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Journal Article
Gitao CG, Kihu SM, Muse AE, Wanjohi M. "Lessons from interaction of researchers with pastoralists from eastern Africa." African Journal of Rural Development. 2016;1(3):271-280.
Omoko BJ, Onyatta J, Nyabaro O, Kenanda OE. "Level of Metal Pollutants in Water from Nyakomisaro Stream through Kisii Town.." International Journal of Science and Research . 2016;5(7):464-565.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Levels Of 17β Steroid and Alkylphenol Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting compounds in Nairobi River." Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies. 2016;2(3):46-49.
Mwangi H, Williams D, Waema T, Nganga Z. "Leveraging HIV advancement in the light of Tuberculosis and Malaria using System Dynamics." Advances in Computer System. 2016;5:47-54.
E NYENZE, J MUSTAPHA. "Lid reconstruction after tumour excision in a patient with seborrhoiec keratosis: A case report." JOECSA. 2016;20(1):40-44. Abstractlid_sebarrhoiec.pdfWehttp://coecsa.org/ojs-2.4.2/index.php/JOECSA/article/view/138bsite

comABSTRACTSeborrhoiec Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids, usually affecting elderly females. Typically, the lesions start as discrete, tan-dark brown, flat lesions starting on the face and progressing to other sun-exposed areas. The natural progression is generally an increase in size, thickness and pigmentation of these lesions. A variant of SK, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN), has been described in black people, characterized by an earlier and more severe manifestation with multiple, profuse lesions. The diagnosis is clinical, although histopathological examination may be sought to confirm the diagnosis. These lesions are benign and usually only removed for cosmetic reasons. However, in some patients, concern or discomfort may warrant removal. Cryosurgery, electrodesiccation, curettage or shave excision are all effective methods of management. When eyelid lesions are excised, the resulting anterior lamellar defect can be repaired by primary closure, local skin flaps or Full-Thickness Skin Grafts (FTSG). We report a 60 year old female patient who presented with DPN and thick pigmented lesions on the eyelids of both eyes, causing mechanical ptosis, left lower lid ectropion and interfering with vision. She was successfully managed with excision and lid reconstruction for both eyes.Keywords: Seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis papulosa nigra, Eyelid tumours, Eyelid reconstruction, Eyelid excisional biopsy, Glabellar flap INTRODUCTIONSeborrhoeic Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids1. It usually affects elderly people, with a female preponderance and some cases of reported family history2. The exact cause is unknown and has been linked to sunlight exposure3. Typically, lesions are small, discrete and tan-brown flat macules, most frequently on the face and trunk4. With time, these lesions exhibit increase in size, thickness and level of pigmentation5. As they grow, the lesions become papules with the characteristic verrucous “stuck-on” appearance4. A variant of seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN) has been described in black people2. This variant manifests earlier, with multiple and profuse lesions which are larger, thicker and exhibit a more chronic and worsening course than classic SK. SK lesions are benign and do not usually require removal5. However, many patients present to dermatologists due to concern about possible skin malignancy when there is growth or increased pigmentation of the lesions6. Reasons for removal include cosmetic reasons, discomfort, itchiness or documented growth in the lesions. The diagnosis is clinical in majority of cases. However, especially if lesions are going to be removed, histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis may be sought. Histology of lesions is characterized by hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis, acanthosis with intraepithelial horn or pseudohorn cysts3. There are several options for

and Muthama AKH, W MJ, N MUTHAMAJ. "Long Term Change Point Detections in Total Ozone Column over East Africa via Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform." American Research Journal of Physics. 2016;2(2):1-9.
Nguyen TTT, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, EO A, et al. "A Longitudinal study of association between heavy metals and itchy eyes, coughing in chronic cough patients: related with non-immunoglobin E mediated mechanism." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016;13:110.
Butt FMA, Guthua SW, Waweru W, Kiarie G. "Lung Bronchogenic Carcinoma in the mandible: A rare metastasis." The Annals of African Surgery. 2016;13 (1):32-35.
"Labour Mobility and Deconstruction of Kenya Emigration Streams." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2015;Vol 4 (Issue 9).labour_mobility_and_deconstruction_of_kenya_emigration_sreams.pdf
Mogambi H, Onchiri H. "The Language of graffiti on Public Transport Vehicles in Kenya: Issues and perspectives." International Journal of Education and Research. 2015;3(6):47-56.
Waweru JN. "Leading versus managing libraries in Kenya ." Maktaba Journal of the Kenya Library Association . 2015;Vol.3 (No.1, ): 105-109.
Kimeli P, Nguhiu MJ, Mogoa ME, Onono JO, Serem JK. "lEffects of Floor Characteristics on Locomotion Scores in Dairy Cows under Smallholder Zero-Grazing Units in Kikuyu District, Kenya." Global Veterinaria. 2015;16(6):837-841.
MALUSI BENERDETAMWIKALI, Mungai C, Odiemo L. "LEFT-HANDEDNESS AS AN OVERLOOKED SPECIAL LEARNING NEED ." IJBRITISH. 2015;2(2).ijbritish-287-gp.pdf
MALUSI BENERDETAMWIKALI, Mungai C, Odiemo L. "LEFT-HANDEDNESS AS AN OVERLOOKED SPECIAL LEARNING NEED." IJBRITISH. 2015;2(4):70-90.left-handedness-as-special-need-b-m-malusi.pdf
beryl Ominde S, Olabu B, Ongeng'o J. "Length of Coronary Sinus in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation with Heart Length." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2015;4(1):488-495.
Ogolla JA, George O. Abong, Okoth MW, Kabira JN, Imungi JK, Karanja PN. "Levels of Acrylamide in Commercial Potato Crisps Sold in Nairobi County, Kenya ." Journal of Food Nutrition and Research. 2015;3(8):495-501.
Kabinga S, Were AJO, Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Mbugua P, Ngigi J, Wambugu B, Wangombe N. "Living -Related Kidney Graft Donors Sociodemographic Characteristics and Recipients Clinical Characteristics in Kenya: A Single Centre Experience Kenyatta National Hospital 2010-2015 Audit ." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2015:134-142. Abstract

