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Conference Paper
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Leadership in Community Projects".". In: Pan- African Institute, Project Management Workshop, Kabwe, Zambia. 1984 and 1985. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985. Abstract

 

 

KIMPEI DRMUNEI. "Livestock price policy in Kenya: case of beef,.". In: paper presented in a workshop on Africa price policy and (published as a document of Economic Development Institute of the World Bank,1985). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1985. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN, Otieno LS, Kinuthia DM. Hypertension over a 4-year-period at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). East Afr Med J. 1985 Jun;62(6):365-71. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jun;62(6):365-71. test; 1985. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN, Wankya BM. Duodenal ulcer disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):784-90. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):784-90. test; 1985. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "A Linguistic Interaction between Arabic and Swahili.". In: Afro-Arab Colloquium. Dakar, Senegal; 1984.
Kanori JN. "Libraries and Rural development in Kenya: Problems and prospects .". In: Library Workshop. University of Nairobi; 1984.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "The Legal Personality and the Wolrd of Fact: a Myth or Reality?". In: The Scottish Law Gazette Vol. 52, No. 4: 119. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1984. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land ownership and land distribution in Kenya" in Killick, A. Readings in the Political Economy of Kenya, Heinemann, Nairobi.". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1983. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LANGMAN, V.A., BAMFORD, O.S. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1983) Respiration and metabolism in the giraffe. Respiration Physiology 50,141-152.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "Legal Implications of Managerial Decisions.". In: The Kenya Account, Vol. iv No. 3.9. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1983. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Levin AG, Jones M, Kirkham DM, Shah T, Peters TJ, Hill ID, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. Lymphocyte enzyme activities in East African blacks: decrease in 5'nucleotidase and possible relation to immunosuppression. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1983;77(6):840-4.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1983;77(6):840-4. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1983. Abstract

Microanalysis of subcellular organelle marker enzymes was applied to cryopreserved lymphocytes (obtained and processed in the field) from East African blacks with moderate to severe malnutrition and subject to locally endemic parasitic and infectious diseases. An initial study demonstrated that activities of these enzymes, with the partial exception of catalase, were stable to cryopreservation. Cryopreserved and thawed lymphocyte specimens (1 to 3 X 10(6) viable cells) from 26 Africans and 20 Caucasian controls were studied. There was a highly significant decrease in 5'nucleotidase activity in these African subjects. Activity of another plasma membrane enzyme, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and of marker enzymes for other intracellular organelles, was not significantly different between the two groups, indicating that the nucleotidase alteration is highly specific. 5'Nucleotidase activity in a group of 17 East African blacks of high socio-economic status lay between the values obtained in the other two groups and was not significantly different from either. Further studies on 5'nucleotidase showed no evidence that the enzyme is functionally different in Africans. The differences in activity of this enzyme in Africans may reflect the known immuno-suppressive effects of infectious disease and malnutrition or may have a genetic basis which may in turn be associated with the pathogenesis of secondary immunodeficiency.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Local Government in Kenya: A Case of Institutional Decline," in P. Mawhood, (ed.), local Government in the Third World: Experience of Decentralisation in Tropical Africa 2nd ed., Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa, 1994 (the first edition was pub.". In: The Leviathan (W. Berlin), Volume 6/pp. 197-215 (in German). IPPNW; 1983. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Laboratory evaluation of new fungicides against coffee berry disease. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop .". In: Proceedings of the 1st Workshop . J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1982. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Land Characteristics, Economic Policy and Rhodesian Dualism, Africa Quarterly, Vol.20, Nos. 1 - 2 April,.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1982. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Leaf blotch and fruit rot of pomegranate.". In: FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, Vol. 30: 161-162. Taylor & Francis; 1982. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "Linguistics and History of Nasal Compounds in dholuo.' In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Languages and History of the Nilotic People. Collogne 1982.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1982. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "A Lexicalist Approach to Bantu Morphology.". In: Annual Conference of the Linguistic Society. Australian National University, Canberra; 1981.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "Language Planning with special reference to East African Countries." University of Washington, Seattle; 1981.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Land Adjudication and its Implications for the Social Organization of the Mbeere".". In: In African Journal of Sociology, Vol. 1 No. 1 & 2. University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1981. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NGANGA DRWAWERUFRANK. "Labetalol (Trandate) in Hypertension .". In: proceedings. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1980. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Les Mecanismes de Transfert des Charges a travers les Membranes biologiques.". In: Conference. CEAER - UNR; 1980.
M. PROFLUTIFELIX. "Luti, F.M. (1980). Transient flow development due to a strong heat source in the atmosphere; Part I: Uniform temperature source. Combustion Science and Technology, 23, pp 163-75.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes a finite difference experiment to simulate the transient development of the convection column above a strip of uniform high temperature source in a stratified uniform cross flow atmosphere. The k-e model of turbulence is used and an upstream weighted scheme for this vorticity-stream function formulation is employed. Some computation results for a 195m wide source are presented. The immediate goal of the undertaking was to devise a scheme which could yield realistic flow 'boundary conditions' in the immediate vicinity of a fire to enable one to model the detailed structure of the fire region. The predictions are quite consistent with observations and this provides the link between the heat source and environmental parameters. This scheme, together with a refined near zone fire model, can be used to describe the interplay between the heat source (fire) component and the environmental components of a mass fire system.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "Language in Afro-Arab Relations: The historical Interactions between Arabic and African Languages.". In: UNESCO - sponsored symposium on the Historical and Socio Cultural Relations between Black Africa and Arab World: 1935 to the present - organized by the International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa. Unesco-Paris; 1979.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenure and its implications for the development of Semi-Arid Areas"; paper for the Workshop on the Development of Kenya's Semi-Arid Areas. Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi, July 23-27.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1979. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LANGMAN, V.A., MALOIY, G.M.O., SCHMIDT-NIELSEN, K. and SCHROTER, R.C.(1979) Nasal heat exchange in the giraffe and other large animals. Respiration Physiology 37, 325-334.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Land Adjudication and Its Implications for the Social Organization of the Mbeere.".". In: Research Paper No. 73, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1978. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land and access rights in Kenya's Coastal Water-Front"; in C.O. Okidi and S. B. Westley (eds.), The Management of Coastal and Off-Shore Resources in Eastern Africa, IDA Occasional Paper No.28.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1978. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LANGMAN, V.A., MALOIY, G.M.O., SCHMIDT-NIELSEN, K. and SCHROTER, R.C.(1978) Respiratory water and heat loss in camels subjected to dehydration. Journal of Physiology, London 278, 33P.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Law and integrated environmental management" UNESCO, Science and Technology Education Newsletter 9.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1978. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Literature and Society: A View on Approach", Busara 5, 2:70-76 Reprinted as "Literature and Society: What Approach" in Wanjala, The Season of Harvest.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1978. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenurer problems in the Ten-Mile Strip of the Coast Province of Kenya"; memorandum prepared for and at the request of the Parliamentary Select.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1977. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Mutungi OK. "Law and Freedom in Society." Paper presented to the Philosophical Society of Kenya, University College, Kenyatta; 1977. Abstract
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S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Lutalo-Bosa A.J., Sekadde C.B., Opiyo W. and Kiwanuka J.B., Presentation of paper to the Annual Scientific Conference of East Africa Medical Research Council, February, 1977 Liver function tests among normal Ugandans. A paper was reported in the Annual Re.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of East Africa Medical Research Council. uon press; 1977. Abstract

