Publications

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2018
Muigua K. "Towards an Overarching Policy: Understanding Kenya’s Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms Landscape and Culture.". In: 1st Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) National Conference. Intercontinental Hotel, ; 2018.towards_an_overarching_policy-ncia_conference_paper-ncia_conference_conference_paper_6th_june_2018_kariuki_muigua_ph.d.pdf
Muigua K. "Utilising Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms to Manage Commercial Disputes.". In: 1st Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) National Conference. InterContinental Hotel, Nairobi; 2018.
Muthomi J. "Technologies and innovations in Phytosanitary Systems.". In: The 2nd Phytosanitary Conference. KEPHIS Headquarter, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Mwangi N, Minnies D, Parsley S, Patel D, Gichuhi S, Muthami L, Moorman C, Macleod D, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Developing open online learning resources: Lessons from a short course on the control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy.". In: College of Ophthalmologists in Eastern Central & Southern Africa (COECSA). Addis Ababa; 2018. Abstract

Background: A need identified during another study prompted the development of the open online course on control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy. In our technological age, potential for learning online can provide a unique opportunity to develop context-specific content for local relevance. We report on the lessons learnt in the development of this short online course for an international audience of diverse eye care practitioners.

Methods: We developed this online short course through a formal planning process facilitated by UNESCO. The participants included eye health educators, learning designers, and content experts. The course curriculum was informed by learning from an ongoing doctorate program, as well as by clinical, public health and educational experience.

Results: Lessons learnt include:
1. Identifying the need and content – Learning and research from a doctorate research program can inform content development.
2. Identifying the relevance – the content needs to be customized for the target audience and local context.
3. Developing the learning design – promoting digital teaching skills and co-creation of content are valuable entry points.
4. Accommodating appropriate peer review and mentorship may enhance learning and quality assurance.
5. Resource planning activities need to be documented as a learning point.
6. There are significant costs in course development, such as time spent in content development, and ongoing maintenance eg maintaining the online platform.
7. Sources of quality open access resources in eye care are limited.

Conclusion: Content development is a unique learning experience, and it is essential to develop and support context specific learning resources. Open educational practice supports a collaborative process that enhances relevance and quality of training. The online format emphasizes the importance of learning design requirements to bridge the transactional distance between the participant and the educator.

Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Composition, Particle Size, Setting Time of Clinker and Geopolymer Cements.". In: IADR. London, UK; 2018.
Otieno CA, Wairimu S, Madadi VO, Kimani E, Jama HH, Ayah R. "TO DETERMINE THE USE OF LOCAL RAW MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURE OF MEDICAL DEVICES: CASE STUDY OF ZEOLITE FOR OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR .". In: 1st Annual Conference on Science for Development: Supporting Manufacturing, Affordable Housing, Universal Healthcare and Food Security . Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Implementing a school-based teacher support system for sustainable education development in Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and innovation in Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Ayah R, Gitau S, Rogge M, Mugasia D, Hoyle W, Ogot M. "Creating High Value, High Impact Products from Recycled Plastic: Case Study, Building Digital Microscopes for Malaria Diagnosis. .". In: 1st Annual Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga L, Nguli1 M, M. J. Gatari1, Shepherd2 K. "Assessment of Selected Micronutrients in Common Beans in Kenya.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga LW, Mbugua, M., Onani, M.O., Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO. "New Bis(Pyrrolylimine) Platinum (II) and Palladium (II) Complexes: Synthesis, X-Ray Structure Determination, Spectroscopic Characterization, and in vitro Anticancer Activity on Various Human Carcinoma Cell Lines.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga1 LW, Njogu1 REN, Kariuki1 DK, AY1O, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Selected Applications.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Lolgisoi LB, Kimani EK, Ayah R, Jama HH. "Improving the Prototyping Manufacturing Processes: The Development of an Assembly Manual for Suction Machine.". In: 1 st Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Kimani EK, Ayah R, Jama HH. "Prototyping Process at the University of Nairobi Maker-Space: A Case Study of Medical Devices for Maternal Newborn Health.". In: 1 st Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
BIRIR J, Gatari MJ, RAJAGOPAL P, Mwea SK, MUIA ML. "Interaction of ultrasonic waves with defects.". In: NDE2018. Mumbai, India; 2018.
"Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine Boosts Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Specific Humoral Responses Systemically and at the Cervicovaginal Mucosa of Kenyan VZV-Seropositive Women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2018;218(8):1210-1218. Abstract

Attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a promising vector for recombinant vaccines. Because human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) vaccines are believed to require mucosal immunogenicity, we characterized mucosal VZV-specific humoral immunity following VZVOka vaccination.

Marangu D, Pillay K, Banderker E, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: an important cause of interstitial lung disease in infants." Respirol Case Rep. 2018;6(7):e00356. Abstract

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacification with lower zone predominance (9/9) and interlobular septal thickening (8/9). Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens appeared cloudy/milky, with abundant lipid-laden macrophages and extracellular lipid on Oil-Red-O staining (12/12), with polymicrobial (6/12) and Mycobacterium abscessus (2/12) co-infection. Antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and therapeutic lavage were interventions in all eight and five patients, respectively. Clinicians should consider ELP in children with non-resolving pneumonia in settings with similar practices.

Nangia V, Jonas JB, George R, Lingam V, Ellwein L, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia." Br J Ophthalmol. 2018. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia.

METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020.

RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%).

CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.

Andreieva IO, Konstantynovska O, Midulla F, Marangu D, Mchedlishvili N. "Summer schools of adult and paediatric respiratory medicine: course report." Breathe (Sheff). 2018;14(1):9-12. Abstract
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

Mwangi N, Ng'ang'a M, Gakuo E, Gichuhi S, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Tum P, Jalango A, Githeko K, Gichangi M, Kibachio J, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Effectiveness of peer support to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy: study protocol for the DURE pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga, Kenya." BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):871. Abstract

All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination.

