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Book
Wakana, S., Siraishi, S., Ondicho, TG, eds. Re-finding African assets and City Environments: Governance, Research and Reflexivity. Tokyo: ILCAA & JSPS; 2016.
Njenga JN, Gitau GK, Thaiyah AG. Infectious Diseases of Sheep and Goats. Njoro, Nakuru: Egerton university press; 2013.
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. Riwaya ya Kiswahili (BSW 308) . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Moore KL, Persaud TVN, Torchia MG. The developing human: clinically oriented embryology.. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders; 2013. Abstract
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Mutembei, HM; Camargo; Viana JHM;, Muasa B;, Tsuma VT;, Origa RA;, Camargo; Viana, Okeyo AM. In vitro embryo production using Boran (Bos indicus) oocytes in Kenya.; 2011.Website
Tsuma VT;, Okeyo AM, Camargo; Viana JHM;, Origa RA;, Mutembei HM;, Muasa B;. In vitro embryo production using Boran (Bos indicus) oocytes in Kenya.; 2011.Website
Camargo; Viana, JHM; Okeyo AM, Muasa B;, Mutembei HM;, Tsuma VT;, Origa RA;, Camargo; Viana JHM;. In vitro embryo production using Boran (Bos indicus) oocytes in Kenya.; 2011.Website
T. M, Omwenga EI, W PW. A Framework for Distributed Learning Objects Repository.. Berlin: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2010.Amazon
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C. Gender Inequality in Agricultural Households in Kenya: Economic Analysis . Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2010.
Thairu PK. The African and The AIDS Holocaust. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers ; 2007.
Treue T;. Community-based natural resource management.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

This technical note gives a brief introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) and how this concept may be used as a development strategy. CBNRM has the triple objective of poverty reduction, natural resource conservation and good governance. The opportunity and challenge is to pursue these objectives simultaneously, as they are not, by default, mutually supportive. Lessons learnt from CBNRM will be useful when designing community-based climate adaptation strategies. Thus, this note is a contribution to an ongoing debate as well as a product of the long-standing experiences of Danida’s environmental portfolio. The note has been produced in cooperation with the Department for Forest, Landscape and Planning, Faculty of Life Sciences at the University of Copenhagen. Many practitioners have contributed through a fruitful peer review process. Dr. Thorsten Treue together with Iben Nathan have been the main contributors to the final note. Involving local communities and securing the rights of poor and marginalised groups in sustainable management of natural resources is a central theme in international development assistance. The poverty-governance-environment link has been further highlighted in recent years through interventions aimed at building capacity for resilience (disaster preparedness) as well as adapting to climate change. A successful implementation of CBNRM often requires changes at three different levels of society: 1) the national level, 2) the local level and the link between these, and 3) the intermediate level. At the national level, policies and the legislative framework normally needs adjustment and revision to establish an enabling environment that makes CBNRM attractive to local communities. At the intermediate level, it is important to promote the model of decentralised natural resource management that is most likely to work under the given political circumstances. In particular, this involves a choice between: (i) devolution of natural resource management authority to elected local governments, and (ii) deconcentration of line agencies, authorising district-level officers to delegate management authority to local communities. At the local level, it is crucial that CBNRM establishes significant economic incentives for managing and conserving the resource, which is closely related to clearly defined and officially supported tenure systems, as well as to revenue-sharing mechanisms. Furthermore, CBNRM should result in a coordination of resource use by numerous individuals, thus establishing an ‘optimal’ rate of production and consumption at the local level as well as for society at large. In practical terms, it is the elaboration, implementation and experience-based revision of resource management plans at local levels that determine the actual performance of CBNRM on the ground. The poverty reduction rationale of CBNRM, as an alternative to open access resource use, is that the total resource value can be maintained or enhanced, and that the costs and benefits of management can be distributed equitably, so that all community members, within a reasonable time horizon, experience a net gain, or at least a zero loss. Resource conservation requires harvest not to exceed increment over the long term. This calls for reasonably accurate knowledge about the extent and growth of the resource, as well as reliable recording of harvest volumes. Even so, CBNRM could still fail at the local level if inefficient rule enforcement allows free-riders to over-harvest the resource, and/or if inequitable distribution of costs and benefits leads to a breakdown of management rules and subsequent over-harvesting or permanent marginalisation of certain groups. Therefore, the establishment and maintenance of good governance or “appropriate decision-making iii arrangements” is the only feasible way to prevent the failure (or ensure the success) of CBNRM. Decision-making arrangements specify who decides what in relation to whom. Good governance at local level can be promoted through CBNRM legislation that establishes democratic conditions of collective choice, so that all members of a community (including women and other potentially vulnerable groups) get the opportunity to participate in defining: (i) the purpose of resource management, and (ii) the resulting management plan, including how it is enforced, and how products and benefits from the common resource are distributed. Furthermore, communities must hold authority to control free-riding by punishing defaulters, and community leaders must be downwards accountable to the people they represent. It would be naïve to assume that, once initiated, CBNRM is a guaranteed self-sustaining success, which needs no monitoring or adjustment. Regular monitoring of CBNRM processes should be conducted to adjust associated policies, legislative framework and implementation strategies, so that failures may be corrected and positive effects enhanced. Monitoring the progress of planned CBNRM activities should be simple and embedded within existing official monitoring systems to ensure sustainability. However, assessment of the degree to which CBNRM is achieving its triple objective should probably be carried out by independent research centres, NGOs and university departments that are not directly engaged in the implementation as such. CBNRM is not a stand-alone solution to poverty, resource degradation and bad governance. Rather it is a development process and constant power struggle. Thus, even after years of implementation, donors are still likely to have a mission in promoting CBNRM. Lessons learnt will feed into the new agenda of community-based adaptation to climate change. Donor support may be channelled as programme-based or as earmarked support for monitoring and research that deliver credible and easily accessible information. Checks and balances can be supported through civil society as well as the media. An informed public debate based on the results of sound monitoring is, in all likelihood, the key to the long-term success of CBNRM.

Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Kilonzo G, Mburu J, Tarek O. The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF); 2006.the_african_textbook_of_clinical_psychiatry_and_mental_health_2.pdfWebsite
Ikiara GK, Mbataru P, Kariuki J, Tallio V. Kenyan studies.; 2005.Website
T.K. M. Medicinal Plants of Kenya. IDRC-KARI-ISBN 9966-879-68-4; 2005.
Mwai OA;, Rosati A;, Tewolde A;, Mosconi C. Development of livestock production systems in Africa..; 2004.Website
Mwai OA, Mitaru B;, Rosati A;, Tewolde A;, Mosconi C. Development of livestock production systems in Africa..; 2004.Website
Wandibba S, Thuranira J, Baya D. Social Studies STD 6.; 2003.Website
E.O O, Tyson P, Virji, H. Global-Regional Linkages in the Earth System. Berlin: Springer; 2002. Abstract

This book synthesizes current knowledge of regional-global linkages in four regions to demonstrate that study of environmental change on a regional scale can enhance understanding of global-scale environmental changes. The atmospheric circulation over Southern Africa links regional nutrient and pollutant sources to distant sinks affecting both regional and global ecosystem functioning. Extended human modification of land cover in East Asia has altered the complex surface-atmosphere exchanges impacting the Asian monsoon system. Biogenic and anthropogenic emissions over South Asia are implicated in changes in global tropospheric ozone and oceanic biogeochemical balances. Economic globalisation has negatively impacted regional environments of Southeast Asia.

Keywords » biogeochemical cycling - climate change - environmental change - global change - land use

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Environmental and land-use consequences of sand harvesting in Masinga division..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the impact of sand harvesting from rivers on the environment, land use and social life in the Masinga Division, Machakos District, Kenya. Sand acts as a safe aquifer for water flowing below and through it. Removal of sand results in destruction of underground aquifers and loss of safe water. sand scooping adversely affects surface water quality and quantity and damages the aquatic ecosystem. Haulage of sand by heavy trucks causes environmental degradation by accelerating soil erosion and affecting soil stability. Storage of sand causes destruction of surface areas through clearing of vegetation and uses land that could be used for agriculture. Related social and health problems include prostitution and high school drop-out rate leading to serious social and health problems. The beneficial effects of sand harvesting include local employment; however, the share of monetary benefits to locals is minimal. The results show that the local community gains the least from sand harvesting, but stands to suffer the most if the degradation of the river system continues. Suggestions are made for safe and sustainable methods of managing sand harvesting, in which greater local involvement and stricter enforcement of regulations to protect the environment are vital.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Riverbank protection and food security..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper reflects on the role of root crops (cocoyam, Colocasia esculenta or C. antiquorum) as a case study in riverbank protection and food security in Kenya. Field performance, water erosion control, ecologically friendly production and food value were studied. It is concluded that the national relevance of cocoyam cultivation lies in its role in its conservation through erosion control and soil fertility maintenance; its low energy input; its potential to supplement per capita calories through high yield per unit area; its perpetuity; its multiple nutritive value, ease of preparation and digestibility; and its industrial potential and competitive market opportunity for various end-products.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Riverbank protection and food security..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper reflects on the role of root crops (cocoyam, Colocasia esculenta or C. antiquorum) as a case study in riverbank protection and food security in Kenya. Field performance, water erosion control, ecologically friendly production and food value were studied. It is concluded that the national relevance of cocoyam cultivation lies in its role in its conservation through erosion control and soil fertility maintenance; its low energy input; its potential to supplement per capita calories through high yield per unit area; its perpetuity; its multiple nutritive value, ease of preparation and digestibility; and its industrial potential and competitive market opportunity for various end-products.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Some conceptions about sediment rating equations..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Some conceptions about sediment rating equations..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Use of soil survey information in soil and water management..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Use of soil survey information in soil and water management..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

Wasamba P, Timamy R. Sauti Kutoka Pwani 1. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 1999.
Mbuthia DEM, Timmamy DR, Amiri DS. Swahili Drama, -a study module for distance learning students . Nairobi: Departmment of Educational Studies,U.o N..; 1994.
Ikiara GK, Masai WS, Teitel S, Soifer R. Technology and skills in Kenyan manufacturing:RPED Case Study Series.; 1994.Website
Masai WS, Ikiara GK, Soifer R, Teitel S. Technology and skills in Kenyan manufacturing:RPED Case Study Series.; 1994.Website
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Development of a streamflow model for rural catchments in Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

A stream flow model was developed for use in rural catchments in Kenya. In the model the physical environment was divided into three zones: the unsaturated zone (consists of multiple hydrological response units defined by homogenous land use and soil type in which a daily soil moisture balance is maintained), shallow saturated and deep saturated zones which were modelled as regional aquifers. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were distributed according to altitude, and runoff was determined using the curve number method devised by the US Soil Conservation Service: a function of five-day antecedent precipitation. Evapotranspiration was varied according to the soil moisture content, and the weather generator allowed Monte Carol simulations over a long period. The data consisted of daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation for each month, land use/vegetation and soil type. The ARC-INFO GIS package was used to assemble the topographical, hydrological, land use/vegetation type and soil information in different layer. The model was tested on the Naro Moru catchment (172kn2) in Kenya, which has climatic conditions that vary from the glaciated peaks of Mount Kenya (5,200 m) to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau (1,800 m). The model was calibrated over a two-year period and validated over a different two-year period. A comparison of the observed and simulated stream flow showed that minimal calibration was required. The simulated stream flow compared well with the observed values for both the calibration and the validation periods (70-85% for the 10-day period) indicating that the model is appropriate for ungauged catchments.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Development of a streamflow model for rural catchments in Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

A stream flow model was developed for use in rural catchments in Kenya. In the model the physical environment was divided into three zones: the unsaturated zone (consists of multiple hydrological response units defined by homogenous land use and soil type in which a daily soil moisture balance is maintained), shallow saturated and deep saturated zones which were modelled as regional aquifers. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were distributed according to altitude, and runoff was determined using the curve number method devised by the US Soil Conservation Service: a function of five-day antecedent precipitation. Evapotranspiration was varied according to the soil moisture content, and the weather generator allowed Monte Carol simulations over a long period. The data consisted of daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation for each month, land use/vegetation and soil type. The ARC-INFO GIS package was used to assemble the topographical, hydrological, land use/vegetation type and soil information in different layer. The model was tested on the Naro Moru catchment (172kn2) in Kenya, which has climatic conditions that vary from the glaciated peaks of Mount Kenya (5,200 m) to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau (1,800 m). The model was calibrated over a two-year period and validated over a different two-year period. A comparison of the observed and simulated stream flow showed that minimal calibration was required. The simulated stream flow compared well with the observed values for both the calibration and the validation periods (70-85% for the 10-day period) indicating that the model is appropriate for ungauged catchments.

Denga FO;, Ongwenyi GS;, Kitheka JU;, Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Erosion and sedimentation problems in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

This paper examine past and present trends in the development of Kenyan water resources, and the status of Kenya's arid and semi-arid lands. It considers the parameters linked with soil erosion and sedimentation processes and suggests means of combating the problem.