PIP: Masturbatory semen specimen from 49 fertile Black African males in Kenya whose wives were pregnant was obtained after at least 3 days of abstinence for the analysis of parameters which included volume motility, vitality, sperm concentration, pH, fructose and acid phosphatase levels. About 1/2 the spermatozoa was actively progressive in motility, while 40% was nonmotile. Vitality in the 1st hour revealed that 81.4% of the sperm was alive. About 90% of the semen specimens had more than 40% idea forms of spermatozoa. Spermatozoal abnormalities were a frequent feature. There was no correlation between age and the testicular volume, but seminal fluid volume and sperm density tended to decrease with age. Serum levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone were determined in the subjects' sera, enabling the establishment of reference values for these parameters in African Kenyan males.

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Lema VM, Makokha AE, Sanghvi HCG, Wanjala S. A Review of the Medical Aspects of Adolescent Fertility in Kenya. (Submitted Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Land and Politics in Ukambani, 1895-1933, in Presence Africaine.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1975. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Land and Politics in Ukambani, 1895-1933, in Presence Africaine.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan.; 1975. Abstract

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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LOMHOLT, J.P., JOHANSEN, K and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1975) Is aestivating lungfish the first vertebrate with suctional breathing? Nature London 257, 787-788.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1975. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LYKKEBOE, G., JOHANSEN, K. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1975). Functional properties of haemoglobin in the teleost, Tilapia grahami.Journal of Comparative Physiology 104, 1-11.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1975. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Life history studies on the predatory mite Phytoseius finitimus Ribaga (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 34 : 437 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1974. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Literature and NationalBuilding; The Kenya Teacher , Dec. 1974.". In: Nairobi School in June, 1975. Elsevier; 1974. Abstract
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OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Law reform and African law in East Africa".". In: East Africa Journal. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1972. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Luo-English Botanical Dictionary, Nairobi,.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1972. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Life's Tense Irony", A Review of Tensions: Poems by Richard C. Ntiru, Dhana 1 56-58.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1971. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "La Femme Malgache' in 'La Nouvelle Revue de Makerere'.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1970. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Lloyd, I.J., Burnstyn P.G., Horrobin, D.F., Kahuho, S.K., Mulimba, J. and Webala, G.S.R.: .". In: J. Obst. and Gynae.Comm. 1970;77:928-931. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1970. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Lonely and Diminished Men", A Review of Voices in the Dark by Leonard Kibera in Busara III, 1, 56-59.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1970. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. "Land tenure and agricultural development in Kenya and Tanzania"; Journal of the Denning Law Society (now Dar-es-Salam Law Journal).". In: East Africa Journal. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1969. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Land Settlement in the Kenya Highlands - in the book containing the Report of the Kericho Conference on Education, Employment and Rural Development, edited by J.R. Sheffield, East African Publishing House, 1967.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1967. Abstract
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Conference Proceedings
Akuon P, Xu H. Layered baud-space modulation. Cape Town, South Africa: SATNAC 2015; 2015.
Omuombo C, Olago D, Rucina S, Williamson D. Late Holocene variations from Lake Rutundu, mount Kenya. Goa, India: PAGES; 2013.
Higgins S, Odada EO, Becht R. Lake Naivasha: experiences and lessons learned brief.; 2011.
K'Oyugi BO. Linkages between Population and Vision 2030. KPA , Mombasa: Ministry of Planning national Development and Vision 2030; 2009.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. A Load Balancing Heuristic for Agent-based Parallel Machine Scheduling. Naivasha, Kenya; 2009.
Baldyga TJ, Miller SN, Shivoga WA, Gichaba CM. Land cover change detection in the river Njoro watershed: a landscape in transition.; 2004.
C.K. M, S. T. Local plants with known medicinal value. Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) ; 1980.
Film
Otieno SP, Ngang'a E. Lwanda. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2008.
Journal Article
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute." Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Submitted. Abstract