Wilson KS, Wanje G, Masese L, Simoni JM, Shafi J, Adala L, Overbaugh J, Jaoko W, Richardson BA, McClelland RS. "A Prospective Cohort Study of Fertility Desire, Unprotected Sex, and Detectable Viral Load in HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2018;78(3):276-282. Abstract

Little is known about fertility desire in HIV-positive female sex workers. Fertility desire could increase HIV transmission risk if it was associated with condomless sex or lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

Pankau MD, Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Langat A, Otieno V, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC, Lehman DA. "Decay of HIV DNA in the Reservoir and the Impact of Short Treatment Interruption in Kenyan Infants." Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(1):ofx268. Abstract

We compared change in HIV reservoir DNA following continued antiretroviral therapy (ART) vs short treatment interruption (TI) in early ART-treated Kenyan infants. While HIV DNA in the reservoir decayed with continued ART, HIV DNA levels were similar to pre-TI HIV DNA reservoir levels in most children after short TI.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Davis SM, Pals S, Yang C, Odoyo-June E, Chang J, Walters MS, Jaoko W, Bock N, Westerman L, Toledo C, Bailey RC. "Circumcision status at HIV infection is not associated with plasma viral load in men: analysis of specimens from a randomized controlled trial." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2018;18(1):350. Abstract

Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mechanisms for this protection include removal of the inflammatory anaerobic sub-preputial environment and the high concentration of Langerhans cells on the inside of the foreskin, both believed to promote local vulnerability to HIV infection. In people who do acquire HIV, viral load is partially determined by infecting partner viral load, potentially mediated by size of infecting inoculum. By removing a portal for virion entry, prior male circumcision could decrease infecting inoculum and thus viral load in men who become HIV-infected, conferring the known associated benefits of slower progression to disease and decreased infectiousness.

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "The effect of Kenya's free maternal health care policy on the utilization of health facility delivery services and maternal and neonatal mortality in public health facilities." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):77. Abstract

Kenya abolished delivery fees in all public health facilities through a presidential directive effective on June 1, 2013 with an aim of promoting health facility delivery service utilization and reducing pregnancy-related mortality in the country. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of this policy's effect on health facility delivery service utilization and maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate in Kenyan public health facilities.

Do DV, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS, Hawkins BS. "Surgery for postvitrectomy cataract." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1:CD006366. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:
Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous that is used in the treatment of many disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from removal of the cataractous lens.

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery versus no surgery for postvitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes.

SEARCH METHODS:
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 May 2017), Embase.com (1947 to 17 May 2017), PubMed (1946 to 17 May 2017), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS) (January 1982 to 17 May 2017), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com); last searched May 2013, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 17 May 2017, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 17 May 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA:
We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two review authors independently screened the search results according to the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

MAIN RESULTS:
We found no RCTs or quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:
There is no evidence from RCTs or quasi-RCTs on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for postvitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for RCTs to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include changes (both gains and losses) of visual acuity, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture and retinal detachment. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one- or two-year) outcomes should be examined.
Update of Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013]

Emily N Kitivo, GH Nyamasyo JKM. "Agroecosytem disservices and service providers." South Eastern Kenya University; 2018.
Subramanian S, Gakunga R, Kibachio J, Gathecha G, Edwards P, Ogola E, Yonga G, Busakhala N, Munyoro E, Chakaya J, Ngugi N, Mwangi N, Von Rege D, Wangari L-M, Wata D, Makori R, Mwangi J, Mwanda W. "Cost and affordability of non-communicable disease screening, diagnosis and treatment in Kenya: Patient payments in the private and public sectors." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(1):e0190113. Abstract

The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in low- and middle-income countries, including Kenya, disproportionately to the rest of the world. Our objective was to quantify patient payments to obtain NCD screening, diagnosis, and treatment services in the public and private sector in Kenya and evaluate patients' ability to pay for the services.

Malusi B, L.O O. "Effect of Handedness on Completion Rate of Chemistry Timed Tasks by LeftHanded Learners .". In: The IAFOR International Conference on Education. Dubai; 2018.iicedubai2018_39167.pdf
Mumbi M. "Evolution of Colonial Architecture and its contribution to Tropical Architecture.". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Bashaeb MO, Mutala TM, Muriithi IM. "Pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain at the department of diagnostic imaging, university of Nairobi." Pan Afr Med J. 2018;31:116. Abstract

the ankle joint is a frequently injured joint. It is also affected by inflammatory, infectious and tumoral lesions. Ultrasound is a safe and cost-effective imaging tool when evaluating the ankle joint, as most structures are superficial and accessible. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain.

Bashaeb MO, Mutala TM, Muriithi IM. "Pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain at the department of diagnostic imaging, university of Nairobi." Pan Afr Med J. 2018;31:116. Abstract

the ankle joint is a frequently injured joint. It is also affected by inflammatory, infectious and tumoral lesions. Ultrasound is a safe and cost-effective imaging tool when evaluating the ankle joint, as most structures are superficial and accessible. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain.

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "Satisfaction with Delivery Services Offered under the Free Maternal Healthcare Policy in Kenyan Public Health Facilities." J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:4902864. Abstract

Patients' satisfaction is an individual's positive assessment regarding a distinct dimension of healthcare and the perception about the quality of services offered in that health facility. Patients who are not satisfied with healthcare services in a certain health facility will bypass the facility and are unlikely to seek treatment in that facility.

