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GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Martin Upton, S. G. Mbogoh and J Rushton, .". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2004. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Mbogoh, S. G., J. M. Gathuma and B. F. Makau (2005). Livestock Marketing and Support to the establishment of Livestock Disease Free Zones/Livestock Disease Free Export Zones in Kenya. Arid Lands Resource Management Project (ALRMP), Office of the President.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2005. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Kimenju's M.Sc. Research and Thesis on the Potential Impact of Genetically Modified (GMO) Maize Flour on Maize Flour Consumption in Kenya: Student expected to graduate with an M.Sc. Degree in 2006.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2006. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Margaret Ngigi's Ph. D. Research and Thesis: Student graduated with a Ph.D. degree in 2002.". In: 25th International Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), Durban, South Africa. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2002. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Lucy Ngare's M.Sc. Research and Thesis on the Potential Socio-economic Effects of Adopting Herbicide-coated Maize Seed as a Technology in Striga Weed Control: Student graduated with a Master's Degree in 2004.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2004. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Wanyoike, M. and S. G. Mbogoh , .". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2005. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Komen's M.Sc. Research and Thesis on the Potential Impact of Livestock Information Systems on Pastoral Cattle Marketing in Kenya: Student expected to graduate with an M.Sc. Degree in 2006.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2006. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Wellington Mulinge's Ph.D. Research and Thesis: Student expected to graduate with a Ph.D. Degree in 2006.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2006. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
Gichu N, Opinya GN, Ngatia E, Gathece LW. "Factors influencing behaviour patterns in 3-5-year-old children attending three public paediatric dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93:516-522. Abstract
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Gichuhi S, Hawkins BS, Dickersin K. Coding of clinical trials and systematic reviews in The Cochrane Library using international standards.. Vol. 4. Montreal, Canada: Society of Clinical Trials; 2007. Abstractcoding_of_clinical_trials_sct_conference_presentation.pdf

Registers and databases of reports of clinical trials and systematic reviews are invaluable resources for clinical trialists, health professionals, and consumers. However, their utility in retrieval of information about a particular health condition and/or intervention is limited by variations in terminology used by different medical specialties and researchers. Coding clinical trials and systematic reviews using international coding standards in common use may improve access to and translation of evidence to practice. WHO’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) is used internationally across research and clinical settings and presents a good option. The International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) is in beta testing prior to public release and would add additional indexing information.

The Cochrane Library currently includes 4,539 systematic reviews and review protocols and over 470,000 citations to controlled trials. The Library is searched using textwords and MeSH. A project is underway within the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group (CEVG) to tag vision-related systematic reviews and over 7,000 clinical trials available to the public on The Cochrane Library, with ICD codes for (a) the disease entity(ties) addressed and (b) the intervention(s) evaluated. We present the results of the pilot study.

In our pilot study, two independent reviewers completed coding for 43 CEVG systematic reviews published in The Cochrane Library. Inter-observer agreement using ICD-10 was 81.4%. ICHI was suboptimal for coding of individual medications.

In the next phase of piloting, we will code a subset of trials and compare search results using the current MeSH and textword approach versus the new ICD coding.

Support by NIH contract NO1-EY-2-1003, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health.

Published in Clinical Trials, vol 4, issue 4, pg 390

Gichuhi NW, Gitau AN, Mutua JM, Kaberere KK, Mangoli MK. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering . 2011;4(1):65-77.
Gichuhi S. A success story of The Cochrane Collaboration. Cape Town: South African Cochrane Center (African Cochrane Network meeting); 2007.
Gichuhi, S, Kalai, J.M., Okoth, S.A, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education: A Case of School of Education, University of Nairobi." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies. JHEPALS . 2020;2(1).
Gichuhi S. "Comparing the burden of HIV/AIDS and blindness.". In: Ophthalmological Society of East Africa (OSEA) annual conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.comparing_the_burden_of_hiv-aids_and_blindness_2003.pdf
Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Jaoko WG, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Risk factors for ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya: a case-control study." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2016;21(12):1522-1530. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE:
To determine modifiable risk factors of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Kenya using disease-free controls.

METHODS:
Adults with conjunctival lesions were recruited at four eye care centres in Kenya and underwent excision biopsy. An equal number of controls having surgery for conditions not affecting the conjunctiva and unrelated to ultraviolet light were group-matched to cases by age group, sex and eye care centre. Associations of risk factors with OSSN were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Continuous variables were compared using the t-test or the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test depending on their distribution.

RESULTS:
A total of 131 cases and 131 controls were recruited. About two-thirds of participants were female, and the mean age of cases and controls was 42.1 years and 43.3 years, respectively. Risk factors for OSSN were HIV infection without antiretroviral therapy (ART) use (OR = 48.42; 95% CI: 7.73-303.31) and with ART use (OR = 19.16; 95% CI: 6.60-55.57), longer duration of exposure to the sun in the main occupation (6.9 h/day vs. 4.6 h/day, OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.10-1.40) and a history of allergic conjunctivitis (OR = 74.61; 95% CI: 8.08-688.91). Wearing hats was protective (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07-0.63).

CONCLUSION:
Measures to prevent and control HIV, reduce sun exposure such as wearing hats and control allergic conjunctivitis are recommended.

Gichuhi W. "Food Security Score for Kenya.". 2014.
Gichuhi L. "Provision of Education in a Post-Conflict Country: A Case of South Sudan." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015;2(5).
Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Rono H, Ollando E, Wanyonyi L, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Jaoko WG, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Toluidine Blue 0.05% Vital Staining for the Diagnosis of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Kenya." JAMA Ophthalmology. 2015;133(11):1314-1321. AbstractWebsite

IMPORTANCE:
Clinical features are unreliable for distinguishing ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) from benign conjunctival lesions.

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the adverse effects, accuracy, and interobserver variation of toluidine blue 0.05% vital staining in distinguishing OSSN, confirmed by histopathology, from other conjunctival lesions.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
Cross-sectional study in Kenya from July 2012 through July 2014 of 419 adults with suspicious conjunctival lesions. Pregnant and breastfeeding women were excluded.

EXPOSURES:
Comprehensive ophthalmic slitlamp examination was conducted. Vital staining with toluidine blue 0.05% aqueous solution was performed before surgery. Initial safety testing was conducted on large tumors scheduled for exenteration looking for corneal toxicity on histology before testing smaller tumors. We asked about pain or discomfort after staining and evaluated the cornea at the slitlamp for epithelial defects. Lesions were photographed before and after staining.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. Six examiners assessed photographs from a subset of 100 consecutive participants for staining and made a diagnosis of OSSN vs non-OSSN. Staining was compared with histopathology to estimate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. Adverse effects were enumerated. Interobserver agreement was estimated using the κ statistic.

RESULTS:
A total of 143 of 419 participants (34%) had OSSN by histopathology. The median age of all participants was 37 years (interquartile range, 32-45 years) and 278 (66%) were female. A total of 322 of the 419 participants had positive staining while 2 of 419 were equivocal. There was no histological evidence of corneal toxicity. Mild discomfort was reported by 88 (21%) and mild superficial punctate keratopathy seen in 7 (1.7%). For detecting OSSN, toluidine blue had a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI, 87%-96%), specificity of 31% (95% CI, 25%-36%), positive predictive value of 41% (95% CI, 35%-46%), and negative predictive value of 88% (95% CI, 80%-94%). Interobserver agreement was substantial for staining (κ = 0.76) and moderate for diagnosis (κ = 0.40).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
With the high sensitivity and low specificity for OSSN compared with histopathology among patients with conjunctival lesions, toluidine blue 0.05% vital staining is a good screening tool. However, it is not a good diagnostic tool owing to a high frequency of false-positives. The high negative predictive value suggests that a negative staining result indicates that OSSN is relatively unlikely.

Gichuhi S, Irlam JH. Interventions for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals. [update of 2007]. Cochrane Collaboration; 2013. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is described in the ophthalmic literature as a rare, slow-growing tumour of the eye, normally affecting elderly men around 70 years of age. In Africa, however, the disease is different. The incidence is rising rapidly, affecting young persons (around 35 years of age), and usually affecting women. It is more aggressive, with a mean history of three months at presentation. This pattern is related to the co-existence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, high HPV exposure, and solar radiation in the region. Various interventions exist, but despite therapy, there is a high recurrence rate (up to 43%) and poor cosmetic results in late disease. This review was conducted to evaluate the interventions for treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals.

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the effect of interventions for treating squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals on local control, recurrence, death, time to recurrence, and adverse events.

SEARCH METHODS:

Using a sensitive search strategy, we attempted to identify all relevant trials, regardless of language or publication status, from the following electronic databases; PubMedPubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. We also searched clinical trial registries; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and the US National Institutes of Health Clinicaltrials.gov. We searched the international conference proceedings of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related cancers from the AIDS Education Global Education System (AEGIS). Searches were conducted between January and February 2012.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving HIV-infected individuals with ocular surface squamous neoplasia.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

We independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies and to retrieve the full articles. We independently applied the inclusion criteria to the potentially relevant studies. No studies were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria.

MAIN RESULTS:

No RCTs of interventions currently used against conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals were identified.There is one ongoing RCT in Kenya that was registered in July 2012.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

Implications for practice: Current clinical practice in treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva rests on a weak evidence base of case series and case reports.Implications for research: Randomised controlled trials for treatment of this disease are needed in settings where it occurs most frequently. Preventive interventions also need to be identified. HIV/AIDS research has not focused on treatment of this tumour.