Mungai DN;, Denga, F. O; Ongwenyi GS;, Gichuki FN;, Kitheka JU;, Kitheka JU;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Erosion and sedimentation problems in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

This paper examine past and present trends in the development of Kenyan water resources, and the status of Kenya's arid and semi-arid lands. It considers the parameters linked with soil erosion and sedimentation processes and suggests means of combating the problem.

Mungai DN, Gichuki FN, Gachene CKK, Thomas DB. Sediment sources to Masinga dam.; 1993.Website
Cheatle RJ, Muraya P, Young A, Thomas DB, Biamah EK, Kilewe AM, Lundgren L. Modelling soil changes under agroforestry.; 1989. AbstractWebsite

In the older approach to soil conservation, the emphasis was on controlling the rate of soil loss, expressed as tonnes per hectare or millimeters of soil depth. Conservation measures were directed at reducing erosion to a presumed acceptable rate, called soil-loss tolerance. Earlier attempts to assess economic terms were made on the basis of reduction in soil erosion control should come first, as a prerequisite to other agricultural improvements. Recent research has changed this emphasis in several ways. It has been recognized that the effects of erosion are by no means limited to reduction in soil depth. Equally important are loss of nutrients, organic matter, and through the latter, deterioration in soil physical properties. This is leading towards integration between tow aspects of soil conservation: erosion control and maintenance of fertility. Both are necessary to achieve land use which is sustainable as well as productive.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ, J.A. F, Tabouret, and(eds.) KCKM. The Fergusonion Impact Mouton de Gryter. New York: Berlin; 1986.
Thairu K. The African Civilization (Utamaduni wa Kiafrika). Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau ; 1978.
Thairu K, Mugambi M. Human Biology Volume 1 . Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau ; 1976.
Book Chapter
T O, A K. "“The Triplex Mundus as a Global Trope in Euphrase Kezilahabi’s Rosa Mistika.” .". In: Contemporary African Societies and Cultures. Seoul: Dahae Publishing Co.Ltd; 2017.
BEVLYNE SITHOLE, TORBEN BIRCH-THOMSEN, OLE MERTZ, TREVOR HILL THILDEBECHBRUUNANDTHUITATHENYA, BRUUN THILDEBECH, Thenya T. "Collaborative education across continents: Lessons from a partnership on sustainable resource management education.". In: Higher Education and Capacity Building in Africa. 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017: Routledge; 2016.higher_education_and_capacity_building_i.pdf
Ondicho, TG. "Inroduction: Researchers in the 21st Century.". In: S. Wakana, S. Siraishi & T. Ondicho (eds) Re-findings African Local Assets and City Environments: Governance, Research and Reflexivity . Tokyo: ILCAA & JSPS Pp xi-xii; 2016.
Ondicho, TG. "Letter: Study Trends of Lecturers at the Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: S. Wakana, S. Siraishi & T. Ondicho (Eds) Re-finding African Local Assets and City Environments: Governance, Research and Reflexivity. Tokyo: ILCAA & JSPS Pp. 287-289; 2016.
Ondicho, TG. "Tourism and Maasai of Kenya.". In: S. Wakana, S. Siraishi & T. Ondicho (Eds) Re-finding African Local Assets and City Environments: Governance, Research and Reflexivity. Tokyo: ILCAA & JSPS Pp. 61-75; 2016.7._ondicho_no_keywords_revised.pdf7._ondicho_no_keywords_revised.pdf
Thiankolu M. "‘Standards of Review and Resolution of Electoral Disputes in Kenya: A Review of the Jurisdiction of the High Court; The Court of Appeal; and the Supreme Court.". In: Balancing the Scales of Electoral Justice: Resolving Disputes from the 2013 Elections in Kenya and the Emerging Jurisprudence. Nairobi: International Development Law Organisation; 2016.
Ondicho, TG. "Kenya, Tourism.". In: J. Jafari & H. Xiao (Eds) Encyclopedia of Tourism. Switzerland: Springer Publishing International; 2015.kenya_tourism.pdf
T.W: G. "Overview of Mineral Processing and Beneficiation in Kenya.". In: Mineral Processing and Beneficiation. Daya publishers; 2015.
Twikirize JM, Spitzer H, Wairire GG, Maboyo ZM, Rutikanga C. "Professional Social Work in East Africa: Towards Social Development, Poverty Reduction and Gender Equality.". In: Professional Social Work in East Africa: Empirical Evidence. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2014.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Rununu kama Chombo cha Uendelezaji wa Ushairi na Kiswahili kwa Ujumla.". In: Ukuzaji na Maendeleo ya Kiswahili: Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbalimbali. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2014.
Ananga AA, Georgiev V, Ochieng JW, Phills B, Tsolova V. "Production of Anthocyanins in Grape Cell Cultures: A potential Source of Raw Material for Pharmaceutical, Food, and Cosmetic Industries.". In: The Mediterranean Genetic Code - Grapevine and Olive. INTECH; 2013.2013_anthocyanins_by_intech.pdf
Ananga AA, E CE, Ochieng JW, Kumar S, Kambiranda D, Vasanthaiah H, Tsolova V, Senwo Z, F KF, Anike FN. "Prospects for Transgenic and Molecular Breeding for Cold Tolerance in Canola (Brassica napus).". In: Oilseeds. INTECH; 2012.2012_oilseeds_by_intech_june_2012.pdf
Onjala J, Tuju M. "“Kenya’s Implementation of the 5th FOCAC Plan of Action: Hollow Commitments and Lack of In-Country Support”. .". In: In Shikwati James –ed (2012). China-Africa Partnership: The quest for a win-win relationship. Nairobi: Inter Region Economic Network (IREN Kenya); 2012.
Troel J, Odote C. "Climate Change Adaptation and Water in Kenya: Governing for Resilience.". In: Climate Change Adaptation and International Development: Making Development Cooperation More Effective in Kenya:Governing for Resilience. London: EarthScan; 2011.
Tindyebwa, D. KMENC &BJPB. "Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers .". In: Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers . ANECCA; 2011.
Thiankolu M. "‘Resolution of Electoral Disputes in Kenya: An Audit of Past Court Decisions.". In: Handbook on Election Disputes in Kenya: Context, Legal Framework, Institutions and Jurisprudence . Nairobi: Law Society of Kenya; 2011.
Bosshard A, Reinhard BR, Taylor S, Gichuki NN, Kinuthia WW. "Biodiversity in tropical small scale farms in central Kenya.". In: IFOAM Guide to Biodiversity and Lanscape Quality in Organic Agriculturend. Bonn: International Federation of Organic Farming Movements (IFOAM) ; 2009.
Chung MH;, Drake AL;, Richardson BA;, Reddy A;, Thiga J;, Sakr SR;, Kiarie JN;, Yowakim P;, Stewart GJC. "Impact of Prior HAART Use on Clinical Outcomes in a Large Kenyan HIV Treatment Program."; 2009.
Atieno R, Teal F. "“Gender, Education and Occupational Outcomes: Kenya’s Informal Sector in the 1990s”.". In: Informal Sector in a Globalised Era. Icfai University Press; 2007.
Zarins CK, Xu C, Taylor CA, Glagov S. "Localization of {Atherosclerotic} {Lesions}." In: MD RWA, MD LHH, eds. Vascular {Surgery}. Blackwell Publishing; 2007:. Abstract