Perciani CT, Jaoko W, Farah B, Ostrowski MA, Anzala O, MacDonald KS. "αEβ7, α4β7 and α4β1 integrin contributions to T cell distribution in blood, cervix and rectal tissues: Potential implications for HIV transmission." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(2):e0192482. Abstract

Cell surface expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins play a key role in T cell distribution. Understanding the contribution of integrins to the density and ratios of CD4+: CD4negT cell at the portals of entry for HIV is of fundamental importance for the advance of more effective HIV prevention strategies. We therefore set out to characterize and compare the expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins on systemic, cervical and rectal CD4+ and CD4negT cells isolated from a cohort of healthy Kenyan women at low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) (n = 45). Here we show that blood and cervix were enriched in α4+β1+CD4+T cells and α4+β7hiCD4+T cells, whereas the rectum had an equal frequency of α4+β7hiCD4+T cells and αE+β7hiCD4+T cells. Most cervical and rectal αE+β7hiCD4+T cells expressed CCR5 as well as CD69. Interestingly, αEβ7 was the predominant integrin expressed by CD4negT cells in both mucosal sites, outnumbering αE+β7hiCD4+T cells approximately 2-fold in the cervix and 7-fold in the rectum. The majority of αE+β7hiCD4negT cells expressed CD69 at the mucosa. Taken together, our results show unique tissue-specific patterns of integrin expression. These results can help in guiding vaccine design and also the use of therapeutically targeting integrin adhesion as a means to preventing HIV.

M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. ") Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 2018;2(1).
Karuga SW, GATARI MJ, Marijnissen JCM, Kelder EM. "Electrospray synthesis of porous cathode material for lithium ion batteries.". In: Aerosol Technology Conference (AT2018). Bilbao, Spain; 2018.
simon munayi Janet chumba. "Management of sports in kenyan public and private universities:emerging trends.". In: Laikipia university international conference.; 2018.
Ondieki EO. "TENEMENTS IN NAIROBI’S URBAN GROWTH.". In: Architectural Association of Kenya (AAK) Convention. Pride-Inn Paradise Beach Resort, Mombasa; 2018.
Ayah R. "Clinical Team Effectiveness and Scaling up of HIV Treatment and Care: A Survey of ART Services Nairobi County.". In: HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Scientific Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Onyango CM, Kunyanga CN, Karanja DN, Wahome RG. " EMPLOYER PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY TRAINING IN KENYA ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research . 2018;6(1):175-185.
Uwizeyimana, D., Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi, G. " Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.
Uwizeyimana, D., SM M, Karuku G, G K. " Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research.. 2018;6(3):21.
Muigua K. " Institutionalising Traditional Dispute Resolution Mechanisms and other Community Justice Systems." Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya), Alternative Dispute Resolution. 2018;6(1):84-168.
POKHARIYAL P, MUTURI NE, J. M. KHALAGAI G. " SPLITTING AND ADMISSIBLE TOPOLOGIES DEFINED ON THE SET OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS BETWEEN BITOPOLOGICAL SPACES." International Journal of Mathematical Archive. 2018;9(( 1),2018, ):65-68. Abstract SPLITTING AND ADMISSIBLE TOPOLOGIES DEFINED ON THE SET OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS BETWEEN BITOPOLOGICAL SPACES

In this paper, p-splitting, p-admissible, s-splitting and s-admissible topologies on the sets p−C(Y, Z) and s−C(Y, Z) are defined and their properties explored. exponential functions are introduced in function spaces and s-splitting and s-admissible topologies defined on s-C(Y, Z) compared using these mappings

M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. " Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Obstet Gnecol Rep. 2018; 2: DOI(10.15761):OGR.1000127.
Gathungu JKJ&. "). Employee Trust of Top Management and Performance of Saccos in Nairobi City County, Kenya." American Research Journal of Humanities Social Sciences. 2018;01(02):10-190.
Etta M. "5. Application of Brick as a Building Material for Low Cost Housing in Hot and Dry Climates." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication,. 2018;Vol. 8(Issue 9, September 2018): ISSN: 2250-3153, 619-623.
Kaviti L. ": The new curriculum of Education in Kenya: A Linguistic and Education Paradigm shift. ." In the Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences peer reviewed reviewed by the international organization of Scientific Research International Journal of Scien. 2018.
Matula P, Kyalo N, Mulwa S, Gichui WL. Academic Research Proposal Writing. Principles, Concepts and Structure.. Nairobi: ARTS press; 2018.
Otieno A, Karuku G, Raude J, Koech O. "Accumulation Of Nitrogen And Phosphorous By Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon Zizanioides) In A Model Constructed Wetland Treatment System For Polishing Municipal Wastewater." International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies . 2018;22(4):291-298 .
et.al. JMI. "Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Suitability of Banana Crop Production to Future Climate Change Over Uganda.". In: Limits to Climate Change Adaptation. Springer, Cham; 2018. Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine suitability zones of future banana growth under a changing climate to guide the design of future adaptation options in the banana sub-sector of Uganda. The study used high resolution (~1 km) data on combined bioclimatic variables (rainfall and temperature) to map suitability zones of the banana crop while the Providing Regional Climate for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) regional climate model temperature simulations were used to estimate the effect of rising temperature on banana growth assuming other factors constant. The downscaled future climate projections were based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5) and Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES, A1B and A2) across the period 2011–2090. The methodology involved identification of banana-climate growth thresholds and developing suitability indices for banana production under the high mitigation (RCP 2.6, less adaptation), medium mitigation (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0, medium adaptation), no mitigation (RCP 8.5, very high adaptation) scenarios, SRES A1B and A2 scenarios. The FAO ECO-Crop tool was used to determine and map future suitability of banana growth. Banana production indices were determined using a suitability model in the Geographical Information System (GIS) spatial analyst tool. The non-linear banana-temperature regression model was used to assess the impact of future changes in temperature on banana growth. The results revealed unique and distinct banana production suitability and growth patterns for each climate scenario in the sub-periods. RCPs 2.6 and 6.5 are likely to be associated with higher levels of banana production than RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The results further showed that projected temperature increase under SRES A1B will promote banana growth. In contrast, expected increases in temperatures under SRES A2 are likely to retard banana growth due to high moisture deficits. There is need to develop adaptation option for farming communities to maximize their agricultural production and incomes. The effectiveness of adaptation options needed to combat the impacts will be influenced by the magnitude of the expected climatic changes associated with each scenario, the timing of expected climate change extremes and sensitivity of the crop to climate. This study has provided critical information that will be useful for planning integrated adaptation practices in the banana farming subsector to promote productivity.

