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Oboko RO, Maina EM, Waiganjo PW, Omwenga EI, Wario RD. "Designing adaptive learning support through machine learning techniques.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016. IEEE; 2016. Abstract

The use of web 2.0 technologies in web based learning systems has made learning more learner-centered. In a learner centered environment, there is need to provide appropriate support to learners based on individual learner characteristics in order to maximize learning. This requires a Web-based learning system to have an adaptive interface to suit individual learner characteristics in order to accommodate diversity of learner needs and abilities and to maintain an appropriate context for interaction and for achieving personalized learning. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how machine learning techniques can provide adaptive learning support in a Web-based learning system. In this research, two machine learning algorithms namely: Heterogeneous Value Difference Metric (HVDM) and Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC) were used. HVDM was used to determine those learners who were similar to the current learner while NBC was used to estimate the likelihood that the learner would need to use additional materials for the current concept. To demonstrate the concept we used a course in object oriented programming (OOP).

Oboko R, Wagacha PW, Omwenga EI, Libotton A. "Comparison of different machine learning algorithms for the initialization of student knowledge level in a learner model-based adaptive e-learning system." International Journal of computing and ICT Research. 2009;3(1):50-56. Abstract

Web-based learning systems give students the freedom to determine what to study based on each individual student’s learning goals. These systems support students in constructing their own knowledge for solving problems at hand. However, in the absence of instructors, students often need to be supported as they learn in ways that are tailored to suit a specific student. Adaptive web-based learning systems are suited to such situations. In order for an adaptive learning system to be able to provide learning support, it needs to build a model of each individual student and then to use the attribute values for each student as stored in the student model to determining the kind of learning support that is suitable for each student. Examples of such attributes are student knowledge level, learning styles, student errors committed during learning, the student’s program of study, gender and number of programming languages learned by the student of programming. There are two important issues about the use of student models. Firstly, how to initialize the attributes in the student models and secondly, how to update the attribute values of the student model as students interact with the learning system. With regard to initialization of student models, one of the approaches used is to input into a machine learning algorithm attribute values of students who are already using the system and who are similar (hence called neighbors) to the student whose model is being initialized. The algorithm will use these values to predict initial values for the attributes of a new student. Similarity among students is often expressed as the distance from one student to another. This distance is often determined using a heterogeneous function of Euclidean and Overlap measures (HOEM). This paper reports the results of an investigation on how HOEM compares to two different variations of Value Difference Metric (VDM) combined with the Euclidean measure (HVDM) using different numbers of neighbors. An adaptive web-based learning system teaching object oriented programming was used. HOEM was found to be more accurate than the two variations of HVDM.

Oboko R, Omwenga E. "A model for evaluating e-learning systems quality in higher education in developing countries Kennedy Hadullo Technical University of Mombasa, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2017;13(2). Abstract

The rapid growth of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has
brought about significant changes in the practice of e-learning globally. In recent years,
there has been an increasing adoption of Learning Management System (LMS) assisted e-
learning in higher education institutions (HEIs) in developing countries. Despite the
perceived benefits attached to e-learning, several studies concur that there are still many
challenges facing e-learning.

Oboko RO, Wagacha PW, Omwenga EI, Odotte Z. Non-Obtrusive Determination of Learning styles in Adaptive Web-Based Learning..; 2009.
OBWOCHA DOBOKOROBERT, I POMWENGAELIJAH, W PWAGACHAPETER. "Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference.; 2009. Abstract
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Okadapau MO, Omwenga EI, Oboko RO. "State and Extent of Electronic Commerce Adoption among SMEs in Kenya. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(5):256-262. Abstractstate_and_extent_of_ecommerce-_vol7no5_4.pdfJournal Website

Research has shown that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are rapidly adopting the Internet and e-commerce. However, there is little systematic research into how such companies are adopting this new technology especially in developing countries. This research addresses the existing gap by seeking to understand how SMEs in Kenya are adopting e-commerce, through an exploration of their state and extent of adoption. A quantitative survey research approach was adopted in this study that provided a suitable environment whereby SME Owners or Managers responded on issues openly. A questionnaire
comprising five parts, each of the first four had questions using a 5-point Likert scale, while the fifth captured the profile of the firm. The data was analyzed using frequency distributions and descriptive statistics. Some hypotheses were tested empirically.
The results indicate that SMEs have an average e-commerce adoption rate of 59% with latent differences in individual e-commerce applications adoption and industry sectors. The results further shows that only 34% of the firms surveyed have attained the integration stage in adoption. The SMEs e-commerce adoption at promotion stage (13%) and provision stage (26%) sum up to give a combined adoption rate of 39% which represent the marketing function.