This article provides summary of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the kidney transplant donors and recipients from 2010-2015 from Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. Only living-related
organ donation is practiced in Kenya.
Accelerated kidney transplantation activities picked up in Kenyatta National hospital from the 2010.
The duration from 2010-
2015 has seen more kidney transplantations undertaken in the hospital than the ones
done in the same hospital from 1984 when first transplantation
was performed in Kenya to 2009. The data were
extracted from manual medical records. There were about 120 kidney transplantations performed during this
period but only 113
complete
records were traceable.
There were 113 medical records for both kidney
graft donors and recipients from 2010-
2015. Demographic
characteristics for donors and recipients captured included age, sex, and donor
-recipient relationships. The mean
donor age was 32.94±8.52 years, median age of 32years with minimum donor age of 20 yea
rs and maximum of
54 years. Fifty five percent (54.90%) of the donors were males. Among the recipients, the mean age was
39.15
±12.68 years, median age of 36 years with the minimum recipient age of 14 years and maximum age of 66
years. Three in every four (
74.30%) of recipients were males. First degree relatives contributed 85.60% of all
the donors, with brothers and sisters to the recipients contributing almost equally (31.9% and 29.2%)
respectively
. The recipients clinical characteristics include the prim
ary disease, where hypertension and
glomerular diseases contributed 85.0% while diabetes mellitus contributed 13.30% of the documented primary
morbidity. Haemodialysis was the only modality of renal replacement therapy with a mean duration of
2.39±1.63 yea
rs and modes of 2 and 3 years. The most popular vascular access for dialysis was permanent
catheter (58.40%) with arteriovenous fistu
lae at 25.70%. Blood group O Rhesus positive was the commonest
among donors and recipients (70.80% and 53.10% respectively
). Blood transfusion was very common among
the recipients before and around transplantation. (51% and 68% respectively). The HLA
-A,
-B,
-DRB1
first and
second loci
match between the donors and recipients were zero match at 5.30%, one match at 9.70%, two
ma
tches at 11.50%, three matches at 38.10%, four matches at 20.40% five matches at 2.70% and six matches at
12.40%. All the transplantations were first kidney transplants
apart fro
m one case.
In our living
-related kidney transplantation programme, the donor
s are younger than recipients with males being
transplanted more than females. First degree relatives dominate the donation
. The commonest cause of the
ESRD was glomerular diseases and hypertension. The program shows plausible feasibility of organ transpla
nt
where the most po
pular modality of renal replace
ment therapy
.

and Mutune, J.M. WMRGDN. "Local Participation In Community Forest Associations: A case Study of Sururu and Eburu Forest." International Journal of African and Asian Studies. 2015;24:84-94.
Maina DSM, Gatere G. "Looking, Learning & Seeing: the role of design in developing exhibition and display in Nairobi." Africa Habitat Review. 2015;vol. 9(No. 9):805-822.
Elias M, Hensel O, Richter U, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Land conversion dynamics in the Borana rangelands of Southern Ethiopia: an integrated assessment using remote sensing techniques and field survey data." Environments. 2015;2:1-31. Abstract
n/a
Kibugi R. "Legal Options for Mainstreaming Climate Change Disaster Risk Reduction in Governance for Kenya." Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences. 2015:409. Abstract
n/a
Kibugi R. "Legal Options for Mainstreaming Climate Change Disaster Risk Reduction in Governance for Kenya." Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences. 2015:409. Abstract
n/a
Kibugi R. "Legal Options for Mainstreaming Climate Change Disaster Risk Reduction in Governance for Kenya." Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences. 2015:409. Abstract
n/a
Mukhwana A. "Language Attitudes Towards Mother Tongue in Urban Kenya." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;VI(1).
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Mutua BF. "Language Games and Language Teaching in Kenya: The Case of Kiswahili in Lower School." Journal of Education and Practice . 2014;5(6):191-198.
Mukhwana A. "Language Planning in Pre-Colonial Kenya.". 2014:27-34.
Kibui AW, Logarmuthie L. "Language Policy in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Educational Science and Research- ISSN: 2249-8052. 2014;Vol.4 :89-98 .
magabe PC. "Large aneurysm in renal angiomyolipoma causing life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage." African Journal of Urology . 2014; Vol 20, (No 4 (2014) ).
Bosire CM, Deyou T, Kabaru JM, Kimata DM, Yenesew A. "Larvicidal activities of extracts and rotenoids from Millettia usaramensis subspecies on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)." Journal of Asia pacific Entomology. 2014;17:531-535.
Yenesew A, Bosire CM, Deyou T, Kabaru JM, Kimata DM. "Larvicidal activities of extracts and rotenoids from Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)." Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology . 2014; 17(3):531-535. Abstractpaper_71_bosire_et_al__asia-2014.pdf

The dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis was tested for its larvicidal activity against the 4th instar Aedes aegypti larvae and demonstrated activity with LC50 value of 50.8 ± 0.06 μg/mL at 48 h. Compounds isolated from the extract were also tested for their larvicidal activities, and the rotenoid usararotenoid-A (LC50 4.3 ± 0.8 μg/mL at 48 h) was identified as the most active principle. This compound appears to be the first rotenoid having a trans-B/C ring junction and methylenedioxy group at C-2/C-3 with high larvicidal activity. Related rotenoids with the same configuration at the B/C-ring junction did not show significant activity at 100 μg/mL.

Bosire CM, Tsegaye D, Kabaru JM, Kimata MD, Yenesew A. "Larvicidal Activities of the Stem Bark Extract and Rotenoids of Millettia usaramensis sub-species usaramensis on Aedes aegypti L." Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2014;17:531-535.
Faridah H Were, M Charles Moturi, P Gottesfeld, Wafula GA, Kamau GN, Shiundu PM. "Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya." Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene. 2014;11(11):706-715. AbstractWebsite

The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m3 in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m3 in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m3 in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m3 in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m3 in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m3 in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m3 in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R2 = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.

FH W, MC M, P G, A WG, GN K. "Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya." PubMed. 2014;11(11):706-15. Abstract

Abstract

The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m(3) in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m(3) in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m(3) in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m(3) in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m(3) in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m(3) in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m(3) in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.
KEYWORDS:

airborne lead; blood lead; industrial workers; occupational exposure;  blood pressure

A.A O-O, Fadairo O, Ameyaw J, Yiran G, Mutisya E, Mfune O, Fuh D, Nyerere J, Sulemana N. "Learning to Solve Africa's Problems by Africans: Innovations for Addressing the Canker of Corruption." African journal of Sustainable Development. 2014;Vol 4(3)(Special Issue, ISSN 2315-6317.).
Kamau W. "Legal Treatment of Consent in Sexual Offences in Kenya." Law Society of Kenya . 2014;1(10):27.
Kivuva JM. "Liberal Democracy and the Challenges of Multiparty politics in Kenya and Uganda." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;2(9):64-77.
Gachangaga PN, Amugune BK, Ogeto JO, Abuga KO. "A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.. 2014;17(2):25-34. Abstract

A simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, accurate, precise and fast high performance liquid
chromatographic method for the determination of antihypertensive drugs amlodipine,
valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide singly or in combination was developed and
validated. Separation of the analytes was achieved on a Hypersil C-18 (250 mm × 4.6
mm, 5 μm) column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-KH2PO4 pH 3.0-
water (75:6:19 % v/v/v) delivered at 1 ml/min, UV detection at 229 nm and 40 oC
column temperature. The precision of the method was demonstrated through
repeatability (coefficient of variation = 0.298-0.724) as well as intermediate precision
(coefficient of variation = 0.435-1.412). The detector response was linear over the 25-
150 % range with R2 ≥ 0.99 for each of the three analytes. The limit of detection for
hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan and amlodipine were 10.72, 21.20 and 14.45 ng, while
the limits of quantification were 35.76, 71.23 and 48.16 ng, respectively. The method
showed satisfactory robustness and accuracy with a recovery of 99.7-100.6 %. The
method was applied in the assay of 6 commercial products containing drugs under
study. The results obtained revealed quality problems among the samples analyzed.