Sabiiti G, et al. "Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: Suitability of Banana Crop Production to Future Climate Change over Uganda.". In: Limits to Climate Change Adaptation. Springer, Cham; 2018. Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine suitability zones of future banana growth under a changing climate to guide the design of future adaptation options in the banana sub-sector of Uganda. The study used high resolution (~ 1km) data on combined bioclimatic variables (rainfall and temperature) to map suitability zones of the banana crop while the Providing Regional Climate for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) regional climate model temperature simulations were used to estimate the effect of rising temperature on banana growth assuming other factors constant. The downscaled future climate projections were based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5) and Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES, A1B and A2) across the period 2011-2090. The methodology involved identification of banana-climate growth thresholds and developing suitability indices for banana production under the high mitigation (RCP 2.6, less adaptation), medium mitigation (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0, medium adaptation), no mitigation (RCP 8.5, very high adaptation) scenarios, SRES A1B and A2 scenarios. The FAO ECO-Crop tool was used to determine and map future suitability of banana growth. Banana production indices were determined using a suitability model in the Geographical Information System (GIS) spatial analyst tool. The non-linear banana-temperature regression model was used to assess the impact of future changes in temperature on banana growth.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci . 2018;13(81):https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0773-2.
N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implementation Science. 2018;13(1):81.
Kinuthia JW, Odiemo L. "ADULT EDUCATION AND SELF-EFFICACY: A TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING PERSPECTIVE ." INTERNATIONAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH. 2018;10(07).joyce_kinuthia_31164-_2018.pdf
Wondimu W, Bogale A, Babege T. "AJPS Articles." Evaluation. 2018.
Derese S. "Alkenyl cyclohexanone derivatives from Lannea rivae and Lannea schweinfurthii." Phytochemistry Letters. 2018;23:141-148. Abstractalkenyl_cyclohexanone_derivatives_from_lannea_rivae_and_lannea.pdfWebsite

Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Lannea rivae (Chiov) Sacleux (Anacardiaceae) led to the isolation of a new alkenyl cyclohexenone derivative: (4R,6S)-4,6-dihydroxy-6-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-one (1), and a new alkenyl cyclohexanol derivative: (2S*,4R*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-2-((Z)-nonadec-14′-en-1-yl)cyclohexanone (2) along with four known compounds, namely epicatechin gallate, taraxerol, taraxerone and β-sitosterol; while the stem bark afforded two known compounds, daucosterol and lupeol. Similar investigation of the roots of Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.) Engl. led to the isolation of four known compounds: 3-((E)-nonadec-16′-enyl)phenol, 1-((E)-heptadec-14′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol, catechin, and 1-((E)-pentadec-12′-enyl)cyclohex-4-ene-1,3-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by quantum chemical ECD calculations. In an antibacterial activity assay using the microbroth kinetic method, compound 1 showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli while compound 2 exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Compound 1 also showed moderate activity against E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The roots extract of L. rivae was notably cytotoxic against both the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line and the Vero mammalian cell line (CC50 = 5.24 and 5.20 μg/mL, respectively). Compound 1 was also strongly cytotoxic against the DU-145 cell line (CC50 = 0.55 μg/mL) but showed no observable cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μg/mL) against the Vero cell line. The roots extract of L. rivae and L. schweinfurthii, epicatechin gallate as well as compound 1 exhibited inhibition of carageenan-induced inflammation.

Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2018;4(8):252-256.
Derese S. "Antiplasmodial prenylated flavanonols from Tephrosia subtrifloran ." Natural product research. 2018;32(12):1407-1414. Abstract

The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1.4–4.6 μM without significant cytotoxicity against Vero and HEp2 cell lines (IC50 > 100 μM). The new compound (1) showed weak antiplasmodial activity, IC50 12.5–24.2 μM, but also showed selective anticancer activity against HEp2 cell line …

Patrice K, Gideon NN, Paul NN, Christopher A, Robert K. "Apis mellifera adansonii Is the Most Defensive Honeybee in Uganda." Psyche. 2018;201:6.
Dr. Laban Shihembetsa EM. "Application of Brick as a Building Material for Low Cost Housing in Hot and Dry Climates." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication, . 2018;Volume 8, (Issue 9, September 2018 (619-623). ISSN: 2250-3153.).
UngaiShihembetsa DL. "An Appraisal of Community Initiative in the Provision and Management of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Kiambiu Slum Settlement in Nairobi." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), . 2018;Volume 23, (Issue 10, Ver. 1(October. 2018) 49-62. e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845).
WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Karanja FK. "Assessing the Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(1):13-24. Abstractassessing_the_impacts_of_climate_variability_and_climate_change_on_biodiversity_in_lake_nakuru_kenya.pdfSMUJO (smujo.id)