Update of
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(2):CD005643.

Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." journal of Education and Leadership Studies. 2020;1(2):25-39.use_of_social_media_platforms_and_content_delivery_in_higher_education.pdf
Gichuhi S, Bosire R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, Wariua G, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, John-Stewart GC. "Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009;16(6):337-45. Abstract

To determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers.

Gichuhi S, Sagoo MS. "Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva." Community Eye Health. 2016;29(95):52-53.Website
Gichuhi S, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Macleod D, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya." BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):485. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya.
METHODS:

Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step. The time-to-presentation was divided into quartiles and correlates analysed using ordinal logistic regression.
RESULTS:

We evaluated 158 first-time presenters with OSSN. Most were women (102 [65%]), living with HIV (78/110 tested [71%]), with low to medium income (127 [80%]). Most of the HIV patients (49/78 [63%]) were in antiretroviral care programs. About half (88/158, [56%]) presented directly to the study centres while the rest were referred. Indirect presenters sought care earlier than direct presenters (median 2.0 months vs 5.5 months) and travelled a shorter distance to the first health facility (median 20 km vs 30 km) but had surgery later (median 12.5 months vs 5.5 months). Visits beyond the first health facility for indirect presenters markedly increased delay (median 7.3, 29.0, 37.9, and 32.0 months for 1-4 facilities, respectively). Delay was associated with number of health facilities visited (adjusted ordered OR = 9.12; 95%CI 2.83-29.4, p < 0.001) and being female (adjusted ordered OR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.32-4.44, p = 0.004). At the time of presentation at the study centres for surgery the median tumour diameter in both directly and indirectly presenting patients was 6 mm (p = 0.52) and the histological spectrum of OSSN was similar between the groups (p = 0.87).
CONCLUSIONS:

Referral delays definitive treatment for OSSN. Women were more likely to experience delay. Despite regular contact with the health system for those with known HIV infection, delays occurred. Early detection and referral of OSSN in the HIV service might reduce delays, but reassuringly delay did not give rise to a larger proportion with more advanced grade of OSSN.

Gichuhi S, Ohnuma S, Sagoo MS, Burton MJ. "Pathophysiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia." Experimental Eye Research. 2014;129:172-182. Abstractfull text

The incidence of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is strongly associated with solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). Africa has the highest incidence rates in the world. Most lesions occur at the limbus within the interpalpebral fissure particularly the nasal sector. The nasal limbus receives the highest intensity of sunlight. Limbal epithelial crypts are concentrated nasally and contain niches of limbal epithelial stem cells in the basal layer. It is possible that these are the progenitor cells in OSSN. OSSN arises in the basal epithelial cells spreading towards the surface which resembles the movement of corneo-limbal stem cell progeny before it later invades through the basement membrane below. UV radiation damages DNA producing pyrimidine dimers in the DNA chain. Specific CC → TT base pair dimer transformations of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene occur in OSSN allowing cells with damaged DNA past the G1-S cell cycle checkpoint. UV radiation also causes local and systemic photoimmunosuppression and reactivates latent viruses such as HPV. The E7 proteins of HPV promote proliferation of infected epithelial cells via the retinoblastoma gene while E6 proteins prevent the p53 tumour suppressor gene from effecting cell-cycle arrest of DNA-damaged and infected cells. Immunosuppression from UV radiation, HIV and vitamin A deficiency impairs tumour immune surveillance allowing survival of aberrant cells. Tumour growth and metastases are enhanced by; telomerase reactivation which increases the number of cell divisions a cell can undergo; vascular endothelial growth factor for angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that destroy the intercellular matrix between cells. Despite these potential triggers, the disease is usually unilateral. It is unclear how HPV reaches the conjunctiva.

Gichuhi S. "Cost analysis of treating a corneal ulcer.". In: Ophthalmological Society of East Africa (OSEA) annual conference. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2010.cost_analysis_of_treating_a_corneal_ulcer.pdf
Gichuhi S, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Africa." Trop Med Int Health.. 2013;18(12):1424-43. Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To describe the epidemiology and an aetiological model of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Africa.

METHODS:

Systematic and non-systematic review methods were used. Incidence was obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the reference lists of articles retrieved. Meta-analyses were conducted using a fixed-effects model for HIV and cigarette smoking and random effects for human papilloma virus (HPV).

RESULTS:

The incidence of OSSN is highest in the Southern Hemisphere (16° South), with the highest age-standardised rate (ASR) reported from Zimbabwe (3.4 and 3.0 cases/year/100 000 population for males and females, respectively). The mean ASR worldwide is 0.18 and 0.08 cases/year/100 000 among males and females, respectively. The risk increases with exposure to direct daylight (2-4 h, OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.4 and ≥5 h OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) and outdoor occupations (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Meta-analysis also shows a strong association with HIV (6 studies: OR = 6.17, 95% CI: 4.83-7.89) and HPV (7 studies: OR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.27-5.49) but not cigarette smoking (2 studies: OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.94-2.09). The effect of atopy, xeroderma pigmentosa and vitamin A deficiency is unclear.

CONCLUSIONS:

Africa has the highest incidence of OSSN in the world, where males and females are equally affected, unlike other continents where male disease predominates. African women probably have increased risk due to their higher prevalence of HIV and HPV infections. As the survival of HIV-infected people increases, and given no evidence that anti-retroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of OSSN, the incidence of OSSN may increase in coming years.

Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies.. 2020;1(2):25-39.
Gichuhi S. "What happens when you call a pterygium names?". In: Ophthalmological Society of East Africa (OSEA). Kampala, Uganda; 2005.what_happens_when_you_call_a_pterygium_names_2005.pdf
Gichuhi S, Gichangi M, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Nyenze EM, Nyaga PT, Karimurio J. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):40-44. Abstract

Objective: This operational evaluation was conducted to determine the effect of having a screening fundus
camera in the diabetes clinic on the demand for eye clinic diabetic retinopathy services at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methods: A before-after evaluation design was used. The reference point was installation of a screening retinal fundus camera in the KNH diabetes clinic in May 2016. The ‘before’ period was January to June 2015 and the ‘after’ period was June to November 2016. The one-year gap between the evaluation periods was used for program development and user training. The primary measure of outcome was a comparison of the mean numbers of patients seen and treated before and after starting the screening program. Data was obtained from the medical records on both the diabetes and eye clinics.
Results: The total number of diabetic patients screened in the two periods was 3011 (monthly mean=502,
SD=44) and 2739 (monthly mean=457, SD=38) respectively. The total number referred to the eye clinic increased from 494 (monthly mean=82, SD=16) to 1065 (monthly mean=178, SD=30) while the total number of patients treated with lasers or intravitreal injections increased from 107 (monthly mean=18, SD=5) to 333 (monthly mean=56, SD=39).
Conclusions: Starting a diabetic retinopathy screening program using a fundus camera used based at the
diabetes clinic doubled the number of patients referred for further evaluation at the eye clinic (2.2-fold increase) and tripled the number of diabetics who received treatment for diabetic retinopathy (3.1-fold increase).

Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wanyonyi L, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Jaoko WG, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Toluidine Blue 0.05% Vital Staining for the Diagnosis of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Kenya." JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133(11):1314-21. Abstract

Clinical features are unreliable for distinguishing ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) from benign conjunctival lesions.

Gichuhi L. "Individual Factors Influencing Demand for School Based-Module II Programs at the University of Nairobi." JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND ENTREPRENEURIAL RESEARCH. 2015;2(3):101-107.
Gichuhi LW, Kibui AW. "Individual Factors influencing Demand for School –Based module II Programs at the University of Nairobi." International Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2015;Vol. 2., No. 3 :101-107.
Gichuhi WJ, Peter Kimani, A M, Olumbe KA, McQuiod DJ, Kalebi AY. "Reproductive Health: Abortion, Pregnancy, Fertility and Contraception.". In: Forensic medicine, Medical Law and Ethics in East Africa (2005). Reproductive Health: Abortion, Pregnancy, Fertility and Contraception; 2005.
Gichuhi L. "Poverty and Household behaviour in rural Kenya.". In: Presented at AERC biannual workshop in Nairobi. Kenya: Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2004.
Gichuhi S, Bosire R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Gichuhi CM, Wamalwa D. "Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers." Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2009;16(6):337-345. Abstract

PURPOSE:
To determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers.

METHODS:
This was a nested case-control study within a perinatal HIV-1 cohort. HIV-1 seropositive mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and mother-infant pairs followed after delivery with assessment for neonatal conjunctivitis at 48 hours and up to 4 weeks after birth. Genital infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and candida) were screened for at 32 weeks gestation. Mothers received treatment for genital infections diagnosed during pregnancy and short-course zidovudine. Newborns did not receive ocular prophylaxis at hospital deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine cofactors for neonatal conjunctivitis overall and stratified for infant HIV-1 status.

RESULTS:
Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis (adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91, 95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis.

CONCLUSIONS:
Despite detection and treatment of genital infections during pregnancy, neonatal conjunctivitis was frequently diagnosed in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers suggesting a need for increased vigilance and prophylaxis for conjunctivitis in these infants. Neonatal sepsis, birth before arrival to hospital, and higher birthweight are factors that may predict higher risk of neonatal conjunctivitis in this population.

Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Maina J, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Topical fluorouracil after surgery for ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet Glob Health. . 2016;4(6):e378-85. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is an aggressive eye tumour particularly affecting people with HIV in Africa. Primary treatment is surgical excision; however, tumour recurrence is common. We assessed the effect of fluorouracil 1% eye drops after surgery on recurrence.
METHODS:

We did this multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in four centres in Kenya. We enrolled patients with histologically proven OSSN aged at least 18 years. After standard surgical excision, participants were randomly allocated to receive either topical fluorouracil 1% or placebo four times a day for 4 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by surgeon, and participants and trial personnel were masked to assignment. Patients were followed up at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. The primary outcome was clinical recurrence (supported by histological assessment where available) by 1 year, and analysed by intention to treat. The sample size was recalculated because events were more common than anticipated, and trial enrolment was stopped early. The trial was registered with Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR201207000396219).
FINDINGS:

Between August, 2012, and July, 2014, we assigned 49 participants to fluorouracil and 49 to placebo. Four participants were lost to follow-up. Recurrences occurred in five (11%) of 47 patients in the fluorouracil group and 17 (36%) of 47 in the placebo group (odds ratio 0·21, 95% CI 0·07-0·63; p=0·01). Adjusting for passive smoking and antiretroviral therapy had little effect (odds ratio 0·23; 95% CI 0·07-0·75; p=0·02). Adverse effects occurred more commonly in the fluorouracil group, although they were transient and mild. Ocular discomfort occurred in 43 of 49 patients in the fluorouracil group versus 36 of 49 in the placebo group, epiphora occurred in 24 versus five, and eyelid skin inflammation occurred in seven versus none.
INTERPRETATION:

Topical fluorouracil after surgery substantially reduced recurrence of OSSN, was well-tolerated, and its use recommended.
FUNDING:

British Council for Prevention of Blindness and the Wellcome Trust.

Gichuhi S, Irlam J. "Interventions for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. . 2007;18(2):CD005643. Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is a rare, slow-growing tumour of the eye, normally affecting elderly men around 70 years of age. In Africa, however, the disease is different. The incidence is rising rapidly, affecting young persons (around 35 years off age), and usually affecting women. It is more aggressive, with a mean history of three months at presentation. This pattern is related to the co-existence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, high HPV exposure, and solar radiation in the region. Various interventions exist, but despite therapy, there is a high recurrence rate (up to 43%) and poor cosmetic results in late disease. This review was conducted to evaluate the interventions for treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals.

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the effect of interventions for treating squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals on local control, recurrence, death, time to recurrence, and adverse events.

SEARCH STRATEGY:
Using a sensitive search strategy, we attempted to identify all relevant trials, regardless of language or publication status, from the following electronic databases; Medline/PubMed, CENTRAL, AIDSearch, EMBASE, LILACS, African Healthline, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialised Register, and the Cochrane Cancer Network Specialised Register. We searched the clinical trial register of the US National Institutes of Health, searched the international conference proceedings of AIDS and AIDS-related cancers, and contacted individual researchers, research organisations, and pharmaceutical companies that manufacture the drugs used as interventions. Searches were done between September 2005 and June 2006.

SELECTION CRITERIA:
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving HIV-infected individuals with ocular surface squamous neoplasia.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
We independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies and to retrieve the full articles. We independently applied the inclusion criteria to the potentially relevant studies. No studies were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria.

MAIN RESULTS:
No RCTs of interventions currently used against conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals were identified.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:
Current clinical practice in treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva rests on a weak evidence base of case series and case reports.

IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH:
Randomised controlled trials for treatment of this disease are needed in settings where it occurs most frequently. Preventive interventions also need to be identified. HIV/AIDS research has not focused on treatment of this tumour.

Gichuhi JW, Parkar R, Kihara B, Ondieki DK. "Premature ovarian failure in twins: case presentation and literature review." East African Medical Journal. 2016:172-174.
Gichuhi, S, N.; GA, J.M.; M, K.K. K, M.K. M. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya. ." ICASTOR journal of engineering.. 2011;Vol. 4. No.1 (ISSN-0974-407X):65-77.
Gichuhi S. "Evidence-based medicine in Kenya; is it time? .". In: 2nd National Congress on Healthcare Quality, Ministry of Health, Govt. of Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.ebm_poster_moh_2003_conference.pdf
Gichuhi JM, Ndegwa PN, Mugo HM, Guandaru EK, Babin R. "Rearing method and developmental biology of the African coffee white stem borer, Monochamus leuconotus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)." Journal of Economic Entomology. 2017;110(3):1120-1126.
Gichuhi S. "Evidence-based medicine; the way of the future. .". In: Ophthalmological Society of East Africa (OSEA) annual conference. Moshi, Tanzania; 2004.evidence-based_medicine_osea_2004.pdf
Gichuhi S, Gichangi M, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Nyenze M, Nyaga PT, Karimurio J. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016 ." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):40-5.
Gichuhi S, Bosire R, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, Wariua G, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, John-Stewart GC. "Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers.". 2009. Abstract

o determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers. Methods—This was a nested case-control study within a perinatal HIV-1 cohort. HIV-1 seropositive mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and mother-infant pairs followed after delivery with assessment for neonatal conjunctivitis at 48 hours and up to 4 weeks after birth. Genital infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and candida) were screened for at 32 weeks gestation. Mothers received treatment for genital infections diagnosed during pregnancy and short-course zidovudine. Newborns did not receive ocular prophylaxis at hospital deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine cofactors for neonatal conjunctivitis overall and stratified for infant HIV-1 status. Results—Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis (adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91, 95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis. Conclusions—Despite detection and treatment of genital infections during pregnancy, neonatal conjunctivitis was frequently diagnosed in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers suggesting a need for increased vigilance and prophylaxis for conjunctivitis in these infants. Neonatal sepsis, birth before arrival to hospital, and higher birthweight are factors that may predict higher risk of neonatal conjunctivitis in this population.

Gichuhi L. "Alternative methods of financing higher education in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015.
Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Rono H, Ollando E, Wanyonyi L, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Clinical Presentation of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Kenya." JAMA Ophthalmology. 2015;133(11):1305-1313. AbstractWebsite

IMPORTANCE:
There is a trend toward treating conjunctival lesions suspected to be ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) based on the clinical impression.

OBJECTIVE:
To describe the presentation of OSSN and identify clinical features that distinguish it from benign lesions and subsequently evaluate their recognizability.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
Prospective multicenter study in Kenya from July 2012 through July 2014 of 496 adults presenting with conjunctival lesions. One histopathologist examined all specimens. Six additional masked ophthalmologists independently examined photographs from 100 participants and assessed clinical features.

EXPOSURES:

Comprehensive history, slit lamp examination, and photography before excision biopsy.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
Frequency of clinical features in OSSN and benign lesions were recorded. Proportions and means were compared using χ2, Fisher exact test, or t test as appropriate. Interobserver agreement was estimated using the κ statistic. Examiners' assessments were compared with a reference.

RESULTS:
Among 496 participants, OSSN was the most common (38%) histological diagnosis, followed by pterygium (36%) and actinic keratosis (19%). Patients with OSSN were slightly older (mean [SD] age, 41 [11.6] vs 38 [10.9] years; P = .002) and tended to have lower levels of education than patients with benign lesions (P = .001). Females predominated (67% of OSSN vs 64% of benign lesions; P = .65). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was common among patients with OSSN (74%). The most common location was the nasal limbus (61% OSSN vs 78% benign lesions; P < .001). Signs more frequent in OSSN included feeder vessels (odds ratio [OR], 5.8 [95% CI, 3.2-10.5]), moderate inflammation (OR, 3.5 [95% CI, 1.8-6.8]), corneal involvement (OR, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.8-4.0]), leukoplakia (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7-3.9]), papilliform surface (OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-3.5]), pigmentation (OR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.0-2.2]), temporal location (OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.2-3.2]), circumlimbal location (6.7% vs 0.3%; P < .001), severe inflammation (6.7% vs 0.3%; P < .001), and larger mean (SD) diameter (6.8 [3.2] vs 4.8 [2.8] mm; P < .001). All OSSN signs were also observed in benign lesions. There was slight to fair inter-observer agreement in assessment of most signs and diagnosis (κ, 0.1-0.4). The positive predictive value of clinical appearance in identifying OSSN was 54% (interquartile range, 51%-56%) from photographs in which prevalence was 32%.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
With overlapping phenotypes and modest inter-observer agreement, OSSN and benign conjunctival lesions are not reliably distinguished clinically. Point-of-care diagnostic tools may help.

Gichuhi S, Onyuma T, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Sagoo MS, Burton MJ. "Ocular rhinosporidiosis mimicking conjunctival squamous papilloma in Kenya - a case report." BMC Ophthalmology. 2014;45(14). Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Ocular rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by a newly classified organism that is neither a fungus nor bacterium. It often presents as a benign conjunctival tumour but may mimic other ocular conditions. It is most often described in India. In Africa cases have been reported from South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda, Congo and Ivory Coast.

CASE PRESENTATION:

A 54 year old man was seen in Kenya with a lesion that resembled a conjunctival papilloma. We report resemblance to conjunctival papilloma and the result of vital staining with 0.05% Toluidine Blue.

CONCLUSION:

Ocular rhinosporidiosis occurs in East Africa. It may resemble conjunctival squamous papilloma. Vital staining with 0.05% Toluidine blue dye did not distinguish the two lesions well.

