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Tyndall M, Agoki E, Ombette J, Slaney LA, D'Costa LJ, Plummer FA, Plourde PJ, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Single-dose cefixime versus single-dose ceftriaxone in the treatment of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection."; 1992. Abstract

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a significant adverse effect on reproductive and child health worldwide. The control of STDs such as gonorrhea is therefore an absolute priority. Cefixime, an oral third-generation cephalosporin with in vitro activity similar to that of ceftriaxone, may be an effective candidate for the treatment of gonorrhea. The efficacy of a single oral 400-mg dose of cefixime was compared with that of a single intramuscular 250-mg dose of ceftriaxone for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae urethritis in 190 men and cervicitis in 46 women in Nairobi, Kenya. A bacteriologic cure was recorded in 100% of 63 evaluatable patients treated with ceftriaxone and 118 (98%) of 121 evaluatable patients treated with cefixime. Cefixime, as a single oral dose, is an effective alternative for the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women

Tyndall M, Malisa M, Plummer FA, Ombetti J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR. "Ceftriaxone no longer predictably cures chancroid in Kenya.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

Ceftriaxone in a dose of 250 mg given intramuscularly is currently recommended for the treatment of chancroid. Among 133 men in Nairobi, Kenya, with culture-proven chancroid, who were treated with ceftriaxone, treatment failed in 35%. Poor outcome was associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seropositivity. Thus, treatment recommendations for chancroid should be reevaluated.

Tyndall MW, Agoki E, Malisa W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR, Plummer FA. "Sexual behavior and perceived risk of AIDS among men in Kenya attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases.". 1994. Abstract

The sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues at an alarming rate in sub-Saharan Africa despite the fact that awareness of AIDS is high. One explanation for this alarming rate may be that individuals do not believe that they are personally at risk for AIDS and are not sufficiently motivated to make changes in their behavior. We conducted a cross-sectional study of men with genital ulcer disease to assess their sexual behavior and their perceived risk of AIDS. We studied 787 men between the ages of 17 and 54 years who presented to a referral clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Of these 787 men, 188 (24%) were infected with HIV-1. Awareness of AIDS was essentially universal in this population; however, only 64 men (8%) thought that they were personally at risk of developing AIDS. A logistic regression analysis found that men who believed they were personally at risk knew someone with AIDS (odds ratio [OR], 8.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0-19.7), received information about AIDS from television or video (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7-5.5), or had previously had an STD (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.1). Except for a modest increase in condom use, there was no significant difference in sexual behavior between the group who considered themselves to be at risk for AIDS and the group who did not consider themselves to be at risk. The results of this study challenge the current strategies on HIV/AIDS education and prevention for urban men in Kenya.

Twikirize JM, Spitzer H, Wairire GG, Maboyo ZM, Rutikanga C. "Professional Social Work in East Africa: Towards Social Development, Poverty Reduction and Gender Equality.". In: Professional Social Work in East Africa: Empirical Evidence. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2014.
Twalib MH. "Storm in My Comfort Zone." DBA Africa Management Review. Forthcoming. Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyse different situations about incidences where people found it difficult to change on different situations.Change has always been uncomfortable; it takes courage and time to accept it. Many models have been developed to assist in change management including Kurt Lewin’s model of change. Other authors have also indicated the importance of embracing change when it is appropriate. This paper sheds light on real life events and situations where change is due and employees in institutions are uncomfortable with it. The paper describes the different behaviors exhibited by different individuals in resisting change. Data was collected through recordings, interviews conducted with both the change agents, and in some instances with change champions. The paper concludes by elaborating the importance of change and its successes. The incidences were collected from different institutions of higher learning in Kenya.

