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Xujing. Comparative Study of China-US MBA Education . : Northeast Normal University ; 2008.
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Torsney E, Hu Y, Xu Q. "Adventitial progenitor cells contribute to arteriosclerosis." Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2005;15:64-68. Abstract

Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of vascular progenitor cells in the development of arteriosclerosis, including transplant arteriosclerosis, angioplasty-induced restenosis, vein graft atherosclerosis, and spontaneous atherosclerosis. Recently, it was found that the adventitia of the arterial wall contains a large number of progenitor cells, which can differentiate into smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. These progenitor cells were able to migrate from the adventitia into the intima, where they accumulate to contribute to atherosclerotic lesions of vein grafts in apoE-deficient mice. Thus, these cells may be a source of smooth muscle cells and might have implications for cellular, genetic, and tissue engineering approaches to vascular disease.

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Li W, Kiulia NM, Mwenda JM, Nyachieo A, Taylor MB, Zhang X, Xiao L. Cyclospora papionis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and human-pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive baboons in Kenya.. Vol. 49.; 2011. J. Clin. Microbiol. 49(12). Abstract

Cyclospora papionis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi were detected in 42 (17.9%), 6 (2.6%), and 29 (12.3%) of 235 newly captured baboons in Kenya, respectively. Most C. hominis subtypes and E. bieneusi genotypes found have been detected in humans in the area, suggesting that cross-species transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis is possible.

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Goo Y-K, Aboge GO, Terkawi AM, Jia H, Yamagishi J, Sunaga F, Namikawa K, Cha S-Y, Jang H-K, Kim S, Nishikawa Y, Xuan X. "Four promising antigens, BgP32, BgP45, BgP47, and BgP50, for serodiagnosis of Babesia gibsoni infection were classified as B. gibsoni merozoite surface protein family.". 2012. Abstract

We determined the molecular characteristics of four proteins, BgP32, BgP45, BgP47, and BgP50, of Babesia gibsoni. Localization by subcellular fractionations followed by Western blotting revealed that the corresponding native proteins belong to merozoite surface protein family of B. gibsoni (BgMSP). Moreover, antisera against either rBgP45 or rBgP47 cross-reacted with all the proteins of the BgMSP family on ELISA and IFAT analyses. Of the four candidate antigens, ELISA with rBgP45 yielded high sensitivity, and ELISA with rBgP32 resulted in high specificity and in concordance with IFAT results.

Francis M. Awah, Peter N. Uzoegwu JOJRPIO, Xiao-Jian Yao, Keith R. Fowke MEO. "Free radical scavenging activity and immunomodulatory effect of Stachytarpheta angustifolia leaf extract." Food Chemistry. 2010;119(4):1409-1416.
f c Francis M. Awahe, Peter N. Uzoegwua PIJOJRO, XiaoJian Yaob, Frauke Fehrmannb KFMERO. "Free radical scavenging activity, phenolic contents and cytotoxicity of selected Nigerian medicinal plants." Food chemistry. 2012;131(4):1279-1286.
Qin W, Xuan Y, Liu Y, Jiang T, Yu C. "Functional {Connectivity} {Density} in {Congenitally} and {Late} {Blind} {Subjects}." Cerebral Cortex. 2014:bhu051. AbstractWebsite

Visual deprivation during different developmental periods leads to different structural and functional alterations in the brain; however, the effects of visual deprivation on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we used voxel-based functional connectivity density (FCD) analyses to investigate the effects of visual deprivation during different developmental periods on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain. Compared with the sighted controls (SC), both the congenitally blind (CB) and the late blind (LB) exhibited decreased short- and long-range FCDs in the primary visual cortex (V1) and decreased long-range FCDs in the primary somatosensory and auditory cortices. Although both the CB and LB exhibited increased short-range FCD in the dorsal visual stream, the CB exhibited greater increases in the short- and long-range FCDs in the ventral visual stream and hippocampal complex compared with the LB. Moreover, the short-range FCD of the left V1 exhibited a significant positive correlation with the duration of blindness in the LB. Our findings suggest that visual deprivation before the developmental sensitive period can induce more extensive brain functional reorganization than does visual deprivation after the sensitive period, which may underlie an enhanced capacity for processing nonvisual information in the CB.

