Bio

PROF. MUCHUNGA ELISHA KANYIRI CV

Publications


2012

Gatuguta, AW, Muchunga EK.  2012.  Adherence to Antiretroviral treatment among adolescents at Kenyatta National Hospital. AbstractWebsite

All over the world and specifically sub-Saharan Africa, there is massive scaling up of availability and accessibility to highly active antiretroviral therapy. (HAART) which resulted in improved survival and reduced incidence of opportunistic infections among people living with HIV & AIDS. Nonetheless, whereas efforts to increase access to HIV & AIDS treatment have achieved the desired effects with respect to improvement in the quality of life, other issues such as adherence, sustainability and effectiveness of treatment have emerged.
The goal to sustain a near optimal adherence for successful antiretroviral treatment is undoubtedly a major concern in the management of HIV & AIDS. Among adolescents, the challenge assumes greater proportions given the unique circumstances the group is exposed to. For instance, emotional, neurocognitive and physical development changes are some of the challenges. The transition from paediatric to adult state coupled with the knowledge about their HIV status that prompts them to initiate treatment on their own is to say the least, monumental challenges for adolescents. Moreover, adolescents are generally in school where they are subjected to stigma, discrimination and unfavourable school schedules that do not permit them time to access treatment and medication. Several studies have concluded that a high level of adherence to HAART at 95% or higher is necessary in order to avoid treatment failure and emergence of resistant strains.
Consequently, patients with 95% or higher adherence are known to have a superior virological outcome, an increase in CD4 lymphocyte count, and a lower rate of hospitalization compared with patients with lower levels of adherence.
As cited earlier, a near optimal adherence is a challenge for all patients, and non-adherent behavior is a big problem during adolescent period.
The aim of the study was therefore to determine adherence levels to antiretroviral drugs among adolescents and also establish levels of appointment keeping to clinic visits and pharmacy drug refi 11.

2011

KANYIRI, PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA.  2011.  AntiRetroviral Treatment Adherence Among Adolescents.. MSc Thesis, University of Nairobi. : African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication

2006

KANYIRI, PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA.  2006.  Reviewed a paper entitled . : African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication

2001

KANYIRI, PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA.  2001.  M. A Mwanthi, E. J. Essein, E.K. Muchunga, Y. E. Gamal and J. Austin.The Emerging effects of Industrialization on Health and Environment in Developing countries . Journal of Healthline Vol.5 No 2 April . : African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication

2000

Muganzi, ZK, Muchunga EK.  2000.  Some aspects of infant mortality in Kenya since 1948. Abstract

This paper looks at a number of factors related to infant mortality in the country since 1948. First it examines the type of data for the estimation of infant mortality through history that is pre-independence and post-independence. The errors in such data and their possible causes are pointed out. The second part of the data looks at the various estimates derived from these data and provides some of the possible factors contributing to such estimates. As it is known mortality differs by various factors within a given population, the third part briefly points out the regional differentials and their possible causes. The last part looks at the future trends in infant mortality and the factors that could make the trend possible.

Sly, DF, Muchunga EK, Muganzi Z, Lenior B.  2000.  Stability and change in family size preferences among rural youth in Kenya. Abstract

Data analyzed here indicate that rural youth in Kenya are developing rather clearly defined family size preferences and that they are capable of differentiating their own family desires from what they see as ideal for others. The validity of responses is checked by looking for general patterns in these data which have been previously observed for youth ideal fertility than desired fertility, that younger youth have higher family size preferences than older youth and that males generally have slightly higher family size desires than females. A unique feature of the data is that the same questions were asked of respondents nine months apart. While the period between interviews is not ideal for a test-retest reliability check, analysis indicates that the level of stability in response to family size preference questions was remarkably high for a population of this type.

KANYIRI, PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA.  2000.  Sociodemographic characteristics, care, feeding practices, and growth of cohorts of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. Sherry B, Embree JE, Mei Z, Ndinya-Achola JO, Njenga S, Muchunga ER, Bett J, Plummer FA. Tr. Trop Med Int Health. 2000 Oct;5(10):678-86.. : African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

1998

KANYIRI, PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA.  1998.  Further Mortality declines in Kenya. Critical issues for 1990. Journal of Healthline Vol.2 No. 4 October . : African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

1997

KANYIRI, PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA.  1997.  Social Economic and Land use indicators. Chapter 9 pp. 113-132. National Land Degradation assessment and mapping in Kenya. Government of Kenya, Royal Netherlands Government and UNEP 1997.. Social Economic and Land use indicators. Chapter 9 pp. 113-132.Government of Kenya, Royal Netherlands Government and UNEP 1997.. : African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

KANYIRI, PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA.  1997.  Z. K. Muganzi & E. K. Muchunga. Some aspects of infant mortality in Kenya since 1948 The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol. 19 No 2 January . The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol. 19 No 2 January . : African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

1988

KANYIRI, PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA.  1988.  Z. Muganzi & E. K. Muchunga. Some determinants of infant and child mortality in Kenya. A historical perspective: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol.15 1st December, 1988.. The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol.15 1st December, 1988.. : African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

1984

1980

KANYIRI, PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA.  1980.  David F. Sly, Lenoir Becky, Florida University. Elisha K. Muchunga & Zibeon Muganzi, University of Nairobi.Stability and change in Family size Preference among Rural Youth in Kenya Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 18,3, 1980.. Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 18,3, 1980.. : African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

1979

KANYIRI, PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA.  1979.  Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . : African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

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