Twalib MH, Magutu J. "INFLUENCE OF COMPENSATION ON EMPLOYEE TURNOVER." Influence of Compensation on Employee Turnover . 2017;2(6):125-135. Abstractinfluence_of_compensation_on_employee_turnover.pdf

The main objective of the study was to determine the influence of compensation on employee
turnover and the hypothesis that emanated from this was stated as compensation influences
employee turnover. The study used a descriptive survey. From a target population of 65
employees a sample of 26employees was selected, which is 40% of the target population.
Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive
statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using simple
linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that compensation influences
employee turnover (R2=.866, F=167.783, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was
0.93 which also confirms that there is a strong relationship between compensation and employee
turnover. The study recommends that organizations should consider compensation as a strategy
of ensuring employee loyalty which will lead to competitive advantage of the organization. The paper suggests that the same study should be replicated in other larger organizations with more
population.

Twalib MH, Kariuki MM. "INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AT TELKOM KENYA LIMITED." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS, SOCIAL SCIENCES & EDUCATION . 2016;2(11):421-431. Abstractinfluence-of-motivation-on-on-employee-performance.pdf

The objective of the study was to establish the influence of motivation on employee performance
at Telkom Kenya Limited. The study used closed ended questionnaires to collect primary data
through drop and pick later method. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze demographic
while simple linear regression was used to establish the influence of motivation on employee
performance. Findings were presented in tables. The results show that employee motivation
influences employee performance in Telkom Kenya Limited (R=0.92, p˂0.05). The results of the
regression analysis indicate that motivation has positive influence on employee performance,
which is statistically significant (R
2
= 0.85 at p-value<0.05).This means that enhancing employee
motivation positively improves employee performance. It’s an indication that employee
motivation is a significant predictor of employee performance in Telkom Kenya Limited. From
these findings it is recommended that employees’ promotion should be based on academic merit
and responsibilities and be done regularly to enable them move from one job group to the next.

Twalib MH. "• Twalib, M.H. (2018). To Keep close or to Let Loose: Recipe for Sustainable Quality Dyad. .". Forthcoming. Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the recipe of sustainable quality dyad. Leaders are known to consciously and sub consciously form two groups; in-group and outgroup members.Studies have shown that members of the in-group work overtime and perform extra duties and in turn,get favours from the leaders including career mobility and access to information, among other favours.Literature is unclear on how these groups are formed and this paper embarked on finding out the recipe of the formation and sustainability of a quality dyad. It was hypothesised that being a male member, trust and competence are not recipesof a high quality relationship. The study used a descriptive survey of a population of 19 leaders were responding to questions about their 169 employeeswho report to them directly.Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires.122 pairs of leaders and their direct reports was the response rate(72.2%). Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data.The hypothesis wastested using logistical regression technique. The results showed that competence and trust arethe recipe for a high quality relationship. Masculinity, on the other hand, was not a recipe for a sustainable quality dyadic relationship. It is recommended that employees should ensure high level trustworthiness and competence for them to be kept close by the leader. The paper suggests that more variables can be considered as recipes for the quality dyadic relationship. These findings add significant value on both policyand practice.

Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO, Lukio OA. "Managing Employee Transition From Active Sports Career to Mainstream Work." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2015;3(6):81-90. Abstracttransition_management_paper.pdf

The objective of the study was to determine how Kenya Commercial Bank manages employee transition from
active sports to mainstream work activities of the bank.The methodology used in the study is cross-sectional
descriptive survey and questionnaires were used to collect data. The study found out that at the time of
employment, sportspeople are taken specifically to do sports and do not have any specified qualifications for
them except sports. The salaries of the sportspeople are determined by their academic qualifications and on
transition to mainstream activities their placements are also determined by the same academic qualifications
and also on availability of opportunities. The employees are taken for full time training and on job training is
done under supervision. The sportspeople are able to perform at their peak at a period of eight months. Most
of the sportspeople are placed as subordinates and clerical staff mainly because they do not have the minimal
qualifications required by the bank though, the bank helps them financially to further their studies. The study
also concludes that though slow, some employees eventually catch up in the mainstream work of the bank.

Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "DOES KISSING UP TO THE BOSS PAY?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):1-10. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the influence of ingratiation on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). This is considered sufficient as recommended by experts (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis thatingratiation influences career mobility (R2=.944, F=2011.237, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.971 which also confirms that there is a strong relationship between ingratiation and career mobility. The study recommends that objective means of performance appraisals be established and followed by superiors to ensure fair and credible ways of career mobility to its employees. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated in other organizations using a longitudinal research design.

Twalib MH. "AN INGRATIATORS QUANDARY: A CLOSER LOOK AT THE EFFECTS OF THE DIMENSION OF INGRATIATION ON THE TARGET.". Forthcoming. Abstract

The objective of this study was to find out which of the dimensions of ingratiation has more effect on the target person. Studies have indicated that some employees who succeeded in organizations were not necessarily the best ones for the company, but were those who were most skillful at flattering their superiors.Perhaps the most basic factor related to successful ingratiation is the specific tactic used to increase liking. Literature is unclear on which of the dimensions would yield more results or whether if they are used together will yield more results to the target person than individually.It was hypothesized that there is no significant difference in using any of the dimensions to the target person. The study further hypothesized that there is no difference on the effect of the dimensions whether used individually or jointly. The study used a descriptive survey of a population of 169employees responding to statements about their use of the three dimensions of ingratiation. Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using one and two-way ANOVA and the response rate was 72.2%. The results showed that opinion conformity has the highest significant mean among the three strategies followed by other enhancement and lastly self-presentation.The findings of the study also indicated that the three strategies cannot be applied at one go. It is recommended that employees should ensure application of these ingratiation strategies one at a time. The paper suggests that more strategies can be considered in order to solve an ingratiators’ dilemma. These findings add significant value on both policy and practice.

Twalib MH, Odadi W, K'Obonyo P, Ogutu M. "The Role of Employee Unmet Promises and Employee Dissatisfaction on the Relationship between Organizational Restructuring and Employee Quit Decisions in Commercial Banks in Kenya. ." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;2(3):1-18. Abstractunmet_promises_and_disatisfaction.pdf

This study was aimed at investigating the antecedents and predictors of employee quit decision process during organizational restructuring. This was done by examining the nature of relationships between Organizational restructuring, perceived unmet expectations, dissatisfaction and quit decisions. The literature review revealed that a number of studies have been conducted on the predictors and antecedents of employee quit decisions. However, these studies did not examine any integration between them. The objective of this study was to explore the integrated relationship among organizational restructuring, employee quit decisions, dissatisfaction and perceived unmet promises (psychological contract violation). A sample of 375 was selected from a total population of 15,017 employees from c o m m e r c i a l banks in Kenya. A structured questionnaire with Likert-type statements anchored on a five- point scale ranging from “Not at all (1)” to “To a great extent (5)” was used to collect data. The study employed Pearson's Product Moment Correlation, Partial correlations and Step-wise Regression for data manipulation and tests of hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that Organizational restructuring, perceived psychological contract violation and employee dissatisfaction have significant positive relationships with quit decisions. The findings also revealed that employee dissatisfaction and perceived unmet promises play a mediating role on the relationship between organizational restructuring and employee quit decisions.

Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "EMPLOYEE JOB TENURE; AN ACCOLADE OR AN ABASH?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):11-21. Abstract

The objective of the study is to determine the effect of job tenure on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data and the hypothesis formulated was analyzed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that job tenure influences employee career mobility (R2=.141, F=19.77, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.376 which also confirms that there is a positive but weak relationship between length of service and career mobility. The study recommends that employees who have served and organization for long should be considered for promotion this brings about employees loyalty and commitment to the organization. The paper suggests that other variables can be added in terms of moderating and mediating variables to strengthen the model.