This chapter contains sections titled: * Arterial structure and function * Physiologic adaptation of the arterial wall * Human atherosclerotic plaque morphology * Mechanical determinants of plaque localization * Susceptible regions of the arterial vasculature * Conclusion

Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C, Roy CK. "Globalisation and Institutional Deterrents to the Empowerment of Women: Kenya’s Experience.". In: Institutions, Globalisation and Empowerment. Chapter 9, pp 199 - 222. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.; 2006.
Tindyebwa, D. KMENC &BJPB. "Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers (revised 1st ed.) .". In: Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers (revised 1st ed.) . ANECCA.; 2006.
Hogan NM, editor Ndetei, D.M., Kilonzo G, Ndegwa JM, Rotich J, Too R, Ruttoh J. "Research and Bio Statistics in Mental Health."; 2006.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C. "The Impact of Globalisation on Women, Agriculture and Poverty in Kenya.". In: Globalisation and World Economic Policies: Studies Highlighting Effects and Policy Responses of Nations and Country Groups. Delhi, Serials Publications; 2005.
Terer T, Gichuki NN. "Community drought coping mechanisms, tactics and challenges to sustainable biodiversity management in dry lands with special reference to the Maasai and Turkana peoples of Kenya.". In: Sustainable management of biodiversity in the third millennium and beyond. Dar es Salaam,: University of Dar es Salaam; 2004.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C, Tisdell CA, Sankar U, Srivastava M. "Agricultural Commercialisa tion in Developing Countries, Household Food Consumption and Nutrition: A Kenyan Case Study.". In: Leading Economic Issues: Essays in Honour of Professor Chandra Srivastava. New Delhi: B. R. Publishin g Corporation; 2003.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C, Tisdell CA, Sankar U, Srivastava M. "Gender, Marital Status, Farm Size and Other Influences on the Extent of Cash Cropping in Kenya: A Case Study.". In: Leading Economic Issues: Essays in Honour of Professor Chandra Srivastava. New Delhi: B. R. Publishing Corporation; 2003.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C, Tisdell CA, Sankar U, Srivastava M. "Migration of Husbands, Receipt and Use of Remittances by Wives in Rural Kenya: A case Study.". In: Leading Economic Issues: Essays in Honour of Professor Chandra Srivastava. New Delhi: B. R. Publishing Corporation; 2003.
Odada EO, Baker, O., Talbot, M.R., Street-Perrot, F.A., Marret, F. "Novel proxies of the late Quaternary Climatic Variability in Intertropical Africa.". In: in R. Batterbee, F. Gasse and C. Stictley (Eds.) Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa. The Netherlands: Springer; 2003.
Odada EO, Tyson, P., Schulze, R., Vogel, C. "Regional-Global Change Linkages: Southern Africa.". In: In Tyson et. al. (eds) Global-Regional Linkages in the Earth System. Berlin: Springer – Verlag; 2002.
Conference Paper
Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Tamimi IFM, Patel NB. "Open field ethogram and olfactory preference in naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glabus). .". In: Society of Neuroscientists of Africa. Entebbe, Uganda; 2017.imaan_-_sona_poster__27_may_2017.pdf
Olago D, Kanoti J, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Taylor R, Dulo SI, Ayah R. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: 23rd IAH Congress . Montepellier, France; 2016.
Mayora C, Nangami M, Ayah R, SImba D, Mafuta E, Wondafresh B, Rugema R, Tetui M, Paina L, Jessani N, Bennett SC, Bazeyo WI. "Institutional collaboration is critical in building capacity for health systems research in low income countries: Experience from the Africa Hub program.". In: Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research. Vancouver ; 2016.
Tumisang Liphoto MM. "Ubiquitous traffic management with fuzzy logic — Case study of Maseru, Lesotho .". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016.; 2016. Abstract

Maseru is the capital city of Lesotho and is a relatively small city with roughly 67 vehicles registered each day. Traffic lights are used with the intension of effectively managing vehicular traffic at junctions. These traffic lights follow a predetermined sequence usually based on historic data. As a result of this design, they inherently fail to efficaciously manage traffic flow when it is abnormal. Vehicles on one side have to wait even though there are no cars on other sides of the road. The consequences of this include increased congestion and atmospheric air pollution. Technological advancements have resulted in the now widely researched Internet of Things paradigm with one of its applications being vehicular traffic management. The focus of this paper is the design of a prototype reactive system based on Internet of Things whose functionality includes traffic lights that are capable of reacting to prevailing conditions. The system makes use of Radio Frequency IDentifier technology and mobile tools to ubiquitously collect traffic data and disseminate value added traffic information