Gachangaga PN, Amugune BK, Ogeto JO, Abuga KO. "A Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Amlodipine, Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in Tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2014;17:25-34.
Onyancha C, Nyamai C. "Lithology and Geological Structures as Controls in the Quality of Groundwater in Kilifi County, Kenya." British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2014;4(25):3631. AbstractFull Text

Aims: Saline and brackish water has been encountered in more than half of the boreholes
across Kilifi County. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between
lithology and structural geology and the quality of water encountered in boreholes in the
study area. Study Design: The study involved field observation of boreholes and collection of
hydrogeological data and analysis of geological and structural setting and water quality.
Place and Duration of Study: Borehole data was collected between January and June 2012.
Field observation of boreholes was carried out between June and September 2012. Data
analysis was carried out between October 2012 and July 2013 at Masinde Muliro University
and University of Nairobi.

Wang’ondu VW, Bosire JO, Kairo JG, Kinyamario JI, Mwaura FB, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. "Litter Fall Dynamics of Restored Mangroves (Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. and Sonneratia alba Sm.) in Kenya. ." Restoration Ecology. 2014;22(6):824-831.
Maina EN, Kinyi HW, Ochwang’i DO, Meroka AM, Wanyonyi WC. "Liver toxicity of Crude extract of Ficus natalensis traditionally used in South Western Uganda." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3(4):116-121.
Nguu J, Ndivo S, Aduda B, Nyongesa F, Robinson Musembi. "Livestock Farmers’ Perception on Generation of Cattle Wastebased Biogas Methane: the Case of Embu West District, Kenya." Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy. 2014; No.8(Vol.4). Abstract

Abstract
Perception of livestock farmers on the generation of cattle waste-based biogas methane was evaluated in this
study. The study was carried out in Embu West district in Kenya. A random sampling technique was used to
gather information related to farmers’ perception and the data collected with the help of self designed
questionnaires and face to face interviews. In the study, 92.9% of the one hundred and fifty six (156) livestock
farmers practiced zero-grazing and only fourteen (9%) of them had installed biogas digesters in their farms. Chi square tests yielded a value of χ = 0.591, p >0.05 which indicated that there was no significant relationship between uptake of cattle waste-based biogas and farmer’s perception. The hypothesis that low uptake of cattle waste-based biogas technology was due to negative perception of the farmers was found not to hold. Further Chi square tests indicated significant relationship (χ=23.56, p< 0.05) between farmers’ perception and knowledge of cattle waste-based biogas methane. Thus livestock farmers in Embu district had a very positive perception and were quite knowledgeable about biogas technology despite the minimal installation of the cattle waste-based biogas digesters. The research findings indicated that other factors like installation cost contribute to the low uptake of biogas technology. These research findings should assist government and industry understand the reason behind public ‘reservations’ in the adoption of biogas technology as well as develop strategies for enhanced promotion of renewable energy technologies.

Keywords: Biogas methane, perception, renewable energy, Embu west

Schmidt C, Jaoko W O-MKMNKBBLGGPJA, Chomba E, Kilembe W NNSCLCADSFPEMJGP. "Long-term follow-up of study participants from prophylactic HIV vaccine clinical trials in Africa." Human Vaccines & Immunotherapy. 2014;10(3):714-23.
Schmidt, C. JO-MKMNKBWGPJ, L. G. Bekker, E. Chomba KNNSCLWMJG, and J. Cox, S. Allen DSFLCPE. "Long-Term Follow-up of Study Participants from Prophylactic Hiv Vaccine Clinical Trials in Africa." Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014;10, no. 3:714-23.
Edwards PS, Janisch CT, Peng B, Zhu J, Ozdemir SK, Yang L, Liu Z. "Label-free particle sensing by fiber taper-based Raman spectroscopy." IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 2014;26:2093-2096. Abstract
n/a
Maina EN, Kinyi HW, Ochwang’i DO, Meroka AM, Wanyonyi WC. "Liver toxicity of Crude extract of Ficus natalensis traditionally used in South Western Uganda." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3. Abstract
n/a
Wamalwa DC, Lehman DA, Benki-Nugent S, Gasper MA, Gichohi R, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, John-Stewart GC, Overbaugh J. "Long-term virologic response and genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1 infected Kenyan children on combination antiretroviral therapy." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;62(3):267-74. Abstract

HIV-infected children may require the use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) into adulthood. However, regimens are limited to first line and second line in many African settings. Therefore, understanding the long-term rate of virologic failure and drug resistance during prolonged antiretroviral treatment is important for establishing treatment strategies in African pediatric cohorts.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Land Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Land provides the base upon which social, cultural and economic activities are undertaken and as such is of significant importance in environmental monitoring. Social, cultural and economic activities have to be planned and managed in such a way that the sustainable use of land resources is enhanced. Sustainable land use ensures that economic and socio-cultural activities do not benefit at the expense of the environment (see Sect.28.5). Monitoring of changes in land through indicators could help in policy formulation and management issues for the betterment of the environment. Some of the vital indicators for land management include vegetation, soil quality and health, biosolids and waste disposed on land, land evaluation, land use planning, contaminated land, integrity of the food supply chain, mine closure completion criteria, and catchment management, in particular water balance, salinity, eutrophication, and riparian/wetland vegetation. This Chapter presents the possibility of using geoinformatics to enhance the monitoring of some of these indicators.

Mukhono PM, Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Laser Induced Breakdown spectroanalysis and characterization of environmental matrices utilizing multivariate chemometrics." Spectrochimica Acta B. 2013; 87:81-85.
Angeyo KH, Mukhono PM, Dehayem-kamadjeu A, Kaduki KA. "Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and characterization of environmental matrices utilizing multivariate chemometrics." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2013;87. Abstract

We exploited multivariate chemometric methods to reduce the spectral complexity and to retrieve trace heavy metal analyte concentration signatures directly from the LIBS spectra as well as, to extract their latent characteristics in two important environmental samples i.e. soils and rocks from a geothermal field lying in a high background radiation area (HBRA). As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ti were modeled for direct trace (quantitative) analysis using partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). PLS performed better in soils than in rocks; the use of ANN improved the accuracies in rocks because ANNs are more robust than PLS at modeling spectral non-linearities and correcting matrix effects. The predicted trace metal profiles together with atomic and molecular signatures acquired using single ablation in the 200–545 nm spectral range were utilized to successfully classify and identify the soils and rocks with regard to whether they were derived from (i) a high background radiation area (HBRA)-geothermal, (ii) HBRA-non-geothermal or (iii) normal background radiation area (NBRA)-geothermal field using principal components analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA).

