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Okadapau, MO, Omwenga EI, Oboko RO.  2016.  State and Extent of Electronic Commerce Adoption among SMEs in Kenya. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 7(5):256-262. Abstractstate_and_extent_of_ecommerce-_vol7no5_4.pdfJournal Website

Research has shown that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are rapidly adopting the Internet and e-commerce. However, there is little systematic research into how such companies are adopting this new technology especially in developing countries. This research addresses the existing gap by seeking to understand how SMEs in Kenya are adopting e-commerce, through an exploration of their state and extent of adoption. A quantitative survey research approach was adopted in this study that provided a suitable environment whereby SME Owners or Managers responded on issues openly. A questionnaire
comprising five parts, each of the first four had questions using a 5-point Likert scale, while the fifth captured the profile of the firm. The data was analyzed using frequency distributions and descriptive statistics. Some hypotheses were tested empirically.
The results indicate that SMEs have an average e-commerce adoption rate of 59% with latent differences in individual e-commerce applications adoption and industry sectors. The results further shows that only 34% of the firms surveyed have attained the integration stage in adoption. The SMEs e-commerce adoption at promotion stage (13%) and provision stage (26%) sum up to give a combined adoption rate of 39% which represent the marketing function.

Asiligwa, BI, Omwenga EI.  2016.  A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya. International Journal of Computer Applications. 144(1):8-18. Abstractasiligwa-2016-ijca-910062.pdfJournal Website

Analogous to the Motorists roadmap that shows the roads, directions and distances to a destination of a given region [1]. A roadmap in this context is a detailed guideline that answers the “why-what-how" questions and lay out the required actions, the "to-do's." towards adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya. For Over a decade, the government of Kenya grappled with the idea of implementing a national payment gateway through which all payments for government services, levies, duties, and fines were to be electronically made. For a long period industry players and policy makers in government had unsuccessfully developed varied strategies of achieving a cashless government payment system. These efforts have failed to yield due to lack of a comprehensive roadmap that addressed pertinent issues that had to be dealt with for e-payments in government to be fully adopted.
This research was done by conducting a survey study on the government of Kenya on the adoption of e-payments.
A random sample of the research population was drawn from ICT and Finance employees of 262 state corporations, 19 Ministries, and 47 counties to which a questionnaire was administered to gain an understanding and information on why there had been low uptake of e-payments in the government of Kenya. The data collected was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using descriptive statistical techniques. The results from this analysis have been used to propose a roadmap for the adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya and any other similar setting.

Ireri, BN, Omwenga EI, Oboko RO, Wario R.  2016.  Developing Pedagogical Skills for Teachers: A Learner Centered Approach for Technology Supported Instruction. Accepted for publication In J. Keengwe, & G. Onchwari (Eds.). Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age.
Ireri, BN, Omwenga EI.  2016.  A Bridging Technology of Learner Entry Behavior in a Flipped Classroom Model. In J. Keengwe, & G. Onchwari (Eds.). Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age . :106-121. Abstractjournal_mobile-learning_-a-bridging-technology-of-learner-entry-behavior-in-a-flipped-classroom-model.pdfJournal Website

Today's learner is able to access information from mobile devices. Due to accessibility and affordability of mobile devices, more instructors continue to adopt instructional design models of mobile learning as more learners also bring their mobile devices to their classrooms. Instructors using flipped classroom model organize the learning activities both inside and outside classroom. Before the next class the instructor avails instruction and content in advance. The learner reviews class content materials and assigned research activities at home prior to class. In class, the instructor allows learners to peer review their work in groups while the instructor engages them to validate their work. The findings described in this chapter suggest that introducing mobile learning to learners in a flipped classroom model helps to bridge learner entry behavior as it improves learner performance.