Muasya J, Giatu GK, Thaiyah AG. "‘Estimation of Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) prevalence using antibody ELISA in Kenya’.". In: Regional conference on zoonotic diseases. Naivasha, Kenya; 2015.
obanda BA, Cook A, Fevre E, Wang S, Bebora L, Mwituria JM, Ng'etich R, Okoth W, Nafula C, Ogara W, Thaiyah AG, Kariuki S, Gabreyes WA. "Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in abattoir workers and livestock from western Kenya.". In: ICOPHAI. Thailand; 2015.
Ebinger C, Muirhead J, Roecker S, Tiberi C, Muzuka A, Ferdinand R, Mulibo G, Kianji G. "Rift initiation with volatiles and magma.". In: European Geophysical Union . Vienna, Austria; 2015.
Roecker SW, Ebinger C, Tiberi C, Mulibo GD, Wambura RF, Muzuka A, Khalfan M, Kianji G, Gaulier S, Albraic J, Peyrat S. "Images of the East Africa Rift System from the Joint Inversion of Body Waves, Surface Waves, and Gravity: Investigating the Role of Magma in Early-Stage Continental Rifting.". In: American Geophysical Union. San Francisco; 2015.
Thaiyah AG, Kirui G, Mwanthi M, Koskei P, Mulei CM. "One Health key knowledge and training needs among service providers in Kenya.". In: 3rd International One Health congress. Amsterdam, Netherlands; 2015.
Muirhead J, Lee H, Fischer T, Kattenhorn SA, Ebinger C, Kianji G, Maqway M, Thomas N, Onguso B. "Fault-controlled fluid migration during early-stage continental rifting in the Magadi Basin, Kenya.". In: American Geophysical Union Annual Meeting, Volume: Eos, Trans. AGU 95, Fall Meet. San Francisco, CA,; 2014.
Lee H, Muirhead JD, Fischer T, Kattenhorn SA, Ebinger C, Thomas N, Kianji G, Ongu B. "Fault-related soil efflux of mantle-derived CO2 in the Magadi and Natron Basins, East African Rift.". In: American Geophysical Union Annual Meeting, Volume: Eos, Trans. AGU 95, Fall Meet. San Francisco, CA,; 2014.
Lambert, C, Murhead, J., Ebinger, C. J, Tiberi, C., Roecker SW, Ferdnard WR, Kianji, G., Mulibo, G.D. "The importance of magmatic fluids in continental rifting in East Africa.". In: American Geophysical Union. San Francisco; 2014.
JC W, Matu NK, Stephen L and Laloo R., TK M, LW G. "Occurrence of red-complex aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans among patients with periodontal disease at the university of Nairobi dental hospital.". In: 32rd KDA Conference and exhibition. Sarova Panafric hotel Nairobi; 2014.
D.W. Gakuya, T.O.Abuom, C.Onyango, L.K.Cheruiyot. "Use of sodium hypochlorite (jik) in the management of dermatophytosis (ringworm) in a dairy cattle farm in Kiambu County.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.
Khawaja S, L.W G, T.J O. "Correlation of hand traced lateral cephalograms with digitally computerized lateral cephalograms.". In: . IADR general session and exbition. Capetown; 2014.
Kuria MM, T.Opiyo E, Okello W. "Multi-agents based Wireless Sensor Telemedicine Network for E-Health Monitoring of HIV Aids Patients.". In: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa. Nairobi; 2014.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Mshairi Mcheza kwao Lakini asiyetuzwa.". In: Swahili International Conference. Mombasa Kenya; 2013.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Thematic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwanakupona: A Swahili/Islamic Perspective.". In: Institut National des Langues et civilization (INALCO). Paris; 2013.
Blϋmmel M;, Toye P;, Mwai OA;, Wright I;, Randolph T;, Staal S. "Importance of livestock and the technological and policy challenges facing the development of livestock in Africa."; 2013.
Thuo J K, N KF, et al. "“Customer Relationship Management Practices and the Marketing Productivity of Commercial Banks in Kenya”,.". In: : 3rd African International Business and Management Conference (AIBUMA). Nairobi; 2012.
L.C. B, T.N M, P.K G, Ngatia T.A., Muchemi G. "Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya.". In: Bennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ; 2012.2012_-_historical_perspectives_of_lesser_flamingo_mortalities_in_kenya.pdf
Tom FK, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Chemining'wa GN. "Susceptibility of locally grown maize varieties to infestation by maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.).". In: 13th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters; 2012.
MBUYA TO, Crump J, Sinclair I, Soady KA, Thomson RC, Ree PAS. "Short Fatigue Crack Growth Micromechanisms in a Cast Aluminium Piston Alloy."; 2012.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT. 2012. DSM for mapping soil classes in Somalia. In Vargas et al. Workshop Proceedings for "GSP / e-SOTER Workshop: Towards Global Soil Information: Activities within the GEO Task Global Soil Data". 20-23 March 2012. FAO. Rome.". In: SR-CRSP Technical Report Series No. 43 pp. 64. (Co-authored with Rex Campbell and Herbert Lionberger). FAO; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
J.P. E, Ekesi S, Kabaru J, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Identification of sex pheromones of the coconut bug, Pseudtheraptus wayi.". In: icipe science day. ICIPE, NAIROBI - KENYA; 2011.
GITURO WAINAINA, Kibera FN, K’Obonyo PO, Thuo JK. "Customer Relationship Management and Competitiveness of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Nairobi; 2011. Abstractcustomer_relationship_management_and_competitiveness_of_commercial_banks_in_kenya.pdf

Customer Relationship Management (CRM), also referred to as Relationship Marketing, is heralded by some marketing academics and practitioners as the new paradigm of marketing. However, despite the intense growth in the adoption of CRM practices by organizations all over the world and the widely accepted conceptual underpinnings of CRM strategy, conflicting opinions and increased pessimism about the effectiveness of CRM strategy abound the marketing literature. To this effect, scholars have called for more rigorous studies
to establish the usefulness of CRM as a strategic orientation.
The general objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of the influence of CRM practices on organizational competitiveness and conduct an empirical assessment of the framework on the commercial banks in Kenya. The study utilized a descriptive correlational research design. A survey methodology was employed for data collection.
The study found statistically significant positive linear relationships between CRM practices and organizational competitiveness. The study also established that the relationships between CRM practices and marketing productivity, marketing productivity and organizational competitiveness, organizational factors and marketing productivity and the moderating role of organizational factors on the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity were all significant. However, the relationship between organizational factors and organizational competitiveness was found not statistically significant. The overall conclusion of the study was that organizational competitiveness is not significantly influenced by the mere existence of a range of organizational factors within the firm such as age, size, and ownership structure, type of customers served, corporate reputation, and duration of CRM implementation or even technology level. Rather, organizational
competitiveness is achieved through appropriate CRM practices and marketing productivity.
Nonetheless, organizational factors positively enhance the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity thus indirectly influences organizational competitiveness. The results of the study have significant managerial and theoretical implications.
Key words: Customer Relationship Management, Relationship Marketing, Organizational Competitiveness, Marketing Productivity, Organizational Factors.

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Tasokwa K;, Nyariki D;, Mkwambisi D;, Kogi-Makau W. "Gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity."; 2011. Abstract

Climate variability presents different challenges for men and for women in their efforts to ensure household food security. However, despite their central role, gender issues have received only cursory attention in adaptation studies. This article looks at causes of gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity in one sub-Saharan African country: Malawi. Data were collected through a household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and key informants' interviews in Chikhwawa and Ntcheu districts, located in the southern and central areas of Malawi. Results revealed that exposure and sensitivity to climate risks vary between men and women; therefore, each gender responds differently to climate risks, with men having more opportunities than women. The results highlight the need for policies and interventions to empower women in the access to resources that can strengthen households' resilience to climate variability.

Tasokwa K;, Nyariki D;, Mkwambisi D;, Kogi-Makau W. "Gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity."; 2011. Abstract

Climate variability presents different challenges for men and for women in their efforts to ensure household food security. However, despite their central role, gender issues have received only cursory attention in adaptation studies. This article looks at causes of gender vulnerability to climate variability and household food insecurity in one sub-Saharan African country: Malawi. Data were collected through a household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and key informants' interviews in Chikhwawa and Ntcheu districts, located in the southern and central areas of Malawi. Results revealed that exposure and sensitivity to climate risks vary between men and women; therefore, each gender responds differently to climate risks, with men having more opportunities than women. The results highlight the need for policies and interventions to empower women in the access to resources that can strengthen households' resilience to climate variability.