Baldassarre GD, Elshamy M, v. Griensven A, Soliman E, Kigobe M, Ndomba P, Mutemi J, Mutua F, Moges S, Xuan Y, Solomatine D, Uhlenbrook S. "Future hydrology and climate in the River Nile basin: a review." Hydrological Sciences Journal . 2011;56(2).abstract.doc
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Yangyuoru PM, Bradburn DA, Liu Z, Xiao TS, Russell R. "The G-quadruplex (G4) resolvase DHX36 efficiently and specifically disrupts DNA G4s via a translocation-based helicase mechanism." Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2017:jbc. M117. 815076.
Jakubowski H, Xie J, Mitra AK, Ghooi R, Hosseinkhani S, Alipour M, Hajipour B, Obiero G. "The Global Ethics Corner: foundations, beliefs, and the teaching of biomedical and scientific ethics around the world." Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. 2017;45(5):385-395. Abstract

The profound advances in the biomolecular sciences over the last decades have enabled similar advances in biomedicine. These advances have increasingly challenged our abilities to deploy them in an equitable and ethically acceptable manner. As such, it has become necessary and important to teach biomedical and scientific ethics to our students who will become the researchers, medical professionals, and global citizens of the future. As advances in the biosciences and medicine are made, developed, and used across the globe, our survival on an endangered planet requires global dialog and consensual action. To that end, a group of us from around the world have come together to describe the differing foundations of our ethical beliefs, and how ethical issues in biomedicine and in science are described and confronted in our countries. We hope to show the commonality in our beliefs and practices.

Xu Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. AbstractWebsite

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

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Lown B;, Bukachi F;, Xavier R. "Health information in the developing world.". 2001. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcome of successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in patients with poor ventricular function. METHODS: Analysis of angiographic, echocardiographic and clinical records of patients with severe LV dysfunction who underwent PTCA from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1997 was undertaken. Forty-one patients aged 63+/-10 years, 36 men, all with significant coronary artery disease and impaired LV function (fractional shortening, FS

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Bhatt SM;, Cabellos, C;, Nadol, JB Jr;, Halpin C;, Lauretano A;, Xu WZ;, Tuomanen E. "The impact of dexamethasone on hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.". 1995. Abstract

Bacterial meningitis, particularly that resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a common cause of acquired profound sensorineural deafness in children. The pathogenesis of meningogenic hearing loss has been investigated in an experimental rabbit model. In this study significant deafness was documented within the first 15 hours of infection. Initiation of antibiotic therapy at this time diminished the severity of hearing loss in most animals. The addition of dexamethasone to antibiotic therapy prevented the development of profound deafness. These results suggest this model will be useful in developing antiinflammatory strategies to improve the outcome of bacterial meningitis.

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J.W N, V.N M, J.K M, Z.B A, X.N I. "Knowledge Sharing, Organizational Learning and Performance of Top 100 Medium Enterprises in Kenya ." Kenya 1st DBA Africa Management Review International conference ( 2015). 2015;1(1).
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Akuon P, Xu H. Layered baud-space modulation. Cape Town, South Africa: SATNAC 2015; 2015.
Zarins CK, Xu C, Taylor CA, Glagov S. "Localization of {Atherosclerotic} {Lesions}." In: MD RWA, MD LHH, eds. Vascular {Surgery}. Blackwell Publishing; 2007:. Abstract

This chapter contains sections titled: * Arterial structure and function * Physiologic adaptation of the arterial wall * Human atherosclerotic plaque morphology * Mechanical determinants of plaque localization * Susceptible regions of the arterial vasculature * Conclusion

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Terkawi AM, Aboge G, Jia H, Goo Y-K, Ooka H, Yamagishi J, Nishikawa Y, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I, Kawazu S-I, Fujisaki K, Xuan X. "Molecular and immunological characterization of Babesia gibsoni.". 2009. Abstract

Serological immune screening was used to identify a gene encoding heat shock protein-70 from Babesia gibsoni (BgHSP-70) that showed high homology with HSP-70s from other apicomplexan parasites. This gene corresponded to a full-length cDNA containing an open reading frame of 1968 bp predicted to result in a 70-kDa mature protein consisting of 656 amino acids. Analysis of the expression levels of BgHSP-70 indicated elevated transcription from cultured parasites incubated at 40C for 1 h, but not at 30C. Interestingly, antiserum raised against recombinant BgHSP-70 protein reacted specifically not only with a 70-kDa protein of B. gibsoni but also with a corresponding native protein of B. microti (BmHSP-70), indicating the high degree of conservation of this protein. The BmHSP-70 gene was then isolated and characterized and the immunoprotective properties of recombinant BgHSP-70 (rBgHSP-70) and rBmHSP-70 were compared in vitro and in vivo. Both proteins had potent mitogenic effects on murine and canine mononuclear cells as evidenced by high proliferative responses and IFN-c production after stimulation. Immunization regimes in BALB⁄c and C57BL⁄6 mice using rBgHSP-70 and rBmHSP-70 elicited high antibody levels, with concurrent significant reductions in peripheral parasitaemias. Taken together, these results emphasize the potential of HSP-70s as a molecular adjuvant vaccine