Gichuhi S, Arunga S. "HIV and the eye." Community Eye Health. 2020;33(108):76-78. AbstractWebsite

This article summarizes the presentation of ocular HIV in East Africa.
The main ocular effects of HIV are related to immune-suppression and impaired tumour-surveillance. HIV compromises cell-mediated immunity increasing the risk of infection with bacteria (e.g. tuberculosis and syphilis); fungi (e.g. candida and cryptococcus); parasites (e.g. toxoplasmosis); and viruses (e.g. herpes zoster, human papilloma virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus).
Patients with lower CD4 counts are more likely to have ocular manifestations1, however use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the epidemiology of ocular manifestations, and variations in the predominant subtype of HIV may also lead to geographical differences in ocular disease.

Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM, Choksey PV. "The prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma in black diabetics East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 10, No. 1, Nairobi (2000)." East Afr J Ophthal . 2000;10(1):24-25. AbstractWebsite

Department of Epidemiology and International Eye Health, Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK. dhyorston@enterprise.net AIMS: To determine if prospective monitoring influences cataract surgical outcomes in east Africa. METHODS: A prospective observational study of all routine extracapsular cataract extractions with posterior chamber lens implants carried out at Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya, between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. RESULTS: Out of 1845 eligible eyes 1800 were included in the study. Two months' follow up was available in 67.2% of patients. The proportion achieving a good outcome increased steadily from 77.1% in the first quarter to 89.4% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.001). There was no change in the incidence of operative complications; however, the proportion of patients achieving a good visual outcome following vitreous loss increased from 47.2% in the first 6 months to 71.0% in the last 6 months (chi(2) p<0.05). Of the eyes with poor outcome (best corrected acuity <6/60 at 2 months) half were due to pre-existing eye diseases. The proportion of patients with known ocular comorbidity decreased from 10.2% in the first quarter to 5.9% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.05). Poor outcome was associated with age over 80 years, known diabetes, preoperative bilateral blindness, any ocular comorbidity, and intraoperative vitreous loss. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates improvement in visual outcome results after cataract surgery over a 1 year period. Monitoring of outcomes appears to be associated with a change in surgeons' attitudes, leading to greater emphasis on appropriate case selection, better management of surgical complications, and improved visual outcomes. PMID: 11973251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1771115

Gichuhi S, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, Otieno P J-SGC. "Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009 Nov-Dec;16(6):337-45. doi: 10.3109/09286580903144746.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
PURPOSE:
To determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers.
METHODS:
This was a nested case-control study within a perinatal HIV-1 cohort. HIV-1 seropositive mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and mother-infant pairs followed after delivery with assessment for neonatal conjunctivitis at 48 hours and up to 4 weeks after birth. Genital infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and candida) were screened for at 32 weeks gestation. Mothers received treatment for genital infections diagnosed during pregnancy and short-course zidovudine. Newborns did not receive ocular prophylaxis at hospital deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine cofactors for neonatal conjunctivitis overall and stratified for infant HIV-1 status.
RESULTS:
Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis (adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91, 95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis.
CONCLUSIONS:
Despite detection and treatment of genital infections during pregnancy, neonatal conjunctivitis was frequently diagnosed in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers suggesting a need for increased vigilance and prophylaxis for conjunctivitis in these infants. Neonatal sepsis, birth before arrival to hospital, and higher birthweight are factors that may predict higher risk of neonatal conjunctivitis in this population.

Gichuhi S. "Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from Persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. ." N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 4;362(5):. Epub 2010 J. 2010:427-39. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of suppressive therapy for HSV-2 (acyclovir at a dose of 400 mg orally twice daily) in couples in which only one of the partners was seropositive for HIV-1 (CD4 count, > or = 250 cells per cubic millimeter) and that partner was also infected with HSV-2 and was not taking antiretroviral therapy at the time of enrollment. The primary end point was transmission of HIV-1 to the partner who was not initially infected with HIV-1; linkage of transmissions was assessed by means of genetic sequencing of viruses. RESULTS: A total of 3408 couples were enrolled at 14 sites in Africa. Of the partners who were infected with HIV-1, 68% were women, and the baseline median CD4 count was 462 cells per cubic millimeter. Of 132 HIV-1 seroconversions that occurred after randomization (an incidence of 2.7 per 100 person-years), 84 were linked within couples by viral sequencing: 41 in the acyclovir group and 43 in the placebo group (hazard ratio with acyclovir, 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 1.41; P=0.69). Suppression with acyclovir reduced the mean plasma concentration of HIV-1 by 0.25 log(10) copies per milliliter (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.29; P<0.001) and the occurrence of HSV-2-positive genital ulcers by 73% (risk ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.36; P<0.001). A total of 92% of the partners infected with HIV-1 and 84% of the partners not infected with HIV-1 remained in the study for 24 months. The level of adherence to the dispensed study drug was 96%. No serious adverse events related to acyclovir were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log(10) copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

Gichuhi S, M G, J N, M G, EM N, T NP, J K. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):14-18.
Gichuhi S, M G, J N, M G, E NYENZE, P N, J K. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):40-44.
Gichui WG, JK M, Waweru FN, HN. K. "EVALUATION OF ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY OF CROTON Megalo carpus (HUTCH) Eurphobaceae. ." International Journal of Phytopharmacology. . 2017;8(3):112-116.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Riverbank protection and food security..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper reflects on the role of root crops (cocoyam, Colocasia esculenta or C. antiquorum) as a case study in riverbank protection and food security in Kenya. Field performance, water erosion control, ecologically friendly production and food value were studied. It is concluded that the national relevance of cocoyam cultivation lies in its role in its conservation through erosion control and soil fertility maintenance; its low energy input; its potential to supplement per capita calories through high yield per unit area; its perpetuity; its multiple nutritive value, ease of preparation and digestibility; and its industrial potential and competitive market opportunity for various end-products.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. The effect of varying rates of compost and diammonium phosphate on soil physical properties and crop performance..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Long-term use of compost (4, 8, 12 or 125 kg/ha for maize and 10, 20, 30 or 200 kg/ha for beans) on improving crop yields and soil physical characteristics was studied at the steep-land research site, Kabete campus, Kenya. Preliminary results showed that maize yields under compost were lower than under diammonium phosphate (DAP). Compost increased the maize yield by 15% compared to an increase of 50% caused by DAP. Bean yield did not show any response to any rates of compost or DAP. The use of compost improved soil physical conditions, mainly bulk density and infiltration rates.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Biological and water-harvesting measures for gully control.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The Arpolo gullying control project in the West Pokot Region of Kenya is described. This is an example of conservation work done to protect the Arpolo dispensary which cost >KES350,000 to put up and serves about 3,000 people and is threatened by a fast-growing gully. The initial proposal for a concrete wall in the first phase of implementation was not feasible since it would be undermined during the rains. The alternative was to plan, design and apply water-harvesting methods and implement biological measures that would reduce the erosive energy of the surface runoff. The design of the water-harvesting structures is shown. The success of the project shows that land and water management requires skillful planning and design, especially where soils are vulnerable to erosion. The physical and chemical properties of the soils in the area are described. Given proper hydraulic designs, water-harvesting measures are still a reliable means of soil conservation.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. The range management handbook of Kenya: a database for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper briefly presents a methodology for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas. It highlights the issues of problem identification and assessment of the natural and socio-economic environment, and describes the database contained in the Range Management Handbook. The handbook makes available baseline data for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas following a successful Farm Management Handbook that covers the high- and medium-potential areas of Kenya. In three parts, the Range Management Handbook covers: the status, principles and applications in Kenya; texts and maps relating to climate, landforms and soils, vegetation types, water sources, range unit inventory, livestock marketing and human ecology; special reports (guide to tolerant plants, pictorial key for goat stocking rates, large scale remote monitoring of vegetation, and a survey method for classification of range conditions) relevant to land planning and use in arid and semi-arid areas

Gichuki JW, Opiyo R, Mugyenyi P, Namusisi K. "Healthcare providers’ level of involvement in provision of smoking cessation interventions in public health facilities in Kenya." Journal of Public Health in Africa. 2016.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. "Examples of agroforestry systems in arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya.".; 2000. Abstract

This paper explores the potential of agroforestry in arid and semi-arid areas, presents various management practices and identifies a suitable agroforestry extension programme. Natural, social and economic environments, and their interactions with agroforestry practices are discussed for Tharaka Division of Tharaka-Nithi District, Sololo Division of Marsabit District and Central Division of Mandera District, Kenya

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Some conceptions about sediment rating equations..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. The impact of climatic changes on land and water resource management in Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The implications of global climatic change on water resource development and management in Kenya was examined. The extent to which the water resources of the various regions of Kenya will be affected and the effects on streamflow regimes, rainfall amount, frequency and distribution patterns and the overall effects of these on socio-economic development are discussed. It is suggested that increased drought could occur in low-potential regions of Eastern, Rift valley and North Eastern Provinces, whilst regions that already receive a favourable amount of rainfall could have even higher amounts. Changes in rainfall patterns and stream discharge may require translocation of current water development projects with possible high costs and dire consequences for those dependent upon such projects. The increases aridity in the arid and semi-arid lands may lead to increased salinity of groundwater, limiting it's use. Recommendations include water conservation strategies, groundwater basin recharge, inter-basin water transfer from high to low potential zones, cloud seeding above arid and semi-arid areas, better soil and water conservation strategies, and controlling the use of products contributing to global warming.

