Publications

Found 141 results

Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is U  [Clear All Filters]
2019
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Mureithi SM, Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Karuku G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi, S.M., Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
2018
Uwizeyimana, D., Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi, G. " Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.
Uwizeyimana, D., SM M, Karuku G, G K. " Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research.. 2018;6(3):21.
UngaiShihembetsa DL. "An Appraisal of Community Initiative in the Provision and Management of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Kiambiu Slum Settlement in Nairobi." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), . 2018;Volume 23, (Issue 10, Ver. 1(October. 2018) 49-62. e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845).
Uwizeyimana D, Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi G. "Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi, G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana, D., Mureithi, S.M., and Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Udomkun P, Wossen T, Nabahungu NL, Mutegi C, Vanlauwe B, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay. "Incidence and farmers’ knowledge of aflatoxin contamination and control in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo." Food Science & Nutrition. 2018.
2017
Upadhyaya R. "The Politics of High Level of Adoption of Global Banking Standars in Kenya: "A Case of Alignment of Donor, Government and Banking Sector Interests".". In: Second Annual Workshop - LICs Navigating Global Banking Standards. Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford; 2017.
Udomkun P, Wiredu AN, Mutegi C, Atehnkeng J, Nagle M, Nielsen F, Müller J, Vanlauwe B, Bandyopadhyay R. "Aflatoxin distribution in crop products from Burundi and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.". 2017:1.
Wabwoba CN, Ursulla A. Okoth, Mugambi M. "Influence Of Lecture Method On Pupil’s Performance In English Language In Kenya Certificate Of Primary Education In Non Formal Schools In Korogocho, Nairobi Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention. 2017;6(11):13-19.catherine_publication.pdf
UD A, K K, Gachago MM, A M. Outcome Of Age-Related Cataract Surgery At Specialist Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria In Year 2015. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
2016
Bergin P, Langat R, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Farah B, Ouattara G, Park H, Coutinho H, Laufer D, Fast P, Verlinde C, Bizimana J, Umviligihozo G, Nyombayire J, Ingabire R, Kuldanek K, Cox J, McMorrow M, Fidler S, Karita E, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Assessment of anti-HIV-1 antibodies in Oral and Nasal Compartments of Volunteers from Three different Populations." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of collecting standardized nasal and salivary samples at centers in Nairobi (Kenya), Kigali (Rwanda) and London (UK) using different collection devices and media (Synthetic absorptive matrices versus flocked swabs, and Salimetrics Oral swabs versus whole oral fluid collection). We detected anti Gag (p24) and envelope (gp140) antibodies in both nasal fluid and salivary collections from all HIV-infected individuals, and cross-reactive anti-p24 antibodies were detected in 10% of HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled at one site. Collections from the nasal turbinates were comparable to samples collected deeper in the nasopharyngeal tract, and the yield of anti-p24 IgA in the whole oral fluid samples was higher than in samples collected from the parotid gland. We noted a trend toward reduced levels of anti-HIV antibody in the volunteers receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Levels of antibodies were stable over multiple collection visits. Overall, this study shows that nasal and salivary samples can be collected in a standardized manner over repeated visits in both low and high resource settings. These methods may be used in support of future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

Nduati EW, Nkumama IN, Gambo FK, Muema DM, Knight MG, Hassan AS, Jahangir MN, Etyang TJ, Berkley JA, Urban BC. "HIV-exposed uninfected infants show robust memory B cell responses in spite of a delayed accumulation of memory B cells: An observational study in the first two years of life." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2016. Abstract

Improved HIV care has led to an increase in the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV infected women. Although uninfected, these infants experience increased morbidity and mortality. One explanation may be that their developing immune system is altered by HIV-exposure predisposing them to increased post-natal infections.

12. Ojwang J.D., R O.Nyankanga, J. Imungi, and M. Olanya, Ukuku D. "Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya." Food Security . 2016;8:757–767. DOI 10.1007/s12571-016-0592-8(8):757-767.. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya.pdf
Nshimirimana DA, Uwurukundo JMC, Kokonya D, Biraboneye P, Were F, Baribwira C. "Pain Assessment among African Neonates." American Journal of Pediatrics. 2016;2(2). AbstractWebsite

Neonates who require treatment and venous drawing of blood samples in the newborn units are subjected to acute and painfully invasive procedures. Several tools to assess pain among newborns have been developed and are widely used in developed countries, but in Africa, there is limited experience in the assessment pain among newborns. This study assessed physiological and behavioral responses to pain among neonates during invasive procedures performed in a newborn unit in Rwanda. A total of 60 neonates born at gestational age of 28-42 weeks at the National University of Rwanda Teaching and Referral Hospital in the year 2005 were enrolled into this study. Blood pressures, heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation levels, the Neonatal Facing Coding System (NFCS) and Neonatal Acute Pain (APN) pain tools were and scores recorded before, immediately and 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after procedures were recorded. Physiological parameters were compared using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test while the NFCS and APN were compared using the McNemar Test. All (100%) neonates experienced acutely peak pain in the first 5 minutes of the invasive procedures with peak responses recorded at 2.5 minutes and no pain (resolution) after 15 minutes among 81% of the neonates and only 6% experienced pain after 20 minutes. The increases in systolic blood pressures immediately after inflicting pain, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes were statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.005 and p<0.046) respectively compared to the diastolic blood pressures whose significant increases were at 5 and 10 minutes, (p<0.001 and p<0.001) respectively. Respiratory rates were significantly high at the onset (p<0.001), 5 minutes (p<0.001) and 10 minutes later (p<0.002). Heart rates significantly increased at the onset of the procedures (p<0.000), 5 minutes (p<0.001) and after 10 minutes (p<0.033). Decrease in oxygen saturation immediately after the procedures was significant (p<0.001). Oxygen saturation immediately after the procedures significantly increased up to 5 minutes (p<0.001) and 10 minutes (p<0.001). Invasive procedures caused acute pain among neonates in the African settings but to date, neonatal practice had not been given its due consideration with the aim of reducing pain among African neonates.

Keywords: Pain, Assessment, Neonates, Physiological, APN, NFCS, Africa

Richards S, VanLeeuwen JA, Shepelo G, Gitau GK, Wichtel J, Kamunde C, Uehlinger F. "Randomized controlled trial on impacts of dairy meal feedinginterventions on early lactation milk production in smallholder dairyfarms of Central Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2016;125:46-53.
2015
at the of Library ZMLUN-, at University EYLAN–, at University MWLAN–. "Corporate Social Responsibility legal framework, policies and practices in Kenya: a strategic approach to enhancing the image of libraries.". In: Kenya Library Association Conference. Nairobi Safari Club; 2015.
Muema DM, Macharia GN, Hassan AS, Mwaringa SM, Fegan GW, Berkley JA, Nduati EW, Urban BC. "Control of Viremia Enables Acquisition of Resting Memory B Cells with Age and Normalization of Activated B Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Infected Children." J. Immunol.. 2015;195(3):1082-91. Abstract

HIV affects the function of all lymphocyte populations, including B cells. Phenotypic and functional defects of B cells in HIV-infected adults have been well characterized, but defects in children have not been studied to the same extent. We determined the proportion of B cell subsets and frequencies of Ag-specific memory B cells in peripheral blood from HIV-infected children and healthy controls, using flow cytometry and B cell ELISPOT, respectively. In addition, we measured the quantities and avidities of plasma Abs against various Ags by ELISA. We also determined plasma levels of BAFF and expression of BAFF receptors on B cells. Children with high HIV viremia had increased proportions of activated mature B cells, tissue-like memory B cells and plasmablasts, and low proportions of naive B cells when compared with community controls and children with low HIV viremia, similar to adults infected with HIV. HIV-infected groups had lower proportions of resting memory B cells than did community controls. Notably, high HIV viremia prevented the age-dependent accumulation of class-switched resting memory B cells. HIV-infected children, regardless of the level of viremia, showed lower quantities and avidities of IgG and lower frequencies of memory B cells against Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines. The HIV-infected children had an altered BAFF profile that could have affected their B cell compartment. Therefore, B cell defects in HIV-infected children are similar to those seen in HIV-infected adults. However, control of HIV viremia is associated with normalization of activated B cell subsets and allows age-dependent accumulation of resting memory B cells.