Otieno, I, Omwenga EI.  2016.  Citizen-Centric Critical Success Factors for the Implementation of E-Government: A Case Study of Kenya Huduma Centres. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 7(2):102-109. Abstractjournal_vol7no2_9_citizen-centric_critical_success_factors_io_eio.pdfJournal website

The development of the Internet and emerging technologies offer governments new opportunities to serve and interact with citizens in transformative ways that were not possible before. E-government is concerned with transforming service delivery and the fundamental relationship between government and citizens. Most governments have realized the importance of ICT and are therefore moving away from the conventional means of services delivery to the use of egovernment.
However, e-government has been faced with multiple implementation challenges, particularly in the developing countries, consequently, affecting their success rates.There are very few studies that have been conducted in Kenya to establish success factors and uptake of e-government from a citizen perspective. The aim of this research was to identify these factors and challenges that hinder successful implementation of e-government from a citizen-centric
perspective. Specifically, the study identified implementation challenges of e-government in the Kenyan context with special focus on Huduma (Service) Centres. We developed and administered a data collection instrument to citizens at the main Huduma Centre in Nairobi County. Our findings indicate that the greatest challenges faced by citizens in accessing egovernment services in order of importance are: inadequate ICT Infrastructure, low citizen participation, poor Internet Connectivity, low government funding and low level of awareness. We also identified challenges and made recommendations to inform future projects.
Keywords: E-government, success, challenges, developing countries, citizen-centric

Mwakondo, FM, Muchemi L, Omwenga EI.  2016.  Proposed Model for Predictive Mapping of Graduate’s Skills to Industry Roles Using Machine Learning Techniques. International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES) . 5(4):15-24. Abstractjournal_c0504015024_theijes_mwakondo_eio.pdfJournal website

The main focus in training evaluation is not only to determine whether training objectives were achieved but also how to improve evaluation so as to enhance both employability of graduates and performance in the job. This is in response to challenges facing not only graduates in choosing industry jobs that befit their skills, but also employers in selecting graduates whose skills match to their needs. Problem solving is one of the skills acquired during training by graduates and strongly sought for by employers during evaluation to promote performance in the job. This paper presents a model for evaluating graduates’ by mapping their problem solving skills to industry jobs’ competence requirements and the potential of using machine learning techniques to train the model in predicting suitable industry jobs for new graduates from college. The paper outlines challenges facing both graduates and industry in selecting industry jobs and skilled graduates respectively, highlights trends, methods, and gaps in skill evaluation and prediction. A brief discussion is made of key strategies in skill evaluation and prediction that need to be undertaken and evaluation theories behind the key variables of the proposed model.

Keywords: Gap, Mapping, Problem solving skills, Training evaluation, Trends

Otieno, I, Omwenga EI.  2016.  Towards the Development of a Citizen-Centric Framework for Evaluating the Impact of E-government: A Case Study of Developing Countries. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 7(3):147-153. Abstractjournal_vol7no3_4_citizencentricframework_io_eio.pdfJournal website

E-government has emerged as one of the innovative ways of providing information and delivering services to citizens. It is providing governments with new opportunities of bringing services closer to the citizen in cost-effective, efficient and transparent ways. In spite of the implementation of e-government, there is little research that has been conducted in the context of developing countries to benchmark and appraise the impact of e-government on the target groups. Assessment of impact is important to justify public fund expenditure and inform future projects. Most studies on assessment of e-government have been done in developed countries where the context is different from that of developing countries. Therefore, there is need to develop frameworks that are suitable in the context of developing countries.Studies on assessing impact have been done at macro, meso and micro levels. These studies are largely based on supply-side and a few on demand-sides with little focus on outcomes and impact. In this paper, we perform an analysis of various proposed e-government assessment frameworks with the aim of identifying and recommending the adoption of a framework that is suitable in the context of a developing country. We propose the adoption of a hybrid framework that amalgamates the frameworks proposed earlier due to their contextual suitability and citizen-centric approach. This is an exploratory study that lays foundation for further research in the development of an appropriate framework using the proposed approach.
Keywords: E-government, impact, evaluation, developing countries, citizen-centric

Gitau, M, Omwenga EI.  2016.  Application of the UTAUT Model to understand Factors Influencing the use of Web 2.0 tools in e-learning in Kenyan Public Universities. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 7(4):204-209. Abstractjournal_vol7no4_6_miriam_omwenga.pdfJournal website