Nyamongo IK, Liani ML, Aagaard-Hansen J. "Layperson’s perceptions about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Kenya.". 2013.Website
Kimani G.N., A.M. K, L.W. N. "Learners’ Perceptions of Support Services in Distance Education: A case of Bachelor of Education Students at Kenyatta University, Kenya." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2013;3(ISSN 2201 – 6333):1-4.kimani10.pdf
B. K, S.M. M, Ouko C. "Lessons Learned from Smallholder Agroforestry Project in Semi Arid Regions of Kenya." Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2013.
Robinson M, Bernard A, Julius M, Marin R, Kostantinos F, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Aduda B, Robinson Musembi, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Mwabora J, Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Marin R, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Materials Sciences and Applications. 2013;4,2013:718-722. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Addition- ally, studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell; Light Soaking; Conversion Efficiency; TiO2; In(OH)xSy; Pb(OH)xSy

Yensew A. "Limitations to Use of Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Determination of Carbon-Nitrogen and Wood Density for Tropical Species. Advances in Analytical Chemistry." Advances in Analytical Chemistry . 2013;3(3). Abstractpaper_63_kennedy10.5923.j.aac_.20130303.01.pdf

Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used as a rapid and non-destructive method to determine, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and tree wood density.A total of 82 sample cores were scanned in the reflectance mode from 4000 to 400 cm-1 for mid-infrared (MIR) spectra and from 8000 to 4000cm-1 and 11000-4000cm-1 for near infrared (NIR) spectra. The reference values for C and N were measured using combustion method while wood density was calculated using auger method. Calibration equations were developed using partial least-squares and first derivative spectra. Root mean square error (RMSEP) was used to calculate prediction error. Prediction of Cusing MIR spectra gave R2 = 0.59, RMSEP = 0.02; NIR spectra R2 = 0.50, RMSEP = 0.02, whileN prediction usingMIR spectra had R2 = 0.54, RMSEP = 0.22; NIR spectra R2 = 0.48, RMSEP =0.24. Wood density prediction was fair for MIR (R2= 0.79, RMSEP = 0.14); NIR (R2= 0.69, RMSEP = 0.17).Improved predictions using NIR were for extendedspectral range;though accuracies were inferior to MIR. Both MIR and NIR models showed good potentials to be used as rapid and cost effective method of predicting C-N andwood density.

Keywords Infrared Spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression,Carbon, Nitrogen,Wood Density

Omondi P, Ogallo LA, Anyah R, Muthama JM, Ininda J. "Linkages between Global Sea Surface Temperatures and Decadal Rainfall Variability over Eastern Africa Region." Int. J. Climatol. . 2013;33:2082-2104. Abstractlinkages_between_global_sea_surface_temperatures_and_decadal_rainfall_variability_over_eastern_africa_region.pdfRoyal Meteorological Society

Linkages between dominant spatio-temporal decadal rainfall variability modes and the global sea surface temperature (SST) modes are investigated over East Africa region for the period 1950–2008. Singular value decomposition (SVD)and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) techniques are employed to examine potential linkages and predictability of decadal rainfall variability over the region. When the ten-year periodicity is filtered out from the observed monthly rainfall data, distinct decadal rainfall regimes are exhibited in the time series of mean seasonal rainfall anomalies. Spectral density analysis of rainfall time series showed dominance of a ten-year periodicity, significant at 95% confidence level.The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) results yielded nine and seven homogeneous decadal rainfall zones for long rains; March–May (MAM), and the short rains: October–December (OND) seasons, respectively. The third season of June–August (JJA) which is mainly experienced in western and coastal sub-regions had eight homogenous zones delineated. Results show that
the leading three SVD-coupled modes explain greater than 75% of the squared co variance between the two fields. The first SVD mode for Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans contributed to 50, 43 and 38% of the total square covariance for MAM season, respectively. The same mode accounted for 65, 48 and 40% for OND rainfall season, respectively. For the JJA season, mode one contributed to about 61, 39 and 42% of the variance. The study showed that forcing of decadal rainfall over the region is associated with El Ni˜no mode that is prominent over the Pacific Ocean, while Indian Ocean dipole is the leading mode over the Indian Ocean basin. An inter-hemispheric dipole mode that is common during ENSO was a prominent feature in the Atlantic Ocean forcing regional decadal rainfall. The high variability of these modes highlighted the significant roles of all the global oceans in forcing decadal rainfall variability over the region. In addition, results from multiple linear regression model showed substantial variation of the model prediction skill of the decadal rainfall variability
modes within various homogenous zones and for different seasons. Copyright© 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.

KEY WORDS decadal rainfall variability; Eastern Africa; decadal modes of variability; global oceans SSTs

Langat A, Benki-Nugent S, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Ngugi E, Diener L, Richardson BA, GC. J-S. "Lipid Changes in Kenyan HIV-1-Infected Infants Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy by One Year of Age." Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Feb 4. [Epub ahead of print]. 2013. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:: Early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is recommended for HIV-1 infected infants. There are limited data on lipid changes during infant HAART. METHODS:: Non-fasting total (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were measured at 0, 6 and 12 months. Correlates of lipid levels and changes post-HAART were assessed using linear regression. RESULTS:: Among 115 infants, pre-HAART median age was 3.8 months, CD4% was 19%, and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) was -2.42. Pre-HAART median lipid levels were: TC, 108.7 mg/dl, LDL, 42.5 mg/dl, HDL, 29.4 mg/dl and TG, 186.9 mg/dl. Few infants had abnormally high TC (6.2%) or LDL (5.6%), but many had low HDL (76.5%) or high TG (69.6%). Higher pre-HAART WAZ and HAZ were each associated with higher pre-HAART TC (P=0.04 and P=0.01) and LDL (P=0.02 and P=0.008). From 0-6 months post-HAART, TC (P<0.0001), LDL (P<0.0001), and HDL (P<0.0001) increased significantly, and 23.1% (P=0.002), 14.0% (P=0.2), 31.3% (P<0.0001), and 50.8% (P=0.2) of infants had abnormally high TC, high LDL, low HDL, and high TG, respectively. Changes in TC and HDL were each associated with higher gain in WAZ (P=0.03 and P=0.01) and HAZ (P=0.01 and P=0.007). Increased change in LDL was associated with higher gain in HAZ (P=0.03). Infants on protease inhibitor (PI)-HAART had smaller HDL increase (P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS:: Infants had substantive increases in lipids, which correlated with growth. Increases in HDL were attenuated by PI-HAART. It is important to determine clinical implications of these changes.
PMID:
23385950
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Olaka LA, Musolff A, Mulch A, Olago D, Odada EO. "Lithological Influences on Occurrence of High-Fluoride Waters in The Central Kenya Rift." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2013. AbstractFull Text Link