Muema DM, Nduati EW, Uyoga M, Bashraheil M, Scott JAG, Hammitt LL, Urban BC. "10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) induces memory B cell responses in healthy Kenyan toddlers." Clin. Exp. Immunol.. 2015;181(2):297-305. Abstract

Memory B cells are long-lived and could contribute to persistence of humoral immunity by maintaining the plasma-cell pool or making recall responses upon re-exposure to an antigen. We determined the ability of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to induce anti-pneumococcal memory B cells. Frequencies of memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were determined by cultured B cell enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in 35 children aged 12-23 months who received pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). The relationships between plasma antibodies and memory B cell frequencies were also assessed. After two doses of PHiD-CV, the proportion of subjects with detectable memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides increased significantly for serotypes 1 (3-45%; P < 0·01), 19F (21-66%; P < 0·01) and 23F (13-36%; P = 0·02), but not serotypes 6B (24-42%; P = 0·24) and 14 (21-40%; P = 0·06). Correlations between antibodies and memory B cells were weak. Carriage of serotype 19F at enrolment was associated with poor memory B cell responses against this serotype at subsequent time-points (day 30: non-carriers, 82% versus carriers, 0%, P < 0·01; day 210: non-carriers, 72% versus carriers, 33%, P = 0·07). PHiD-CV is capable of inducing memory B cells against some of the component pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

Garcia-Knight MA, Nduati E, Hassan AS, Gambo F, Odera D, Etyang TJ, Hajj NJ, Berkley JA, Urban BC, Rowland-Jones SL. "Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(11):e0143043. Abstract

Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy and T-cell immunity in this vulnerable population is warranted.

Nduati EW, Hassan AS, Knight MG, Muema DM, Jahangir MN, Mwaringa SL, Etyang TJ, Rowland-Jones S, Urban BC, Berkley JA. "Outcomes of prevention of mother to child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 in rural Kenya--a cohort study." BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1008. Abstract

Success in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) raises the prospect of eliminating pediatric HIV infection. To achieve global elimination, however, strategies are needed to strengthen PMTCT interventions. This study aimed to determine PMTCT outcomes and identify challenges facing its successful implementation in a rural setting in Kenya.

Richards S, Vanleeuwen J, Shepelo G, Gitau GK, Kamunde C, Uehlinger F, Wichtel J. "Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2015;8(1):88-96.
Upadhyaya R. "Cross border Banking in the East African Community: Regulatory Opportunities and Challanges.". In: Africa and New Global Finance: Macroeconomic Policy and Regulatory Responses. University College, University of Oxford; 2015.
Upadhyaya R, Johnson S. "Evolution of Kenya's Banking Sector 2000-2012. In A Heyer & M. King (Eds.).". In: The Kenyan Financial Transformation. Nairobi: FSD Nairobi; 2015.
Peter GS, Gitau GK, Mulei CM, Vanleeuwen J, Richards S, Wichtel J, Uehlinger F, Mainga O. "Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya." Veterinary World . 2015;8(9):1118-1125.
Upadhyaya R, Wamalwa H. "Strategies for Success: A case Study of Food Processing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: SAFIC ( Successful African Firms and Institutional change) Project Third Annual Workshop. Arusha, Tanzania; 2015.
2014
Afran L, Garcia Knight M, Nduati E, Urban BC, Heyderman RS, Rowland-Jones SL. "HIV-exposed uninfected children: a growing population with a vulnerable immune system?" Clin. Exp. Immunol.. 2014;176(1):11-22. Abstract

Through the successful implementation of policies to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 infection, children born to HIV-1-infected mothers are now much less likely to acquire HIV-1 infection than previously. Nevertheless, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU) children have substantially increased morbidity and mortality compared with children born to uninfected mothers (unexposed uninfected, UU), predominantly from infectious causes. Moreover, a range of phenotypical and functional immunological differences between HEU and UU children has been reported. As the number of HEU children continues to increase worldwide, two questions with clear public health importance need to be addressed: first, does exposure to HIV-1 and/or ART in utero or during infancy have direct immunological consequences, or are these poor outcomes simply attributable to the obvious disadvantages of being born into an HIV-affected household? Secondly, can we expect improved maternal care and ART regimens during and after pregnancy, together with optimized infant immunization schedules, to reduce the excess morbidity and mortality of HEU children?

Alexandra Hiscox, Bruno Otieno, Anthony Kibet, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Martin Geier, Andreas Rose, Wolfgang R Mukabana, undefined. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control." Malaria journal. 2014;13(1):257.
Upadhyaya R. "Financial Sector Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Empirical Literature. In K. Ruziev & N. Perdikis (Eds.).". In: Development and financial Survey in Emerging Economies. London: Pickering & Chatto; 2014.
Omanga E, Ulmer L, Berhane Z, Michael Gatari. "Industrial air pollution in rural Kenya: community awareness, risk perception and associations between risk variables." BMC Public Health. 2014;14:377.
Ujeneza E, Njenga HN, Mbui D, Kariuki DN. "Optimization of Acid ACtivation Conditions for Athi River Bentonite Clay and Application of the Treated Clay in Palm Oil Bleaching." IOSR-Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(8):29-38.
2013
Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
undefined, S. P, M OJ. "School feeding program and pupils’ participation in primary schools in Kenya. A study of Taita Taveta and Nairobi districts." Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) . 2013;Vol 1 No 1.khatete_5.pdf
Onyango C, Unbehend G, Mewa EA, Mutahi AW, Lindhauer MG, Okoth MW. Strategies for the production of gluten-free bread from sorghum cassava flour blend. Dresden: TUDpress; 2013.trend_and_opportunities.pdf
"Evelyne A", undefined. "Truth-seeking in Kenya: Assessing the Effectiveness of the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission of Kenya." Africa Nazarene University Law Journal. 2013;1(1):133-164.
2012
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Abubakar LU, Kyallo M, Pelle R. "Vector genomics and arthropod-borne diseases in Africa.". In: Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Congress. Drakensberg, South Africa: 1. Abubakar L.U., Mwangi C. N., Uku J., Ndirangu S.; 2012. Abstractabstract_fasbmb.pdf

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.
Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

Laila A, Mwangi C, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2012 . 1 (1): 19-23 A KeSoBAP Publication ©2012 . All rights reserved. 19 Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbe s and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic s ubstances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential s ource of promising antimicrobial compounds with nov el mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extrac ts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro . Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted u sing methanol and chloroform and tested for activit y against Salmonella typhi , Escherichia coli , Shigella sonnei , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by a ssaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells . Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observ ed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was p resent in the methanol extracts compared to chlorof orm extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against h uman erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echino derms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.

Hawary, El., Yumoto, K., Yamazaki, Y., Mahrous, A., Ghamry, E., Meloni, A., Badi K, Kianji, G., Uiso CBS, Mwiinga N, Joao, L., Affluo, T., Sutcliffe, P.R., Mengestu, G., Baki, P., Abe, Ikeda, A., Fujimoto A. Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa, Earth and planets Space. Earth and planets space; 2012.
Abubakar LU, Mwangi CN, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2012;1(1): 19-23. Abstractabstract-ajpt.pdfWebsite

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.
Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

Upadhyaya R, Johnson S. "Financialization at the Margins: Trajectories of Financial Inclusion in Kenya.". In: AHE/IIPPE/FAPE Conference. Paris, France; 2012.
K O, A P, P M, undefined. "Periduodenal Tuberculosis masquerading as Annular Pancreas." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9. Abstract

Periduodenal Tuberculosis masquerading as Annular Pancreas
K Ongeti, A Pulei, P Mandela, P Kimpiatu

Abstract

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is common in Africa. Nonetheless, isolated duodenal involvement is rare, and is more likely to mimic other causes of duodenal obstruction. We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis, diagnosed at laparatomy, whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy is emphasized.

Keesbury J, Onyango-Ouma W, Undie C-C, Maternowska C, Mugisha F, Kahega E, Askew I. “A review and evaluation of multi-sectoral response services (‘one-stop centers‘) for gender-based violence in Kenya and Zambia.”. Nairobi: Population Council; 2012.2012rh_sgbv_oscreveval.pdf
2011
Mureithi BK, Muthomi JW, Chemining'wa GN, undefined. "Predisposing factors to aflatoxin contamination of maize in Estern Kenya.". In: aGRO 2011 Inaugural Biennial Conference, Faculty of Agriculture. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.identification_of_predisposing_factors_to_aflatoxin_contamination_of_maize_value_chain_in_eastern_kenya.2.pdf
Wanjala G, undefined. "Extent of Secondary School Teachers' involvement in Instructional Supervision and its effect on KCSE performance in Gucha South District , Kenya." THE FOUNTAIN , Journal of Educational Research. 2011;v(1):31-43. Abstract

This paper discusses the research that was carried out in order to determine the extent of teachers' involvement in instructional supervision and its effects on KCSE performance in Gucha-South District. The purpose of the research was to establish whether there existed a significant correlation between teacher involvement in instructional supervision and students' performance in KCSE. Using a descriptive survey research design , data were collected from 266 teachers in 13 secondary schools and 8 Quality Assurance Officers. Data were collected using a variety of techniques and analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics. A major finding of the research is that schools where teachers' involvement in supervision was higher registered better grades in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination.