Aboge GO, Jia H, Kuriki H, Zhou J, Nishikawa Y, Igarashi I, Fujisaki K, Suzuki H, Xuan X. "Molecular characterization of a novel 32-kDa merozoite antigen of Babesia gibsoni with a better diagnostic performance by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.". 2007. Abstract

We cloned and expressed 3 novel gene encoding a 32-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgP32). The length of nucleotide sequence of the cD;\' A \\'3. 1-1-6-1 bp with an open reading frame of 969 bp. The truncated recombinant BgP32 (rBgP32) without a signal peptide and Cvterrninal hydrophobic sequence was expressed in Escherichia coli as a oluble glutathione- -rran ferase (GST) fusion protein. We stern blotting demonstrated that the native protein was 32-kDa, consistent with molecular weight of thc predicted mature polypeptide. Enzyme-linked irnmunosorbent assay (ELISA) using rBgP32 detected specific antibodi s from 8 days to 541 days post-infection in the sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected wirh B. gibsoni. Moreover. the antigen did not cross-react with B. canis subspecies and closely related protozoan parasites, indicating that rBgP32 is a specific diagnostic antigen. Analysis of 47 era taken from dogs with anaemic signs re ealed that rBgP32 detected a higher proportion of B. gibson! seroposirive sample' (77%) than its previou Iy identified rBgPSO (68%) homologue. These results indicate that the BgP32 is a novel immunodominant antigen of B. gibsoni, and rBgP32 might be useful for diagno is of B. gibsoni infection

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Aboge GO, Jia H, Goo Y, Kuriki K, Nishikawa Y, Igarashi I, Suzuki H, Xuan X. "A novel 57-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni is a prospective antigen for diagnosis and serosurvey of canine babesiosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.". 2007. Abstract

We isolated a novel single copy gene encoding a 57-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgP57). The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 2387 bp with an open reading frame (ORP) of 1644 bp encoding a 57-kDa predicted polypeptide having 547 amino acid residues. The recombinant BgP57 (rBgP57) without a predicted signal peptide was expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Western blotting showed that the corresponding native protein was 57-kDa, consistent with molecular weight of predicted mature polypeptide. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the rBgP57 detected specific antibodies in the sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected with B. gibsoni. Moreover, the antigen did not cross-react with antibodies to B. canis sub-species and closely related apicomplexan parasites indicating that the rBgP57 was a specific antigen for B. gibsoni antibodies. The diagnostic performance of ELISA based on rBgP57 using 107 sera from B. gibsoni-naturally infected dogs was the same as the previously identified rBgP32 but performed better than the previously studied rBgP50. Although, seminested peR detected higher proportions (82%) of positive samples than the ELISAs, the Mcnemar's chi-square test showed that there was no significant difference in relative effectiveness of rBgP57-ELISA and seminested peR (x2 = 2.70; P = 0.1003) in identifying positive samples. The rBgP57-ELISA when used in combination with rBgP32-ELISA and rBgP50-ELISA appeared to improve sensitivity of the rBgP57-ELISA for detection of B. gibsoni antibodies. Overall, the rBgP57-ELISA and seminested peR when used in combination, could improve epidemiological surveys and clinical diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection.

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Singh RB, Mengi SA, Xu Y-J, Arneja AS, Dhalla NS. "Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: {A} multifactorial process." Experimental & Clinical Cardiology. 2002;7:40-53. AbstractWebsite

Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the western world. It has been recognized for over a century, and the understanding of its pathogenesis has undergone many changes. Pathophysiological studies have unravelled the interactions of molecular and cellular elements involved in atherogenesis. The focus has shifted to the novel risk factors as well as characteristics and stability of atherosclerotic plaque; the genetic predisposition has further broadened the pathogenetic mechanisms. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms involved in the evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque that may pave the way for selecting optimal therapies and preventing plaque complications. Atherosclerosis is no longer a disease attributed mainly to the high lipid content of the body. New insight into the disease pathology has shown it to be a disease of much greater ramifications. Endothelial damage and reactive oxygen species (and other free radicals) have predominantly emerged as factors in virtually all pathways leading to the development of atherosclerosis due to hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension or smoking. Novel risk factors such as hyperhomocysteinemia, infections and systemic lupus erythematosus have emerged. Atherosclerosis has come to be regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease with an autoimmune component. The genetic basis of the disease assumes significance as candidate genes are identified and gene therapy becomes a promising new addition to the existing, less substantial conventional therapies.