Twalib MH, Lukio OA. "THE INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR AT KENYA POWER ." DBA Africa Management Review . 2017;7 (2):215-227. Abstractpublished_ocb_article.pdf

Abstract
The main focus of the paper was determining the effect of gender on organizational
citizenship behaviour.The sub objectives emanated from this include to determine the
influence of gender on altruism, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. The study used a
descriptive survey and a population study of 200 employees with a sample of 80 employees
which is 40% of the total population as recommended by experts(Mugenda and Mugenda,
2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires.
Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was
analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the main hypothesis that
gender influences organizational citizenship behaviour (R
2
=.167, F=13.869, P≤0.05). The
correlation coefficient for the model was 0.409 which also confirms that there is
anassociation between gender and organizational citizenship behaviour. The paper failed to
confirm the sub hypothesis that Female employees practice altruism than their male
counterparts. It failed to confirm thatMale employees practice more sportsmanship than
female employees. The other sub-hypothesis that female employees practice more courtesy
than their male counterpart was also confirmed. Civic Virtue was seen to be practiced
more with male employees than female employees. This sub hypothesis was confirmed. The
study recommends that managers should focus on integrating all the genders strong traits
for the benefit of the organization. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated
in other organization.

Twalib MH. "Rules of Engagement.". Forthcoming. Abstract

Organizations are striving to find better ways of engaging their employees since many organizations have released that employees are the most important resource for achieving their goals. This study’s objective was to find out the factors affecting employee engagement at jubilee insurance. Descriptive survey was used as a research design and questionnaires distributed to the 175 respondents from a population of 580. Factor analysis was used to analyze the data and the results indicated that four major factors influence employee engagement. It is recommended that managers should ensure they have a good relationship with employee and encourage teamwork in the organization.

Turney BW. "Anatomy in a {Modern} {Medical} {Curriculum}." Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 2007;89:104-107. AbstractWebsite

Anatomy in undergraduate education has been in decline for many years. Some suggest that it has fallen below a safe level. Balances between detail and safety, and assimilation and application of anatomy have yet to be established as the methods of teaching undergo another metamorphosis. For doctors, the human body is the focus of investigation and intervention on a daily basis; for this reason, the study of anatomy in some form will continue to be essential to safe medical practice. It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice and communicate safely. It may be true that most doctors do not need to dissect a cadaver or study a prosection in order to practice, but if it can improve their understanding of what they do and why they do it, this surely has to be of benefit both for the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. Integration of newer teaching modalities and modern technology will encourage interest and retention of anatomical knowledge and its clinical relevance. Anatomy has a promising future in postgraduate specialist and surgical training. Detailed knowledge should be integrated into specialist training when it is clinically relevant allowing specialists of the future to practice safely and accurately and also to provide a strong base for future clinical developments.

TURNER1 WENDYC, IMOLOGHOME PEACE, HAVARUA ZEPEE, KAAYA GODWINP, MFUNE JOHNKE, MPOFU IRVINDT, GETZ1 WAYNEM. "Soil ingestion, nutrition and the seasonality of anthrax in herbivores of Etosha National Park. ." Ecosphere. 2013;4(1):1-19.
Turner CD, others. "General endocrinology." General endocrinology. 1948. AbstractWebsite
n/a
TURFENA MRSODHIAMBOKAREN. "Evaluation Capacity Building." Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2001. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

TURFENA MRSODHIAMBOKAREN. "The Social ecology of literacy and achievement in primary schools of Kenya. _ Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1990. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Turan JM, Steinfeld RL, Onono M, Bukusi EA, Woods M, Shade SB, Washington S, Marima R, Penner J, Ackers ML, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Cohen CR. "The study of HIV and antenatal care integration in pregnancy in Kenya: design, methods, and baseline results of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.". 2012. Abstractpone.0044181.pdf