Baldassarre GD, Elshamy M, v. Griensven A, Soliman E, Kigobe M, Ndomba P, Mutemi J, Mutua F, Moges S, Xuan Y, Solomatine D, Uhlenbrook S. "Future hydrology and climate in the River Nile basin: a review." Hydrological Sciences Journal . 2011;56(2).abstract.doc
Ujiji OA;, Rubenson B;, Ilako F;, Marrone G;, Wamalwa D;, Wangalwa G;, Ekström AM. "Is 'Opt-Out HIV Testing' a real option among pregnant women in rural districts in Kenya?". 2011. Abstract

BACKGROUND: An 'opt-out' policy of routine HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa to expand prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Although the underlying assumption is that pregnant women in rural Africa are able to voluntarily consent to HIV testing, little is known about the reality and whether 'opt-out' HCT leads to higher completion rates of PMTCT. Factors associated with consent to HIV testing under the 'opt-out' approach were investigated through a large cross-sectional study in Kenya. METHODS: Observations during HIV pre-test information sessions were followed by a cross-sectional survey of 900 pregnant women in three public district hospitals carrying out PMTCT in the Busia district. Women on their first antenatal care (ANC) visit during the current pregnancy were interviewed after giving blood for HIV testing but before learning their test results. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Of the 900 women participating, 97% tested for HIV. Lack of testing kits was the only reason for women not being tested, i.e. nobody declined HIV testing. Despite the fact that 96% had more than four earlier pregnancies and 37% had been tested for HIV at ANC previously, only 17% of the women surveyed knew that testing was optional. Only 20% of those surveyed felt they could make an informed decision to decline HIV testing. Making an informed decision to decline HIV testing was associated with knowing that testing was optional (OR = 5.44, 95%CI 3.44-8.59), not having a stable relationship with the child's father (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.02-3.03), and not having discussed HIV testing with a partner before the ANC visit (OR = 2.64 95%CI 1.79-3.86). CONCLUSION: High coverage of HIV testing appears to be achieved at the cost of pregnant women not understanding that testing is optional. Good quality HIV pre-test information is central to ensure that pregnant women understand and accept the reasons for testing and will thus come back to collect their test results, an important prerequisite for completing PMTCT for those who test HIV-positive.

UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Abubakar LU, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. Microalgae species biodiversity and abundance and their potential for biofuel in Kenya. Nairobi, KENYA; 2011. Abstractabstract-ncst.pdf

Background:
Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro.
Methods:
Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells.
Results:
Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts.
Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

Discussion:
These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.
Key words:
Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates

Harper1, M. D, Morrison DEMHJ, Macharia MM, Mavuti KM, Upton C. "Morrison, , Kenneth M. Mavuti and Caroline Upton. 2011. Lake Naivasha, Kenya: ecology, society and future. ." Freshwater Reviews . 2011; (4):89-114.
Ndetei DM, De Hert M, Cohen D, Bobes J, Cetkovich-Bakmas M, Leucht S, Newcomer JW, Uwakwe R, Asai I, Möller H, Gautam S, Detraux J, Correll CU. "Physcial Illness in Patients with Severe Mental Disorders II.". 2011.physcial_illness_in_patients_ii_2011.pdf
Ndetei DM, De Hert M, Correll CU, Bobes J, Cetkovich-Bakmas M, Cohen D, Asai I, Detraux J, Gautam S, Möller H, Newcomer JW, Uwakwe R, Leucht S. "Physical Illness in Patients with Severe Mental Disorders I.". 2011.physical_illness_in_patients_1_2011.pdf
Takla EM, Yumoto K, Cardinal MG, Abe S, Fujimoto A, Ikeda A, Tokunaga T, Yamazaki Y, Uo-zumi T, Mahrous A, Ghamry E, Mengistu G, Afullo T, Macamo JA, Joao L, Mweene H, Mwiinga N, Uiso C, Baki P, Kianji G, Badi K, Sutcliffe P, Palangio P. "A Study of Latitudinal Dependence of Pc 3-4 Amplitudes at 96o Magnetic Meridian Stations in Africa." Sun and Geosphere,. 2011;Vol. 6(2):67-72.
2010
Lund JF;, Bhandari NS;, Baral K;, Kharel KK;, KK; Puri L;, Chhetri BBK;, Nielsen, Ø.J; Upadhyaya CP, Upadhyaya CP. "Community forestry common funds in Nepal."; 2010.
Paul O, NJERU E, U. K, J. K. "HIV/AIDS Financing and Spending in Eastern and Southern Africa." Pretoria: IDASA; 2010.
Njagi L W, UM M. "Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in village indigenous chickens in varied agro-ecological zones in Kenya.". 2010;22(5). Abstract

Abstract
It was hypothesized that the agro-ecological zone in which village indigenous chickens were farmed influenced the level of diseases occurrence. One hundred and forty four apparently healthy chickens (71 from lower highland 1, a cold zone and 73 from lower midland 5, a hot zone) were randomly sampled. Oro–pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and processed for virus isolation in 10-12 day old embryonated chicken eggs. In addition, blood, without anticoagulant was obtained from each bird through wing venipuncture. Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera samples.

Prevalence of Newcastle disease (NDV) virus was significantly higher (17.8%) in the dry hot zone (lower midland 5) compared to the cool wet zone (lower highland 1) at 9.9% showing evidence for climate as a risk factor in the occurrence of NDV in village chicken. Female birds had higher mean Newcastle disease viral titers than their male counterparts. All Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered were from healthy appearing birds and were all velogenic. Sero-prevalence was significantly highest (p<0.05) in adult birds (10%) while growers had 5.1% and chicks 2.9%. Apparently healthy-appearing birds were reported to be reservoirs of velogenic Newcastle disease virus strains that could initiate endemicity NDV cycles in the village setting.
Key words: cool and dry zones, healthy-appearing chickens, reservoirs, velogenic Newcastle disease virus

Njagi L W, Nyaga P N, UM M. "A retrospective study of factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks in village indigenous chickens.". 2010. Abstract

Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., (2010), 58, 22-33.

A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEWCASTLE
DISEASE OUTBREAKS IN VILLAGE INDIGENOUS CHICKENS

L.W. Njagi1*, P.N. Nyaga1, P.G. Mbuthia1, L.C. Bebora1, J.N. Michieka1, and U.M. Minga2

1University of Nairobi,
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
P.O. Box 29053 – 00625, Kangemi, Kenya.
2Open, University of Tanzania, P.O. Box 23409, Dar es salaam, Tanzania
ÉTUDE RÉTROSPECTIVE DES FACTEURS ASSOCIÉS À LA DÉCLARATION DE
LA MALADIE DE NEWCASTLE CHEZ LA POULE DE RACE LOCALE
Résumé
Bien que l'épidémiologie de la maladie de Newcastle soit bien documentée dans les systèmes
aviaires commerciaux, les informations relatives à l’écologie de la maladie chez la poule de race locale, en particulier sous les tropiques, sont par contre peu disponible. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs de risque associés à la maladie de Newcastle chez la poule de race locale. L'étude a été menée dans cinq zones agro-écologiques et a concernées
soixante quinze ménages élevant des poules de race locale. Les éleveurs ont été sélectionnés de manière aléatoire et évalués sur leurs connaissances de la maladie, et les signes cliniques
manifestés par les oiseaux infectés. Les données sur les pratiques de gestion, l’incidence des
maladies et les facteurs de risque associés à la déclaration de la maladie de Newcastle ont été
recueillies à l'aide d'un questionnaire et analysées à l'aide d’un logiciel de statistiques. Le taux de fréquence de la maladie de Newcastle était élevé (93,8%) dans la zone sèche et faible (50%) dans la zone fraîche et humide (dans les régions basses de montagnes). Les déclaration de la maladie de Newcastle étaient significativement associées aux différents facteurs suivant cloisonnement des oiseaux dans toutes les zones écologiques, sauf celle située dans le Bas-
Midland où pour la plus part des cas signalés, les oiseaux n’étaient pas enfermés; le mode
d’évacuation des oiseaux infectés ; les carcasses des volailles et les matières fécales; les saisons sèches dans les zones sèches juste avant les pluies ; les conditions de ventilation ; les changements irréguliers de température et l’approvisionnement en volaille sur les marchés (P <0,05). Par contre, la poussière n'était pas significative (P> 0,05) associée aux déclarations de la maladie de Newcastle. Les réponses variaient selon les saisons et entre les zones agro - écologiques. En guise de conclusion, l'étude a montré que plusieurs facteurs à savoir: cloisonner les oiseaux, les températures froides ou très chaudes, la ventilation, l'achat d’oiseaux sur les marchés, l'élimination de la matière fécale et les oiseaux infectés sont des facteurs majeurs de risque pour la survenue de la maladie de Newcastle chez les poules de race locale. Il est recommandé que les éleveurs de volaille soient informés sur la transmission de la maladie de Newcastle et sa prévention.