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Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
QURESHI ZAHIDA, Jamner A, Filippi V, Gwako G, Osoti A, Mehrtash H, Baguiya A, Bello FA, Compaoré R, Gadama L, Kim CR, Msusa AT, Tunçalp Ӧ, Calvert C. "Level and determinants of contraceptive uptake among women attending facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2022;156 Suppl 1:27-35. Abstract

To investigate the level and determinants of nonreceipt of contraception among women admitted to facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa.

J.G.N. K, J. NI. "Levels of Essential Elements in selected Persea Americana varieties as Potential Minerals." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). 2022;Accepted on 14th August, 2022.
Njuguna CN, Odiemo LO. "Loaded but Applauded: The Relationship between Workload and Job Satisfaction among High School Teachers in Kiambu County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2022;10(2):43-50.
Johnson L, Onjala J. "Logic of the Belt and Road Initiatives Early Eastern Africa Node: Economic, Demographic and Political Economy Rationales." Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies,. 2022;accepted January 28 2022.
Zhang Q, Nam J-S, Han J, Datta S, Wei N, Ding E-X, Hussain A, Ahmad S, Skakalova V, Khan AT, others. "Large-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Transparent Conductor Overcoming Performance–Yield Tradeoff." Advanced Functional Materials. 2022;32:2103397. Abstract
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Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Joubert F, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Limited diversity in the CD8+ antigen-coding loci in Theileria parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa." Vet Parasitol. 2021;291:109371. Abstract

Theileria parva infections in cattle causes huge economic losses in the affected African countries, directly impacting the livelihood of the poor small-holder farmers. The current immunization protocol using live sporozoites in eastern Africa, is among the control measures designed to limit T. parva infections in cattle. However, the ability of the immune protection induced by this immunization to protect against field parasites has been compromised by the diversity of the parasite involving the schizont antigen genes. Previous studies have reported on the antigenic diversity of T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa, however, similar reports on T. parva parasites particularly from cattle from southern Africa remains scanty, due to the self-limiting nature of Corridor disease. Thus, we evaluated the diversity of CD8+ T-cell regions of ten schizont antigen genes in T. parva parasites associated with Corridor disease and East Coast fever (ECF) from southern and eastern Africa respectively. Regions of schizont antigen (TpAg) genes containing the CD8+ T-cell epitopes (CTL determinants) were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood of T. parva positive samples, cloned and sequenced. The results revealed limited diversity between the two parasite groups from cattle from southern and eastern Africa, defying the widely accepted notion that antigen-encoding loci in cattle-derived parasites are conserved, while in buffalo-derived parasites, they are extensively variable. This suggests that only a sub-population of parasites is successfully transmitted from buffalo to cattle, resulting in the limited antigenic diversity in Corridor disease parasites. Tp4, Tp5, Tp7 and Tp8 showed limited to absence of diversity in both parasite groups, suggesting the need to further investigate their immunogenic properties for consideration as candidates for a subunit vaccine. Distinct and common variants of Tp2 were detected among the ECF parasites from eastern Africa indicating evidence of parasite mixing following immunization. This study provides additional information on the comparative diversity of TpAg genes in buffalo- and cattle-derived T. parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa.

Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. "The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e489-e551.Website
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Language Attitude and Language Planning: Emerging Trends in Kenya since 2010." Journal of African Studies [Feizhou Yanjiu, 非洲研究], . 2021;1(2021):115-136.
I C, P S, B N, M M, JA O’o. "Laparoscopic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: detection of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues, fluids, and surgical smoke." Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2021;406(4):1007-1014. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are still concerns over the safety of laparoscopic surgery in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients due to the potential risk of viral transmission through surgical smoke/laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of currently available literature to determine the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in abdominal tissues or fluids and in surgical smoke.

Results: A total of 19 studies (15 case reports and 4 case series) comprising 29 COVID-19 patients were included. The viral RNA was positively identified in 11 patients (37.9%). The samples that tested positive include the peritoneal fluid, bile, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysate, duodenal wall, and appendix. Similar samples, together with the omentum and abdominal subcutaneous fat, tested negative in the other patients. Only one study investigated SARS-COV-2 RNA in surgical smoke generated during laparoscopy, reporting negative findings.

Conclusions: There are conflicting results regarding the presence of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues and fluids. No currently available evidence supports the hypothesis that SARS-COV-2 can be aerosolized and transmitted through surgical smoke. Larger studies are urgently needed to corroborate these findings.