Gichuki FN. "Makueni district profile: soil management and conservation, 1989-1998.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

The investments in soil conservation made by farmers in Makueni District, Kenya over the period 1950-1998, and the policy and institutional framework under which the investments were made are explored. An assessment of the scale and impact of these measures is presented. In general, very few signs of erosion were observed, so the area is considered to have low erosion status. Soil and water conservation measures include the use of crop residues in trash lines, contour ridging, grass strips, fanya juu terraces and cut-off drains. Crop residue management and tillage are the main practices used to facilitate in situ moisture conservation. Most farmers practise contour ridging. Physical soil conservation measures are used to complement cultural practices that conserve rainwater in situ by trapping and preventing further runoff. A key constraint to the expansion of soil and water conservation measures by households is the shortage of hired and family labour. Grazing land has received very little investment because there farmers perceive a low return. In Makueni District farmers have been able to make long-term investments in soil conservation partly because their land tenure was secure. Training and extension in soil and water conservation has been a major external input.

GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 1985. Chapter three of the book: Farm equipment Deveiopment for Small Holders in Semiarid Areas of Southeastern and Central Africa. Edited by Iftikhar Ahmed and Bill Kinsey. Gower Publishers.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1985.
Gichuki N. Computer Contracts in Kenya: Proposals for Regulatory Reform. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil erosion and conservation activities on land affected by road drainage: a case study of Nyeri District..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The existing soil erosion damage caused by water drained from minor roads in the Nyeri District of Kenya was assessed and the soil conservation works needed to stabilize the waterways and gullies along the roads are specified. The study evaluated the land affected by road drains/culverts on 25 minor roads with a total length of 149 km. Of the total of 321 culverts identified, 171 (53%) were found to require channel rehabilitation. 68% of the culverts discharged onto steep slopes (>10%). Erosion was found to be more severe in the coffee-growing zones than in tea-growing areas. In the plateau areas, soil erosion from the culvert outlets was minimal. Due to gentle slopes and more perennial vegetation. 20,346 m of channel excavation was needed to provide artificial waterways for the discharge of water drained from the roads. Channel stabilization with grass cover or installation of scour checks was necessary on very gentle slopes. Steep slopes required stone check-dams and single-row post/stone check-dams. Very steep slopes also required lock-and-spill drains and post/stone/wire check-dams. Gabions (57 crossings) were needed mainly for rehabilitation of large gullies along with double-row post/stone check-dams and post/stone/wire check dams. Cut-off drains were necessary in some cases to divert water from the culvert outlets. In areas where vegetation was easily accessible, brushwood check-dams could be used.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle.

Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK, Mungai DN;. Peoples' participation in agroforestry: the case of the Pokot..; 2000.Website
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Ministry of Agriculture. 1994. National Agricultural Mechanisation Strategy Formulation for Kenya. Project Coordinator and author of the summary document.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil and water management in semi-arid Kenya: an overview..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results of a study aimed at quantifying soil and water management practices and identifying major constraints and implications for future adoption of appropriate technologies. The study was conducted in the Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya. Approximately 83% of the farmers interviewed were using manure, while only 4% use fertilizer. 60% had fanya juu terraces on their land, while only 13% were using grass strips. The study concluded that finance is a major constraint limiting farmers' adoption of practices enhancing soil fertility and that lack of conservation practices on grazing land is of great concern. The lack of knowledge of possible benefits of soil and water management practices is noted.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. An evaluation of gully control measures in Central Province, Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Forty controlled gullies distributed in Kiambu, Murang'a and Nyeri Districts of Central Province, Kenya, were randomly selected to evaluate their control measures. A recording schedule was developed to assist in collecting pertinent information. Results indicate that the failure of gully control in Central Province can be attributed to lack of technically skilled personnel and poor maintenance of gully control structures. It is concluded that there is a great need to impart technical knowledge to technical staff, and that it is essential to intensify research on gully control techniques and that there is regular and proper maintenance of all gully control structures after rainstorms.

Gichuki N. "Financing Innovations: Enabling Intellectual Property (IP) to Steer National Development.". In: 2nd National Conference on Dissemination of Research Results and Exhibition of Innovations. Nairobi; 2009.
Gichuki CM, Gichuki NN. Comparative ecology and morphology of snipes (Family Scolopacidae) in Africa. . Bonn: Bonn Zoological Monographs; 2000.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Environmental impact assessment for water development and conservation..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The possible environmental impacts of water development projects and land use practices such as deforestation and over grazing on water supply in Kenya are reviewed. Measures that can be taken in conjunction with properly conducted environmental impact assessments to mitigate adverse impacts are suggested

Gichuki N. Law of Financial Institutions in Kenya (2nd edition). Nairobi: LawAfrica; 2013.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Riverbank protection and food security..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper reflects on the role of root crops (cocoyam, Colocasia esculenta or C. antiquorum) as a case study in riverbank protection and food security in Kenya. Field performance, water erosion control, ecologically friendly production and food value were studied. It is concluded that the national relevance of cocoyam cultivation lies in its role in its conservation through erosion control and soil fertility maintenance; its low energy input; its potential to supplement per capita calories through high yield per unit area; its perpetuity; its multiple nutritive value, ease of preparation and digestibility; and its industrial potential and competitive market opportunity for various end-products.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effectiveness of three grass species as filter strips for soil conservation on cropland..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effectiveness of different grass spp. in reducing runoff and soil loss was studied at Kabete campus, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Half metre wide strips of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), Nandi setaria (Setaria anceps) and tall Signal grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) were established on 11m x 2m runoff plots, and runoff and soil loss were monitored for each rainfall event during the long and short rains of 1990. In terms of runoff control, there was no significant difference between treatments during early establishment; however, runoff form plot with filter strips was always lower than controls. B. ruziziensis was most effective at runoff and soil loss reduction and this was attributed to growth habit and slow rate of establishment. The capability of the strips to impede runoff improved with time.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Residual effect of lucerne on wheat yield: report of a farm trial at Njoro, Nakuru district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results from a trial in Swara Farm, Njoro, Kenya, in which a field was sown with Sorghum almum on a volcanic ash soil. Immediately after sowing, 14 strips measuring 156 m x 9 m were marked out and alternate strips were oversown with inoculated seed of lucerne cv. Hairy Peruvian. During the first year of the trial no differences were noticed in the growth of S. almum, but during the second year it grew better when associated with lucerne. After two years the field was ploughed and sown with wheat. The strips were harvested separately with a combine harvester. Mean yields after S. almum were 2,708 kg/ha and after the S.almum/lucerne mixture were 3,244 kg/ha

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Development of a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the management of soil fertility by smallholder farmers: experience of the TSBF programme..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper outlines the development of a new methodology to modify and improve the indigenous practices of soil fertility management in Eastern and Southern Africa and suggests requirements for involvement by collaborating institutions. It provides a brief history of the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TBSF) Programme in Africa, ongoing resource integration work in Zimbabwe, proposed work in Kenya and team development in Zimbabwe.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effect of micro-catchment size on survival and growth of two semiarid tree species..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of three different micro-catchment sizes on survival and growth of plant species was assessed and success in establishment and growth of Croton megalocarpus and Cassia spectabilis was compared in a semi-arid region of Kitui District, Kenya. Both species were planted in 25 x 25 cm, 45 x 45 cm, and 65 x 65 cm spherical micro-catchments. Height and diameter were measured and a survival count was taken. Results show that then micro-catchment size influenced (P>0.05) lateral growth of both species. Lateral growth of C. spectabilis in the smaller two micro-catchments (3.66 and 4.60 cm, resp.) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but was less than in the largest micro-catchment(5,31 cm). These results indicate that the two species are suitable for afforestation in these areas and that their survival is not limited by provision of a catchment in the area.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Some" near-farmer" research on land and water management for crop production in semi-arid Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes a "near-farmer" applied research project working on 10 field stations scattered through the arid and semi-arid lands of Embu, Meru and Isiolo Districts of Esatern Province, Kenya. The objective of the research was to define better extension messages for resource-poor farmers to enable them to improve their land and water management techniques for improved and sustained yields. Most of the trials related to soil fertility and soil moisture, as well as trials on the use of Vetiver grass for soil conservation, control of the legume root parasite Alectra vogelii, and new introductions such as groundnuts, simsim (sesame), tubers, fodder crops and fruits.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Impacts of land-use practices on natural forests and watersheds in the lake Nakuru catchment basin..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Trends in land use practices in the Lake Nakuru catchment area and, in particular, the causes and impacts of deforestation, which threaten the lake's unique ecology. It addresses the importance of natural forests for the successful management of the lake's watershed area. Findings are all discussed in the broader, national context and some suggestions for programmes of action to alleviate problems caused by deforestation are presented.

Gichuki ML, Ogollah K. "FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF MARKETING STRATEGIES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA ." The strategic Business and change Journal of Management. 2014;2(24):450-474.gichuki_lucy_and_ogollah_2014.pdf
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 1981 . Farm Machinery Manufacture and use in Kenya. United Nations Industrial Development Organization , Kenya Position paper.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1981.
Gichuki N. Banking Law: Cases and Materials.; Forthcoming.
Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK, Mungai DN;. Peoples' participation in agroforestry: the case of the Pokot..; 2000.Website
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri et al. 1994. Methodological Guidelines for Agricultural mechanisation strategy formulation , AGROTEC and FAO.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
Gichuki N. "Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights.". In: Intellectual Property in Practice Workshop organised by IDLO. Nakuru; 2006.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil and water management in semi-arid Kenya: an overview..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results of a study aimed at quantifying soil and water management practices and identifying major constraints and implications for future adoption of appropriate technologies. The study was conducted in the Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya. Approximately 83% of the farmers interviewed were using manure, while only 4% use fertilizer. 60% had fanya juu terraces on their land, while only 13% were using grass strips. The study concluded that finance is a major constraint limiting farmers' adoption of practices enhancing soil fertility and that lack of conservation practices on grazing land is of great concern. The lack of knowledge of possible benefits of soil and water management practices is noted.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Factors affecting land use and crop production in Botswana..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper looks at factors which influence land allocation and crop production patterns in Botswana, across traditional and commercial farmers. It found that, among smallholder traditional farmers, less land is used (on average 5.6 ha) and is subdivided into the growing of three major crops: sorghum, maize and beans, with more land allocated to sorghum, the main staple and more adaptable to the climate. The small amount of cultivated land is attributed to lack of capital, transport and labour. Although large areas of land are owned by commercial farmers a high percentage is left idle due to constraints such as poor marketing systems, poor storage facilities and shortage of labour.