Mots clés: facteurs de risque, zones agro-écologiques, cloisonnement, saisons chaudes et
fraîches.

Summary
Although the epidemiology of Newcastle disease in commercial poultry systems is well
documented, its ecology in indigenous birds, especially in tropics, is not adequately reported.
The objective of this study, therefore, was to determine the risk factors associated with occurrence of Newcastle disease in village indigenous chickens. The study was carried out in
five agro –ecological zones and seventy five households keeping indigenous chickens. Farmers were randomly selected and assessed on whether they understood Newcastle disease including knowing its local name and clinical signs manifested by the affected birds. Those who did not fit into the above category were excluded from further interviews. Data on management practices, incidence of diseases and risk factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks were collected using a questionnaire and analysed using statistical package. The prevalence rate of Newcastle disease was highest (93.8%) in the dry zone (Low midland 5) and lowest (50%) in cool wet zone (Lower Highland 1). Newcastle disease outbreaks were significantly associated with the following factors namely: confinement of birds in all ecological zones except in lower midland 5 where most cases were reported without confinement; mode of disposal of infected birds, carcasses and poultry faecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short intermittent temperature changes and the restocking of farms with chickens from the markets (P<0.05). Dust storm was not significantly (P>0.05) associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks. The responses varied across the seasons and between the agro – ecological zones.
In conclusion, the study has shown that several factors namely: confinement; cold or very hot
temperatures; winds; introduction of market birds and disposal of manure and sick birds are
major risk factors to occurrence of Newcastle disease in indigenous chickens. It is recommended that flock owners be educated on Newcastle disease transmission and prevention.

Key – words: risk factors, agro–ecological zones, confinement, hot and cold seasons.

2009
Umpierrez GE, Jones S, Smiley D, Mulligan P, Keyler T, Temponi A, Semakula C, Umpierrez D, Peng L, Cerón M, Robalino G. "Insulin analogs versus human insulin in the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis: a randomized controlled trial." Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1164-1169. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of insulin analogs and human insulins both during acute intravenous treatment and during the transition to subcutaneous insulin in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a controlled multicenter and open-label trial, we randomly assigned patients with DKA to receive intravenous treatment with regular or glulisine insulin until resolution of DKA. After resolution of ketoacidosis, patients treated with intravenous regular insulin were transitioned to subcutaneous NPH and regular insulin twice daily (n = 34). Patients treated with intravenous glulisine insulin were transitioned to subcutaneous glargine once daily and glulisine before meals (n = 34). RESULTS: There were no differences in the mean duration of treatment or in the amount of insulin infusion until resolution of DKA between intravenous treatment with regular and glulisine insulin. After transition to subcutaneous insulin, there were no differences in mean daily blood glucose levels, but patients treated with NPH and regular insulin had a higher rate of hypoglycemia (blood glucose {\textless}70 mg/dl). Fourteen patients (41%) treated with NPH and regular insulin had 26 episodes of hypoglycemia and 5 patients (15%) in the glargine and glulisine group had 8 episodes of hypoglycemia (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Regular and glulisine insulin are equally effective during the acute treatment of DKA. A transition to subcutaneous glargine and glulisine after resolution of DKA resulted in similar glycemic control but in a lower rate of hypoglycemia than with NPH and regular insulin. Thus, a basal bolus regimen with glargine and glulisine is safer and should be preferred over NPH and regular insulin after the resolution of DKA.

Ueda Y, Aizawa M, Takahashi A, Fujii M, Isaka Y. "Exaggerated compensatory response to acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder is induced by increased lactic acid production." Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2009;24:825-828. AbstractWebsite

Background. In acute respiratory alkalosis, the severity of alkalaemia is ameliorated by a decrease in plasma [HCO3−] of 0.2 mEq/L for each 1 mmHg decrease in PaCO2. Although hyperventilation in panic disorder patients is frequently encountered in outpatients, the drop in plasma [HCO3−] sometimes surpasses the expectation calculated from the above formula. The quantitative relationship between reduced PaCO2 and plasma [HCO3−] in acute respiratory alkalosis has not been studied in panic disorder patients. Our objective was to provide reference data for the compensatory metabolic changes in acute respiratory alkalosis in panic disorder patients. Methods. In 34 panic disorder patients with hyperventilation attacks, we measured arterial pH, PaCO2, plasma [HCO3−] and lactate on arrival at the emergency room. Results. For each decrease of 1 mmHg in PaCO2, plasma [HCO3−] decreased by 0.41 mEq/L. During hypocapnia, panic disorder patients exhibited larger increases in serum lactate levels (mean ± SD; 2.59 ± 1.50 mmol/L, range; 0.78–7.78 mmol/L) than previously reported in non-panic disorder subjects. Plasma lactate accumulation was correlated with PaCO2 (P {\textless} 0.001). Conclusions. These results suggest that the compensatory metabolic response to acute respiratory alkalosis is exaggerated by increased lactic acid production in panic disorder patients. Here, we call attention to the diagnosis of acid–base derangements by means of plasma [HCO3−] and lactate concentration in panic disorder patients.

Odongo DO, Ueti MW, Mwaura SN, Knowles DP, Bishop RP, Scoles GA. "Quantification of Theileria parva in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) confirms differences in infection between selected tick strains." J. Med. Entomol.. 2009;46(4):888-94. Abstract

Theileria parva is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever, an economically important disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. This protozoan parasite is biologically transmitted by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Neumann) (Acari: Ixodidae). An understanding of the vector-parasite interaction may aid the development of improved methods for controlling transmission. We developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and nested PCR (nPCR) assays targeting the T. parva-specific p104 gene to study T. parva pathogenesis in two strains of R. appendiculatus that had previously been selected to be relatively more (Kiambu) or less (Muguga) susceptible to infection. Nymphs from both strains were fed simultaneously to repletion on acutely infected calves. Nymphs from the Kiambu strain showed significantly higher engorgement weights compared with Muguga strain nymphs. Immediately after engorgement qPCR confirmed that nymphal Kiambu ticks had significantly higher parasite loads at repletion than Muguga nymphs. By 12 d postengorgement, parasites were below quantifiable levels but could be detected by nPCR in 83-87% (Muguga and Kiambu, respectively) of nymphs. After the molt, adult feeding on naïve cattle stimulated parasite replication in the salivary glands. PCR detected significantly more infected ticks than microscopy, and there was a significant difference between the two tick strains both in the proportion of ticks that develop salivary gland infections, and in the number of parasites within infected salivary glands. These data confirm that although both tick strains were competent vectors, Kiambu is both a significantly more susceptible and a more efficient host for T. parva than Muguga. The mechanisms that contribute to the levels of susceptibility and efficiency are unknown; however, this study lays the groundwork for a comparison of the transcriptome of these tick strains, the next step toward discovering the genes involved in the tick-parasite interaction.

Hawary ELR, Yumoto K, Yamazaki Y, Mahrous A, Ghamry E, Meloni A, Badi K, Kianji G, Uiso CBS, Mwinge N, Joao L, Affluo T, Malinga S, Mengeshtu G, Baki P. Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa, Earth and planets Space. KOGOSHIMA, JAPAN; 2009.
Upadhyaya R. "Corporate Governance: Debates In The Literature And The Experience Of The Kenyan Banking Sector.". In: ESRC Corporate Governance, Regulation and Development Seminar Series. Oriel College, University of Oxford; 2009.
W. DRKIMENJUJOHN, U. ODEROGO, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, M. WACHIRAP, D. NARLAR, M. MW. "Suitability of locally available substrates for oyster mushroom (Pleurotusostreatus).". 2009;8(7):510-514.
Ueckermann EA, Theron PD, Knapp M. "The tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) of Kenya and a redescription of the species Peltanobia erasmusi Meyer (Acari: Tetranychidae) based on males.". 2009. Abstractfull_text_.pdfWebsite

This paper reports 18 tetranychid mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) from various plant hosts in Kenya. Four species of these belong to the subfamily Bryobiinae and the other 14 belong to the subfamily Tetranychinae. Eight of the mite species identified belong to the genera Bryobia, Petrobia, Peltanobia, Paraplonobia, Duplanychus, Eutetranychus and Mixonychus and are being reported for the first time in Kenya while the other ten had already been reported before. The paper provides a list of these species and their brief descriptions as well as a redescription of Peltanobia erasmusi Meyer (Acari: Tetranychidae) to include male characters that were not included in the original description.