Despite strong evidence for the effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy for improving the health of women living with HIV and for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), HIV persists as a major maternal and child health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In most settings antenatal care (ANC) services and HIV treatment services are offered in separate clinics. Integrating these services may result in better uptake of services, reduction of the time to treatment initiation, better adherence, and reduction of stigma.A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial design was used to evaluate the effects of integrating HIV treatment into ANC clinics at government health facilities in rural Kenya. Twelve facilities were randomized to provide either fully integrated services (ANC, PMTCT, and HIV treatment services all delivered in the ANC clinic) or non-integrated services (ANC clinics provided ANC and basic PMTCT services and referred clients to a separate HIV clinic for HIV treatment). During June 2009- March 2011, 1,172 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The main study outcomes are rates of maternal enrollment in HIV care and treatment, infant HIV testing uptake, and HIV-free infant survival. Baseline results revealed that the intervention and control cohorts were similar with respect to socio-demographics, male partner HIV testing, sero-discordance of the couple, obstetric history, baseline CD4 count, and WHO Stage. Challenges faced while conducting this trial at low-resource rural health facilities included frequent staff turnover, stock-outs of essential supplies, transportation challenges, and changes in national guidelines. This is the first randomized trial of ANC and HIV service integration to be conducted in rural Africa. It is expected that the study will provide critical evidence regarding the implementation and effectiveness of this service delivery strategy, with important implications for programs striving to eliminate vertical transmission of HIV and improve maternal health.

Tung CS, Chu KM, Tseng CJ, Yin TH. "Adenosine in hemorrhagic shock: possible role in attenuating sympathetic activation." Life Sci.. 1987;41(11):1375-82. Abstract

Changes in plasma purine nucleoside level, autonomic activity and hemodynamic reactions were studied in pentobarbital anesthetized rabbits during hemorrhagic shock. Shock was elicited by bleeding the animals to a mean blood pressure of 40 mmHg and maintained until 60% of the maximum bleeding volume in the reservoir had been taken up spontaneously. The remaining shed blood was reinfused thereafter. Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), adenosine (AD) and uric acid were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection, fluorometry or UV absorbance. The results showed hemorrhagic shock caused a significant rise in plasma NE, E, AD, and uric acid levels, but the magnitudes and time profiles were different among them. Plasma NE and E increased during the shock compensatory period then declined in the decompensation period whereas adenosine and its metabolite uric acid were elevated persistently during both periods. It is concluded that a balance between autonomic activity and tissue metabolism is important in the maintenance of hemodynamics during shock.

Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on cowpea." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata …." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Tumisang Liphoto MM. "Ubiquitous traffic management with fuzzy logic — Case study of Maseru, Lesotho .". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016.; 2016. Abstract

Maseru is the capital city of Lesotho and is a relatively small city with roughly 67 vehicles registered each day. Traffic lights are used with the intension of effectively managing vehicular traffic at junctions. These traffic lights follow a predetermined sequence usually based on historic data. As a result of this design, they inherently fail to efficaciously manage traffic flow when it is abnormal. Vehicles on one side have to wait even though there are no cars on other sides of the road. The consequences of this include increased congestion and atmospheric air pollution. Technological advancements have resulted in the now widely researched Internet of Things paradigm with one of its applications being vehicular traffic management. The focus of this paper is the design of a prototype reactive system based on Internet of Things whose functionality includes traffic lights that are capable of reacting to prevailing conditions. The system makes use of Radio Frequency IDentifier technology and mobile tools to ubiquitously collect traffic data and disseminate value added traffic information

Tum PK, Kasha GM, Kithure JGN, Mwazighe FM. "OPTIMIZATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTION FROM Eucalyptus grandis LEAVES BY CLEVENGER DISTILLATION." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;9(1):91-102. Abstract

Recent statistics show a rise in the margin of consumption and utilization of essential oils. People
have turned their attention to traditional medicines, and so the demand for essential oils in the
international market has increased drastically. However, essential oil extraction processes have
been observed to suffer from minimum output levels. The purpose of this study was to
investigate the effects of changing the process parameters (time of extraction, leaf sizes and
leaves to water ratio) and their contribution to maximizing the process of extraction and also the
composition of Eucalyptus grandis oil to establish utility of the oil.The extracted oil’s refractive
index was determined and GC-MS analysis of the oil was also done to determine the
composition of the oil. There was an increase of %yield with increase in time up to 150
minutes.Quality of the oil extract was desirable from appearance and smell. Variation in oil yield
was also noted from varying the leaves to water ratio, with 1:12.5 (w/v) being optimal. The
adjustment of leaf sizes was found to be most effective with a very high increase in yield margin.
The whole leaves produced the highest amounts of oil. More than 20 compounds were identified
with many of them appearing in eucalyptus oil from other species seen in literature.
Key Words: Essential Oils, Eucalyptus grandis, Clevenger Distillation, Optimization, GC-MS

