198.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1994. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lule GN, Obiero ET, Ogutu EO.Factors that influence the short term outcome of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):240-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):44-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994. Abstract
Between April 1990 to January 1991, a prospective study of 97 consecutive patients admitted to the medical wards of Kenyatta National Hospital with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage was done. All the patients studied under went upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 hours of presentation and a positive endoscopic diagnosis was possible in 90 (93%) of the patients studied. The leading causes of bleeding were oesophageal varices in 34 (35%) patients, duodenal ulceration in 17 (17.5%) patients, and superficial inflammatory lesions in 17 (17.5%) patients. 17 (17.5%) patients had multiple lesions with superficial inflammation and oesophageal varices as the commonest combination. In 86 (88%) patients, bleeding settled on simple conservative measures which included intravenous fluids, blood transfusion and antacids. Further haemorrhage was observed in 11 (11.3%) patients. Tachycardia (> 100/minute), hypotension (systolic BP < 100mm Hg) and low haemoglobin (< 8 g/dl) at admission were all correlated with a poor outcome. Variceal bleeding had the worst prognosis and the overall mortality rate was 5%.
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lule GN, Obiero ET, Ogutu EO.Factors that influence the short term outcome of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):240-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):44-8. test; 1994. Abstract

Between April 1990 to January 1991, a prospective study of 97 consecutive patients admitted to the medical wards of Kenyatta National Hospital with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage was done. All the patients studied under went upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 hours of presentation and a positive endoscopic diagnosis was possible in 90 (93%) of the patients studied. The leading causes of bleeding were oesophageal varices in 34 (35%) patients, duodenal ulceration in 17 (17.5%) patients, and superficial inflammatory lesions in 17 (17.5%) patients. 17 (17.5%) patients had multiple lesions with superficial inflammation and oesophageal varices as the commonest combination. In 86 (88%) patients, bleeding settled on simple conservative measures which included intravenous fluids, blood transfusion and antacids. Further haemorrhage was observed in 11 (11.3%) patients. Tachycardia (> 100/minute), hypotension (systolic BP < 100mm Hg) and low haemoglobin (< 8 g/dl) at admission were all correlated with a poor outcome. Variceal bleeding had the worst prognosis and the overall mortality rate was 5%.

1993
Abdulaziz MH, Alfa SI. "Language and Social Change.". 1993.Website
Gatumu HN. "Latent Trait Theory from a confirmatory factor analysis point of view of a Criterion referenced University Examinations." Ife Psychology IA International Journal. 1993;vol. 1 No. 2:59-68.
Amugune NO, Gopalan HNB, Bytebier B. "Leaf disc regeneration of passion fruit." African Crop Science Journal. 1993;1(2):99-104.
Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of monoamino analogues of 2'- or 3'-deoxyadenosine from adenine." Chromatographia. 1993;35:451-454.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "Labour Law and Relations.". In: Chapter 3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1993. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Labour Laws', ibid.". In: Chapter 3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1993. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The late Proterozoic Yatta Shear Zone: A possible lateral ramp extending across the Kenya Rift.". In: In Opiyo-Aketch (Editor): Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya Publication. 69-77. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
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OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Law of Contract', in Friedrich Ebert Foundation and Central Organisations of Trade Unions: The Industrial Court: A Course Book for Trade Unionist (Nairobi, FEF/COTU) Chapter 2.". In: Volume XXVI, No.1. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1993. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "The Law Relating to Associations: A Reference Summary.". In: Chapter 3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1993. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "The Legal Milieu of the Environmentt:An Ovwerview.". In: Paradigms, Vol. 7, No. 1. University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Leke, R.J.I.; Oduma, J.A.; Bassol-Mayagoita, S.; Bacha, A.M. & Grigor, K.N. (1993). Regional and Geographical variations in infertility: Effects of environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. Environ. Health Persp. Suppls. 101 (Suppl 2): 73-80.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1993. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ELIZABETH GATUNGO. "Les fautes servent ." La Voix du CEFRUNA; 1993. Abstract
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W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Let us Together rebuild the Temple.". In: paper presented at the launching of the book They've Destroyed the Temple. Longman, Nairobi, at K.I.C.C., Nairobi, July.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Level of seed-borne Colletotrichum lindemuthianum on common bean cv. Rosecoco - GLP2 from small scale farmers in Kenya, African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Kampala 14-18 June 1993. PP 260-262.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Kampala 14-18 June 1993. PP 260-262. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1993. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Lin HX, Gontier C, Saron MF, Perrin P. A new immunostimulatory complex (PICKCa) in experimental rabies: antiviral and adjuvant effects.Arch Virol. 1993;131(3-4):307-19.". In: Arch Virol. 1993;131(3-4):307-19. uon press; 1993. Abstract
Rabies Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. The activity of an immunostimulatory complex (PICKCa) which is widely used against several human diseases in China was tested in experimental rabies prophylaxis. PICKCa protected mice against peripheral infection with both fixed and wild rabies strains. It also enhanced the protective activity of an experimental rabies vaccine injected either before or after rabies infection. PICKCa enhanced both non-specific immune responses and specific immunity including antibody production and cell mediated immunity as assessed by interleukin-2 production.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Literary Journals,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