Qureshi ZP, Sartor O, Xirasagar S, Liu Y, Bennett CL. "Pharmaceutical fraud and abuse in the United States, 1996-2010.". 2011.
Akuon P, Xu H. Polar coded MQAM with no noise variance estimation for capacity and soft decision metric. Ile Maurice, Mauritius: IEEE Africon 2013; 2013.
Akuon P, Xu H. "Polar coded spatial modulation." IET Journal. 2014;vol. 8(no.9): pp.1459-1466.
Aboge GO, Terkawi M, Goo Y-K, Batbaatar V, Nishikawa Y, Sunaga F, Namikawa K, I I, Fujisaki K, Suzuki H, Xuan X. "Precursors of methotrexate target dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase of Babesia gibsoni.". 2010. Abstract

It is not known whether precursors of methotrexate, such as 2, 4-diamino-6-hydroxymethyl-pteridine (DAP) and 2, 4-diamino-N10-methyl-pteroic acid (DAMPA), could target the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) enzyme of Babesia and inhibit the parasite growth. Therefore, we have determined whether DAP and DAMPA as well as other chemically related compounds like pteroic acid (PA) and N10Triflouropteroic acid (N10TFPA) could target the DHFR-TS enzyme of B. gibsoni and inhibit its growth. DAMPA was a more-potent inhibitor of the B. gibsoni growth in vitro (50% inhibition concentration [IC50] = 2.4 ± 0.20 μM) [mean ± standard error of the mean] than DAP (IC50 = 78 ± 15 μM). Moreover, DAMPA potently inhibited enzymatic activity of recombinant DHFR-TS of B. gibsoni (IC50 = 2.6 ± 0.15 μM) than DAP (IC50 > 100 μM). In contrast, PA and N10-TFPA did not inhibit the activity of the recombinant enzyme and growth of B. gibsoni. The inhibition of the recombinant enzyme activity by DAMPA mirrored with inhibition of the parasite growth indicating that the purified recombinant enzyme could be used for preliminary screening of some antifolate precursors. Therefore, both DAP and DAMPA inhibit growth of B. gibsoni by targeting the DHFR-TS enzyme of the parasite.

XuEmail Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Preface: Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. Abstractxu2019_article_prefacegroundwaterinsub-sahara1.pdfWebsite

Introduction
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

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Akuon P, Xu H. Rate and reliability implementation scheme for Polar Codes,SATNAC2012,EastLondon,SA. George, Western Cape, South Africa; 2012. Abstract

 Communications channel coding that achieves capacity is implemented and solution suggested for selection of the optimal design parameter to achieve capacity:Rate or reliability of channels.

Zhou X, An J, Wu X, Lu R, Huang Q, Xie R, Jiang L, Qu J. "Relative axial myopia induced by prolonged light exposure in {C}57BL/6 mice." Photochemistry and photobiology. 2010;86:131-137. Abstract

Ambient lighting is essential for ocular development in many species, however, disruption in diurnal lighting cycle can affect the development in refraction and axial growth of the eye. This study investigated the effects of prolonged daily lighting on refraction and various optical components of the eye by raising C57BL/6 mice under three different light/dark cycles (18/6, 12/12 and 6/18). Egr-1 mRNA expression, apoptosis and histology of the retina and size of the scleral fibrils were evaluated in these three lighting cycles. Results showed that there was a trend of myopic development, increasing vitreous chamber depth and thinning of the retina in eyes from 6/18 to 18/6 groups. Retinal Egr-1 mRNA expression and diameter of scleral fibrils were reduced with the prolongation of daily lighting from 6/18 to 18/6. However, retinal apoptosis was not detected in all the groups. These results suggest that prolonged lighting can induce axial myopia in inbred mice. This model, which uses mice with similar genetic backgrounds, provides an alternative to the currently available models and therefore is useful for evaluation of refractive errors caused by changes in environmental illumination.