Within the East African rift, groundwater recharge results from the complex interplay of geology, land cover, geomorphology, climate and on going volcano-tectonic processes across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The interrelationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, reliability and quality. The hydrochemical evolution of the waters is further complex due to the different climatic regimes and geothermal processes going on in this area. High fluoridic waters within the rift have been reported by few studies, while dental fluorosis is high among the inhabitants of the rift. The natural sources of fluoride in waters can be from weathering of fluorine bearing minerals in rocks, volcanic or fumarolic activities. Fluoride concentration in water depends on a number of factors including pH, temperature, time of water-rock formation contact and geochemical processes. Knowledge of the sources and dispersion of fluoride in both surface and groundwaters within the central Kenya rift and seasonal variations between wet and dry seasons is still poor. The Central Kenya rift is marked by active tectonics, volcanic activity and fumarolic activity, the rocks are majorly volcanics: rhyolites, tuffs, basalts, phonolites, ashes and agglomerates some are highly fractured. Major NW-SE faults bound the rift escarpment while the rift floor is marked by N-S striking faults We combine petrographic, hydrochemistry and structural information to determine the sources and enrichment pathways of high fluoridic waters within the Naivasha catchment. A total of 120 water samples for both the dry season (January-February2012) and after wet season (June-July 2013) from springs, rivers, lakes, hand dug wells, fumaroles and boreholes within the Naivasha catchment are collected and analysed for fluoride, physicochemical parameters and stable isotopes (δ2 H, δ18 O) in order to determine the origin and evolution of the waters. Additionally, 30 soil and rock samples were also collected and analysed for fluoride, and rock samples were subjected to petrographic investigations and X-ray diffraction. The fluoride levels in surface and groundwater for the dry season range from 0.019 - 50.14 mg/L, on average above the WHO permissible limit. The high fluoride occurs both in the lake and groundwater. Preliminary petrographic studies show considerable fluoride in micas. The study is on-going and plans to present the relative abundances of fluoride in the lithology as the sources and the fluoride enrichment pathways of the groundwater within the Central Kenya rift.

"Loss of Material Heritage in Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Commerce . 2013;2(9):77-92.
Graham SM, Raboud J MCRSJN-AMOBAMWJKJ. "Loss to Follow-Up as a Competing Risk in an Observational Study of HIV-1 Incidence." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e59480.abstract.pdf
Graham SM, Raboud J MCRSJN-AMOBAMWJKJ. "Loss to Follow-Up as a Competing Risk in an Observational Study of HIV-1 Incidence." PLoS One. . 2013;8(3):e59480.
O. J. Olwendo, T. Baluku, P. Baki, P.J. Cilliers, C. Mito, and Doherty P. "Low latitude ionospheric scintillation and zonal irregularity drifts observed with GPS-SCINDA System and closely spaced VHF receivers in Kenya." Advances in Space Research. 2013;51(9):1715-1726.
M.Kimeu. "LRC at CUEA: Wholistic Green Building Design Finally Arrives in Nairobi." The Architect magazine. 2013;(2):12-25.
M.Kimeu. "The LRC: Green Building Design Finally in Nairobi." Buildesign magazine. 2013;(5):Pages 06-13.
Ogeng’o JA, Ongeti KW, Kilonzi J, Maseghe P, Murunga A, Machira J, Mburu E. "Luminal Dimensions of left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in a Black Kenyan population." Anat Physiol. 2013;3(123).
Kamau W, Kameri-Mbote P, Ichang’i D, Mwangi W, Kibugi R. "Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation.". 2013. Abstract
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Kamau W, Kameri-Mbote P, Ichang’i D, Mwangi W, Kibugi R. "Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation.". 2013. Abstract
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Kamau W, Kameri-Mbote P, Ichang’i D, Mwangi W, Kibugi R. "Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation.". 2013. Abstract
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Campbell KA, Lipinski MJ, Doran AC, Skaflen MD, Fuster V, McNamara CA. "Lymphocytes and the adventitial immune response in atherosclerosis." Circulation research. 2012;110:889-900. Abstract

Although much of the research on atherosclerosis has focused on the intimal accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells, there is an increasing amount of interest in the role of the adventitia in coordinating the immune response in atherosclerosis. In this review of the contributions of the adventitia and adventitial lymphocytes to the development of atherosclerosis, we discuss recent research on the formation and structural nature of adventitial immune aggregates, potential mechanisms of crosstalk between the intima, media, and adventitia, specific contributions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, and the role of the vasa vasorum and surrounding perivascular adipose tissue. Furthermore, we highlight techniques for the imaging of lymphocytes in the vasculature.

Pauw GD, de Schryver GM, Forcada ML, Sarasola K, Tyers FM, Wagacha PW. "Language Technology for Normalisation of Less-Resourced Languages." Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC2012). 2012:2012. Abstract

The 8th International Workshop of the ISCA Special Interest Group on Speech and
Language Technology for Minority Languages (SALTMIL) 1 and the Fourth Workshop on
African Language Technology (AfLaT2012) 2 is held as a joint effort as part of the 2012
International Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC 2012). Entitled
“Language technology for normalisation of less-resourced languages”, the workshop is
intended to continue the series of SALTMIL/LREC workshops on computational language

Bernard LK, David SK, A NMO, et al. "Larvicidal Action of Extracts from Tithonia diversifolia Against the Dengue Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae." J Biol. Act. Prod. Nat. 2012;2(1):46-49.
Kameri-Mbote P, Odote C. "Liability for Climate Change in Kenya.". 2012.Website
TF A, F. H, PN N, LW I. "Life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) unde laboratory conditions and a description of its third instar larva." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2012. AbstractInternational Journal of Tropical Insect Science

The life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Witte), a recently reported pest of honeybee colonies in East Africa, was studied for the first time under laboratory conditions. Adult O. haroldi collected from beehives in the coastal part of Kenya were reared on a mixture of moist sterilized soil and cow dung. At 25 ± 2 °C, 50 ± 5% relative humidity and a 10 h light-14 h dark photoperiod, the laid eggs took 11.9 ± 1.3 days to hatch into a curved pear-shaped scarabaeiform larva with a well-developed head and thoracic legs. The first, second and third larval instars lasted 14.6 ± 2.6, 17.5 ± 2.4 and 34.6 ± 2.4 days, respectively. The pupal stage, which was marked by formation of a mud cocoon, lasted 31.1 ± 6.7 days with the adults surviving for 2–6 months under laboratory conditions, suggesting that the beetle is multivoltine. A detailed taxonomic description of the external morphology of the third instar larva is provided

Fombong AT, Haas F, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW. "Life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) under laboratory conditions and a description of its third instar larva." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2012;32(1):1-8.Website
Muchiri J. "Literature and Human Rights: the Case of Chimamanda Adichie’s Fiction ." In Journal of Science Technology Education and Management. 2012;5(1 & 2):139-159.
Gathiaka JK. "Livestock farming and poverty reduction in smallholder farms in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(19):212-228.
Ondicho TG. "Local Communities and Ecotourism Development in Kimana, Kenya." Journal of Tourism. 2012;XIII(1):41-60.tom-_jto_paper.pdf
Nyarwath O. "The Luo Care for Widows (Lako) and Contemporary Challenges." Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. 2012;4(1):91-110.
Muchane MN, Karanja D, Wambugu GM, Mutahi JM, Clet Wandui Masiga, Mugoya C, Muchai M, others. "Land use practices and their implications on soil macro-fauna in Maasai Mara ecosystem." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2012;4:500-514. Abstract
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Clifford PS. "Local control of blood flow." Advances in Physiology Education. 2011;35:5-15. AbstractWebsite

Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors varies over time, from tissue to tissue, and among vessel generations.