Kamelarczyk KBF;, Theilade I;, Nathan I;, Saito M. "Proceedings from the international seminar” REDD+ expectations and experiences”."; 2011.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Paron P., Vargas Rojas R. and Omuto C.T. 2011. Integrated landform mapping: methodology and application for digital soil mapping in Somalia. IAG/AIG REGIONAL CONFERENCE 2011, .". In: IAG/AIG REGIONAL CONFERENCE. International Association of Geomorphologists; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
Chege F, Day R, T R, A S, Muthomi J, W O, E K, R N, J.G M’E, J J, F O, Mohamed R. "A new partnership in phytosanitary capacity development for protecting agriculture and supporting trade in Africa: The Centre of Phytosanitary Excellence (COPE).". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Nathan, Iben; Thomsen K, Thomsen K. "Can smallholders be supplied with quality tree seed through commercial distribution of tree seed in small bags."; 2010. Abstract

This paper discusses the possibility for retail sale of small quantities of tree seed to smallholders through private enterprises already dealing with horticultural and agricultural seed. It is suggested that the private enterprises purchase tree seed at national tree seed programmes, pack the seed in small bags and distribute and sell the bags through their networks of local seed dealers. A picture of the tree will be printed on the front of the bag, and guidelines for using the seed will be printed on the back. The aim is to increase smallholders' access to high quality tree seed. The discussion will focus on seed-physiological, genetic and financial aspects.

Haile A;, Duguma G;, Mirkena T;, Tibbo M;, Iñiguez L;, Rischkowsky B;, Mwai OA;, Wurzinger M;, Sölkner J. "Designing and implementation of community-based breeding programs for adapted local sheep breeds in Ethiopia."; 2010.
Ndetei DM, Tyrer P, Mulder R, Crawford M, Newton-Howes G, Simonsen E, Koldobsky N, Fossati A, Mbatia J, Barrett B. "Personality Disorder: A New Global Perspective."; 2010.personality_disorder_-_a_new_global_perspective.pdf
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, CT, Vargas, RR, Alim,SM, Paron P. 2010. Mixed-effects modelling of time series NDVI-rainfall relationship for detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in drylands. Journal of Arid Environments, 74:1552-1563.". In: Journal of Arid Environments. Journal of Arid Environments; 2010. Abstract
Many researchers have used time-series analysis of remotely sensed images to gain understanding of the dynamics of loss of vegetation cover in drylands. However, complex interactions between vegetation and climate still mask the potential of remote sensing signals to detect human-induced loss of vegetation cover. This paper presents mixed-effect modelling method for time-series NDVI-rainfall relationship to account for the complex interaction between vegetation and climate. Mixed-effects method is a form of statistical modelling that can simultaneously model environmental relationships for a population and for different groups within the population. In this study, it was used to model the NDVI-rainfall relationship in Somalia and for different vegetation types in the country. Its time-series application removed the interaction between vegetation and rainfall and identified areas experiencing human-induced loss of vegetation cover in the country. On average, it gave an accurate relationship between rainfall and NDVI (r2 > 60%) and detected areas with human-induced loss of vegetation cover (kappa = 75%). Although the potential of mixed-effects was shown using vegetation types, other factors such as soil types and land use can also be included in the method to improve accuracy of time-series NDVI images in detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in the drylands.
J.M. N, T. M. "Spatial Distribution of Sediment within the Lake Victoria drainage basin, in Kenya." Journal of Hydrology next edition.; 2010. Abstract
n/a
T. M, J.M. N. "Strategy for Water Resources Management in Relation to Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations." presentation in the Hydropredict 2010 20-23 September 2010, Prague, Czech Republic.; 2010. Abstract
n/a
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism, power and politics: The challenges of Maasai involvement in tourism development.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. PhD Dissertation, Massey University; 2010. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism, power and politics: The challenges of Maasai involvement in tourism development.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. PhD Dissertation, Massey University; 2010. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Where are the women in African governance?". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Just Change 17:21; 2010.
TOM DONDICHO. "Where are the women in African governance?". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Just Change 17:21; 2010. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
Tallontire, A. M. ONMMVA. "Beyond the vertical? Using value chains and governance as a framework to analyse private standards initiatives in Agri-food chains." Agriculture and Human Values, Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp 427-441; 2009. Abstract
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TOM DONDICHO. "The effects of the global economic crisis on Kenyan migration.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Just Change 16:8-9; 2009.
TOM DONDICHO. "The effects of the global economic crisis on Kenyan migration.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Just Change 16:8-9; 2009. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Vargas RR, Paron P. 2009. Soil erosion and sedimentation modelling of the areas between river Juba and Shabelle in South Somalia. Technical Report No. 16. FAO-SWALIM. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Land Degradation and Development. FAO-SWALIM; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and L.O. Gumbe. 2009. Estimating water infiltration and retention characteristics using a computer program in R. Computers & Geosciences 35: 579-585.". In: Computers and Geosciences. Computers and Geosciences; 2009. Abstract