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, Fisher JN. "Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1335-1343. Abstract
n/a
2008
Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Fisher JN, Murphy MB, Stentz FB. "Thirty years of personal experience in hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2008;93:1541-1552. Abstract

CONTEXT: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) cause major morbidity and significant mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. For more than 30 yr, our group, in a series of prospective, randomized clinical studies, has investigated the pathogenesis and evolving strategies of the treatment of hyperglycemic crises. This paper summarizes the results of these prospective studies on the management and pathophysiology of DKA. SETTING: Our earliest studies evaluated the comparative efficacy of low-dose vs. pharmacological amounts of insulin and the use of low-dose therapy by various routes in adults and later in children. Subsequent studies evaluated phosphate and bicarbonate therapy, lipid metabolism, ketosis-prone type 2 patients, and use of rapid-acting insulin analogs as well as leptin status, cardiac risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines, and the mechanism of activation of T lymphocytes in hyperglycemic crises. MAIN OUTCOME: The information garnered from these studies resulted in the creation of the 2001 American Diabetes Association (ADA) technical review on DKA and HHS as well as the ADA Position and Consensus Paper on the therapy for hyperglycemic crises. CONCLUSIONS: Areas of future research include prospective randomized studies to do the following: 1) establish the efficacy of bicarbonate therapy in DKA for a pH less than 6.9; 2) establish the need for a bolus insulin dose in the initial therapy of DKA; 3) determine the pathophysiological mechanisms for the absence of ketosis in HHS; 4) investigate the reasons for elevated proinflammatory cytokines and cardiovascular risk factors; and 5) evaluate the efficacy and cost benefit of using sc regular insulin vs. more expensive insulin analogs on the general ward for the treatment of DKA.

Gongora J, Rawlence NJ, Mobegi VA, Jianlin H, Alcalde JA, Matus JT, Hanotte O, Moran C, Austin JJ, Ulm S, Anderson AJ, Larson G, Cooper A. "Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 2008;105(30):10308-13. Abstract

European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

DR I, SS J, KHM K, MM K, UC S. "The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of s. aureus; an ocular normal fl ora." East African journal of ophthalmology . 2008;14(2). Abstract

Objective: To determine the changing of drug sensitivity patterns for s. aureas
as the second commonest bacteria of the conjunctival normal fl ora in Nairobi,
Kenya

Design: Descriptive retrospective study

Setting: University of Nairobi, Department of Ophthalmology and Kikuyu Eye Unit
Subjects: 37 (28%) asymptomatic volunteers at KNH and KEU with no signs of
ocular infections or ocular surface abnormalities from January 1994 to December
1997 were selected.

Results: A total of 37 cases were tested positive for S. aureus. The micro
organism showed high resistance to amoxtcillin, aminoglycosides, 1st and 2nd
generation Flouroquinolones except Ofl oxacin and tetracycline. It was sensitive
to carbenocillin, polymyxin B and chloramphenocol and highly sensitive to
Cephalexin and ciprofl oxacin.

Conclusion: The percentage of positive fi nding of S. aureus of the conjunctival
normal flora is comparable to that in other regions of the world. We found a high
resistance to most of the commonly locally prescribed antibiotics.

Uhl GR, Arinami T, Teasenfitz L, Macharia D, Iwasaki S, Inada T, Lujilde J, Hope B, Akinshola EB, Brusco A, Gardner E, Tagliaferro PA, Mora Z, Perchuk A, Myers L, Meozzi PA, Patel S, Gong J-P, Ishiguro H, Onaivi mail ES. "Brain neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors in drug abuse and depression: from mice to human subjects.". 2008.
sponsored by UNICEF(DHE). "Essential drugs and rational use of antibiotics AND Childhood Asthma : Primary health Care manual .". In: Essential drugs and rational use of antibiotics AND Childhood Asthma . unicef; 2008.
Upadhyaya R, Tavasci D, Toporowski J. "Niebyl, Money and Development.". In: SOAS Department of Economics Working paper series 157.; 2008.
Upadhyaya R. "The State of Economic Heterodoxy in Research on the Banking sector in Africa.". In: 10th Anniversary Conference of Association of Heterodoxy Economics. Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge; 2008.
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Burugu, M. W., Mbatia, B. N., Osir, E. O., Kenya, E. U., Abubakar, L. U. .". In: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science; 2008. Abstract
Rural aquaculture in Lake Victoria basin is a fast increasing nontraditional farming activity which if not appropriately practised will lead to degradation of the wetlands. As part of a study to develop appropriate guidelines and model systems for wetlands-based rural aquaculture in the basin a survey was conducted to assess the status and the ecological and socioeconomic impact of rural aquaculture on wetlands and wetlands communities. Aquaculture practice was found to be common but not as a major activity. Aquaculture in the wetlands can be described as a low input-low output production activity and subsistence based on ponds under 400 m2 using free seed from public agencies with hardly any supplementary feeding. Men owned most of the ponds and women only contributed to the management of the fishponds by feeding the fish. Poorly constructed ponds and loss during harvesting have led to the escape of cultured species into the wild. Introduction of nonnative species in the basin has already led to wide ranging ecological, environmental and socioeconomic changes whose impact and usefulness are still very much contentious. Repeat of such scenarios can be avoided if appropriate and science-based models for rural aquaculture farming are developed, tested and disseminated to the communities
Songur A, Gonul Y, Ozen OA, Kucuker H, Uzun I, Bas O, Toktas M. "Variations in the intracranial vertebrobasilar system." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2008;30:257-264. AbstractWebsite
n/a
2007
undefined. Effects of lactoperoxidase system in camel milk for preservation and fermentation purposes. Wangoh J, Lamuka PO, eds. University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