Paul UK, Naushaba H, Alam MJ, Begum T, Rahman A, Akhter J. "Length of {Vermiform} {Appendix}: {A} {Postmortem} {Study}." Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy. 2011;9. AbstractWebsite
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Wangai A-M, Waa S, Wangai M, Amayo E, Olunya O. "Late-onset Visual Loss in Osteopetrosis." Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2011;11(3):407-11. Abstract

Late-onset visual loss is a complication of nerve entrapment and increased intracranial pressure. We hereby describe the first case in Eastern Africa. A 23 year-old lady presented with sudden blindness, headaches and body weakness. She had previously had treatment for multiple unexplained fractures. Findings of optic nerve entrapment explained this blindness. This case highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion in cases of unexplained fractures with late-onset blindness.

Wangai AM, Amayo EO, Olunya.O, Waa.S. "Late-onset Visual Loss in Osteopetrosis." Sultan Qaboos Univ Med Journal. 2011;11(3):407-411. Abstract

Late-onset visual loss is a complication of nerve entrapment and increased intracranial pressure. We hereby describe the first case in Eastern Africa. A 23 year-old lady presented with sudden blindness, headaches and body weakness. She had previously had treatment for multiple unexplained fractures. Findings of optic nerve entrapment explained this blindness. This case highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion in cases of unexplained fractures with late-onset blindness.

MURIITHI EVANSONMURIUKI. "THE LEARNING OF SCIENCES AMONG THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED STUDENTS." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT SOCIETY OF KENYA. 2011.
Khasakhala L, Sorsdahl KR, Harder VS, Williams DR, Ndetei DM. "Lifetime mental disorders and suicidal behaviour in South Africa.". 2011.
Mwang'ombe AW, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Wasonga VO, Mnene WN, Mongare PN, Chege SW. "Livelihoods Under Climate Variability and Change: An Analysis of Adaptive Capacity of Rural Poor to Water Scacity in Kenya's Drylands." Journal of Environmental Science. 2011;4(4):403-410.abstract.doc
"Livelihoods Under Climate Variability and Change: An Analysis of the Adaptive Capacity Of Rural Poor to Water Scarcity in Kenya’s Drylands." Journal of Environment Science and Technology. 2011;ISSN 1994-7887:DOI: 10.3923/Jest.2011.
Susan S Imbahale, Krijn P Paaijmans, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Ron van Lammeren, Githeko AK, Takken W. "A longitudinal study on Anopheles mosquito larval abundance in distinct geographical and environmental settings in western Kenya. ." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:81.
Scheinfeldt LB, Tishkoff SA. "Living the high life: high-altitude adaptation." Genome Biology. 2010;11:133. AbstractWebsite

Genome-wide scans demonstrate that genetic variants associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans and Andeans arose independently as a result of convergent adaptation. PMID: 20979669

Scheinfeldt LB, Tishkoff SA. "Living the high life: high-altitude adaptation." Genome Biology. 2010;11:133. AbstractWebsite

Genome-wide scans demonstrate that genetic variants associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans and Andeans arose independently as a result of convergent adaptation. PMID: 20979669

Mwachaka PM, Saidi HS, Odula PO, Awori KO, Kaisha WO. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: is it of surgical relevance?" Clinical anatomy (New York, {N.Y.)}. 2010;23:84-86. Abstract

Ventral hernia formation is a common complication of rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest. The site and extent of harvest of the flap are known contributing factors. Therefore, an accurate location of the arcuate line of Douglas, which marks the lower extent of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath, may be relevant before harvesting the flap. This study is aimed at determining the position of the arcuate line in relation to anatomical landmarks of the anterior abdominal wall. Arcuate lines were examined in 80 (44 male, 36 female) subjects, aged between 18 and 70 years, during autopsies and dissection. The position of the arcuate line was determined in relation to the umbilicus, pubic symphysis, and intersections of rectus abdominis muscle. Sixty four (80.4%) cases had the arcuate line. In most cases (52), this line was located in the upper half of a line between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Most males (93%) had the arcuate line, while more than a third of females did not have it. In all these cases, the line occurred bilaterally as a single arcade, constantly at the most distal intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Consequently, the arcuate line is most reliably marked superficially by the distal tendinous intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Harvesting of the muscle cranial to this point will minimize defects in the anterior abdominal wall that may lead to hernia formation.

Mwachaka PM, Saidi HS, Odula PO, Awori KO, Kaisha WO. "Locating the arcuate line of {Douglas}: is it of surgical relevance?" Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2010;23:84-86. Abstract

Ventral hernia formation is a common complication of rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest. The site and extent of harvest of the flap are known contributing factors. Therefore, an accurate location of the arcuate line of Douglas, which marks the lower extent of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath, may be relevant before harvesting the flap. This study is aimed at determining the position of the arcuate line in relation to anatomical landmarks of the anterior abdominal wall. Arcuate lines were examined in 80 (44 male, 36 female) subjects, aged between 18 and 70 years, during autopsies and dissection. The position of the arcuate line was determined in relation to the umbilicus, pubic symphysis, and intersections of rectus abdominis muscle. Sixty four (80.4%) cases had the arcuate line. In most cases (52), this line was located in the upper half of a line between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Most males (93%) had the arcuate line, while more than a third of females did not have it. In all these cases, the line occurred bilaterally as a single arcade, constantly at the most distal intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Consequently, the arcuate line is most reliably marked superficially by the distal tendinous intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Harvesting of the muscle cranial to this point will minimize defects in the anterior abdominal wall that may lead to hernia formation.

Guillory B, Sakwe AM, Saria M, Thompson P, Adhiambo C, Koumangoye R, Ballard B, Binhazim A, Cone C, Jahanen-Dechent W, Ochieng J. "Lack of fetuin-A (alpha2-HS-glycoprotein) reduces mammary tumor incidence and prolongs tumor latency via the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in a mouse model of breast cancer." Am. J. Pathol.. 2010;177(5):2635-44. Abstract

The present analyses were done to define the role of fetuin-A (Fet) in mammary tumorigenesis using the polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) transgenic mouse model. We crossed Fet-null mice in the C57BL/6 background with PyMT mice in the same background and after a controlled breeding protocol obtained PyMT/Fet+/+, PyMT/Fet+/-, and PyMT/Fet-/- mice that were placed in control and experimental groups. Whereas the control group (PyMT/Fet+/+) formed mammary tumors 90 days after birth, tumor latency was prolonged in the PyMT/Fet-/- and PyMT/Fet+/- mice. The majority of the PyMT/Fet-/- mice were tumor-free at the end of the study, at approximately 40 weeks. The pathology of the mammary tumors in the Fet-null mice showed extensive fibrosis, necrosis, and squamous metaplasia. The preneoplastic mammary tissues of the PyMT/Fet-/- mice showed intense phopho-Smad2/3 staining relative to control tissues, indicating that transforming growth factor-β signaling is enhanced in these tissues in the absence of Fet. Likewise, p19ARF and p53 were highly expressed in tumor tissues of PyMT/Fet-/- mice relative to the controls in the absence of Fet. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway that we previously showed to be activated by Fet, on the other hand, was unaffected by the absence of Fet. The data indicate that Fet is a powerful modulator of breast tumorigenesis in this model system and has the potential to modulate breast cancer progression in humans.