Infiltration and water retention functions are widely used soil hydraulic properties in the geosciences. They contain coefficients known as hydraulic parameters that are traditionally obtained through curve-fitting. Computer programs for the curve-fitting process are available for certain infiltration or water retention models. However, these programs are either not freely accessible or do not estimate certain hydraulic parameters. They are also inefficient and prone to errors for applications involving large datasets. This paper discusses the use of a freely accessible HydroMe package for fast, efficient, and accurate estimation of soil hydraulic parameters in some commonly used infiltration and water retention models. The package is executable in the freely downloadable R programming software. It contains a program for estimating the parameters in infiltration models previously proposed. The program is capable of estimating parameters from arrays of grouped data in one single pass without having to enter the data each time for the parameter estimation. It incorporates mixed-effects and covariate modelling techniques for improved estimation accuracy. These techniques are not common in any other computer programs in the geosciences. Through covariate modelling, the package provides opportunity to include environmental correlates in the estimation of soil hydraulic parameters. Therefore, HydroMe not only improves the estimation accuracy and efficiency, but also provides insight into environmental risk factors that influence the management of soil and water resources.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and Vargas, R.R. 2009. Combining pedometrics, remote sensing and field observations for assessing soil loss in challenging drylands: a case study of northwestern Somalia. Land Degradation and Development 20: 101-115.". In: Land Degradation and Development. Land Degradation and Development; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T., Vargas, R. R., Alim, M.S., Ismail, A., Osman, A., Iman. H.M. 2009. Land degradation assessment and a monitoring framework in Somalia. FA0-SWALIM Technical Report L-14, FAO-SWALIM, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Land Degradation and Development. FAO-SWALIM; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
Bebora L.C, D.N K, C.J N’ang’a, T.A N, J.K W. "The pathogenic effects of gastrointestinal helminthes in Kenyan pigs.". In: Scientific Conference . Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ; 2008.2008_-_pathogenic_effect_of_gatro-intestinal_helminths_in_kenyan_pigs.pdf
Wambugu SN;, Towett, P.K.;, Kiama SG;, Abelson KSP;, Kanui TI. "Composition Of Nociceptive Afferents In The Trigeminal Nerve In The Marsh Terrapin (pelomedusa Subrufa).".; 2008.
Wambugu SN;, Towett, P.K.;, Kiama SG;, Abelson KSP;, Kanui TI. "Composition Of Nociceptive Afferents In The Trigeminal Nerve In The Marsh Terrapin (pelomedusa Subrufa).".; 2008.
Upadhyaya R, Tavasci D, Toporowski J. "Niebyl, Money and Development.". In: SOAS Department of Economics Working paper series 157.; 2008.
Wambugu SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K. "Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests."; 2008.
Wambugu SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K. "Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests."; 2008.
Wambugu SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K. "Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests."; 2008.
THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Effects of single daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on spatial learning and memory in CBA mice.Kimani ST, Nyongesa AW. Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: PMID: 18588917 [PubMed - in process]. Kiama SG, Bhattacharjee J, Kiama TN and Mwangi DK.; 2008. Abstract
This study investigated the effects of fresh khat extract on learning and memory in CBA mice. A total of 20 male CBA mice, weighing 20-30 g, 5-6 weeks old were administered intraperitoneally with a single daily dose of khat extract for 5 days. The animals were divided into four groups, each comprising five animals. The first three groups were administered three doses (40, 120 and 360 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract, respectively. The last group served as controls and was administered with 0.5 ml normal saline intraperitoneally. The animals were then subjected to Morris water maze (MWM) task performance. Moderate and high doses (120 and 360 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract significantly impaired (P<0.05) while low dose (40 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract did not have a significant effect on CBA mice acquisition learning. The high dose of khat extract significantly (P<0.05) improved while moderate and low doses impaired accuracy for spatial memory of the platform location. This study has shown that khat extract has selective effect on spatial learning and memory, with low dose having no effect on learning but impairing memory, whereas high dose impairs learning but improves memory.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. 2008. Assessment of soil physical degradation in Eastern Kenya by use of a sequential soil testing protocol. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 128:199-211.". In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment; 2008. Abstract
Soil physical degradation is a gradual process of many steps beginning from structural deterioration and ending in differential loss of finer particles through erosion. Control of the degradation remains a challenge to many scientists due to lack of proper assessment protocols. This study developed a sequential protocol with emphasis on definition of physical degradation and successive soil testing to determine the stages of degradation development. The protocol was tested in Cambisols, Arenosols, and Ferralsols in Eastern Kenya. Soil physical degradation due to 10 years land use change was defined as more than 25% drop in infiltration and water retention characteristics and aggregate stability and more than 30% increase in bulk density and silt content. Then a soil testing model was sequentially applied to identify physical degradation phases. Visual assessment of degradation symptoms, RUSLE model, and diffuse infrared spectral reflectance were used in the soil testing model as predictors of physical degradation. Visual assessment was found to be cheap and fast method for identifying final stages of physical degradation with 60% accuracy. Visual assessment combined with RUSLE model improved the assessment accuracy to 80%. Infrared spectral reflectance, which is sensitive to subtle changes in soil physical conditions, was also found as a potential surrogate predictor of early-warning signs of soil physical degradation. Inclusion of spectra into the assessment model improved the accuracy to 95%. This protocol is effective in identifying phases of soil physical degradation, which are useful for planning degradation control and monitoring schemes. Its further testing and worldwide application is recommended.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, MUCHINA MRWAITHAKAPETER, THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Strengthening Masters of Community Health Nursing in Kenya By Prof.. Anna Karani, Ms Kazuko Nasire, Prof. Junko Tashiro, Kimani, Waithaka, et al. Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Kiama SG, Bhattacharjee J, Kiama TN and Mwangi DK.; 2008.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, MUCHINA MRWAITHAKAPETER, THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Strengthening Masters of Community Health Nursing in Kenya By Prof.. Anna Karani, Ms Kazuko Nasire, Prof. Junko Tashiro, Kimani, Waithaka, et al. Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2008. Abstract