The introduction of Web 2.0 tools has led to enhanced communication and collaboration in both social and academic environments. The focus of this study was to identify factors influencing the use of Web 2.0 tools in e-learning in Kenyan Public Universities. The tools can then be introduced and used to aid in successful collaborative learning. A descriptive survey research design was used. Data was collected through questionnaires from both students and lecturers. Purposive sampling was used for the selection and the respondents, who included e-learning instructors and students. A total of 48 lecturers and 136 students participated in the study. The results of the study showed that the most common tools used for elearning
in Kenyan Public Universities were social networks, which included YouTube and Facebook. It was also interesting to note how learners perceived the tools. The major challenges relating to these tools were also identified.
Finally, Performance expectancy was identified as the main factor influencing the use of Web 2.0 tools in Public Universities in Kenya.
Keywords: E-learning, learning management systems, unified theory of acceptance and use of technology

Omwenga, EI, Christopher GM, Oboko RO, Kidombo HJ, Mbwesa JK, Waiganjo PW, Libotton A.  2016.  Quality Indicator Framework for Assessing DEel Programs in Kenya: A Technological and Educational Functional Parameters Approach. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 7(4):191-199. AbstractJournal Website

The demand for university education has continued to grow and hence there has been a phenomenal expansion in enrolments that is not matching with the expansion of facilities. Several policy reports commissioned by the Government of Kenya highlight the importance of affordable, accessible and quality education through e-learning platforms to achieve education for all as envisaged by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In particular, The Government of Kenya Policy Framework for Education, Training and Research highlights the unexploited means of access to education such as Open Distance and E-learning (ODeL) and virtual institutions particularly in higher education and training; unregulated
examination and certification of Distance Education eLearning (DEeL) programmes and lack of national capacity for curriculum design for ICT-supported educational programmes to facilitate access to quality education to learners at all levels of the education system. As institutions of higher learning gear up to offer their academic programmes by DEeL mode of instructional delivery, there are concerns from stakeholders about the quality of the diploma and degree awards. This can be attributed to inadequate quality assurance standards to assess the quality and value of DEeL academic programmes. This paper is aimed at identifying critical factors influencing Distance Education and e-Learning (DEeL) in higher education in Kenya and to develop an appropriate framework for assessing quality indicator measures.
Keywords: DEeL, e-learning, technological, educational, ICT-supported learning, distance education


Ireri, BN, Omwenga EI.  2015.  Modelling an Institutional Mobile Learning Readiness Analyser. Journal of Education and Practice. 6(5):104-110.Journal website
Makau, GK, Omwenga EI, Nzomo DN.  2015.  The Critical organizational Factors of e-Government in Kenya. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and Research (IJCATR). 4(4):246-252. Abstractjournal_ijcatr04041007_critical_organisationalfactors_makauomwenga.pdfJournal website

eGovernment focusses on the use of technology to achieve levels of improvement in various areas of government, transforming the nature of politics and relations between the government and citizens. However, in Kenya, just like in other developing nations, many eGovernment projects have either stalled or failed to meet their objectives due to some key organizational factors. This study therefore highlights critical organizational factors affecting eGovernment projects and the nature of their relationships with eGovernment performance. The study employed cross-sectional survey design. Targeting the entire 18 eGovernment projects implemented through the Information Communications Authority of Kenya since 2005. Both primary and secondary data was collected and analyzed based on response from 217 respondents out of the 300 who participated (72% response rate). At the end, it emerged that out of the various organizational factors hypothesized to predict eGovernment projects Performance, only organizational structure, prioritization of deliverables, and organizational culture are critical in Kenyan context. Others identified in previous studies such as future needs of the organization, power distribution, structure, information system strategy alignment, prioritization of deliverables, and training were also important but not critical.
Keywords: eGovernment; Organizational; Critical Factors; Performance; Projects

Makau, GK, Omwenga EI, Muranga NJ.  2015.  The Critical Technological Factors of E-Government in Kenya. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and Research (IJCATR). 4(2):92-97. AbstractJournal website