Mavuti SK, Mbaria JM, Maina JG, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM. "Levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in farmed Oriochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2021;9(4):230-233.
Moturi C, Karuga E, Orwa D. "Leveraging Big Data Analytics." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021;DOI: 10.1504/IJBDM.2021.10036720. AbstractWebsite

This paper sought to study the extent to which telecoms within Kenya have adopted Big Data analytics to gain richer and deeper insights into their business dynamics in order to facilitate evidence decision making. A descriptive research design was employed and data was collected from ten leading telecoms using semi-structured questionnaires. The study found that Big Data could stimulate the economic growth, advance the productivity and competitiveness of the telecoms, as well as generate enormous benefits for customers. The factors with the highest significant effect on the adoption of Big Data analytics were identified. The practical implication of this paper is an increased understanding on what elements can promote Big Data adoption by large telecom companies. The study is beneficial to telecoms companies and any other organisations that would be looking at adopting data driven decision making to sustain competitiveness within the present uncertain setting.

Musyoka PK, Onjala J, Mureithi LP. "Livelihood Diversification and Household Vulnerability to Climate Shocks in Rural Kenya." Climate Change and Development. 2021.
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Long-term spatial-temporal temperature characteristics of a pastoral ecosystem in Kajiado County, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(6):896-906.
S. R, M. P, V. O. "LP Fracturing: A Review on Waterless Fracturing Technology in Unconventional Reservoir." Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research (JSAER). 2021;8(1):48-54.
Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2008333. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging (Adv. Mater. 34/2021)." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2170267. Abstract
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Birech Z, Ondieki AM, Opati RII, Mwangi PW. "Low cost Raman sample substrates from conductive silver paint smear for Raman spectroscopic screening of metabolic diseases in whole blood.". 2020;108:103063. AbstractWebsite

This work reports on a low cost, simple to prepare and chemically stable Raman substrates based on conductive silver paint smear. The substrates were characterized Raman spectroscopically and were found to be chemically stable within the first seven days when kept at room temperature as the spectroscopic profiles were unchanged. The substrates also suppressed the background signals emanating from glass centered around 750 cm−1 and 1370 cm−1 seen with 785 nm excitation and had negligible influence on Raman spectral profiles of rat’s blood samples applied onto them. The Raman spectral profiles of blood samples applied onto the substrates were found to be enhanced by a factor of 1.7 compared to those of thick blood smears on a clean microscope glass slide. The increased local field between the gaps formed by adjacent micron-sized silver solids in the paint smear were attributed to the observed intense signals observed from the blood samples applied onto them. The substrates were tried on Raman spectroscopic differentiation between blood from obese and normal; diabetic and normal Sprague Dawley rats. The prominent bands associated with fructose (638 and 812 cm−1), glucose (1127 cm−1) and branched chain amino acids (1033, 1217 and 1318 cm−1) were observed to vary in terms of intensity between the un-healthy (obese and diabetic) and healthy (normal) rats. The results reported here on the use of the easy to prepare, low cost Raman substrates have the potential of making surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy accessible to less resourced laboratories in developing countries. The substrates can be applied in rapid Raman spectroscopic screening of various metabolic diseases.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "LAB SCALE BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MARKET WASTES AND DAGORETTI SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE IN KENYA." International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research. 2020;8(1):12-21. Abstract

In this study, fruits and vegetable market wastes were used as substrates in biogas
production under psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Slaughterhouse waste
consisting of blood and diluted rumen fluid mixture was used as inoculum with seven days retention
time. Influence of C: N ratios of the unique mixtures of vegetables found in the market were
investigated. On average, the vegetable wastes found at the market contained >86% moisture, 5 -
12% volatile solid and 0.46 – 2.06% ash matter on a wet basis. The protein range was between
0.57 – 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado (Persea americana) wastes at
9.03%. The highest cumulative biogas was recorded in wastes mixture at 3500ml on seventh day
while low biogas yield was registered for wastes with C: N ratios greater than 35:1 like avocado
and lower than 10 like coriander and courgette wastes. The optimum operation pH was in the
range of 6.80 – 7.2.It can be concluded that the highest cumulative biogas was generated from
fruits/vegetable mixture at 3500ml in mesophillic conditions. This study recommends pH
adjustment to 6.8 – 7.2 in market wastes and C: N ratios of 20 – 25 for large scale biogas
production of wastes found in the Dagoretti Market.

"Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;2(1):1-23.
Ongong’a, A. I. GSOK & M. "Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach." International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Bioresearch. 2020;5(5):68-85.
Benjamin Nyilitya, Mureithi S, Boeckx P. "Land use controls Kenyan riverine nitrate discharge into Lake Victoria – evidence from Nyando, Nzoia and Sondu Miriu river catchments." Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 2020.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Taylor M, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25(18):4130. AbstractMolecules

Description
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal plant with a worldwide distribution. The species has undergone enormous taxonomic changes which caused confusion amongst plant users. In Kenya, for example, two varieties are known to exist based on morphology, ie, D. viscosa var. viscosa along the coast, and D. viscosa var. angustifolia in the Kenyan inland. These two taxa are recognized as distinct species in some reports. This prompted us to apply metabolomics to understand the relationship among naturally occurring populations of D. viscosa in Kenya, and to identify compounds that can assist in taxonomic delineation of the different varieties of D. viscosa from different parts of Kenya. The phytochemical variability of Kenyan D. viscosa var. angustifolia populations collected from four different geographical regions (Nanyuki, Machakos, Nairobi, and Narok) and one coastal D. viscosa var. viscosa (the Gazi) were analyzed by LC-MS using a metabolomics-driven approach. Four known compounds, two diterpenoids (dodonic acid (1), hautriwaic acid lactone (3), and two flavonoids (5, 7, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy-3, 6, 2′-trimethoxyflavone (2) and catechin (4)) were isolated and purified from the Gazi coastal collection. The presence of these compounds and their relative abundance in other populations was determined by LC-MS analyses. Multivariate statistical analyses of LC-MS data was used for the visualization of the patterns of variation and identification of additional compounds. Eleven discriminant compounds responsible for separating chemometric clusters were tentatively identified. In an antimicrobial assay, hautriwaic acid …

Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba, C.W., Ochieng, P., Taylor, D, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25 (18):4130.
Muthoni KC. "Learners Mental health in a Changing World." Journal Of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2020;25(2).
"Learning and Adaptation in Food Systems: Insights from Four Case Studies in the Global South." International Journal on Food System Dynamics. 2020;11(4):312-328.
Kara, A.M., Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Lecturer Quality in Public Universities in Kenya." European Journal of Education Studies. 2020;7(10).
Jennings Mayo-Wilson L, M M, Yi G, Mak’anyengo, MO, Davoust M, ML M, Stefan Baral, Fred M. Ssewamala, Glass NE. "Lessons learned from using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to assess sexual risk behaviors among Kenyan young adults living in urban slum settlements: A process evaluation." PLoS ONE . 2020;15(4).
F.H W, Wafula AG, C LB, T. KK. "Levels of PM10 and PM2.5 and Respiratory Health Impacts on School-Going Children in Kenya. Journal of Health and Pollution." . Journal of Health and Pollution. 2020;10 (27) 200912(ISSN: 2156-9614).
OLALE P, Odote C, Kibugi R. "Leveraging integrated spatial planning for sustainable regulation of coastal tourism activities in Malindi town, Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2020;Volume 19(Issue 1).
Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-scale mapping of moir$\backslash$'e superlattices by Raman imaging of interlayer breathing mode and moir$\backslash$'e phonons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2012.13820. 2020. Abstract
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Guo K, Deng B, Liu Z, Gao C, Shi Z, Bi L, Zhang L, Lu H, Zhou P, Zhang L, others. "Layer dependence of stacking order in nonencapsulated few-layer CrI3." Science China Materials. 2020;63:413-420. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang Y, Lü Z, Cheng TCE, Glover F. "A learning-based memetic algorithm for the multiple vehicle pickup and delivery problem with LIFO loading." Computers & Industrial Engineering. 2020;142:106241. Abstract
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Li Z, Peng B, Lin M-L, Leng Y-C, Zhang B, Pang C, Tan P-H, Monserrat B, Chen F. "Light-driven bandgap renormalization and terahertz atomic oscillations in few-layer PdSe2." arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.02034. 2020. Abstract
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Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Osaliya. R., O. V. Wasonga., J. G. M. Mwanjalolo., Kironchi G, Adipala E. "Land conversion is changing the landscape in the semi-arid Kapir catchment, northeastern Uganda.". 2019;3(3).
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Gabiri G, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, JGMM. "Land Cover and Soil Properties Influence on Forage Quantity in a Semiarid Region in East Africa." Applied and Environmental Soil Science. 2019;2019.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two-phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi-arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution . 2019.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two‐phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi‐arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution. 2019;9(22):12779-12788.
JM Schoorl, A Veldkamp, L Claessens, JR Wijbrans, Olago DO, Lievens C. "Late Quaternary lahars and lava dams: Fluvial responses of the Upper Tana River (Kenya)." Geomorphology. 2019;341:28-45. Abstractlate_quaternery.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Geomorphological and sedimentary records near the confluences of the Tana River and major tributaries draining the eastern slopes of Mt. Kenya and the Nyambeni Range, indicate impacts of Late Quaternary volcanic activity in their fluvial records. The main reconstructed event was triggered by a 366.9 ka basalt flow (40Ar/39Ar dated) which flowed along Kazita River from the Nyambeni Range blocking both Kazita River and Tana River near Kibuka Grand Falls, causing a temporary lake. Consequently, Tana River and Kazita River started to build volcanoclastic Gilbert type deltas. The preserved pro-delta sediments rich in trachytic pumice fragments display a mineralogical and age match with known Ithanguni trachytic tuffs, indicating delta build up right after a contemporary Ithanguni eruption. This trachytic eruption caused the deposition of lahars and fluvial volcaniclastic sediments in all river records draining the Eastern side of Mt. Kenya. The multiple lahars seem to be triggered by eruptions under glacial conditions (basalt age indicates MIS 10). The lava dammed lake was only short lived (estimated to have lasted only a few years to decades) and breached before a complete lake infill could occur. The current Kibuka Grand Falls can be viewed as the delayed incisional response of this lava dam breach, indicating that after >366.9 ka, Tana River is still responding and adjusting to this short-lived disruptive phase. The current Kazita River has re-incised adjacent to a MIS 4 basalt flow down into the crystalline Basement System rocks. The MIS 10 pre-volcanic sedimentary record indicates that more sediments were in the fluvial system during glacial conditions than during the interglacial conditions. An implication of our reconstruction is that the Late Quaternary fluvial record of Tana River is of only limited use to reconstruct uplift rates because reconstructed Quaternary incision rates are reflecting both volcanic disruptions as climate change trends of aridification and decreasing glaciation extents.