Gichuki NN. Wetlands: Our common property.; 1999.
Gichuki N. "Mainstreaming the Youth in Local Governance.". In: Consultative Workshop organized by Africa Youth Trust. Nairobi; 2008.
Gichuki NN, Ndiwa T, Jackson C, Olivier H. "Status of globally threatened waterbirds in Tana delta, Kenya.". In: Third Biennial Scientific Conference, National Musuems of Kenya, Nairobi. Nairobi, Kenya ; 2011.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Erosion scars caused by earthflows: a case study of Ol Joro Orok division, Nyandarua district.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes earthflow features in Nyairoko sub-location of Ol Joro Orok Division, Kenya. In 1989 more than 900 earthflows were counted in Nyandarua District, most of them in Ol Joro Orok and Ol Kalou Divisions. Individual flows affected areas between a few square metres and two hectares. More than 50% of the farms in the area were affected by earthflows. Such earthflows occurred only on grazing land and on convex slopes and were usually the result of extremely slow processes. Soils in the area are mainly moderately well drained, dark reddish brown Luvisols and well-drained, red to reddish-brown Nitisols. The first visible signs were usually shallow scars along the contour, breaking up the grass vegetation. Subsequent soil movement was very gradual. According to old residents of the area some of the earthflow features had been observed as long as 60 years ago and could not be attributed to land use change. One earthflow studied in detail revealed that soil stratification impeded drainage, leading to oversaturation of the topsoil layers and that seasonal subsurface flow generally seemed to be responsible for the soil movement. No obvious triggering could be identified.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Use of soil survey information in soil and water management..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

Gichuki NN, Macharia JM. "Participation of Local Communities in the Management of Wetlands in Magadi Area, Kenya.". 2003. AbstractParticipation of Local Communities in the Management of Wetlands in Magadi Area, Kenya

Wetlands are lands that are transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water is usually at or near the surface of the land or land that is covered with shallow water (Cowardin et al. 1979, Roggeri 1995). In the context of dry lands, wetlands are areas that are permanently, seasonally or occasionally water logged with fresh or saline water that supports characteristic animals and plants. In the dry lands of eastern Africa, wetlands cover about 3 percent of the total land area and include shallow lakes and margin s of deep lakes, swamps and marshes found on upper flood plains of major rivers, coastal river flood plains and high mountain peat bogs and tarns (Omoding 1995). These ecosystems support valuable biodiversity, including large numbers of mammals, reptiles, fishes and birds as well as diverse plant communities (Denny 1993). They also provide valuable resources and environmental benefits, such as biomass cropping for livestock pasture, water supply, agriculture, fisheries and subsistence hunting of wildlife that sustain local economies and communities (Shumway 1999).

GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 2004Conservation Tillage and Food production in Semiarid Tropics of Africa: Kenyan case study. Paper presetted in the annual meeting, of American Society of Agronomy, SEATTLE U.S.A.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 2004.
Gichuki N. "The Paradox in the Implementation Matrix in Capital Markets Reform in Kenya.". In: Emerging Trends in Commercial & Financial Law Workshop. KCB Leadership Centre, Karen, Nairobi; 2011.
Gichuki NN, Matagi S. "South Eastern Rift Valley Lakes of Eastern Africa.". In: Freshwater Ecosregions of Africa and Madagascar. New York: Island Press; 2005.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effects of phosphorus supply on the growth and nodulation of cowpeas..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of P supply (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha) on growth and nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) cv. Vita 4 and Ife Brown grown in a podzolic soil (Haplustult) was studied in a greenhouse trial. The seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhyzobium CB 756. Plants were harvested at the beginning of flowering. The number of trifoliate leaves and DM yield in both cv. increased with increasing P application. The yield of the tops of Vita 4 was maximum at 160 kg P/ha and that of Ife Brown at 320 kg P/Ha. Extractable P related linearly to the rate of applied P, and DM yield increased with increase in extractable P. Plants grown without P had fewer and smaller nodules. An increase in P from 1 to 160 kg/ha increased the number of nodules/plant from 16 to 113 in Vita 4 and from 14 to 70 in Ife Brown. Similarly, increasing P increased nodule dry weight. The P conc. of the youngest fully expanded leaf (YFEL) and in the whole plant top increased with increasing P supply in both cv. and was generally higher in the YFEL than in the whole top. A critical P conc. of 0.3 and 0.25% was found in the YFEL and the whole top, resp., for cv. Vita 4.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. "Land and water management in Kenya: towards sustainable land use.".; 2000. Abstract

Preliminary findings on the effects of land use in the Masinga Dam catchment, Kenya, on the storage capacity of the reservoir are presented. Remote sensing and GIS techniques, supplemented with ground reports, were used to determine areas most susceptible to erosion. A representative catchment was then chosen for rainy season monitoring of soil loss, river suspended sediments and discharge response to rainfall. In addition, Gerlach-type traps were used to evaluate erosion rates under different crop covers and slope gradients. A sample of 200 households was interviewed about their perceptions of erosion problems on their farms. Preliminary results suggest that the major sediment-contributing areas are the densely populated and intensively cultivated foothills of the Aberdares, rather than the semi-arid lowlands directly bordering the reservoir. Poorly drained sealed and murram roads, together with footpaths, cattle tracks and gullies, act as extensions of the drainage network during storms, channelling sediment-laden runoff from bare areas around homesteads and schools directly into the river. Subsistence crops, particularly mono-cropped maize, appear to provide poor cover for a major part of the wet season.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Residual effect of lucerne on wheat yield: report of a farm trial at Njoro, Nakuru district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results from a trial in Swara Farm, Njoro, Kenya, in which a field was sown with Sorghum almum on a volcanic ash soil. Immediately after sowing, 14 strips measuring 156 m x 9 m were marked out and alternate strips were oversown with inoculated seed of lucerne cv. Hairy Peruvian. During the first year of the trial no differences were noticed in the growth of S. almum, but during the second year it grew better when associated with lucerne. After two years the field was ploughed and sown with wheat. The strips were harvested separately with a combine harvester. Mean yields after S. almum were 2,708 kg/ha and after the S.almum/lucerne mixture were 3,244 kg/ha.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. The effect of variations in maize stover placement on maize growth and nitrogen uptake in continuous maize cropping systems in two regions of Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Stover placement (surface mulch, incorporated or a mixture of mulch and incorporation) was compared with stover removal in the presence and absence of 50kg N fertilizer/ha in trials over two successive seasons in continuous maize cropping systems in two regions in Kenya. Stover applied at 4 tonnes DM/ha was found to have highly variable effects on maize growth and yield according to site., method of stover placement, N application and season. Relative to controls without stover, stover incorporation reduced yield by 39% in the first season, followed by yield increases of 15% in the second season. In the first season there was little or no response to N in the presence of stover. Low N uptake and N use efficiency suggested N immobilization in the incorporation treatment. Yield responses and large N uptake in the following season suggested mineralization of N immobilized in the previous season. Surface mulching at the Kabete site increased grain yields in the first season by 39% and 6% compared to stover removal without and with fertilizer, resp. In the second season, surface mulching markedly reduced yields possibly due to a combination of reduced phytotoxicity and N immobilization. At the Katumani site, stover amendments increased yields compared to removal in both seasons with incorporation results being superior to surface mulch. At this site, in both seasons, application of N reduced the effect of stover mulching and incorporation. You must log in to CAB Direct in order to view search results. If you have forgotten your log

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Some" near-farmer" research on land and water management for crop production in semi-arid Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes a "near-farmer" applied research project working on 10 field stations scattered through the arid and semi-arid lands of Embu, Meru and Isiolo Districts of Esatern Province, Kenya. The objective of the research was to define better extension messages for resource-poor farmers to enable them to improve their land and water management techniques for improved and sustained yields. Most of the trials related to soil fertility and soil moisture, as well as trials on the use of Vetiver grass for soil conservation, control of the legume root parasite Alectra vogelii, and new introductions such as groundnuts, simsim (sesame), tubers, fodder crops and fruits.