Omwenga EI, Kinoti P. "the Development of a Framework for Open Courseware for Emerging Economies: the case of Kenyan public Universities.". In: Special Issues in Computing and ICT Research . Vol. Volume VII. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2011.
Omwenga EI. "Classical instructional methods have been used and will continue to be used in the teaching and learning process. However, their limitations in different circumstances vary depending on student and instructor needs, where they are and who they are. In thi.". 2006. AbstractPedagogical Issues and E-learning Cases: Integrating ICTs into Teaching and Learning process

Classical instructional methods have been used and will continue to be used in the teaching and learning process. However, their limitations in different circumstances vary depending on student and instructor needs, where they are and who they are. In this paper we consider issues and implications o f ICT-supported learning with regard to pedagogy in the teaching and learning process. We will consider the context of developing ICT methodologies and strategies which can be integrated into the teaching and learning process within schools and higher learning institutions. The paper first presents a background and a justification for the underlying work. Approaches that can be applied to integrating ICTs effectively in the teaching and learning process are then discussed. Intelligent teaching and learning methods are then considered and issues on how to ameliorate the impediments are discussed within the schools’ and higher learning institutions’ set-ups respectively. The paper ends by making some recommendations and a conclusion at the end.

Omwenga EI. Text-Based Productivity Tools.. African Virtual University Open Educational Resources. AVU; 2011.AVU
Omwenga EI, Christopher GM, Oboko RO, Kidombo HJ, Mbwesa JK, Waiganjo PW, Libotton A. "Quality Indicator Framework for Assessing DEel Programs in Kenya: A Technological and Educational Functional Parameters Approach." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(4):191-199. AbstractJournal Website

The demand for university education has continued to grow and hence there has been a phenomenal expansion in enrolments that is not matching with the expansion of facilities. Several policy reports commissioned by the Government of Kenya highlight the importance of affordable, accessible and quality education through e-learning platforms to achieve education for all as envisaged by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In particular, The Government of Kenya Policy Framework for Education, Training and Research highlights the unexploited means of access to education such as Open Distance and E-learning (ODeL) and virtual institutions particularly in higher education and training; unregulated
examination and certification of Distance Education eLearning (DEeL) programmes and lack of national capacity for curriculum design for ICT-supported educational programmes to facilitate access to quality education to learners at all levels of the education system. As institutions of higher learning gear up to offer their academic programmes by DEeL mode of instructional delivery, there are concerns from stakeholders about the quality of the diploma and degree awards. This can be attributed to inadequate quality assurance standards to assess the quality and value of DEeL academic programmes. This paper is aimed at identifying critical factors influencing Distance Education and e-Learning (DEeL) in higher education in Kenya and to develop an appropriate framework for assessing quality indicator measures.
Keywords: DEeL, e-learning, technological, educational, ICT-supported learning, distance education

Otieno I, Omwenga EI. "Towards the Development of a Citizen-Centric Framework for Evaluating the Impact of E-government: A Case Study of Developing Countries." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(3):147-153. Abstractjournal_vol7no3_4_citizencentricframework_io_eio.pdfJournal website

E-government has emerged as one of the innovative ways of providing information and delivering services to citizens. It is providing governments with new opportunities of bringing services closer to the citizen in cost-effective, efficient and transparent ways. In spite of the implementation of e-government, there is little research that has been conducted in the context of developing countries to benchmark and appraise the impact of e-government on the target groups. Assessment of impact is important to justify public fund expenditure and inform future projects. Most studies on assessment of e-government have been done in developed countries where the context is different from that of developing countries. Therefore, there is need to develop frameworks that are suitable in the context of developing countries.Studies on assessing impact have been done at macro, meso and micro levels. These studies are largely based on supply-side and a few on demand-sides with little focus on outcomes and impact. In this paper, we perform an analysis of various proposed e-government assessment frameworks with the aim of identifying and recommending the adoption of a framework that is suitable in the context of a developing country. We propose the adoption of a hybrid framework that amalgamates the frameworks proposed earlier due to their contextual suitability and citizen-centric approach. This is an exploratory study that lays foundation for further research in the development of an appropriate framework using the proposed approach.
Keywords: E-government, impact, evaluation, developing countries, citizen-centric

Otieno I, Omwenga EI. "Citizen-Centric Critical Success Factors for the Implementation of E-Government: A Case Study of Kenya Huduma Centres." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(2):102-109. Abstractjournal_vol7no2_9_citizen-centric_critical_success_factors_io_eio.pdfJournal website