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Boman J, GATARI MJ, Gaita SM, Zhang X, Xue B, Wagner A. "Seasonal variation in trace elemental concentrations in PM2.5 particles in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2009.
Lu W, Liu S, Li B, Xie Y, Adhiambo C, Yang Q, Ballard BR, Nakayama KI, Matusik RJ, Chen Z. "SKP2 inactivation suppresses prostate tumorigenesis by mediating JARID1B ubiquitination." Oncotarget. 2015;6(2):771-88. Abstract

Aberrant elevation of JARID1B and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is frequently observed in many diseases including prostate cancer (PCa), yet the mechanisms on the regulation of JARID1B and H3K4me3 through epigenetic alterations still remain poorly understood. Here we report that Skp2 modulates JARID1B and H3K4me3 levels in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in mouse models. We demonstrated that Skp2 inactivation decreased H3K4me3 levels, along with a reduction of cell growth, cell migration and malignant transformation of Pten/Trp53 double null MEFs, and further restrained prostate tumorigenesis of Pten/Trp53 mutant mice. Mechanistically, Skp2 decreased the K63-linked ubiquitination of JARID1B by E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, thus decreasing JARID1B demethylase activity and in turn increasing H3K4me3. In agreement, Skp2 deficiency resulted in an increase of JARID1B ubiquitination and in turn a reduction of H3K4me3, and induced senescence through JARID1B accumulation in nucleoli of PCa cells and prostate tumors of mice. Furthermore, we showed that the elevations of Skp2 and H3K4me3 contributed to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in mice, and were positively correlated in human PCa specimens. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel network of SKP2-JARID1B, and targeting SKP2 and JARID1B may be a potential strategy for PCa control.

Yu P-F, Hu Z-H, Wang X-B, Guo J-M, Cheng X-D, Zhang Y-L, Xu Q. "Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a review of 553 cases in {Chinese} literature." World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2010;16:1209. AbstractWebsite
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Chen B, Restaino J, Norris L, Xirasagar S, Qureshi ZP, McKoy JM, Lopez IS, Trenery A, Murday A, Kahn A, Mattison DR, Ray P, Sartor O, Bennett CL. "A tale of two citizens: a State Attorney General and a hematologist facilitate translation of research into US Food and Drug Administration actions--a SONAR report.". 2012. Abstract

Pharmaceutical safety is a public health issue. In 2005, the Connecticut Attorney General (AG) raised concerns over adverse drug reactions in off-label settings, noting that thalidomide was approved to treat a rare illness, but more than 90% of its use was off label. A hematologist had reported thalidomide with doxorubicin or dexamethasone was associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates of 25%. We review US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturer responses to a citizen petition filed to address these thalidomide safety issues. Case study. The AG petitioned the FDA requesting thalidomide-related safety actions. Coincidentally, the manufacturer submitted a supplemental New Drug Approval (sNDA), requesting approval to treat multiple myeloma with thalidomide-dexamethasone. FDA safety officers reviewed the petition and the literature and noted that VTE risks with thalidomide were not appropriately addressed in the existing package insert. In the sNDA application, the manufacturer reported thalidomide-associated toxicities for multiple myeloma were primarily somnolence and neurotoxicity, and a proposed package insert did not focus on VTE risks. In October, the FDA informed the Oncology Drug Division that VTE risks with thalidomide were poorly addressed in the existing label. After reviewing this memorandum, an Oncology Drug Division reviewer informed the manufacturer that approval of the sNDA would be delayed until several thalidomide-associated VTE safety actions, including revisions of the package insert, were implemented. The manufacturer and FDA agreed on these actions, and the sNDA was approved. New approaches addressing off-label safety are needed. The conditions that facilitated the successful response to this citizen petition are uncommon.