Wambui MB, Opere A, Githaiga MJ, Karanja FK. 2017. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and climate change on biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Bonorowo Wetlands 1: 13-24. This study evaluates the impacts of the raised water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, due to climate change and climate variability. The study was to review and analyze noticed climatic records from 2000 to 2014. Several methods were used to ascertain the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall and evaporation), and also the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, and trend analysis, so the Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to show a relationship between the alterations in lake conductivity to alterations in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, rainfall and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to evaluate the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance. It was noticed that there was a raise in the mean annual rainfall during the study period (2009 to 2014) which brought the increment in the lake’s surface area from a low area of 31.8 km² in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km² in Sept 2013, indicating an increment of 22.9 km² (71.92% surface area increment). Mean conductivity of the lake also lessened leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed making them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was noticed signifying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently revealed that the phytoplankton density could be a notable predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation noticed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake. It is projected that there would be an increment in temperatures, rainfall and evaporation for the period 2017 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increment in surface area and depth by the year 2100 due to increased rainfall thereby affecting the populations of the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will alter as well during the projected period.
Keywords: Biodiversity, climate change, Lake Nakuru, Kenya

Uwizeyimana D, Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi G. "Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.
Kisangaki P, Nyamasyo G, Ndegwa P, Kajobe R. "Assessment of honey bee colony performance in the agro-ecological zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):1-6.
Kasangaki P, Gideon Nyamasyo, Paul Ndegwa RK. "Assessment of Honeybee Colony Performance in the Agro-Ecological Zones of Uganda." Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;1(5):122-127.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of the trends and presence of Water Related Conflicts in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):22-40.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of Water resources Access, Use and Management, in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):1-21.
Okunya LO, Mwangi DN. "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DURATION OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COPING STRATEGIES AMONG ADOLESCENTS ." International Journal of Education and Social Science Research . 2018;1(6).diana_njoki_coping_paper_ijessr_01_99.pdf
Oduor J. "An Autosegmental Analysis of the Downstepped High Tone in Dholuo.". In: In Helga and Prisca Jerono (eds.) Nilo-Saharan Issues and Perspectives. Cologne: Köppe, pp. 43 - 56.; 2018.
Kithinji AM. "BANK SIZE AS A MODERATING FACTOR ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BANK RESTRUCTURING AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA ." International Journal of Business Management and Economic Review. 2018;5(1):298-307. Abstractdr._angela_kithinji_publications_2018_to_2019_1.pdf

ABSTRACT
The main goal of this research was to examine how bank size moderates the relationship between
bank restructuring and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. This study
employed descriptive research design. The study was a census of all the 44 commercial banks in
Kenya which were in operation as at 31st December 2014. This research collected secondary
data gotten from banks annual report for the period of ranging from 2002 to 2014. The regression
analysis model was used to estimate the moderating effect of size on the relationship between
bank restructuring and profitability. The study established that moderation of the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance using bank size was not significantly
influenced by financial restructuring, operational restructuring and asset restructuring on
financial performance of commercial banks. However, when bank restructuring variables were
interacted with bank size the findings are that only capital restructuring had a significant
interaction. It was therefore, concluded that bank size therefore moderates the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance. The study recommends that there is need
to institute policy reforms geared towards increasing the size of banks either internally by
increasing their asset size or through mergers to expand their size. The regulator can also embark
on setting a minimum size threshold with a view to significantly reducing the number of banks
which would translate into the remaining ones becoming larger. Furthermore, there is need for
commercial banks to strike a balance between enhancing their operations through operational
restructuring or improving profits by focusing on aspects that have a direct positive effect on
profits.

Keyword: Bank Size, Bank Restructuring, Financial Performance, Commercial Banks

Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).
Mulwa M, Samuel Ngigi. "Barriers to Uptake and Use of Added Value Mobile Money Products by the Lesser off Segments in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2018;7(6):146-155.jun18049_1.pdf
Bulinda DM. "Basics of Educational Administration ." Lambart Academic Publishing. 2018.
Mbali KK, Mutembei HM MJK. "BENEFITS OF ADOPTING BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY IN." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(3):87-92.mutembei-mbali-benefits-2018.pdf
Anne W Muohi, Gerd‐Peter Zauke, Hans‐Jurgen Brumsack, Mavuti KM. "Bioaccumulation of trace elements in Arthrospira fusiformis algal blooms in Lakes Bogoria and Sonachi, Kenya: Evaluation and verification of toxicokinetic models." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2018;23(4):277-286.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
Lengai G, Muthomi J. "Biopesticides and Their Role in Sustainable Agricultural Production." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2018;6:7-41.
Angeline Anyona Aywak1*, Timothy Musila Mutala1, Purity Ndaiga1, Callen Onyambu1, Raza2 S. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.
AA A, TM M, P N, C O, S. R. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." J Glob Radiol. 2018;4((1)):10.7191/jgr.2018.1037.
Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Muia D, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Bridging the entrepreneurial gender gap through social protection among women small-scale traders in Kenya.". In: Women Entrepreneurs and the Myth of ‘Underperformance’: A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2018.1-14619-flier.pdf
Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, E. O, Olago D, Opere A, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability . 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Kailemia M, Kariuki N, Laving A, Agweyu A, Wamalwa. D. "Caregiver oral rehydration solution fluid monitoring charts versus standard care for the management of some dehydration among Kenyan children: a randomized controlled trial." International Health. 2018;10(6):442-450. Abstract

Diarrhoea is a major cause of child mortality. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an efficacious intervention for correcting dehydration, inadequate monitoring may limit its effectiveness in routine settings. We evaluated the effect of using a caregiver-administered chart to monitor oral fluid therapy on hydration status among children with some dehydration.