Gichuki CM, Gichuki NN. Wetland birds of Kenya.; 1992.Wetland birds of Kenya
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 1969. Resistance to airflow through shelled corn. Unpublished MSc Theses. Iowa State University.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1969.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. The range management handbook of Kenya: a database for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper briefly presents a methodology for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas. It highlights the issues of problem identification and assessment of the natural and socio-economic environment, and describes the database contained in the Range Management Handbook. The handbook makes available baseline data for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas following a successful Farm Management Handbook that covers the high- and medium-potential areas of Kenya. In three parts, the Range Management Handbook covers: the status, principles and applications in Kenya; texts and maps relating to climate, landforms and soils, vegetation types, water sources, range unit inventory, livestock marketing and human ecology; special reports (guide to tolerant plants, pictorial key for goat stocking rates, large scale remote monitoring of vegetation, and a survey method for classification of range conditions) relevant to land planning and use in arid and semi-arid areas

Gichuki FN, Gachene CKK. Biological and water-harvesting measures for gully control.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The Arpolo gullying control project in the West Pokot Region of Kenya is described. This is an example of conservation work done to protect the Arpolo dispensary which cost >KES350,000 to put up and serves about 3,000 people and is threatened by a fast-growing gully. The initial proposal for a concrete wall in the first phase of implementation was not feasible since it would be undermined during the rains. The alternative was to plan, design and apply water-harvesting methods and implement biological measures that would reduce the erosive energy of the surface runoff. The design of the water-harvesting structures is shown. The success of the project shows that land and water management requires skillful planning and design, especially where soils are vulnerable to erosion. The physical and chemical properties of the soils in the area are described. Given proper hydraulic designs, water-harvesting measures are still a reliable means of soil conservation.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Development of a streamflow model for rural catchments in Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

A stream flow model was developed for use in rural catchments in Kenya. In the model the physical environment was divided into three zones: the unsaturated zone (consists of multiple hydrological response units defined by homogenous land use and soil type in which a daily soil moisture balance is maintained), shallow saturated and deep saturated zones which were modelled as regional aquifers. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were distributed according to altitude, and runoff was determined using the curve number method devised by the US Soil Conservation Service: a function of five-day antecedent precipitation. Evapotranspiration was varied according to the soil moisture content, and the weather generator allowed Monte Carol simulations over a long period. The data consisted of daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation for each month, land use/vegetation and soil type. The ARC-INFO GIS package was used to assemble the topographical, hydrological, land use/vegetation type and soil information in different layer. The model was tested on the Naro Moru catchment (172kn2) in Kenya, which has climatic conditions that vary from the glaciated peaks of Mount Kenya (5,200 m) to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau (1,800 m). The model was calibrated over a two-year period and validated over a different two-year period. A comparison of the observed and simulated stream flow showed that minimal calibration was required. The simulated stream flow compared well with the observed values for both the calibration and the validation periods (70-85% for the 10-day period) indicating that the model is appropriate for ungauged catchments.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Some conceptions about sediment rating equations..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Hedgerows for control of soil erosion in Kabale, southwest Uganda..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Runoff and soil loss was studied on steep terraced slopes containing various combinations of lines of Grevillea robusta, hedgerows of Calliandra calothyrsus and strips of Pennisetum purpureum in Kabale, southwest Uganda. A factorial design, replicated three times, included three levels of intra-row spacing (0, 3 and 5m) of Grevillea spp. and three understorey types (none, Pennisetum and Calliandra spp). The understorey and Grevillea were interplanted along a contour in the middle of the terrace parallel to the two adjacent risers. Results indicate that when contour lines of trees are on fallow ground there is little or possibly a negative effect in controlling soil and water loss. When contour lines are on steep cultivated terraces they have a significant effect in reducing losses. The understoreys appear to filter out much of the sediment from the runoff, holding it in or above the contour line of the vegetation. The potential for using contour lines of Pennisetum and Calliandra for controlling soil and water loss is discussed.

GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri et al. 1985. Animal Drawn Equipment Development in Kenya. In Agricultural Machinery Manufacturing lixcess capacity in Kenya by IFTIK-HAR AHMED and Bill Kinsey, International Labour Office, Geneve.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1985.
Gichuki N. "Consumer Complaints Handling in Kenya: the courts vis-a-vis the corporations.". In: Symposium on Consumer Complaints Handling. Nairobi; 1998.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. Soil erosion and conservation activities on land affected by road drainage: a case study of Nyeri District..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The existing soil erosion damage caused by water drained from minor roads in the Nyeri District of Kenya was assessed and the soil conservation works needed to stabilize the waterways and gullies along the roads are specified. The study evaluated the land affected by road drains/culverts on 25 minor roads with a total length of 149 km. Of the total of 321 culverts identified, 171 (53%) were found to require channel rehabilitation. 68% of the culverts discharged onto steep slopes (>10%). Erosion was found to be more severe in the coffee-growing zones than in tea-growing areas. In the plateau areas, soil erosion from the culvert outlets was minimal. Due to gentle slopes and more perennial vegetation. 20,346 m of channel excavation was needed to provide artificial waterways for the discharge of water drained from the roads. Channel stabilization with grass cover or installation of scour checks was necessary on very gentle slopes. Steep slopes required stone check-dams and single-row post/stone check-dams. Very steep slopes also required lock-and-spill drains and post/stone/wire check-dams. Gabions (57 crossings) were needed mainly for rehabilitation of large gullies along with double-row post/stone check-dams and post/stone/wire check dams. Cut-off drains were necessary in some cases to divert water from the culvert outlets. In areas where vegetation was easily accessible, brushwood check-dams could be used.

Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK, Mungai DN;. Minimizing hydrological impacts of smallholder drainage development.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

A review of available literature on the hydrologic impacts of drainage is presented and management practices that reduce such impacts are identified. Factors that influence the impact of drainage include land use, soil type, drainage density, type and condition of the drains, size and duration of the storm, and extent and location of the drainage. Suggested options for minimising impacts include: appropriate land use (fish ponds, duck farming, harvesting natural products, dry season grazing or cultivation); controlled drainage through use of shallow drains, drainage for growing water-loving plants, land preparation (hilling, cambered beds), and blocking drains at the end of the rains; and water storage (dams along the river or farm ponds).

Gichuki, FN; Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;. A participatory route towards conservation farming for better land husbandry..; 2000.Website
Gichuki N. "Intellectual Property (IP) Audit, Valuation and Management: The Kenyan Position.". In: 1st National Conference and Exhibition of Research Results and Review of Innovations. Nairobi; 2008.
Gichuki NN, Dennis AU. "Challenges and possibilities of developing ecologically conscious technologies in Africa ." Hekima Review. 2013;(46):148-157.
http://www.cde.unibe.ch/Pages/Pub Gichuki, Francis N; Liniger H; MML; SG; GURI:G. "Scarce water: Exploring resource availability, use and improved management.". 1998.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Use of soil survey information in soil and water management..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

Gichuki NN, Oyieke HA, Ndiritu GG, Handa C. Wetland biodiversity in Kajiado District.; 1998.
GICHUKI MRMUCHIRI. "Gichuki Muchiri. 2004. Conservation tillage Equipment productivity quantified. A case study in semiarid smallholder Agriculture in Eastern Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis submitted for examination. University of Nairobi.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 2004.
Gichuki N. Law of Financial Institutions in Kenya. Nairobi: LawAfrica; 2011.
Gichuki NN, Macharia JM. "Participation of local communities in the management of wetland resources in semi-arid areas: a case study of Magadi area, Kenya.". In: Conserving Biodiversity in Arid Regions. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2003.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Environmental and land-use consequences of sand harvesting in Masinga division..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the impact of sand harvesting from rivers on the environment, land use and social life in the Masinga Division, Machakos District, Kenya. Sand acts as a safe aquifer for water flowing below and through it. Removal of sand results in destruction of underground aquifers and loss of safe water. sand scooping adversely affects surface water quality and quantity and damages the aquatic ecosystem. Haulage of sand by heavy trucks causes environmental degradation by accelerating soil erosion and affecting soil stability. Storage of sand causes destruction of surface areas through clearing of vegetation and uses land that could be used for agriculture. Related social and health problems include prostitution and high school drop-out rate leading to serious social and health problems. The beneficial effects of sand harvesting include local employment; however, the share of monetary benefits to locals is minimal. The results show that the local community gains the least from sand harvesting, but stands to suffer the most if the degradation of the river system continues. Suggestions are made for safe and sustainable methods of managing sand harvesting, in which greater local involvement and stricter enforcement of regulations to protect the environment are vital.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. "Land and water management in Kenya: towards sustainable land use.".; 2000. Abstract

Preliminary findings on the effects of land use in the Masinga Dam catchment, Kenya, on the storage capacity of the reservoir are presented. Remote sensing and GIS techniques, supplemented with ground reports, were used to determine areas most susceptible to erosion. A representative catchment was then chosen for rainy season monitoring of soil loss, river suspended sediments and discharge response to rainfall. In addition, Gerlach-type traps were used to evaluate erosion rates under different crop covers and slope gradients. A sample of 200 households was interviewed about their perceptions of erosion problems on their farms. Preliminary results suggest that the major sediment-contributing areas are the densely populated and intensively cultivated foothills of the Aberdares, rather than the semi-arid lowlands directly bordering the reservoir. Poorly drained sealed and murram roads, together with footpaths, cattle tracks and gullies, act as extensions of the drainage network during storms, channelling sediment-laden runoff from bare areas around homesteads and schools directly into the river. Subsistence crops, particularly mono-cropped maize, appear to provide poor cover for a major part of the wet season.