I MN, G N, M M. "Learners’ Written Interaction Effect on Learners’ Academic Achievement in Chemistry." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal . 2019;6(8):306-318.written_interaction.pdf
A. N, J. M, C. N. "Lessons for school principals from transformational leadership characteristics. IISTE journal of Education and Practice. Vol 10, No. 10, 2019, ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online).". 2019. Abstract

This study was carried out in selected public secondary schools in Kenya. It is on the realization that the work of the school Principal is not easy and many find themselves in leadership without proper preparation for the hard task. The school principals’ work is a high-stress job especially because he or she has to do virtually everything related to students, teachers, parents, subordinate staff and the community at large. This kind of leader would require extra-ordinary characteristics to be able to be successful. Majority of principals perform decimally in all the areas that spell success in secondary schools especially in discipline and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to find out how principals’ transformational leadership characteristics were correlates to effective school performance. Kouze’s and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory(LPI) “self” questionnaire was used to measure Principals’ transformational leadership style. LPI “others” was used to triangulate the principals’ response with the teachers. The target population consisted of 72 Principals in public schools and 139 principals in private schools. There were also 1210 teachers in public secondary schools and 1500 teachers in private secondary schools in Nairobi County. The findings indicated positive correlations between the Principals’ transformational leadership characteristics with effective school performance.

Keywords: Secondary schools, transformational leadership, modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, encouraging the heart, enabling others to act

SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Literature as Medium for Moral Instruction: A Swahili/ Islamic Analysis of Ahmad Nassir's Utenzi wa Mtu ni Utu." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2019;Volume 4(1):17-30.
R. NID; &, M M, R I. "The Little Foxes‘ that Upset Students‘ Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology. 2019;128(2):52862-52867.
"The Little Foxes‘ that Upset Students‘ Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology . 2019;128(128):52862-52867.
Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "The Little Foxes‘that Upset Students‘Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology Journal . 2019;128.
Opande T, Olago D, Dulo SI. "Livelihood Vulnerability Approach to Assessing Climate Impacts on Smallholders in Kisumu, Kenya." International Journal of Innovation Research and Development. 2019;8(7):147-155.
PARK JEONGKYUNG. "Love and War in Alex La Guma’s “Thang’s Bicycle." Korean Association of African Studies. 2019;57:161-182.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Makanji N. "Lugha-Kati kama Mchakato wenye Manufaa: Kifani cha Matumizi ya Kiswahili na Wazungumzaji wa Kikisa kama Lugha ya Kwanza." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). Journal of Bantu Linguistics. 2019;(Special):114-128.
"Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine Boosts Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Specific Humoral Responses Systemically and at the Cervicovaginal Mucosa of Kenyan VZV-Seropositive Women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2018;218(8):1210-1218. Abstract

Attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a promising vector for recombinant vaccines. Because human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) vaccines are believed to require mucosal immunogenicity, we characterized mucosal VZV-specific humoral immunity following VZVOka vaccination.

Ngugi CN, Mbaka, JN., Wachira PM, Okoth S. "Laboratory screening for infectivity of selected indigenous Entomopathogenic nematode isolates on Tuta absoluta in Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2018;3 (6 ):10-25.
Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Land use and land cover changes in a sub-humid Montane forest in an arid setting: A case study of the Marsabit forest reserve in northern Kenya." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;16:e00512. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

There have been drastic changes in land-use patterns in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR) as a consequence of anthropogenic processes for livelihood improvement over time. The objective of this study was to assess the land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC), especially those related to the forest cover, in the MFR using multi-temporal Landsat images from Landsat 7 and 8 covering the period 1990 to 2017. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were carried out with the final classification done using the Maximum Likelihood Classifier for each period image to create six dominant land-use and land-cover classes (LULC) which included: shrubland, grassland, bare land, open forest, agriculture and settlement, closed forest, and wetland. The results showed that, between 1990 and 2010, the closed forest area had reduced from 19,599 to 9275 ha (−52.7%), open forest from 30,214 to 7345 ha (−75.7%), and shrubland from 83,288 to 65,212 ha (−21.7%). Over the same period there was, a corresponding increase in the grassland area from 35,233 to 56,066 ha (+58.7%), bare land from 19565 to 35,691 ha (+82.4%) and agriculture/settlement class from 12,842 to 24,072 ha (+87.5%). With the introduction of a forest moratorium illegalising consumptive forest use between 2010 and 2017, the closed forest area increased from 9275 to 12,133 ha (+30.8%), bare land from 35,691 to 42,275 ha (+15.6%) and shrubland 65,212 to 100, 452 ha (+35.1%), with a corresponding decrease in open forest area from 7345 to 1385 ha (−430%), grassland from 56,066 to 39,542 ha (−41.9%), and agriculture/settlement class from 24,072 to 7235 ha (−232.7%). The Focused group discussion (FGD) and Key informant interview (KII) respondents identified illegal logging, livestock incursion/foraging, inadequacies of Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and Kenya Forest Service (KFS) in forest management, forest excisions, firewood collection and illegal settlements in the Marsabit National Reserve (MNR) as the main drivers of LULCC. The study proposes the implementation of the ten-year (2015–2025) Marsabit Forest Ecosystem Management Plan in managing the drivers of LULCC in a bid to safeguard the ecosystem services (ES) provided by the MFR.