EGovernment and innovation can provide significant opportunities to transform public administration into an instrument of sustainable development. However, the rate of failure of eGovernment projects in the developing world, and specifically Africa, has raised questions on the critical factors contributing to their success or failure. The general lack of comprehensive information concerning eGovernment project performance status and the critical technological factors influencing it in Kenya also necessitated this study. To answer this question, this study aimed at assessing the critical technological factors of eGovernment projects performance in Kenya. The study targeted all the 18 eGovernment projects in place implemented through the Communications Authority (CA) of Kenya. The results are based on response from 217 respondents who consisted of 52 eGovernment project implementers and 165
eGovernment service consumers. The study found that of the technological predictors of eGovernment, only system integration, processes and usage of eGovernment system emerged to have positive significant relationships with project performance in Kenya.
Other factors including information technology standards, security issue, privacy issue, cooperation or collaboration, eGovernment portal availability, eGovernment portal access, and various computer usages also had positive but insignificant relationships with eGovernment project performance and hence not critical in influencing to eGovernment project performance in Kenya.
Keywords: eGovernment, Projects, Critical, Technological, Factors, Performance

Otieno, I, Omwenga EI.  2015.  E-Waste Management in Kenya: Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 6(12):661-666. Abstractjournal_vol6no12_3_ewastemanagement_io_eio.pdfJournal website

The production and use of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) continues to grow in both developing and developed countries therefore increasing the amount of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) at its End-of-Life (EoL). This is exacerbated by the rapid growth and development in the Information and Communications Technology industry. The growth in WEEE has brought a number of challenges including introducing effective management practices that are environmentally sound to reduce its negative impact on human health and the environment as a result of pollution. Management of WEEE in most developing countries including Kenya is done through the informal sector and this poses a great challenge. There are a number of International conventions that have been formulated to deal with the issue of WEEE due to its hazardous nature. The main aim of this research was to establish the current trends, opportunity and challenges in the management of e-waste in Kenya and make recommendations on measures to be taken to effectively manage or mitigate the effects of WEEE proliferation in Kenya. The ICT industry in Kenya is growing at a very fast rate leading to drastic increase in WEEE. The greatest challenges facing Kenya in the management of WEEE include: low citizen awareness, lack of proper policy and legislative framework including public procurement and disposal laws, inadequate infrastructure for WEEE management; high cost of brand new EEE, absence of frameworks for End-of-Life (EoL) product take-back and implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR).
Keywords: E-waste, WEEE, challenges, opportunities, Kenya




Omwenga, EI, Kinoti P.  2011.  the Development of a Framework for Open Courseware for Emerging Economies: the case of Kenyan public Universities.. Special Issues in Computing and ICT Research . Volume VII, Kampala: Fountain Publishers
Omwenga, EI.  2011.  Text-Based Productivity Tools.. : African Virtual University Open Educational Resources. AVUAVU


T., M, Omwenga EI, W PW.  2010.  A Framework for Distributed Learning Objects Repository.. , Berlin: Lambert Academic PublishingAmazon
Omwenga, EI.  2010.  ICT for Science and Engineering Education – Models for best practice implementation.. the 3rd International Conference on Virtualization in Higher Education: Universalization of the University for a Better World. Havana, Cuba.. , Havana, Cuba


Oboko, RO, Wagacha PW, Omwenga EI, Odotte Z.  2009.  Non-Obtrusive Determination of Learning styles in Adaptive Web-Based Learning..
Oboko, R, Wagacha PW, Omwenga EI, Libotton A.  2009.  Comparison of different machine learning algorithms for the initialization of student knowledge level in a learner model-based adaptive e-learning system.. International Journal of computing and ICT Research. 3(1):50-56. Abstract