AO A, VA M, JM M, Jianlin H, BM O, RA A, LO I, BO M, O A, G B, H J, O H. "Lack of phylogeographic structure in Nigerian village chickens revealed by mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence analysis." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2010;9:503-507. Abstract

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Jonnalagadda S, Barbara Lohman Payne, Elizabeth Brown, Dalton Wamalwa, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Maxwel Majiwa, Carey. "Latent Tuberculosis Detection by Interferon g Release Assay during Pregnancy Predicts Active Tuberculosis and Mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Women and Their Children." Journal of infectious diseases. 2010. Abstractlatent_tb_detection_by_interferon.pdf

Background. We evaluated the prognostic usefulness of interferon g release assays (IGRAs) for active tuberculosis
and mortality in Kenyan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected women and their infants.
Methods. Prevalence and correlates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis–specific T-SPOT.TB IGRA positivity were
determined during pregnancy in a historical cohort of HIV-1–infected women. Hazard ratios, adjusted for baseline
maternal CD4 cell count (aHRCD4), were calculated for associations between IGRA positivity and risk of active
tuberculosis and mortality over 2-year postpartum follow-up among women and their infants.
Results. Of 333 women tested, 52 (15.6%) had indeterminate IGRA results. Of the remaining 281 women,
120 (42.7%) had positive IGRA results, which were associated with a 4.5-fold increased risk of active tuberculosis
(aHRCD4, 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–18.0; Pp.030). For immunosuppressed women (CD4 cell count,
!250 cells/mL), positive IGRA results were associated with increased risk of maternal mortality (aHRCD4, 3.5; 95%
CI, 1.02–12.1; ), maternal active tuberculosis or mortality (aHRCD4Pp.045 , 5.2; 95% CI, 1.7–15.6; Pp.004), and
infant active tuberculosis or mortality overall (aHRCD4, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0–8.9; Pp.05) and among HIV-1–exposed
uninfected infants (aHRCD4, 7.3; 95% CI, 1.6–33.5; Pp.01).
Conclusions. Positive IGRA results for HIV-1–infected pregnant women were associated with postpartum
active tuberculosis and mortality among mothers and their infants.

Jonnalagadda S, Lohman Payne B, Brown E, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Maleche Obimbo E, Majiwa M, Ng'ayo M, Otieno P, Mbori-Ngacha D, John-Stewart. "Latent tuberculosis detection by interferon γ release assay during pregnancy predicts active tuberculosis and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women and their children." J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 15;202(12):1826-35. doi: 10.1086/657411. Epub 2010 Nov 10.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
We evaluated the prognostic usefulness of interferon γ release assays (IGRAs) for active tuberculosis and mortality in Kenyan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women and their infants.
METHODS:
Prevalence and correlates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T-SPOT.TB IGRA positivity were determined during pregnancy in a historical cohort of HIV-1-infected women. Hazard ratios, adjusted for baseline maternal CD4 cell count (aHR(CD4)), were calculated for associations between IGRA positivity and risk of active tuberculosis and mortality over 2-year postpartum follow-up among women and their infants.
RESULTS:
Of 333 women tested, 52 (15.6%) had indeterminate IGRA results. Of the remaining 281 women, 120 (42.7%) had positive IGRA results, which were associated with a 4.5-fold increased risk of active tuberculosis (aHR(CD4), 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-18.0; P = .030). For immunosuppressed women (CD4 cell count, <250 cells/μL), positive IGRA results were associated with increased risk of maternal mortality (aHR(CD4), 3.5; 95% CI, 1.02-12.1;), maternal active tuberculosis or mortality (aHR(CD4), 5.2; 95% CI, 1.7-15.6; P = .004), and infant active tuberculosis or mortality overall (aHR(CD4), 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0-8.9; P = .05) and among HIV-1-exposed uninfected infants (aHR(CD4), 7.3; 95% CI, 1.6-33.5; P = .01).
CONCLUSIONS:
Positive IGRA results for HIV-1-infected pregnant women were associated with postpartum active tuberculosis and mortality among mothers and their infants.

Ogola JM. "Limitations of Technology Diffusion in Small Scale Informal Industries in Kenya." Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, Kenya Chapter, Research Papers. 2010;Vol.no.1,16-32.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid Chromatographic Separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010;58 (S 105):A-39.abstract.pdf
Riogi B, Odhiambo K, Ogutu O. "Lithopedion Causing Intestinal Obstruction." The Annals of African Surgery . 2010;vol 8(No 7).lithopaedon.docx
Mwachaka, P. M.; Saidi OPO'; KHS; W. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: is it of surgical relevance?". 2010.
Mwachaka PM, Saidi HS, Odula PO, Awori KO, Kaisha WO. "Locating the arcuate line of {Douglas}: is it of surgical relevance?" Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2010;23:84-86. Abstract

Ventral hernia formation is a common complication of rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest. The site and extent of harvest of the flap are known contributing factors. Therefore, an accurate location of the arcuate line of Douglas, which marks the lower extent of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath, may be relevant before harvesting the flap. This study is aimed at determining the position of the arcuate line in relation to anatomical landmarks of the anterior abdominal wall. Arcuate lines were examined in 80 (44 male, 36 female) subjects, aged between 18 and 70 years, during autopsies and dissection. The position of the arcuate line was determined in relation to the umbilicus, pubic symphysis, and intersections of rectus abdominis muscle. Sixty four (80.4%) cases had the arcuate line. In most cases (52), this line was located in the upper half of a line between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Most males (93%) had the arcuate line, while more than a third of females did not have it. In all these cases, the line occurred bilaterally as a single arcade, constantly at the most distal intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Consequently, the arcuate line is most reliably marked superficially by the distal tendinous intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Harvesting of the muscle cranial to this point will minimize defects in the anterior abdominal wall that may lead to hernia formation.

Lehman DA, Chung MH, Mabuka JM, John-Stewart GC, Kiarie J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Overbaugh J. "Lower risk of resistance after short-course HAART compared with zidovudine/single-dose nevirapine used for prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2009;51(5):522-9. Abstract

Antiretroviral resistance after short-course regimens used to prevent mother-to-child transmission has consequences for later treatment. Directly comparing the prevalence of resistance after short-course regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine (ZDV/sdNVP) will provide critical information when assessing the relative merits of these antiretroviral interventions.