• Michira JN. "Language, Resistance and Subversive Identities in Matatu Sub-culture." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018;Vol. 6(No. 3):242-253.
Garba LC, Oyieke FA, Owino EA, Mwansat GS, Houmsou RS, Chintem DGW, BE W. "Larval habitats of anopheline vectors of malaria on the highlands of Mambilla Plateau Taraba State North East Nigeria." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2018;5(1):96-100.liatu_et_al_2018.pdf
Mackatiani, Caleb Imbova NMKGDJ &. "Learning Achievement: Illusions of Teacher-Centered Approaches in Primary Schools in Kenya." The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education. 2018;9(18):46-54.
Kimeu M. "The Learning Resource Centre: Green building design in Nairobi”." Africa Habitat Review Journa. 2018;Volume 12 (Issue 12):ISSN: 2519-7851.
Chepkoech C, Onwonga RN, Wahome RG, Høgh-Jensen H. "Legume and Organic Fertilizer Effects on Soil Nutrient Availability, Uptake and Kale Yields in Kabete Sub-county Kenya." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018:1-21.
Akinyi 10. OJ, Sigana DAO, Wang’ondu V, Wambiji N, Ong’anda H, Orembo B. "Length-weight relationship of selected teleost fishes from Kilifi County, Kenya." WIO Journal of Marine Science. 2018; 17 (1):125-135.
Konneh SS, Saleem A, Awange JL, Goncalves RM, Kiema JBK, Hu KX. "Liberia's coastal erosion vulnerability and LULC change analysis: Post-civil war and Ebola epidemic." Applied Geography. 2018;101:56-67.
"The Lingering Question of Neo colonialism in Swahili Plays." International Journal of Liberal Arts and Sciences. 2018;6(2):24-41.
Mugambi MM. "Linking Constructivism Theory to Classroom Practice." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). 2018;5(9):96-104.constructivism_paper.pdf
Wairire G. "Living but Leaving: Therapy in Light and Right of Life and Death in Traditional-Cum-Contemporary Societies." International Journal of Psychological Studies. 2018;10(4):79-94.
Bhatt B, Kalambuka HAA, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "LIBS Development Methodology for Forensic Nuclear Materials Analysis." Analytical Methods. 2018. Abstract
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AB Bugah, Ndavi PM, Jaldesa G, Njoroge PL. "Large follicular cyst in pregnancy." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(9).
Loonturot PS, Mwero JN, Kabubo CK. "Laterized Quarry Dust and Crushed Bricks as Alternative Concrete Making Materials." Journal of Civil Engineering. 2017;Vol 3(1):1-14.
Mirara A, Maitho T, Okoth UA. "Legal Setup and Performance of Post-Privatization Artificial Insemination Service Providers in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Research. 2017;7(1).
Ogeng’o J. "Lessons from a case of tubal twin pregnancy." Anatomy Journal of Africa.. 2017;6(1):817-819. Abstract

Unilateral tubal twin pregnancy illustrates and amplifies fundamental phenomena in developmental and
reproductive anatomy. Knowledge of this condition is also important to practicing obstetricians and
gynaecologists because it may constitute a diagnostic challenge, management dilemma, complex ethical
issues and increased risk for maternal morbidity and mortality (Benn et al., 2016). Previously considered
a rare occurence, recent data suggest that the condition is not uncommon (Svirsky et al., 2010). Indeed,
there are many reports (Vohra et al., 2014), including several from Sub-Saharan Africa (Makinde and
Ogunniyi, 1990). The case reported by Pulei et al., in Anat J Afr 2017; 6 (1) reveals several unique
features in the profile of risk factors, location, chorionicity and amnionicity, mode and time of
presentation, condition of the tube, diagnosis and fetal viability. There was no evidence of the
conventional risk factors (Sivalingam et al., 2011). This is consistent with several other reported cases
where it occurred spontaneously (Abi Khalil et al., 2016). In the present case, however, the patient had
multiple intramural and subserosal leiomyomata. Intramural myomata are known to disrupt uterine
contractility which may interfere with transport of the ovum and hence predispose to ectopic pregnancy
(Ajibade et al., 2012). It is probable, therefore, that this was the predisposing factor. Accordingly, it may
be useful to monitor patients with uterine fibroids for potential to suffer ectopic pregnancy. Family
history of twinning may have been useful, and is advocated, in view of the fact that it is one of the major
predisposing factors.