The development of the Internet and emerging technologies offer governments new opportunities to serve and interact with citizens in transformative ways that were not possible before. E-government is concerned with transforming service delivery and the fundamental relationship between government and citizens. Most governments have realized the importance of ICT and are therefore moving away from the conventional means of services delivery to the use of egovernment.
However, e-government has been faced with multiple implementation challenges, particularly in the developing countries, consequently, affecting their success rates.There are very few studies that have been conducted in Kenya to establish success factors and uptake of e-government from a citizen perspective. The aim of this research was to identify these factors and challenges that hinder successful implementation of e-government from a citizen-centric
perspective. Specifically, the study identified implementation challenges of e-government in the Kenyan context with special focus on Huduma (Service) Centres. We developed and administered a data collection instrument to citizens at the main Huduma Centre in Nairobi County. Our findings indicate that the greatest challenges faced by citizens in accessing egovernment services in order of importance are: inadequate ICT Infrastructure, low citizen participation, poor Internet Connectivity, low government funding and low level of awareness. We also identified challenges and made recommendations to inform future projects.
Keywords: E-government, success, challenges, developing countries, citizen-centric

Otieno I, Omwenga E, Waema T. "The e-government paradox: Is it real and how can it be resolved?". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016. IEEE; 2016:. Abstract

The development and implementation of e-government has been viewed as an opportunity to bring the much-desired reforms in public administration. There are several studies that have been conducted in the field of e-government and many projects implemented in both developed and developing countries signifying a tremendous growth in the field. However, studies show that there is a mismatch between the level of investment and the results realized so far. This has led to what some researchers refer to as the `e-government paradox' that follows from the `productivity paradox' earlier documented for IT projects. There are several factors that are attributable to the `e-government paradox': measurement error; time lag between implementation and results; the fact that public administration and by extension e-government is driven by the need to create value for citizens and not economic value; and the mismanagement of the implementation process by e-government implementers. The measurement error has been identified as the most important factor contributing to the `e-government paradox'. Theories on development, implementation, measurement and evaluation of e-government are still at nascent stages of development. This study proposes the development of a citizen centric e-government evaluation model that is suitable in the context of a developing country to solve the measurement error. The study was conducted from government common citizen service (Huduma) centres in Kenya where citizens access government services. This study proposed a conceptual model that hypothesised relationships between the identified constructs. The model was tested using Structured Equation Modelling (SEM) and findings reported.

Otieno I, Omwenga EI. "E-Waste Management in Kenya: Challenges and Opportunities." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2015;6(12):661-666. Abstractjournal_vol6no12_3_ewastemanagement_io_eio.pdfJournal website

The production and use of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) continues to grow in both developing and developed countries therefore increasing the amount of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) at its End-of-Life (EoL). This is exacerbated by the rapid growth and development in the Information and Communications Technology industry. The growth in WEEE has brought a number of challenges including introducing effective management practices that are environmentally sound to reduce its negative impact on human health and the environment as a result of pollution. Management of WEEE in most developing countries including Kenya is done through the informal sector and this poses a great challenge. There are a number of International conventions that have been formulated to deal with the issue of WEEE due to its hazardous nature. The main aim of this research was to establish the current trends, opportunity and challenges in the management of e-waste in Kenya and make recommendations on measures to be taken to effectively manage or mitigate the effects of WEEE proliferation in Kenya. The ICT industry in Kenya is growing at a very fast rate leading to drastic increase in WEEE. The greatest challenges facing Kenya in the management of WEEE include: low citizen awareness, lack of proper policy and legislative framework including public procurement and disposal laws, inadequate infrastructure for WEEE management; high cost of brand new EEE, absence of frameworks for End-of-Life (EoL) product take-back and implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR).
Keywords: E-waste, WEEE, challenges, opportunities, Kenya

Owigar JA, Omwenga EI. "User-Centric Evaluation of Government of Kenya Online Services: The Case of iTax." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2016;148(8). AbstractFull Text Link

In recent years, the Kenyan government has worked to use Information and communication technologies (ICTs) to increase openness and transparency in their operations. These ICTs are seen as a cost-effective and convenient means to promote public participation in government in Kenya. While many of these efforts have had a government centered approach, the users perspective has been largely ignored. This research takes a user centered approach and looks at how user’s perspectives and attitudes affect adoption of e-government services. The iTax online service was selected as a case study for this research. The research framework is based on technology acceptance models focusing on the aspects of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use by the users. This view is especially important in developing countries that are still grappling with issues of connectivity and basic infrastructure while developing e-governance initiatives. The data was collected using questionnaires (both paper and online), in depth interviews and a usability study focusing on the primary task of registering on the iTax government service. Findings indicate that the main pain point for both the government and the users is the speed of connectivity. While user/citizens generally think that provision of e-government services is a good idea, there is dissatisfaction with the complexity of the said egovernment service. Findings also show that issues of access in developing countries need to be viewed beyond infrastructure but also on service level. Service level access looks at the extent to which the service is usable to the targeted user. Service level access goes hand in hand with training since some users do have access to the infrastructure but lack the know how to effectively utilize the service. This research concludes that to increase the adoption of e-government services governments need to focus their strategies on the needs of users, their attitudes towards to the services and respond to these needs effectively.

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