Web-based learning systems give students the freedom to determine what to study based on each individual student’s learning goals. These systems support students in constructing their own knowledge for solving problems at hand. However, in the absence of instructors, students often need to be supported as they learn in ways that are tailored to suit a specific student. Adaptive web-based learning systems are suited to such situations. In order for an adaptive learning system to be able to provide learning support, it needs to build a model of each individual student and then to use the attribute values for each student as stored in the student model to determining the kind of learning support that is suitable for each student. Examples of such attributes are student knowledge level, learning styles, student errors committed during learning, the student’s program of study, gender and number of programming languages learned by the student of programming. There are two important issues about the use of student models. Firstly, how to initialize the attributes in the student models and secondly, how to update the attribute values of the student model as students interact with the learning system. With regard to initialization of student models, one of the approaches used is to input into a machine learning algorithm attribute values of students who are already using the system and who are similar (hence called neighbors) to the student whose model is being initialized. The algorithm will use these values to predict initial values for the attributes of a new student. Similarity among students is often expressed as the distance from one student to another. This distance is often determined using a heterogeneous function of Euclidean and Overlap measures (HOEM). This paper reports the results of an investigation on how HOEM compares to two different variations of Value Difference Metric (VDM) combined with the Euclidean measure (HVDM) using different numbers of neighbors. An adaptive web-based learning system teaching object oriented programming was used. HOEM was found to be more accurate than the two variations of HVDM.

OBWOCHA, DOBOKOROBERT, I POMWENGAELIJAH, W PWAGACHAPETER.  2009.  Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming. VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. Abstract
I, POMWENGAELIJAH.  2009.  Oboko, R. O.,Wagacha,P. W., Omwenga, E. I.,Odotte Z. (2009). Non-Obtrusive Determination of Learning styles in Adaptive Web-Based Learning.. The East African Journal of Information Sciences (EAJIS) VOL 1 No.002 (2009).. Abstract


I, POMWENGAELIJAH.  2008.  Gakuu, C. M., Libotton, A., Omwenga, E. I., Kidombo, H. J. (2008). Factors that influence lecturers. Journal of Educational Fountain, School of Education, University of Nairobi.. Abstract


I, POMWENGAELIJAH.  2007.  Gakuu C.M., Libotton A., Omwenga E.I. (Feb. 2007). Towards enhancing readiness to adopt distance education and e-learning by University of Nairobi Lecturers.. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference in Computer Science and ICT COSCIT 2007, 5-7th February 2007, Nairobi, pp29-37. Abstract


Omwenga, EI.  2006.  Classical instructional methods have been used and will continue to be used in the teaching and learning process. However, their limitations in different circumstances vary depending on student and instructor needs, where they are and who they are. In thi. AbstractPedagogical Issues and E-learning Cases: Integrating ICTs into Teaching and Learning process

Classical instructional methods have been used and will continue to be used in the teaching and learning process. However, their limitations in different circumstances vary depending on student and instructor needs, where they are and who they are. In this paper we consider issues and implications o f ICT-supported learning with regard to pedagogy in the teaching and learning process. We will consider the context of developing ICT methodologies and strategies which can be integrated into the teaching and learning process within schools and higher learning institutions. The paper first presents a background and a justification for the underlying work. Approaches that can be applied to integrating ICTs effectively in the teaching and learning process are then discussed. Intelligent teaching and learning methods are then considered and issues on how to ameliorate the impediments are discussed within the schools’ and higher learning institutions’ set-ups respectively. The paper ends by making some recommendations and a conclusion at the end.

I, POMWENGAELIJAH.  2006.  Omwenga, E. I., Rodrigues A. J. Towards an Education Evaluation Framework: Synchronous and Asynchronous E-learning Cases.. Journal of the Research Centre for Educational Technology, Kent, Abstract
I, POMWENGAELIJAH.  2006.  Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M. Towards Development of a Model Expressing a set of E-learning Variables. Reviewed. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 28th . Abstract


I, POMWENGAELIJAH.  2005.  Omwenga, E., Waema, T., & Eisendrath, G., Libotton A. (June 2005b). Development and Application of an Objectives-driven E-content Structuring and Deployment Model (ODC-SDM).. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST), Science and Engineering Series 6(1), pp 45-50.. Abstract
I, POMWENGAELIJAH, KIPCHUMBA MRCHEPKENCHRISTOPHER, MOHAMED MRDUBLEBISHAR.  2005.  Omwenga, E. I., Chepken C.K., Bishar D. Complexity reduction in the formative evaluation process using the QuizIntegrator. In Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries.. Makerere University, Kampala, Elsevier Publishers pp 142-147.. Abstract

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