Wanjala. G, Wanjala E. "Level of Teachers’ Efficiency in Work Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir North District, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(4):23-36.abstract.pdf
Michaelina Almaz YOHANNIS, Timothy M WAEMA MHUTCHINSONAWAUSI. "Linking Climate Information to Livelihood Strategies through ICTs: the Role of Integrated Sustainable Livelihoods Framework.". 2017. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/wausi/

Abstract: In this paper, we propose that an Integrated Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (I-
SLF), that mainstreams ICT-driven climate information, provides the ideal means by which
such information may be leveraged to ensure sustainable enhanced livelihoods. We focus
on rural areas of Kitui County, Kenya. Guided by a range of theories such as Gender and
Development (GAD), Bourdieu's ideas of social capital, and the Information Needs
Assessment Model (INAM), we draw on the emerging variables to demonstrate that, while

Njuguna NM, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN. "A liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups." Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2017;51(2):153-158. Abstract

A simple, rapid isocratic liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups commonly available in the Kenyan market. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, ion pairing agent, buffer concentration as well as pH and column temperature on the selectivity with respect to analytes was investigated. Optimum chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Gemini NX column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40°C and a mobile phase comprising methanol –triethylamine-0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 5.0 -water mixture (50:0.15: 40:9.85, v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Upon validation, the proposed liquid chromatography method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, and robustness. The method was applied in the analysis of commercial samples obtained from Nairobi County, Kenya. The method can be used in routine analysis of cold-cough syrups containing the specified compounds.

Keywords: diphenhydramine; promethazine; chlorpheniramine; ephedrine, cold-cough syrups.

Kabinga S, Were AJO, Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Mbugua P, Ngigi J, Wambugu B, Wangombe N. "Living-Related Kidney Graft Donors Sociodemographic Characteristics and Recipients Clinical Characteristics in Kenya: A Single Centre Experience Kenyatta National Hospital 2010-2015 Audit." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2017;32(2):134-142. Abstract

This article provides summary of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the kidney transplant donors and recipients from 2010-2015 from Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. Only living-related organ donation is practiced in Kenya. Accelerated kidney transplantation activities picked up in Kenyatta national hospital from the 2010. The duration from 2010-2015 has seen more kidney transplantations undertaken in the hospital than the ones done in the same hospital from 1984 when first transplantation was performed in Kenya to 2009. The data were extracted from manual medical records. There were about 120 kidney transplantations performed during this period but only 113 complete records were traceable. There were 113 medical records for both kidney graft donors and recipients from 2010-2015. Demographic characteristics for donors and recipients captured included age, sex, and donor-recipient relationships. The mean donor age was 32.94

wa Mutiso K. "Looking at each other: The Origin of Negative Ethnicity." Mwanga wa Lugha . 2017;2(2):63-80 .
Nakami WN, Tsuma VT, Milkey K, Dickerson M, Wong M, Mutembei HM, Muthee JK, Odipo O, Ngetich W. "Lateral flow immunoassay for whole blood progesterone detection as a tool for assessment of reproductive status in cattle.". 2017. Abstract
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Waruiru RM, Murigu MM, Nana P, Nga’nga’ CJ, Ekesi S, N. M. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz- resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus." Veterinary Parasitology. 2016;225:12-18.
Murigu MM, Nana P, Waruiru RM, Nganga CJ, Ekesi S, Maniania NK. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz-resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus." Veterinary Parasitology. 2016;225:12-18.
F. M, J.W. K, Warinwa & F. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Chyulu Watershed Ecosystem, Makueni-Kajiado Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;4(3):17-26.
Warinwa F, mwaura F, Kiringe JW, Ndubi AO. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Kirisia Forest Ecosystem, Samburu County, Kenya. ." Advances in Remote Sensing. 2016;5::168-182.
Olago D, Russell JM, Verschuren D, Kelly MA, Loomis SE, Jackson MS, Morrill C, Damsté SJS, et al. "Late Pleistocene temperature, hydrology, and glaciation in equatorial East Africa." American Geophysical Union, Fall General Assembly 2016. 2016. AbstractFull Text Link

In the coming century the world's high tropical mountains are predicted to experience a magnitude of climate change second only to the Arctic due to amplification of warming with elevation in the tropics. Proxy data suggest that substantial changes in tropical temperature and hydroclimate also occurred during the last deglaciation, the most recent time period when rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused large changes in global climate. Determining whether the rate of temperature change with elevation (the lapse rate) was different from today during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is therefore critical to understanding the future of tropical mountain environments and resources. Here we present a new 25,000-year temperature reconstruction based upon organic geochemical analyses of sediment cores from Lake Rutundu (3,078 m asl), Mount Kenya, East Africa. Through comparison with regional reconstructions of lower elevation temperature, we show that LGM cooling was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our lapse rate reconstructions with equilibrium line altitude reconstructions from glacial moraines indicates that temperature, rather than precipitation, was the dominant control on tropical alpine glacier fluctuations at this time scale. Nevertheless, our results have important implications for the tropical hydrological cycle, as changes in the lapse rate are intimately linked with changes in atmospheric water vapour concentrations. Indeed, we attribute the steeper lapse rate to drying of the tropical ice-age atmosphere, a hypothesis supported by palaeoclimate models. However, comparison of our data to these simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models significantly underestimate tropical temperature changes at high elevation and therefore the lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than currently predicted.

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