K. MS, G. MM. "CHALLENGES FACED IN SUCCESSION PLANNING IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY IN KENYA." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(6):25-39.succession_planning_challenges.pdf
and Zubeda Mucheke DNBS. "Challenges to electronic conveyancing in Kenya." Open University of Tanzania Law Journal. 2018.
K, wa Gachigi. "Changes in Phytochemical content during different growth stages in tubers of five varieties of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(1):1-11. Abstractgeoffrey_kipkoech_kirui.pdfWebsite

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) synthesizes a variety of bioactive metabolites including phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids that protects against insects and diseases, and may influence its nutritional quality. Phenolics provide valuable health promoting antioxidants, whereas glycoalkaloid concentrations exceeding the upper safety limit of 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (Fwt) are potential neurotoxins. Therefore, efficient selection for tuber nutritional quality is dependent upon safe and reliable analytical methods. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the concentration of glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds during different growth stages in tubers of five selected potato varieties grown in Kenya. α-chaconine and α-solanine were separated and identified by HPLC. Total glycoalkaloids (TGA) and phenolics were determined by UV spectrophotometry. Recovery efficiencies for validation of analytical methods ranged from 85.9-93.5%. Significant differences in TGA and phenolic contents were detected among potato varieties. Tuber TGA content ranged from 6.80 to 10.56 mg/100g Fwt in vars. Dutch Robijn and Tigoni, respectively, and were within the upper safety limit. The corresponding values for chlorogenic acid contents in the examined varieties ranged from 46.39 to 58.04 mg/100 g Fwt. Total phenolic concentration in the examined tuber extracts varied ranged from 129.24 to 192.52 mg CGA/g Fwt. Glycoalkaloid and phenolic production were significantly reduced from time of initiation to maturity at 55 and 125 days, respectively, after planting (DAP). These results demonstrate that tuber phytochemicals were strongly influenced by variety and level of maturity. For nutritional safety and quality purposes, harvesting of mature potato tubers after 125 DAP is recommended

Kirui GK, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji, Amugune NO. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
Geoffrey Kipkoech Kirui, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji NOA. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
Kabira WM. "Changing the Mainstream Celebrating Women’s Resilience.". In: Changing the Mainstream Celebrating Women’s Resilience.; 2018.
Olumeh1* DE, Adam2 R, Otieno1 DJ, Oluoch-Kosura1 W. "Characterizing Smallholder Maize Farmers’ Marketing in Kenya: An Insight into the Intra-Household Gender, Wealth-Status, Educational and Credit Access Dimensions ." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research www.iiste.org. 2018;Vol.48(ISSN):2422-8451.
Olumeh DE, Rahma A, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Characterizing smallholder maize farmers’ marketing in Kenya: An insight into the intra-household gender, wealth-status, educational and credit access dimensions." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research (JMCR). 2018;48(7)(ISSN 2422 – 8451):1-10.
Joseph O. "China’s Development Loans and the threat of Debt Crisis in Kenya." Development Policy Review. 2018; 36(S2): 0710-0728.Website
Paschalia Mbutu, Dr. Wanjiru Gichuhi DGN. "Choice of Place of Delivery during Pregnancy in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub-County." International Journal ofbScience Arts and Commerce. 2018;3(5).
Etyang, P. P. & Okoth UA. "Class Teachers’ Role in Maintaining Students’ Discipline In Secondary Schools in Teso South District, Kenya ." International Journal of Human Resources Management (IJHRM). 2018;7(3):1-8.
Mungania BG, Schroeder H. "Clause chaining in the Kiswahili clause." Kiswahili. 2018;Vol. 81:120-146.
Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2018:1-12. AbstractFull Text

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

"Climate Change Challenges and Food Production in Elwak South Madera County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development (IJIRD). 2018;Vol. 7(Issue 7):379-387.
Ogallo LA, Omondi P, Ouma G, Wayumba G. "Climate Change Projections and the Associated Potential Impacts for Somalia." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(2):153. Abstractclimate_change_projections_and_the_associated_potential_impacts_for_somalia.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Somalia has faced severe challenges linked to climate variability, which has been exacerbated by conflict and limited governance that persisted for decades. Today climate extremes such as floods, drought, and coastal marine severe systems among others are always associated with the destruction of property and livelihoods; losses of lives lost, migrations, and resource based conflicts among many other miseries. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has shown that climate change is real and requires sound knowledge of local future climate change scenarios. The study attempted to provide projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios over Lower Jubba, Somalia. This was done using the downscaled Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) RCMs data. The simulated temperature and rainfall data derived from the CORDEX RCMs ensemble were compared with the observed data. The study focused on the IPCC projected periods of
2030, 2050 and 2070 benchmarks. Analysis of the projected rainfall indicated a decreasing trend in rainfall leading up to 2030 followed by an increase in rainfall with the 2050 and 2070 scenarios. In the case of temperature, the projections from all the models showed increase in minimum and maximum temperatures in all seasons and sub periods, like being observed by temperature projection over other parts of the world. The 2030, 2050 and 2070 projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios show that Somalia future development and livelihoods will in future face increased threats of climate extremes unless effective climate smart adaptation systems form integral components of national development strategies.

F M, JJ C. "Clinical Learning Experiences: A study among Undergraduate Nursing Students, Kenya." Nursing Research and Practice Journal. 2018.
Jane Aduda1, Patrick Weke2 PN2. "A Co-Integration Analysis of the Interdependencies between Crude Oil and Distillate Fuel Prices." journal of mathematical finance. 2018;8(2):478-496. AbstractA Co-Integration Analysis of the Interdependencies between Crude Oil and Distillate Fuel Prices

The co-evolution and co-movement of financial time series are of utmost importance in contemporary finance, especially when considering the joint behaviour of asset price realizations. The ability to model interdependencies and volatility spill-over effects introduces interesting dimensions in finance. This paper explores co-integrating relationships between crude oil and distillate fuel prices. Existence of multivariate co-integrating relations and bidirectional Granger-Causality is established among the series. It is also established that even after fitting a full VECM, the residuals are not necessarily multivariate normal suggesting the noise could as well be multivariate GARCH.