Introduction: In the East African region no nurse had done a master programme in Community Health Nursing. Therefore, a needs assessment was done followed by a study on developing / strengthening community health nursing in Kenya as a model for the region. This was done with Collaboration of University of Nairobi-Kenya and WHO St

THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Vargas RR and Omuto CT. 2008. National land degradation assessment in Somalia. Consultative Workshop on Land Degradation Assessment, Holiday-Inn, 8-12th September 2008, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Consultative Workshop on Land Degradation Assessment. FAO; 2008. Abstract
Soil physical degradation is a gradual process of many steps beginning from structural deterioration and ending in differential loss of finer particles through erosion. Control of the degradation remains a challenge to many scientists due to lack of proper assessment protocols. This study developed a sequential protocol with emphasis on definition of physical degradation and successive soil testing to determine the stages of degradation development. The protocol was tested in Cambisols, Arenosols, and Ferralsols in Eastern Kenya. Soil physical degradation due to 10 years land use change was defined as more than 25% drop in infiltration and water retention characteristics and aggregate stability and more than 30% increase in bulk density and silt content. Then a soil testing model was sequentially applied to identify physical degradation phases. Visual assessment of degradation symptoms, RUSLE model, and diffuse infrared spectral reflectance were used in the soil testing model as predictors of physical degradation. Visual assessment was found to be cheap and fast method for identifying final stages of physical degradation with 60% accuracy. Visual assessment combined with RUSLE model improved the assessment accuracy to 80%. Infrared spectral reflectance, which is sensitive to subtle changes in soil physical conditions, was also found as a potential surrogate predictor of early-warning signs of soil physical degradation. Inclusion of spectra into the assessment model improved the accuracy to 95%. This protocol is effective in identifying phases of soil physical degradation, which are useful for planning degradation control and monitoring schemes. Its further testing and worldwide application is recommended.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Vargas, RR, Omuto, CT, and Lewis, N. 2008. Land degradation assessment of a selected study area in Somaliland: application of the LADA/WOCAT approach at local level. National Land Degradation Workshop, 16-18 September, Pretoria, South Africa.". In: National Land Degradation workshop. FAO; 2008. Abstract
Soil physical degradation is a gradual process of many steps beginning from structural deterioration and ending in differential loss of finer particles through erosion. Control of the degradation remains a challenge to many scientists due to lack of proper assessment protocols. This study developed a sequential protocol with emphasis on definition of physical degradation and successive soil testing to determine the stages of degradation development. The protocol was tested in Cambisols, Arenosols, and Ferralsols in Eastern Kenya. Soil physical degradation due to 10 years land use change was defined as more than 25% drop in infiltration and water retention characteristics and aggregate stability and more than 30% increase in bulk density and silt content. Then a soil testing model was sequentially applied to identify physical degradation phases. Visual assessment of degradation symptoms, RUSLE model, and diffuse infrared spectral reflectance were used in the soil testing model as predictors of physical degradation. Visual assessment was found to be cheap and fast method for identifying final stages of physical degradation with 60% accuracy. Visual assessment combined with RUSLE model improved the assessment accuracy to 80%. Infrared spectral reflectance, which is sensitive to subtle changes in soil physical conditions, was also found as a potential surrogate predictor of early-warning signs of soil physical degradation. Inclusion of spectra into the assessment model improved the accuracy to 95%. This protocol is effective in identifying phases of soil physical degradation, which are useful for planning degradation control and monitoring schemes. Its further testing and worldwide application is recommended.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Application of differential equation modelsto the population dynamics of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid - Diadegma semiclausum (Helllen).". In: The 5th International Workshop on “Management of Diamondback Moth and other Crucifer Insect Pests”. Beijing, China; 2007.
Nyangara F, Charterji M, Thurman T, Akikabi T, Katangwa Z, Ikamari L, Korani N, Buek K. "Evaluating Four Approahes to Community based programmes for Orphans and Vulnerable Children'.". In: 5th African Population Conference. Arusha International Conference Centre; 2007.
Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Bayon R, Belaidi A, Bär M, Gumiskaya T, Th. Dittrich, Lux-Steiner MC. "Solar cell with PbS extremely thin absorber (eta) on porous substrate based on novel eta concept.". In: 6th Edward Bouchet Abdus Salam Institute International Conference on Physics and Technology for sustainable development in Africa (EBASI2007). Cape Town, South Africa ; 2007. Abstract

A new highly structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS solar cell has been developed based on the novel eta concept, and characterized by photovoltage spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies, scanning electron spectroscopy, photovoltaic response and quantum efficiency spectroscopy. In this system, TiO2, In(OH)xSy, PbS and PEDOT: PSS serve as electron conductor, recombination barrier, absorber and hole conductor respectively. The buffer and the absorber layer were prepared by chemical bath deposition, while the electron and hole conductor were prepared by spray pyrolysis/sol-gel and spin coating respectively. The band gap of as prepared In(OH)xSy has been found to vary with PH of the solution, also the band gap of PbS can be engineered to make it suitable as absorber material for solar cell application. At present, a solar cell device has been realized with efficiency up to over 1%, Jsc = 8 mA/cm2 and Voc= 3.0 V.

Macharia. J, Thenya T. "Conservation and Management Assessment of Ondiri Swamp, a Shared Natural Resource." Report Prepared fro Royal Netherlands Embassy; 2007. Abstract
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THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. 2007. HydroMe: Estimation of soil hydraulic parameters from experimental data.". In: Software. R Development Core Team; 2007. Abstract
HydroMe is a R Package that estimates the parameters in infiltration and water retention models by curve-fitting method. The models considered in this package those that are commonly used in soil science.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and P.D. Shrestha. 2007. Remote sensing techniques for rapid detection of soil physical degradation. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28, 4785.". In: International Journal of Remote Sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing; 2007. Abstract

Physical degradation undermines soils' ability to perform their many biophysical functions. Currently, there is lack of rapid methods to facilitate timely large-area assessment for effective control of the degradation. This study tested the combined applications of point-measurements of physical properties, soil spectral reflectance, and remote sensing for prediction of the degradation in a large watershed. Infiltration and water retention measurements at selected sites were used to aid definition of the degradation classes. A tree classification was then developed with diffuse spectral reflectance to predict the degradation classes. 93% accuracy with holdout cross-validation was achieved and the tree used to predict the degradation at multiple points in the study area. In addition, standardized deviations of land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from long-term Landsat scenes were used to study the thermal and vegetation conditions at the sampled points. The deviations of LST and NDVI were effectively incorporated in the prediction of the degradation at other places with 80% accuracy of ground reference data. This approach has the potential as a useful tool for guiding policy decision on sustainable land management.

Macharia. J, Thenya T. "Proceedings of Ondiri Swamp stakeholders' workshop." held on 18th Oct 2006 at Wida highway hotel; 2007. Abstract
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Abuom TO, Kirui G, Tsigadi SA, Gitonga PN, Ndurumo SM, Sura A, Kitaa JMA. "A preliminary retrospective study on tumours affecting dogs in Kenya.". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2006.
Tsigadi SA;, Abuom TO;, Mbugua S. "Abuom."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia, T.A; Kimeto BA, Ngatia, T.A; Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Mukabana RW, Kannady K, Kiama MG, Ijumba JN, Mathenge EM, Ibrahim Kiche, Nkwengulila G, Mboera L, Mtasiwa D, Yamagata Y, Schayk IV, Knols BGJ, Lindsay SW, de Castro MC, de Castro MC, Tanner M, Fillinger U, Killeen GF. "Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa.". In: Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 9. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract

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Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of
practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots
level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

Wabacha J;K, Mulei C m m;, Gitonga NP;, Njenga MJ;, Thaiyah AG;, Nduhiu J. "An outbreak of unusual form of acute ovine dermatophilosis in a mixed farming enterprise in Kenya.".; 2006.
Wabacha J;K, Mulei C m m;, Gitonga NP;, Njenga MJ;, Thaiyah AG;, Nduhiu J. "An outbreak of unusual form of acute ovine dermatophilosis in a mixed farming enterprise in Kenya.".; 2006.
Wabacha J;K, Mulei C m m;, Gitonga NP;, Njenga MJ;, Thaiyah AG;, Nduhiu J. "An outbreak of unusual form of acute ovine dermatophilosis in a mixed farming enterprise in Kenya.".; 2006.
TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006.
TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
Macharia. J, Thenya T. "Conservation and Management Assessment of Ondiri Swamp, a Shared Natural Resource." Report Prepared fro Royal Netherlands Embassy; 2006. Abstract
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