Summary
This study was conducted to investigate preservative effect of the LPsystem
on both raw and pasteurized camel milk. The effect of the LPsystem
on selected starter cultures in the raw and pasteurized camel
milk was also investigated. Experiments were therefore conducted to:
 evaluate the effect of LP-system activation on shelf-life of raw
camel milk with the underlying activities being to:
o determine the duration of antibacterial effect in camel milk
stored at different temperatures after activation of its LPsystem
and
o monitor effect on keeping quality of increasing
concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and hydrogen
peroxide within physiological limits.
 determine the effect of the LP-system on keeping quality in
pasteurised camel milk
 determine the effect of the LP-system on starter culture activity in
camel heat treated and raw camel milk.
The concentration of thiocyanate occurring naturally in the milk used in
the present investigations ranged from 9.7 to 36.4 mg/l. No addition of
thiocyanate was therefore necessary to activate the LP-system. The
average thiocyanate values of camel milk from different sites were
2
15.8, 32.9 and 9.74 mg/l and were significantly different (p<0.001)
across the three sampling sites in this study.
Changes in total viable counts between LP-activated and LPinactivated
camel milk were determined during storage at 10, 20 and
30°C. Viable counts increased with storage temperature. Microbial
growth was halted for 15, 17 and 76 hours at 30, 20 and 10°C
respectively by activation of the LP-system in raw camel milk. At 30°C
the effect was mainly bacteriostatic and at 20°C, there was an initial
bactericidal effect in the first 15 hours. At 10°C, the bactericidal effect
was noted throughout the period of 76 hours.
The titratable acidity between LP-activated and LP-inactivated camel
milk was determined during storage at 10, 20 and 30°C. There lag in
acid production of 14, 23, and 10 hours at 10, 20 and 30°C
respectively as compared to the controls and was significantly different
(p>0.05) across the three incubation temperatures. Shelf life difference
between LP-system activated samples and their respective controls
was 19 hours at both 10 and 20°C and 4 hours at 30°C.
The differences in mean acid produced between the control samples
and the activated samples, however, were 0.12, 0.61 and 0.49 for 10,
20 and 30°C respectively. Inhibition of acid production by the LPsystem
increased from significant (p<0.05) during storage at 10°C to
highly significant (p<0.01) during storage at 20 and 30°C. The present
investigation therefore shows that by activating the LP-system it is
3
possible to extend the storage period of raw camel milk and that the
effect of the LP-system on the microbes present varies with
temperature of storage.
The effect of increasing levels of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide
on antibacterial activity of LP-system in raw camel milk at 30ºC was
investigated. Changes in total viable counts and lactic acid
development in raw camel milk at concentrations of 0, 10:10, 20:20,
30:30 and 40:40ppms, NaSCN
-
:H2O2 were monitored. The delay in
multiplication of bacteria increased significantly with an increase in the
LP-system components from no lag phase in the control to 4, 6, 11.5
and 9.5 hours in the 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm levels of
NaSCN/H2O2 respectively.. The lag in acid production was 0, 4.8, 6, 12
and 8 hours for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm dose of
NaSCN:H2O2, respectively. The shelf life of the camel milk was 4, 6,
12, 16 and 16 hours, respectively, for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40
ppm dose of NaSCN:H2O2.
Lactoperoxidase system (LPS) was activated in camel milk followed by
pasteurization after 0, 4, and 8 hours after of storage.
This resulted in a shelf life of 15, 32, 17 and 17 days for the nonactivated
control and those activated after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage
respectively during storage of samples at 10ºC. At 20°C, the shelf life
was 6, 13, 9 and 7 days for non-activated control and those activated
after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage respectively. These results showed
4
a significant effect of storage time prior to pasteurisation on the effect
of the LP-system on the surviving microflora between the control and
activated samples at all the 3 times of storage prior to pasteurisation
(p<0.001). The number of viable bacteria in untreated sample reached
108 after 45 days compared to 105-107 in treated samples during
storage at 10ºC and 108 after 15 days in untreated compared to 107-
106 in treated samples under storage at 20ºC. The mean specific
growth rates at 10ºC storage temperature were 0.51, 0.2, 0.41 and 0.5
for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively and were significantly lower in the LP-treated camel
milk samples than in the control (p<0.001). At 20ºC storage
temperature, the mean specific growth rates were 1,46, 0.27, 0.69 and
1 for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively. These were also significantly lower in the LPtreated
camel milk samples than in the control (p<0.001)
Sensitivity of lactic starter cultures to LP-system was investigated by
monitoring acid production by mesophillic, thermophillic and Suusac
starter cultures in both LP-system treated and untreated camel milk.
Inoculation with starter was done after zero, 4 and 8 hours of storage
of LP-activated samples.
In all the three starters, LP-system activation resulted in a significant
slow down in acid development in raw camel milk activated and
inoculated immediately. For the thermophillic starter mean lactic acid
5
was 0.41, 0.32, 0.35 and 0.36 for the inactivated control sample and
those activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and the
activated samples were very highly significant (p<0.001), highly
significant (p<0.01) and not significant (p>0.05) at the inoculation times
o, 4 and 8 respectively. For the Suusac starter, mean lactic acid was
0.67, 0.62, 0.67 and 0.52 for the inactivated control sample and those
activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and
activated samples were highly significant (p<0.01) at all the inoculation
times after activation. However, for mesophillic starter culture the mean
values of lactic acid produced were 0.53, 0.48, 0.42 and 0.54 for the
inactivated control and activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4,
and 8 hours respectively. The differences in means between the
control and activated samples were significant (p<0.01) at 0 and 4
hours and non-significant (p>0.05) at 8 hours. This implied that camel
milk preserved using this method could support satisfactory mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity if the milk is held prior to
processing.
The investigation on the effect of the LP-system on starter activity in
camel milk heat-treated prior to inoculation showed that heat treatment
reduced starter inhibition by the LP-system for the mesophillic and
thermophillic starter cultures for samples LP-system activated, heat
6
treated and inoculated at immediately. For the mesophillic starter mean
lactic acid values for the inactivated control sample, activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40
respectively. The differences in mean lactic acid values between the
control and activated samples showed that a non-significant effect of
inoculation time at time 0 (p>0.05), a significant effect after 4 hours
(p<0.05), and a very highly significant effect (p<0.001) after 8 hours.
Mean lactic acid values for the thermophillic starter for the inactivated
control sample and those activated and then inoculated after 0, 4 and 8
hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40 respectively. The inhibition
changed from insignificant (p>0.05) on inoculation at time 0 and 4
hours (p<0.05) and was highly significant (p<0.01) on inoculation after
8 hours. Thus the inhibitory effect of the LP-system on mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity in heat treated camel milk
apparently is reactivated and increases with time of preservation of raw
milk by LP-system. However with suusac starter, the mean lactic acid
values inactivated control sample and those activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours respectively were 0.69, 0.58, 0.64
and 0.71. At zero and four hours after activation inhibition was
significant (p<0.05) compared to a non-significantly different inhibition
(p>0.05) on inoculation after 8 hours of storage.
The use of the LP-system might therefore have a significant influence
on the time taken to reach the desired pH in the vat, which is a critical
7
factor for the manufacturer of fermented camel milk and this influence
is dependent on the time of preservation of raw camel milk prior to
processing of fermented products.

Olago DO, Umer, M; Ringrose S, Huntsman-Mapila P, Sow, E. H; Damnati B. Palaeoclimate in Africa: An overview since the Last Glacial Maximum.; 2007.
Ochieng JW, Muigai AWT, Ude GN. "Phylogenetics in Plant Biotechnology: Principles, obstacles and opportunities for the resource poor." Afr. Journal of Biotechnology . 2007;6(6):639-649.2007_ochieng_et_al_ajb_phy.pdf
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA, Mwanja WW, Akol MA, Bugenyi FW, Mwanja MT, Banga JM, Msuku BS. "Status of rural aquaculture in the Lake Victoria Basin.". In: African Journal of Ecology 45: 165-174. African Journal of Ecology; 2007. Abstract

Rural aquaculture in Lake Victoria basin is a fast increasing nontraditional farming activity which if not appropriately practised will lead to degradation of the wetlands. As part of a study to develop appropriate guidelines and model systems for wetlands-based rural aquaculture in the basin a survey was conducted to assess the status and the ecological and socioeconomic impact of rural aquaculture on wetlands and wetlands communities. Aquaculture practice was found to be common but not as a major activity. Aquaculture in the wetlands can be described as a low input-low output production activity and subsistence based on ponds under 400 m2 using free seed from public agencies with hardly any supplementary feeding. Men owned most of the ponds and women only contributed to the management of the fishponds by feeding the fish. Poorly constructed ponds and loss during harvesting have led to the escape of cultured species into the wild. Introduction of nonnative species in the basin has already led to wide ranging ecological, environmental and socioeconomic changes whose impact and usefulness are still very much contentious. Repeat of such scenarios can be avoided if appropriate and science-based models for rural aquaculture farming are developed, tested and disseminated to the communities

2006
C. O. Mito, G. Laneve, Castronuovo MM, and Ulivieri C. "Derivation of land surface temperatures from MODIS data using the general split-window technique." International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2006;27(12-14):2541-2552.
Kenya EU, Okun DO, Gachuche DN, Abdulahi A, U. AL, Manohar R. "Detection and presumptive identification of Clostridium perfrigens in drinking water." Aquaculture. 2006;7(1): 27-36. Abstractabstract.pdfWebsite

Rural aquaculture in Lake Victoria basin is a fast increasing nontraditional farming activity which if not appropriately practised will lead to degradation of the wetlands. As part of a study to develop appropriate guidelines and model systems for wetlands-based rural aquaculture in the basin a survey was conducted to assess the status and the ecological and socioeconomic impact of rural aquaculture on wetlands and wetlands communities. Aquaculture practice was found to be common but not as a major activity. Aquaculture in the wetlands can be described as a low input-low output production activity and subsistence based on ponds under 400 m2 using free seed from public agencies with hardly any supplementary feeding. Men owned most of the ponds and women only contributed to the management of the fishponds by feeding the fish. Poorly constructed ponds and loss during harvesting have led to the escape of cultured species into the wild. Introduction of nonnative species in the basin has already led to wide ranging ecological, environmental and socioeconomic changes whose impact and usefulness are still very much contentious. Repeat of such scenarios can be avoided if appropriate and science-based models for rural aquaculture farming are developed, tested and disseminated to the communities