Yuga ME, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Kimani PM, Olubayo MF, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Combining Ability and Heterosis for Agronomic and Yield Traits in Indica and Japonica Rice Crosses." Journal of Agricultural Science . 2018;10(12):92-103.
Rono S, Nzuve F, Muthomi J, Kimani J. "Combining Ability of Agronomic and Yield Traits in Rice Genotypes." Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology. 2018;6:2.
Kataliko RK, Kimani PM, Muthomi JW, Wanderi SW, Olubayo FM, Nzuve FM. "Combining ability of resistance to pod shattering and selected agronomic traits of soybean." International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research. 2018;6(10):176-188.
Kambura C, Tanga CM, Kilalo D, Muthomi J, Salifu D, Rwomushana I, Mohamed SA, Ekesi S. "Composition, Host Range and Host Suitability of Vegetable-Infesting Tephritids on Cucurbits Cultivated in Kenya." African Entomology. 2018;26(2):379-397.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Composition, Particle Size, Setting Time of Clinker and Geopolymer Cements." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(5):1522-1534.
Mwabora JM, Mulama AA, Oduor AO, Muiva CM. "Compositional and Thickness Effects on the Optical Properties of Zinc–Doped Selenium–Antimony Thin Films." Tanzania Journal of Science. 2018;44(4). Abstract

Chalcogenide system of antimony (Sb)-selenium (Se)-zinc (Zn) system is a promising semiconductor for phase change memory devices due to its thermal stability and low power consumption. The study investigated the effect of film thickness and zinc content on the optical properties of thermally evaporated Sb10Se90-xZnx (x = 0, 5, 10 & 15 at. %) thin films. It was found that transmittance (T~ 85-40%) and optical band gap energy (Eopt ~ 1.60 eV – 1.22 eV) decreased but absorption coefficient (α~0.840–2.031 104 cm–1) increased with increase in zinc content. Furthermore, as the film thickness increased from 53 ± 5 nm to 286 ± 10 nm, transmittance decreased but band gap energy increased due to zinc defects and localized states in the Sb10Se90-xZnx system.

Rukwaro P. "Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage in Kenya." www.ucl.ac.uk/ucl-press; 2018.
Ekirapa, A. F. &Okoth UA. "Constituency bursary scheme for secondary schools in Kenya: Challenges of the constituency development fund (CDF). ." IMPACT. International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature (Impact: IJRHAL). 2018;6(3):229-240.
Kunyanga Catherine. N., Amimo JKLC'wa GN. "Consumer Risk Exposure to Chemical and Microbial Hazards through Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Kenya. ." Journal of Food Science and Quality Management. 2018;78:59-69.
Quinlan MM, Birungi J, Coulibaly MB, Diabaté A, Facchinelli L, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, M J. "Containment studies of transgenic mosquitoes in disease endemic countries: The broad concept of facilities readiness." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2018;18(1):14-20.
John Mwangi Prisca Mary Oluoch PAO. "Content of Vignettes and Ethical Decision Making Among Business Education Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2018;17(11).
Matula PD, Sikalie D. Cross- Cultural Management..; 2018.
Yaouba S, Valkonen A, Coghi P, Gao J, Guantai EM, Derese S, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Crystal Structures and Cytotoxicity of ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpenoids from Two Aspilia Species." Molecules. 2018;23(12):31-99. Abstract

A phytochemical investigation of the roots of Aspilia pluriseta led to the isolation of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids and additional phytochemicals (1–23). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configurations of seven of the ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids (3–6, 6b, 7 and 8) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Eleven of the compounds were also isolated from the roots and the aerial parts of Aspilia mossambicensis. The literature NMR assignments for compounds 1 and 5 were revised. In a cytotoxicity assay, 12α-methoxy-ent-kaur-9 (11), 16-dien-19-oic acid (1)(IC 50= 27.3±1.9 µM) and 9β-hydroxy-15α-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3)(IC 50= 24.7±2.8 µM) were the most cytotoxic against the hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) cell line, while 15α-angeloyloxy-16β, 17-epoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (5)(IC 50= 30.7±1.7 µM) was the most cytotoxic against adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells.

Derese S. "Crystal Structures and Cytotoxicity of ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpenoids from Two Aspilia Species." Molecules 23. 2018;23(12):3199. Abstract

A phytochemical investigation of the roots of Aspilia pluriseta led to the isolation of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids and additional phytochemicals (1–23). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configurations of seven of the ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids (3–6, 6b, 7 and 8) were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Eleven of the compounds were also isolated from the roots and the aerial parts of Aspilia mossambicensis. The literature NMR assignments for compounds 1 and 5 were revised. In a cytotoxicity assay, 12α-methoxy-ent-kaur-9 (11), 16-dien-19-oic acid (1)(IC 50= 27.3±1.9 µM) and 9β-hydroxy-15α-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3)(IC 50= 24.7±2.8 µM) were the most cytotoxic against the hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) cell line, while 15α-angeloyloxy-16β, 17-epoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (5)(IC 50= 30.7±1.7 µM) was the most cytotoxic against adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells.

Sungura R, Onyambu C, Mathenge I. "The CT Angiographic Prevalence of Renal Accessory Arteries in Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2018;7(1):2745-2754.Online
Sungura R, Onyambu C, Mathenge I. "The CT Angiographic Prevalence of Renal Accessory Arteries in Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2018;7(1): 2745-2754.
and Karibe Wilson KCIJ. "Current status and utilization of beef slaughter by-product by the pastoral communities in Kenya: the case of bovine tripe." Journal of Advances in Food Science & Technology. 2018;5(2):48-57.
Chanzu, Oliver. KCIJKWNK. "Current Status of Pre-slaughter, Slaughtering and Post-slaughter Practices of Fresh Beef in Pastoral Areas of Kenya." Journal of Food Science and Quality Management;. 2018;78:17-22.
Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. Abstract

Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 Naturally occurring Phenolics and Terpenoids from Kenyan Flora towards Human Carcinoma Cells." Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2018;https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2018.04.001.kuete_et_al_2018 pdfkuete_et_al_2018 pdf
Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2018;17. Abstract

Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.

Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of 11 naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.

Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.

Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4′,6′-trihydroxy-5′-methoxychalcone (3); 2′,6′-diacetate-4′-methoxychalcone (4), trachylobane diterpenoids: 2,6,19-trachylobanetriol; (ent-2α,6α)-form (10) and 2,18,19-trachylobanetriol; (ent-2α)-form (11) as well as doxorubicin displayed IC50 values below 110 μM in the six tested cancer cell lines. The IC50 values of the most active compounds were between 6.30 μM and 46.23 μM for compound 1 respectively towards breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and small lung cancer A549 cells and between 0.07 μM and 1.01 μM for doxorubicin respectively against SPC212 cells and A549 cells. Compounds 1 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by increasing ROS production and MMP loss.

Conclusion
Chalcones 1–3 are potential cytotoxic phytochemicals that deserve more investigations to develop novel anticancer drugs against human carcinoma.

Keywords
CarcinomaCytotoxicityDiterpenoidsMode of actionPhenolics

Nyaboke HO, Moraa M, Omosa LK, Mbaveng AT, Vaderament-Alexe N-N, Masila V, Okemwa E, Heydenreich M, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Cytotoxicity of Lupeol from the Stem Bark of Zanthoxylum gilletii against Multi-factorial Drug Resistant Cancer Cell Lines ." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology . 2018;1(1):10.
Mutekhele, B; Rambo ONCM; O;. "Data Dissemination and Use and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) . 2018;7(10).
Kimani M, E A, P W, R P, M N, H K. The Data Services Layer: A Data analytics approach to evidence-based decision making for healthcare in Kenya. Nairobi: The Pan African Health Informatics Association; 2018.
Muigua K. "Dealing with Conflicts in Project Management." Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya), Alternative Dispute Resolution.. 2018;6(2):1-36.dealing_with_conflicts_in_project_management.pdf
M’Ikiugu MH. "Demographic Factors that Affect Adoption of Biogas Technology in Kiambu County, Kenya." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE. 2018;3(1):48-57.mbali_et_al._2018-_mutemebi-_muthee.pdf
Maina EG, Gachanja AN, Gachanja AN, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2018;(190):251.
Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food Chem.. 2018;245:112-115. Abstract

Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol. Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol.

Machio PM. "Determinants of Neonatal and Under-five Mortality in Kenya: Do Antenatal and Skilled Delivery Care Services Matter?" Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association. 2018;20(1):59-67.
Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups." PJK. 2018;23(3):90-93. Abstract

Background
Common cold is the most common infection of the upper respiratory tract and cold-cough syrups are often prescribed. Although menthol is one of the common constituents of these syrups, quality checks on cold-cough syrups normally target the major active pharmaceutical ingredients without regard to menthol content.

Objective
To develop and validate a gas chromatography method for determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups.

Methods
A simple, rapid, robust, accurate and reliable Gas Chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, chlorpheniramine, guaifenesin, bromhexine and salbutamol.

Results
Optimized chromatographic conditions were: A ZB-WAXplus 60m ×0.25mm; 0.25μm fused silica capillary column. Oven temperature program of 110 0C (2 min), ramp 10 0C/min to 190 0C (2 min). Injector port temperature maintained at 240 0C. Injection volume of 1.0 μl split in the ratio of 50:1. Carrier gas as nitrogen at 1.0mL/min which also serves as make up gas (30 mL/min) in the flame ionization detector (260 0C). Other detector gases were hydrogen (30 mL/ min) and industrial air (300 mL/ min) and the diluent for samples and standards was grade chloroform.
From recovery studies, 97.56 to 102.97 % recovery was reported. Repeatability studies had a coefficient of variation of 0.55 while intermediate precision was 0.32. The method was linear over a range of 0.042 to 0.169 mg/mL with a coefficient of determination (R2) 0.9986.
Of the 21 samples analyzed, only 10 samples (47.6 %) complied with assay specifications of 90.0 to 110.0 % label claim for finished products according to the United States Pharmacopeia 2016.

Conclusion and recommendation
A gas chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups in Kenya. This method can be used together with a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method to assay cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, bromhexine, chlorpheniramine maleate, guaifenesin and salbutamol.
This method can be useful in routine analysis such as pre-registration studies as well as post market surveillance to curb substandard and counterfeit cold-cough syrups.

Chikondi Memory Liomba, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga AA. "Development of Multimix Composite Flour as Complementary Food for Infants in Malawi. ." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2018;(2):11.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "Discourse on Ecumenical Implications of Pneumatological Vital Force Towards University Students' Welfare." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2018;23(7):62-73.prof_wachege__cherono_article.pdf
J K, P N, Ndegwa P, L I, J I, B BO, C. A. "Discovery of Phlebotomus Species of Sand Flies in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya: A Possible Leishmaniases focus. ." Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology . 2018;4(3):1103-1107.
MM M, Opanga S, Oluka M, Godman B. "'Dispensing of antimicrobials in Kenya: a cross sectional pilot study and its implications' ." Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2018:1-8.
Waswa G. A, I. M, Abong'o D. A, Mbugua J. K., D. A, Aluoch A. O. "Dissipation and Sorption of Urea on Eburru Soils in Kenya." Journal of Physical Chemistry and Biophysics. 2018;8(3):271.
Ong’amo GO, Pallangyo B, Ali A, Njaku M, LeRu BP. "Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran stem borers and their respective native hosts in different vegetation mosaics in Tanzania." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):50-62.

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