Andanje M, Gitonga ER. "Leisure sports participation patterns of post – graduate students. The case of Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Educational Research and development. 2009;4(2):111-117.
E.N. PN. "Levels of innate immune factors in genital fluids: association of alpha defensins and LL-37 with genital infections and increased HIV acquisition.". 2009. Abstract

AIDS. 2009 Jan 28;23(3):309-17. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328321809c.
Levels of innate immune factors in genital fluids: association of alpha defensins and LL-37 with genital infections and increased HIV acquisition.
Levinson P, Kaul R, Kimani J, Ngugi E, Moses S, MacDonald KS, Broliden K, Hirbod T; Kibera HIV Study Group.

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Source

Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Several mucosal innate immune proteins exhibit HIV inhibitory activity and their analogues are potential microbicide candidates. However, their clinical associations and in-vivo role in cervicovaginal host defense against HIV acquisition are poorly defined.
METHODS:

Cervicovaginal secretions (CVSs) were collected from HIV uninfected Kenyan sex workers at enrolment into an HIV prevention trial. After trial completion, CVS from participants acquiring HIV (cases) and matched controls were assessed for levels of innate immune factors and HIV neutralizing capacity, by blinded investigators. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of innate immune factors were examined.
RESULTS:

CVS contained high levels of defensins (human neutrophil peptide-1-3 and human beta defensin-2-3), LL-37 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted levels were lower, and IFNalpha was undetectable. CVS from 20% of participants neutralized a clade A primary HIV isolate, and 12% neutralized both clade A and C isolates. HIV neutralization was correlated with human neutrophil peptide-1-3 (alpha-defensins) and LL-37 levels. However, alpha-defensin and LL-37 levels were increased in participants with bacterial sexually transmitted infections and were independently associated with increased HIV acquisition in multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS:

Despite significant HIV inhibitory activity, cervicovaginal levels of alpha-defensins and LL-37 were associated with increased HIV acquisition, perhaps due to their association with bacterial sexually transmitted infections.

PMID:
19114868
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Abong GO, Okoth MW, Karuri EG, Kabira JN, Mathooko FM. "Levels of reducing sugars in eight Kenyan potato cultivars as influenced by stage of maturity and storage conditions." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2009;2(2):76-84.2009_-_redsugar_and_potato.pdf
Onditi OF, kITHIIA SM. "Livelihood-Conservation Scorecard Balancing: Sustainable or Dispensable? Access to Natural Resources and Policy Implications in Bwidi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda. ." International Journal of Social Science, Volume1, Number 1, 2009. 2009;Volume1, Number 1, 2009(Number 1).
Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga WO-OKGBMAN. "A Load Balancing Heuristic for Agent-based Parallel Machine Scheduling.". 2009. Abstract
n/a
"L.K. KETER, G.N. THOITHI, I.0. KIBWAGE. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Six Protease Inhibitors Using a Polymer Column.". 2008. Abstract

A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of six human immunodeficiency virus (HI\!) protease inhibitors, indinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir, VI as developed and validated. Optimal separation was achieved on a PLRP-S 100 A, 250'x 4.6 mm J.D. column maintained
at 60 °C, a mobile phase consisting of tetrahydrofuran-potassium phosphate buffer (O.lM, pH 5.0)-tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate (0.11\1, pH 5.0)-water(35:30:10:25 %v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mllmin, with ultraviolet detection at 254 nm.
The method was found to be linear over the ranges investigated with r2 values of 0.9997-0.9915 for the six drugs. The limit of quantitation for the six drugs was 0.16 to 5.12 Ilg, while the limit of detection was 0.08 to 2.12 Ilg. The intra-day and interday precision was within the ranges of 0.39 to 1.14% and 0.55 to 1.46%,
respectively.

M.N M, R.D N, R.K M. "Leaf diseases of onion Allium cepa l in Kenya." Int. J. Agric. Rural Development . 2008;11(1):1-13.2008-leaf_diseases_of_onion_in_kenya.pdf
Matasyoh LG, Wachira FN, Kinyua MG, Muigai Thairu AW, TK. M. "Leaf storage conditions and genomic DNA isolation efficiency in Ocimum gratissimum L. from Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology . 2008;7(5):557-564.
Owiti Z, Ogallo LA, Mutemi J. "Linkages between the Indian Ocean Dipole and East African Seasonal Rainfall Anomalies." J.Kenya Meteorol. Soc.. 2008;2(1):3-17.abstract.doc
Onwonga RN, Lelei JJ, Freyer B, Friedel JK, Mwonga SM, Wandhawa P. "Low Cost Technologies for Enhancing N and P Availability and Maize (Zea mays L.) Performance on Acid Soils." World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2008;4(s):862-873.onwonga_et_al_2008_low_cost_technologies_for_enhancing_n_and_p_availability_2.pdf
Onyango JF, Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Dimba EA. "lining: A case report." Journal of Maxillofacial & Oral Surgery. 2008;7. Abstract
n/a
MO O, OA K’akumu. "Land Use Management Challenges for Nairobi City." International Refereed Journal Urban Forum. 2007;17(3).
Okoth SA, Roimen H, Mutsotso B, Muya E, Okoth P. "Land use systems and distribution of Trichoderma species in Embu region, Kenya." Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2007;(7):105-122.
editor) Laban Ogallo FK(A, et al. "Linkages between the Indian Ocean Dipole and East African Seasonal Rainfall anomalies." Journal of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2007;2(1-2).
Odongo DO, Oura CAL, Spooner PR, Kiara H, Mburu D, Hanotte OH, Bishop RP. "Linkage disequilibrium between alleles at highly polymorphic mini- and micro-satellite loci of Theileria parva isolated from cattle in three regions of Kenya." Int. J. Parasitol.. 2006;36(8):937-46. Abstract

Theileria parva schizont-infected lymphocyte culture isolates from western, central and coastal Kenya were analysed for size polymorphism at 30 T. parva-specific variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci using a panel of mini- and micro-satellite markers. The mean number of alleles ranged from 3 to 11 at individual loci and 183 distinct alleles were observed in total, indicating high genetic diversity within the T. parva gene pool in Kenyan cattle. The frequency distribution of the length variation of specific alleles among isolates ranged from normal to markedly discontinuous. Genetic relationships between isolates were analysed using standard indices of genetic distance. Genetic distances and dendrograms derived from these using neighbour-joining algorithms did not indicate significant clustering on a geographical basis. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that the genetic variation between individual isolates was 72%, but only 2.3% when isolates from different regions were pooled. Both these observations suggest minimal genetic sub-structuring relative to geographical origin. Linkage disequilibrium was observed between pairs of loci within populations, as in certain Ugandan T. parva populations. A novel observation was that disequilibrium was also detected between alleles at three individual pairs of VNTR loci when isolates from the three regional meta-populations were pooled for analysis.

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