Mukabana, W.R., K. Kannady, G.M. Kiama, J. Ijumba, E.M. Mathenge, I. Kiche, G. Nkwengulila, L.E.G. Mboera, D. Mtasiwa, Y. Yamagata, I. van Schayk, B.G.J. Knols, S.W. Lindsay, M. Caldas de Castro, H. Mshinda, M. Tanner, U. Fillinger, Killeen GF. "Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa." Malaria Journal. 2006;5(1):9.
Ulzen TPM, editor Ndetei, D.M., Szabo CP. "Mental Retardation."; 2006.
Uwakwe R, Dhadphale M, editor Ndetei, D.M., Nakasujja N, Maru HM, Musisi S. "Old Age and Mental Health."; 2006.
Hogan NM, editor Ndetei, D.M., Kilonzo G, Uwakwe R. "Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders."; 2006.
Fehr J, Hatz C, Soka I, Kibatala P, Urassa H, Battegay M, Jeffrey Z, Smith T, Mshinda H, Frei R, others. "Antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infections in a rural sub-{Saharan} hospital." Clinical microbiology and infection. 2006;12:1224-1227. AbstractWebsite
n/a
2005
2004
Umpierrez GE, Latif K, Stoever J, Cuervo R, Park L, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE. "Efficacy of subcutaneous insulin lispro versus continuous intravenous regular insulin for the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 2004;117:291-296. Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous insulin lispro with that of a standard low-dose intravenous infusion protocol of regular insulin in patients with uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized open trial, 20 patients treated with subcutaneous insulin lispro were managed in regular medicine wards (n=10) or an intermediate care unit (n=10), while 20 patients treated with the intravenous protocol were managed in the intensive care unit. Patients treated with subcutaneous lispro received an initial injection of 0.3 unit/kg followed by 0.1 unit/kg/h until correction of hyperglycemia (blood glucose levels {\textless}250 mg/dL), followed by 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/h until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis (pH {\textgreater} or =7.3, bicarbonate {\textgreater} or =18 mEq/L). Patients treated with intravenous regular insulin received an initial bolus of 0.1 unit/kg, followed by an infusion of 0.1 unit/kg/h until correction of hyperglycemia, then 0.05 to 0.1 unit/kg/h until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Mean (+/- SD) admission biochemical parameters in patients treated with subcutaneous lispro (glucose: 674 +/- 154 mg/dL; bicarbonate: 9.2 +/- 4 mEq/L; pH: 7.17 +/- 0.10) were similar to values in patients treated with intravenous insulin (glucose: 611 +/- 264 mg/dL; bicarbonate: 10.6 +/- 4 mEq/L; pH: 7.19 +/- 0.08). The duration of treatment until correction of hyperglycemia (7 +/- 3 hours vs. 7 +/- 2 hours) and resolution of ketoacidosis (10 +/- 3 hours vs. 11 +/- 4 hours) in patients treated with subcutaneous lispro was not different than in patients treated with intravenous regular insulin. There were no deaths in either group, and there were no differences in the length of hospital stay, amount of insulin until resolution of diabetic ketoacidosis, or in the rate of hypoglycemia between treatment groups. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in the intensive care unit was associated with 39% higher hospitalization charges than was treatment with subcutaneous lispro in a non-intensive care setting (\$14,429 +/- \$5243 vs. \$8801 +/- \$5549, P {\textless}0.01). CONCLUSION: Treatment of adult patients who have uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis with subcutaneous lispro every hour in a non-intensive care setting may be safe and more cost-effective than treatment with intravenous regular insulin in the intensive care unit.

Umpierrez GE, Cuervo R, Karabell A, Latif K, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE. "Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with subcutaneous insulin aspart." Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1873-1878. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: In this prospective, randomized, open trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of aspart insulin given subcutaneously at different time intervals to a standard low-dose intravenous (IV) infusion protocol of regular insulin in patients with uncomplicated diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 45 consecutive patients admitted with DKA were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous (SC) aspart insulin every hour (SC-1h

Mathenge EM, Omweri GO, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Welczak E, undefined, Kileen GF, Knols BJG. "Comparative field evaluation of Mbita trap, CDC light trap and the Human Landing Catch for sampling of malaria vectors." American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene . 2004;70:33-37.Website
2003
Uchino A, Sawada A, Takase Y, Kudo S. "Variations of the superior cerebellar artery: {MR} angiographic demonstration." Radiation Medicine. 2003;21:235-238. Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe variations of the proximal segments of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) detected by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 145 consecutive MR angiograms. All patients were studied with a 1.5-Tesla imager using the three-dimensional time-of-flight technique. RESULTS: There were 16 duplicated SCAs in 13 patients, seven SCAs originating from the posterior cerebral arteries in six patients, four early bifurcations of the SCAs in four patients, and one SCA arising from the internal carotid artery. Because the SCA is small in caliber, the bilateral SCAs in nine patients could not be identified on MR angiograms owing to patient movement. In two patients with duplicated SCA, one of the duplicated trunks compressed the trigeminal nerve at the root entry zone, resulting in trigeminal neuralgia. CONCLUSION: Although most of these SCA variations have no clinical significance, preoperative identification of SCA variations is important for avoiding complications during surgery and/or for interventional procedures of the distal basilar artery.

Mauyo LW;, Kosgei DK;, Okalebo JR;, Kirkby RA;, Kimani PM;, Ugen M;, Maritim HK. "Structure and conduct of cross-border bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) marketing in east Africa: the case of western Kenya and eastern Uganda."; 2003. Abstract

This study was conducted to assess the current status of cross-border bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) marketing patterns in the border districts of Kenya and Uganda, with a view to improving the marketing system in the region. Common bean is the most important pulse in Kenya and Uganda. It is a major source of food and income. Smallholder farmers in both countries have adopted improved bean varieties. However, there is inadequate empirical evidence on the bean grain characteristics preferred by consumers, the geographical distribution of the bean cultivars and the marketing patterns. The objectives of this study were to identify and assess the bean marketing channels and structure in the study area. It was hypothesised that there are no barriers to entry in the bean business in the study area. Purposive, multistage and systematic random sampling methods were used to select the study districts, bean farmers and traders, respectively. Two hundred and ten respondents were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Structure–conduct–performance (S-C-P) model was used to describe the bean marketing system. The study revealed four marketing channels in both Kenya and Uganda. The degree of concentration at the retail and wholesale levels show that the markets are competitive. There are barriers to entry into the bean business in the study area. No collusive or predatory tactics were observed in the bean marketing system. However, the study revealed that there is poor market information flow in the marketing system.

UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Abubakar L. U., Zimba G., Wells C., Mulaa F., Osir E. O. .". In: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. Abubakar L.U; 2003. Abstract
Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro. Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells. Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds. Key words: Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates
2002
Latif KA, Freire AX, Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Qureshi N. "The use of alkali therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes Care. 2002;25:2113-2114. Abstract
n/a
Upadhyaya MK, Toivonen PMA. "85 Flower formation in Primula vulgaris.". 2002.Website
Uchino A, Sawada A, Takase Y, Kudo S. "Variations of the superior cerebellar artery: {MR} angiographic demonstration." Radiation medicine. 2002;21:235-238. AbstractWebsite
n/a
2001
Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, Barrett EJ, Kreisberg RA, Malone JI, Wall BM. "Management of hyperglycemic crises in patients with diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2001;24:131-153. Abstract
n/a
Namayanja A;, Tukamuhabwa P;, Opio F;, Ugen M;, Kimani PM;, Takusewanya R;, Kitinda X. "Breeding Red-Mottled Beans for East and Central Africa."; 2001. Abstract

The common bean is grown by more than 90% of small-scale farmers in Africa. Of all the seed types grown in East and Central Africa, the red-mottled types occupy the greatest area: 650,000 ha in Eastern Africa and 90,000 ha in Southern Africa. This is also the most important bean type sold and consumed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Malawi, Zambia, and Mozambique, with a market share of about 22% in Eastern Africa. The breeding programme in Uganda is aimed at developing improved, marketable, red-mottled varieties with resistance to two or more biotic and abiotic constraints, and with acceptable agronomic and culinary qualities. In order to achieve this objective, breeding activities have been implemented under five major projects: hybridisation, evaluation of segregating populations and new introductions, multilocational yield trials, on-farm testing, and maintenance breeding. Since 1995, eight varieties of bush beans and four climbing varieties have been released. Several others are in advanced stages and, currently, 10 bush and five climbing varieties are being tested on-farm. There have been high demand and adoption of these new varieties, thereby contributing to household food security, protein availability, and income. However, it has been observed that the selection criterion used by farmers is different from that used by breeders. There is now a need to involve farmers at the very early stage of selection through participatory plant breeding so as to accelerate the adoption process.

Gathumbi JK, Usleber E, Martlbauer E. "Production of ultrasensitive antibodies against aflatoxin B 1.". 2001. Abstract

Aims: To produce speciÆc antibodies against the haptenic fungal toxin aØatoxin B1 (AFB1) and apply these antibodies in immunochemical assays for aØatoxins. Methods and Results: Rabbits were immunized using an AFB1 -bovine serum albumin conjugate and serum titres determined by double-antibody enzyme immunoassay. High titres of antibodies with very high afÆnity for AFB 1 were obtained 15 and 4 weeks after the initial immunization and the Ærst booster immunization respectively. The antibodies were employed in enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunoafÆnity chromatography (IAC) methods for aflatoxins. With a detection limit of 15 · 8pgml)1 for AFB1 , the EIA employing these antibodies is the most sensitive test for AFB1 described so far. In IAC columns, these antibodies provided high binding capacity for all major aØatoxins, including AFB1 , AFB2 , AFG1 and AFG2 Conclusions: The antibodies described here are useful for the analysis of trace levels of aflatoxins. SigniÆcance and Impact of the Study: Polyclonal antibody-based EIA and IAC methods for aflatoxin analysis offer a suitable alternative to the more expensive monoclonal antibody- based methodS.