Gichuki H.K., Nyamu DG, Amugune BK, T M. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria that infect diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2018;7(2):34-40.
GICHUNGE DRHEZEKIAH. "Factors that contribute to cost of provision of low cost housing in Nairobi, Kenya. Published conference proceedings on Low Cost Housing I, CMTSI, PP 1-12, International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, Nairobi, Kenya, 2-5th .". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Volume 6, PP 117-145. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2001. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
GICHUNGE DRHEZEKIAH. "Gichunge, H. and Aligula, M.E.(2003): .". In: Politics and Political Science (Online Publication), Vol. 43, Number 1, January 2010. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2003. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
GICHUNGE DRHEZEKIAH. "Gichunge H. (1993): International Contracting for the Construction Industry in changing times. A paper presented in A.A.K Professional Practice Conference on 29th .". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Volume 6, PP 117-145. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1993. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
GICHUNGE DRHEZEKIAH. "Mbeche, I.M. and Gichunge, H. (2003): Risk Management in Building projects: An Analysis of time and Cost Risks.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Volume 6, PP 117-145. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2003. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
GICHUNGE DRHEZEKIAH. "Gichunge, H. (1991): Value Engineering and Constructibility Improvement Studies. A Paper presented in a workshop on Project Management, Construction and Architecture, FADD, University of Nairobi.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Volume 6, PP 117-145. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1991. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
GICHUNGE DRHEZEKIAH. "Olima, W.H.A and Gichunge, H. Emerging Environmental concerns in Nairobi: The Case of East African Towns in transition, GLCA/UON Symposium, from 17th -19th June 2002, Heritage Voyager Hotel in Mombasa.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Volume 6, PP 117-145. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2002. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Gichure, N.G., Wahome, R.G., Njage, P.K., Karuri, H. W., Nzuma, M.J., Karantininis, K. "Factors influencing extent of traceability along organic fresh produce value chains: case of kale in Nairobi, Kenya." Organic Agriculture. 2017;7(3):293-302.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Assessment of Phenotypic Characteristics and Work Suitability for Working Donkeys in the Central Highlands in Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;Volume 2020 :https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8816983.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Factors associated with level of income derived from working donkeys for smallholder farmers in the central highlands of Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;1(4).
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Analysis of the benefits and production challenges of working donkeys in smallholder farming systems in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2020;13(11).
Gichure M, J O, R W, P G. "Factors associated with level of income derived from working donkeys for smallholder farmers in the central highlands of Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation . 2020;1(4).
Gichure, J. N. KMICNPM. "Standardization of cut size and pre-drying time of beef to mainstream pastoral processing in Kenya’s meat industry." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2017;7:1-7.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Analysis of the benefits and production challenges of working donkeys in smallholder farming systems in Kenya, Veterinary World." Veterinary World. 2020;13(1):2346-2352.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Analysis of the benefits and production challenges of working donkeys in smallholder farming systems in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2021;13(11):2346.
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Assessment of Phenotypic Characteristics and Work Suitability for Working Donkeys in the Central Highlands in Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;2020.
Gichure M, Kitala P, Kihurani D, Mande J, Munene N. "Sero-prevalence and risk factors of African Horse Sickness among donkeys in a highland area of Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:125-131. Abstract
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Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Assessment of Phenotypic Characteristics and Work Suitability for Working Donkeys in the Central Highlands in Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020.
Gichure M, Kitala P, Kihurani D, Mande J, Munene N. Sero-prevalence and risk factors of African Horse Sickness among donkeys in a highland area of Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Gichure JN, Wahome RG, Njage PKM, Karuri EG, Nzuma JM, Karantininis K. "Factors influencing extent of traceability along organic fresh produce value chains: case of kale in Nairobi, Kenya." Organic Agriculture. 2017;7(3):293-302.
Gichuru L, Derera J, Njoroge K. "The incidence of diseases and other constraints found in small-scale maize cropping systems of Kenya-midlands.". In: Annual Joint Meeting of the National Association of Plant Breeders (NAPB), and the Plant Breeding Coordinating Committee PBCC).; 2012.
kariuki james gichuru. "The gender implications of men’s shift from cash-crop farming to dairy farming in Central Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship. 2013;1(5):631-646.
Gichuru L, Ininda J, Njoroge K. "Maize streak virus (MSV) disease expression in F1 hybrids of diverse genotypes.". In: 10th KARI biennial conference. Nairobi, Kenya ; 2007.
Gichuru EK;, Combes MC;, Mutitu EW;, Ngugi ECK;, Omondi CO;, Bertrand B;, Lashermes P. Towards the development of sequence based markers for resistance to coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae).; 2009. AbstractWebsite

Coffee Berry Disease which affects green Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) berries is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum kahawae and is a major problem in Arabica coffee production in African countries. Breeding for resistance to this disease is therefore to a major priority in these countries avoid intensive chemical usage for its control. Recently, microsatellite and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) markers for a gene conferring resistance to the disease were identified and mapped onto the chromosomal region carrying the gene. To improve the repeatability of the AFLP markers, four of the marker bands were selected for cloning and sequencing to facilitate specific primers to be designed. Three of the resultant primers did not amplify products that exhibited polymorphism characteristic of the parent AFLP bands; but one primer pair amplified a product that dominantly identified the presence of the parent AFLP marker at an optimum temperature of 62°C followed by electrophoresis in agarose. The reliability of the designed primers was confirmed by analysis in 95 plants from a F2 population previously used to map the chromosomal fragment carrying the resistance. The importance of the results in enhancing the utility of the parent AFLP marker in relation to analytical costs and position on the chromosomal fragment is discussed.

Gichuyia LN. "LESSONS LEARNT FROM THERMAL DATA-LOGGING OF BUILDINGS IN NAIROBI OVER THE YEARS; HIGHLIGHT- ING THE DEMAND FUNCTIONS FOR DECI- SION-SUPPORT.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE.". In: NAIROBI CITY MARKET: AN ELASTIC ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DE- SIGN EXPERIENCE ACROSS TIME AND SPACE. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press ; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. INDOOR OVERHEAT- ING RISK: A FRAMEWORK FOR TEMPORAL BUILDING ADAPTATION DECISION-MAKING. Cambridge, London: University of Cambridge - https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.17146; 2017.
Gichuyia LN. "THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE INDOOR OVERHEATING RISK LANDSCAPE OF NAIROB.". In: In Proceedings of the Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference - Business opportunities in Energy, Manufacturing, Infrastructural and Environmental Research. School of Engineering, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2019.
Gichuyia LN, Madette E. "OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS.". In: OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS. Rotterdam, Netherlands: OMA/AMO Press; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. "INDOOR OVERHEATING RISK ANALYSIS OF OFFICE BUILDINGS IN NAI- ROBI IN A CHANGING CLIMATE.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. BOOSTING INTERCON- TINENTAL RELATIONS _ LESSONS FROM BUILDING PHYSICS. Wilhelm Kempff house- Casa Orfeo, Positano -Italy,; 2019.
Gikonyo EW, p o Oduor OS, Kanyanjua SM, Keter JKA. "Phosphate sorption by some kenyan soils as evaluated by the langmuir and freundlich adsorption equations.". 2000. Abstract

The sorption of added inorganic phosphate (P) by eight soils which varied appreciably in their ability to sorb P was evaluated using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations. When the sorption data were plotted according to the conven¬tional Langmuir and linear Freundlich equations, linear relationships were obtained. Regression analysis was used to compute the straight lines obtained. The Freundlich equations gave significantly to highly significantly correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.509 - 0.972) in all the soils tested while the Langmuir equation was non-sig¬nificant in the highest and lowest sorbing soils (r2 0.004 and 0.453 respectively) but was highly to very highly significant in the other soils (r2 = 0.816 - 0.988). The Freundlich equation was, therefore, ade¬quate in describing the sorption data in all the soils tested but with varying precision as shown by the different correlation coeffi¬cients. A comparison of the two equations indicated that Freundlich equation gives the best fit in majority of soils and would, therefore, be recommended for estimating the P-sorption characteristic of soils tested in this work.

Gikonyo NK, Hassanali A, Njagi PGN, Peter M, Midiwo JO. "Odor Composition of Preferred (Buffalo and Ox) and Nonpreferred (Waterbuck) Hosts of Some Savanna Tsetse Flies.". 2002. Abstracthttp://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/36947

A previous study on the feeding responses of tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans, implicated the existence of allomonal barriers, both volatile and nonvolatile, on the nonpreferred host, waterbuck, Kobus defassa. In the present study, electroantennogram-active compounds in odors from waterbuck were compared with those of two preferred hosts of tsetse flies, buffalo, Syncerus caffer, and ox, Bos indicus. Odors from the three bovids were trapped on activated charcoal and/or reverse-phase (octadecyl bonded) silica and analyzed with a gas chromatography-linked electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) and, where possible, identified by using gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chromatographic comparisons with authentic samples. The GC-EAD profiles (with G. m. morsitans antennae) of the odors of the two preferred hosts were comparable, comprising medium-chain, saturated or unsaturated aldehydes and phenols, with buffalo emitting a few more EAG-active aldehydes. Waterbuck odor gave a richer profile, consisting of fewer aldehydes but more phenolic components and a series of 2-ketones (C8–C13) and δ-octalactone. This bovid also emits moderate amounts of C5–C9 straight-chain fatty acids, some of which were detected in buffalo and ox only in trace amounts. However, these did not elicit significant GC-EAD responses. Waterbuck profiles from the antennae of G. pallidipes showed broad similarity to those from G. m. morsitans, although the composition of aldehydes and ketones was somewhat different, indicating species-specific difference in the detection of host odors. Certain waterbuck-specific EAG-active components, particularly the 2-ketones and lactone, constitute a candidate allomonal blend in waterbuck odor.

Gikonyo J, Kibegwa F, Inyangala B. "Comparative assessment of hatching rates of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) eggs using Nile cabbage and kaka bans substrates." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29. Abstract
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Gikonyo C. "Rationalising the Use of the Anti-Money Laundering Regime in Tackling Somalia's Piracy for Ransoms." nternational Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. 2018:155-164.

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