Xu S, Waiganjo P, Dias PG, Shi B. "Testability Prediction for Sequential Circuits Using Neural Network.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Asian Test Symposium. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 1997:. ATS '97. Abstract
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Masatani T, Matsuo T, Tanaka T, Terkawi MA, Lee EG, Goo YK, Yamagishi J, Hayashi K, Kameyama K, Cao S, Nishikawa Y, Xuan X. "TgGRA23, a novel Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein associated with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and intravacuolar network.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, which relies on a specialized compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), to survive within host cells. Dense granules within the parasite release a large variety of proteins to maintain the integrity of the vacuole structure. Here, we identified a novel dense granule protein in T. gondii, TgGRA23, which is a homolog of the Sarcocystis muris dense granule protein, SmDG32. Recombinant TgGRA23 (rTgGRA23) expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein was used to raise antisera in mice and rabbits. Immunoblotting showed that antisera from the immunized mice and rabbits reacted with parasite lysates to yield a 21-kDa native protein. In addition, immuno-electron microscopic examination showed that TgGRA23 resides in the dense granules, PV membrane and intravacuolar network of the parasite. To confirm the precise subcellular localization of TgGRA23 in T. gondii, an immunofluorescent antibody test was performed using dense granule markers. Notably, TgGRA23 co-localized with other dense granule proteins including TgGRA4 and TgGRA7, in the extracellular-stage parasites. Biochemical experiments indicated that TgGRA23 is insoluble and may form an electrostatic complex that is resistant to non-ionic detergents. Furthermore, specific antibodies to TgGRA23 were detected during the chronic stage of Toxoplasma infection in mice. Our results suggest that TgGRA23 is an as yet unknown member of the T. gondii dense granule proteins, and that it may be involved in remodeling or maintenance of the PV.

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Nkonya E, Xiong W, Deustua J, Kato E. "Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from tak.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from taking advantage of yield and income enhancing agricultural practices. In this study we examine the relative merits of using a carbon payment scheme compared to a subsidy policy to help reduce the cost of specific land management practices with productivity and ecosystem benefits such as carbon sequestration. Using a 30-year crop simulation model, we examine the impacts of different soil fertility management treatments (SFTs) on yields and soil carbon and proceed to compute discounted incremental revenue streams over the same period. We find that the SFTs simulated are on average profitable given the conditions assumed in our DSSAT simulations. When carbon was priced at $8 or $12/t CO2e, the increase in incremental incomes generated from a carbon payment were invariably higher than those imputed from a 50% fertilizer subsidy. When carbon was priced at $4/Co2e, the increase was almost similar and sometimes higher than that from the imputed income transfer from a 50% subsidy. If these indications hold in further research, it could imply that using fertilizer subsidies as the sole mechanism for stimulating adoption of improved soil fertility management practices may unnecessarily forgo other complementary and possibly superior alternatives. Depending on the specific economic equity considerations, we conclude that either of these instruments can be used to help farmers break through resource barriers that prevent them from adopting productivity-enhancing and environmentally beneficial agricultural practices. However, given the fiscal burden on public finances and possible opportunity costs of any substantial subsidy program, it is possible that a carbon payment system can be a reasonable alternative assuming the range of carbon prices used in this study and especially if accompanied by measures to ameliorate the costs of fertilizer to farmers.

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Shou TD, Liu H, Xue JT. "[{Binocular} competitive mechanisms in the visual cortex in early developing kittens of monocular deprivation and reverse suture revealed by pattern visual evoked potential]." Sheng li xue bao: [Acta physiologica Sinica]. 1994;46:281-287. Abstract

Using contrast reversing square- wave gratings as stimuli the pattern visual evoked potentials (P-VEP) and pattern electroretinograms (P-ERG) were simultaneously recorded to determine the spatial frequency tuning curves for kittens of monocular deprivation (from 8th to 12th postnatal week) and reverse suture (from 12th to 15th postnatal week), as compared with those of normal kittens of the same age and adult cats. The results showed that in the range from spatial frequency 0.12 to 1.5 c/d the amplitudes of P-VEP responses driven respectively by the left and the right eyes in normal kittens were similar but clearly smaller than those driven binocularly. For kittens with one eye deprived, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the deprived eye decreased markedly. In contrast, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the undeprived eye increased significantly, while the P-VEP amplitudes driven by simultaneous stimulation of both eyes were intermediate between the two monocular responses. For the reversely sutured kittens, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the formally deprived eye recovered to some extent, while the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the reversely sutured eye decreased, and their amplitudes tended to be quite close. The P-VEP amplitude driven by both eyes was the biggest. Neither such shift of spatial frequency tuning curves of the P-VEP in adult cats, nor such functional competition between the two eye in P-ERG responses during early development of kittens of monocular deprivation and reverse suture was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Tian J, Hou J, Xing L, Jia H, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "{SIGNIFICANCE} {OF} {INTRAPLAQUE} {NEOVASCULARIZATION} {FOR} {VULNERABILITY}: {OPTICAL} {COHERENCE} {TOMOGRAPHY} {STUDY}." Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012;59:E1439. AbstractWebsite
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