2000
Patel, NB; Kioy PG; UGFRPF; S;, Kalaria RN;, Kioy PG;, Kariuki M;, Unverzagt F;, Hendrie H;, Gatere S;, Freidland RP. "High APOE e 4 allele frequency in elderly Kikuyus in Kenya.". 2000.
1999
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Addae-Mensah I, Achenbach H, undefined, Hassanali H. "Aromatic plants of Kenya IV: Volatile and some non-volatile constituents of the stem bark of Synadenium compactum NE Br. Var. compactum." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 1999;1(1):5-7.
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Osir E. O., Abubakar L.U., Abakar, M. .". In: 25th Meeting of the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research & Control (ISCTRC) Mombasa, KENYA. ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbes and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic substances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential source of promising antimicrobial compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extracts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro. Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted using methanol and chloroform and tested for activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by assaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells. Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was present in the methanol extracts compared to chloroform extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds. Key words: Tripneustes gratilla, antimicrobial activity, marine invertebrates
1998
Vecino E, Caminos E, Ugarte M, Martín-Zanca D, Osborne NN. "Immunohistochemical distribution of neurotrophins and their receptors in the rat retina and the effects of ischemia and reperfusion." General pharmacology. 1998;30:305-314. Abstract

1. Neurotrophins are molecules that regulate the survival, development and maintenance of specific functions in different populations of nerve cells. 2. In the present work, we studied the localization, at the cellular level, of the different neurotrophins and their receptors within the rat retina in control and after ischemia-reperfusion of the retina. We found variations in the localization of some of these molecules depending on the reperfusion time of the retina after the ischemic lesion. 3. Thus it is suggested that the changes in the distribution and concentration of neurotrophins and their receptors caused by ischemia are protective reactions related to neuronal damage and synaptic reorganization.

1996
H.C. Wien, undefined, Nyankanga R. ". Low light stress influences lower abscission and yield of bell pepper cultivars." HortScience. 1996;31(4).
Ochanda H, Young AS, Wells C, Medley GF, undefined. "Comparison of the transmission of Theileria parva between different instars of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. ." Parasitology. 1996;113:243-253.
Shibairo SI, Upadhyaya MK;, Toivonen PMA. "Potassium Nutrition and Shelf Life of Carrots (Daucus carota L.).". 1996. Abstract

The effect of potassium (K) nutrition on the shelf life of carrots was studied using a hydroponics system involving rockwool slabs as support. Carrots were grown for 192 days under greenhouse conditions and supplied with 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 15 mm of K. Increase in K concentration in the nutrient medium decreased postharvest weight loss. Carrot weight and tissue K content increased and water potential, osmotic potential, and relative solute leakage decreased with increasing K concentration in the nutrient feed. Differences in postharvest weight loss were mainly associated to root weight and relative solute leakage. Root weight correlated negatively and relative solute leakage correlated positively to water loss. Water and osmotic potential also correlated to water loss, but not as strongly as root weight and relative solute leakage. These results suggest that K nutrition influences postharvest weight loss by influencing carrot size and membrane integrity. Effects on cell water and osmotic potential are also important in this regard but to a lesser extent.

1995
Shibairo SI, Upadhyaya MK, Toivonen PMA. "Effects of Moisture Loss on Water Potential Components and Tissue Deterioration in Carrots during Short-term Storage.". 1995. Abstract

Studies were carried out to understand the effects of moisture loss on water potential and root deterioration in carrot (Daucus carota L. `Eagle') roots during short-term storage. The roots were stored at various temperatures and relative humidities (RH) to provide 0.7 (low), 3 (medium), and 9 mbars (high) of water vapor pressure deficit (WVPD). Carrots at high WVPD lost the most weight, followed by those at medium and lowest WVPD. Water potential and osmotic potential of the carrot tissue at high WVPD did not change significantly up to 6 days, but decreased thereafter. There was no change in water potential and osmotic potential for carrots at medium and low WVPD. A significant quadratic relationship (P = 0.05, r = –0.764) between water potential and carrot root weight loss was observed. Relative electrolyte leakage increased over time in carrots at the high WVPD. At medium WVPD, relative electrolyte leakage did not change up to 6 days, but increased significantly thereafter. Carrots at the low WVPD did not change in relative electrolyte leakage. Relative electrolyte leakage and weight loss correlated positively (P = 0.05, r = 0.789). The results suggest that water stress during short-term storage causes tissue deterioration that may further increase rate of moisture loss and hence reduce the shelf life of carrots.

1994
1990
Oh MS, Carroll HJ, Uribarri J. "Mechanism of normochloremic and hyperchloremic acidosis in diabetic ketoacidosis." Nephron. 1990;54:1-6. Abstract
n/a
1979
Cavaillon JM, Udupa TN, Chou CT, Cinader B, Haeffner-Cavaillon N, Dubiski S. "Rabbit B spleen lymphocytes and T helper cells. I. Responsiveness to mitogens of B cell subpopulations of different sedimentation velocities and subpopulations bearing or lacking Fcgamma receptors." J. Immunol.. 1979;123(5):2231-8. Abstract

The response to anti-allotype (anti-Ab4), Nocardia Water Soluble Mitogen (NWSM), pneumococcal polysaccharide type III (SSS III), and human Fc fragments of various purified and unfractionated rabbit spleen cell populations was determined in terms of 3H-thymidine up-take. B cells were isolated either from untreated suspensions of spleen cells or from suspensions from which adherent and phagocytic cells were removed. The purification factor was greater than the enhancement of 3H-thymidine uptake by anti-Ab4, NWSM, and SSS III as compared with the response of unfractionated spleen cells. It thus appears that a helper cell was involved: the mitogen response of purified B cells was enhanced by the addition of T cells. B subpopulations were separated by sedimentation or by rosetting, which allowed us to separate Fcgamma receptor-bearing cells from cells that did not possess this receptor. There were differences between cells responding to B mitogens not only in sedimentation velocity but also in the absolute number of cells. B cells bearing the Fcgamma receptor were less responsive to anti-Ab4 and more responsive to SSS III, NWSM, and human Fc than were B cells lacking the Fcgamma receptor.

1975
Sádecký E, Brezina R, Kazár J, Urvölgyi J. "Immunization against Q-fever of naturally infected dairy cows." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):486-8. Abstract

Dairy cows infected naturally with Coxiella burnetii as evidenced either by presence of phase II agglutinating antibodies in the blood or by shedding C. burnetii in the milk, were vaccinated subcutaneously with formalin-killed phase I C. burnetii organisms. Attempts to demonstrate C. burnetii in the milk of vaccinated dairy cows 47 days after vaccination were negative, while continuous shedding of C. burnetii in the milk of control non-vaccinated dairy cows was repeatedly demonstrated in the course of 123 days (period of investigation). No harmful systemic reaction following vaccination was observed.

Urthaler F, Walker AA, Hefner LL, James TN. "Comparison of contractile performance of canine atrial and ventricular muscles." Circ. Res.. 1975;37(6):762-71. Abstract

This study compared the contractile performance of a canine right atrial trabecula with that of a macroscopically indistinguishable trabecula isolated from the right ventricular apex. The heart was removed from nine mongrel puppies weighing 6-8 kg and placed in Krebs-Ringer's bicarbonate solution. The bathing solution contained only 1.25 mmoles of Ca2+ and was bubbled with a 95% O2-5% CO2 gas mixture. Each atrial trabecula was specially selected from the right atrial appendage. Histologically, these trabeculae showed a remarkable longitudinal orientation of the fibers. At Lmax (the length of the muscle at which developed tension was maximum) under identical conditions of temperature, rate of stimulation, ionic milieu, pH, and O2 and CO2 supply, right atrial trabeculae achieved the same developed and total tensions but in a much shorter time than did ventricular trabeculae. In both muscle groups the maximum developed tension averaged about 2.5 g/mm2. Since Lo (expressed as a fraction of Lmax) was less in atrial muscle than it was in ventribular muscle, we concluded that atrial muscle can be stretched considerably more than can ventricular muscle before optimum length is reached. At any given initial muscle length, the maximum of tension rise for atrial trabeculae amounted to at least twice that for ventricular trabeculae. At any given load up to 1.5 g/mm2, the maximum velocity of shortening of an atrial trabecula was about three to four times that of a ventricular trabecula. These results collectively indicate that the contractile performance of the right atrial muscle is in many respects superior to that of the right ventricle, at least under the conditions of these experiments.

1972
1971

UoN Websites Search