SHEM MRON&#39;GONDO. "LL.M Course Work Essay (1993), University of Nairobi. The individual as a Subject or Object of International Law.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Lomo PO, Makawiti DW, Konji VN.Respiratory activity of isolated liver Mitochondria following Trypanosoma congolense infection in rabbits: the role of thyroxine. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993 Jan;104(1):187-91.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993 Jan;104(1):187-91. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1993. Abstract
The effect of trypanosome infection on rabbit liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was investigated, with and without thyroxine replacement. 2. State 3 respiration, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ADP/O ratio were significantly reduced in mitochondria from trypanosome-infected animals whereas there was no change in state 4 respiration. 3. State 3 respiration, RCR and ADP/O ratio were not significantly altered in trypanosome-infected animals given thyroxine replacement therapy. 4. Trypanosome infection leads to impairment of mitochondrial integrity, apparently through lowered thyroxine levels. Replacement of thyroxine therefore sustains optimal mitochondrial respiratory activity.
1992
Shihembetsa L. "Land Utilisation in Inner City Areas: The case of Nairobi Kenya in Forum." CARDO Research Group. 1992;(University of Newcastle Upon Tyne).
Origa J. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING. Montreal, Canada: Concordia University; 1992. Abstract

This thesis studies some aspects of the learning components of linear programming in two variables. It incorporates a teaching experiment that uses an arithmetic approach to introduce linear programming. A specific strategy of identifying the optimum point is then emphasized to enhance a relational understanding of the corner point theorem. The subjects chosen for the study are four pre-commerce students at Concordia University. This group of students is selected because the subject matter they learn in linear programming comprises the learning components under study.
The subjects’ prerequisite knowledge is gauged by their performance on a pre-test. A semi standardized interview is conducted to follow up the difficulties and errors that emerge during the teaching to explain the underlying causes of the difficulties. The subjects solve one problem independently during the experiment and five others in a pre-test designed to gauge the effect of the strategy on reinforcing the understanding of the corner point theorem. Examination scripts (174) including those of the subjects are analyzed for potential difficulties and errors to provide extra data of the frequency of occurrence of the difficulties and errors. Ten text books chosen at random are also analyzed to find out how they might help alleviate or add to the difficulties

Odada EO. "Lithology, colour and mineralogy of pelagic sediments from the Romanche fracture zone (RFZ) in the equatorial atlantic." Journal of African Earth Sciences . 1992;14(1):13-23. AbstractWebsite

Sediment cores from the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ) in the equatorial Atlantic have been described visually and microscopically as well as analyzed by X-ray diffraction techniques in order to study the main controls on their lithology, colour and mineralogy. The sediments display graditional changes in colour, mineralogy and lithology. Water depth and biogenic dissolution appear to play an important role in controlling the lithology and mineralogy of the sediments. Distance from continental and volcanic sources of sediment appear to play secondary roles. Changes of colour downcore largely reflect variation in the Mn and Fe oxides content of the sediments.

Odada EO. "Lithology, colour and mineralogy of pelagic sediments from the Romanche fracture zone (RFZ) in the equatorial atlantic." Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East). 1992;14(1):13-23. AbstractSCIENCE DIRECT

Sediment cores from the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ) in the equatorial Atlantic have been described visually and microscopically as well as analyzed by X-ray diffraction techniques in order to study the main controls on their lithology, colour and mineralogy. The sediments display graditional changes in colour, mineralogy and lithology. Water depth and biogenic dissolution appear to play an important role in controlling the lithology and mineralogy of the sediments. Distance from continental and volcanic sources of sediment appear to play secondary roles. Changes of colour downcore largely reflect variation in the Mn and Fe oxides content of the sediments.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Lake Turkana area: Tectonics and geology.". In: In Kenya from Space. CREDU, France. East African Educational Publishers. 96-99. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
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OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "Language Education Improvement and the Creation of Language Related Careers in Kenya" In K.R. (ed.), Employment and Education in Kenya: Strategies and Opportunities for Development. Nairobi: Professors World Peace Academy.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1992. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Lee. K.V.. Mangoli. M.K.. Kirn. J.B., Kirn, J.B. . and Park. Y.M. "" A Three Level Hierarchical Approach lorOptimal Reactive power Planning IEEProc., C. Cat. Trans. and Distrib. 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Lee. K.Y.. Mangoli, M.K., Kirn, J.B., Kirn, J.B. , and Park. Y.M. "" An Operational Planning Tool for Real and Reactive Power Control"", IEE Proc., C.Cen., Trans. and Distrih. 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
JAMES PROFODEK. "LL.B. Thesis. 1992, Rigit and Flexible Constitutions. A Consideration of Theory in the Light of the Kenyan Experience.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1992. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Local Level Institutions of Participation in a Changing Political and Economic Development Environment - The Kenyan Experience'. Paper presented to the IDE Workshop on African Political Economy in Transition, Tokyo, Japan, March 1992.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1992. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lore W, Muita AK, Ogola ES.The efficacy and tolerability of enalapril–hydrochlorothiazide combination as a first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate arterial hypertension: a clinical study in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1992 Jan;69(1):18-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jan;69(1):18-21. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lore W, Muita AK, Ogola ES.The efficacy and tolerability of enalapril–hydrochlorothiazide combination as a first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate arterial hypertension: a clinical study in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1992 Jan;69(1):18-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jan;69(1):18-21. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1992. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "LORE W; MUITA A.K; OGOLA E.N; Efficacy and tolerability of Enalapril hydrochlorothiazide combination as first line therapy in essential arterial hypertension in Blacks, a Clinical Trial Kenya. East Africa .Med J.69: 18, 1992.". In: East Africa .Med J.69: 18, 1992. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract

Sixty patients with Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) of 100-110mmHg matched for age, sex and Bp levels were randomly assigned to propranolol 80mg daily or Hydroflumethiazide (HFM) 50mg daily. HFM causes a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP within 4 weeks compared both with baseline and propranolol (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.3 vs 158.1 +/- 10.9mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 102.4 +/- 5.1mmHg, P < 0.05), (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.2 vs 152 +/- 11.0mmHg P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg, P < 0.05), respectively. Propranolol produced no significant difference from the baseline at 4 weeks (SBP 152.0 +/- H.0 vs 154.1 +/- 11.5mmHg NS; DBP 101.1 +/- 6.1 vs 102.2 +/- 5.6mmHg, NS). Reduction in BP by HFM was maintained after 8 and 12 weeks with further reduction but which did not achieve statistical significance. Increased dose of propranolol (160mg daily) after 4 weeks caused significant reduction in BP by 8 week (SBP 146.8 +/- 11.8 vs 152.0 +/- 11.0mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 95.9 +/- 4.4 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg P < 0.05), which was maintained upto 12 weeks. The values however remained higher than in the HFM group. More patients in the HFM group achieved target BP (< 140/90), SBP 53.8% vs 29.6% P < 0.05, DBP 69.2% vs 14.8% P < 0.01. Incidence of side effects was similar and will be discussed. Thiazides are superior to B'blockers as initial monotherapy in black hypertensives.

1991
Mungania G. "Language Policy in Kenya: Prospects and Retrospects.". In: 22nd Annual Conference on African Linguistics. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 1991.
and Onyari JM WSONJO. "Lead contamination in street soils of Nairobi city and Mombasa island,." , Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., . 1991;46:782-789.
N. DRNJENGAHELLEN. "Low Pressure and Salt Effect on the Ethanol-Water Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium.". In: Ph.D. Thesis University of Wales. Elsevier; 1991.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Laevelling Techniques II.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
OBIMBO DRLAMUKAPETER. "Lamuka P.O., Sunki G.R., Rao D.R. and Shackelford L.A. 1991. Effects of Streptococcus thermophilus whey Fermented an Low Dose Irradiation on Microbiological quality and Self Life of chicken Carcasses. Abstract IFT Annual meeting. California. June 14 .". In: Eur J. Biochem. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991. Abstract
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme involved in DNA precursor metabolism and DNA replication. The synthesis of this enzyme is highly regulated during the cell cycle and the activity of the enzyme is also regulated by feedback inhibition. Genes encoding thymidine kinase have been extremely useful as selectable markers for introducing DNA into a number of cells. In order to study cell cycle regulation of thymidine kinase, the gene which encodes this enzyme, as well as aspects of DNA replication in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, we have purified thymidine kinase from Tetrahymena. Two forms of thymidine kinase with native molecular masses of 59 kDa and 80 kDa have been identified and purified 6800- and 4600-fold, respectively. The 59-kDa enzyme, a homodimer of 30-kDa subunits, has been purified to near homogeneity and polyclonal antibodies have been raised against the 30-kDa subunit. Serological studies indicate that the two enzymes are antigenically distinct. The antibody against the Tetrahymena protein cross-reacts with a polypeptide in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell extracts of 26 kDa which corresponds to the reported size of Chinese hamster thymidine kinase protein.
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "LAND DEALINGS IN KENYA.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
PREAMBLE   In   The Act of Parliament gives wide powers to Land Control Boards established in Land Control Agricultural Areas (Section 5 Cap 302) to hear applications brought to them (through the District Land Registrars) and to consider the same under the criteria stipulated in the Act, with appeal procedures being also provided for in the same statute.   This paper analyses the administrative and circumstantial efficacy of controlling transactions in registered agricultural land as specified in section 6(1) of the Act. It uses the recent land control experiences of the Muhoroni Land Control Board in particular, and the decided court cases in general to analyze the operations of the Act in terms of its practical, legal,social, economic and procedural limitations.   The paper concludes that despite the seemingly good intentions, the forty year old statute should substantially be reviewed in order to be a useful tool of rural land policy.  In the event that it is interfering with private transactions in land in circumstances where a number of statutes also exert some controlling influence on agricultural land in Kenya, Parliament may now consider repealing the Act altogether.

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