Tum PK, Wanjau RN, Thoruwa CL, Kithure JGN, Murungi JI. "Fate of lambda-cyhalothrin in kales, tomatoes and cabbage from rural setting in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2):12-18.kithure.pdf
Tum PK, Oduor FDO. "Effects of Calcination Temperature on Titanium dioxide Photocatalyst Morphology." The Journal of Kenya Chemical Society . 2014;8(1):28. AbstractThe Journal of Kenya Chemical Society

Description
Organic compounds can be degraded photo catalytically using titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this study, the effect of calcination temperature on the morphology of TiO2 catalyst prepared from an aqueous suspension of ‘anatase paste’of concentration 10g/l. TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area determination techniques to determine its morphological properties which include crystalline size, particle size and specific surface areas vis-à-vis temperature. For TiO2 produced from ‘anatase paste’, an increase in calcination temperature from 300 C to 900 C resulted in an increase in particle size and decrease in surface area. Higher calcination temperature favoured formation of larger particles. Data obtained from XRD measurements show that particle crystal size calculated using Scherer’s formula increased with an increase in calcination temperature.

Tum PK, Kithure JGN, Onyatta JO. "Photocatalytic degradation of acid orange ii dye on selected commercial titanium dioxide catalysts." Int. J. Adv. Res. . 2016;4 (10):1149-1155.594_ijar-13021.pdf
Tsuma VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Rojkittikhun T, Lundeheim N. Peripheral plasma concentration of B-endorphin and cortisol in sows around weaning.. Missouri, USA; 1993.
Tsuma VT;, Okeyo AM, Camargo; Viana JHM;, Origa RA;, Mutembei HM;, Muasa B;. In vitro embryo production using Boran (Bos indicus) oocytes in Kenya.; 2011.Website
Tsuma VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Kindahl H. "Effects of fasting sows during early pregnancy on hormone patterns and embryonic survival." J. Reprod. Fertil. Abstract series. 1994;(14):27.
Tsuma VT, Magnusson U. "Opsonic activity in mammary secretion and serum of gilts during the lactation period.". 1992. Abstract

Opsonic activity was studied in mammary secretion and serum during lactation in four healthy gilts. The opsonic activity was determined as peak chemiluminescence and time to peak chemiluminescence in a luminol enhanced chemiluminescence assay. The peak chemiluminescence was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in mammary secretion around parturition than later in lactation. No changes in the opsonic activity were seen in serum during lactation. Overall, the peak chemiluminescence and time to peak chemiluminescence were significantly higher (p < 0.001) and shorter (p < 0.05) respectively, in serum than in mammary secretion. The present study indicates that the opsonic activity is highest in mammary secretion around parturition but decreases later in lactation, and that this change is confined to the mammary gland.

Tsuma VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Lundeheim N. Endocrine changes during fasting of primiparous sows in early pregnancy.. Bangkok, Thailand; 1994.
Tsigemelak D, Dharani N, Kinyamario JI, Kiboi S. "The utilizattion of medicinal plants by the Masaai community in arid lands of Kajado county, Kenya." Int. J. Plant, Anim. Environ. Sci. 2016;6(3):151-160.
Tsegaye DW. Phytochemical investigation of selected millettia (leguminosae) and ochna (ochnaceae) species for anticancer activities. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015. Abstract

Despite the availability of well established cancer therapies, death from cancer is common and is predicted to rise. There is evidence that natural products play a significant role in cancer therapy and prevention; with considerable number of anticancer agents in use are either natural products or their derivatives. Flavonoids are among classes of natural products gaining a lot of interest as potential anticancer and cancer chemopreventive agents. In this regard, plants from two flavonoid rich genera, Millettia (Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis, Millettia dura and Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis) of the Leguminosae family and Ochna (Ochna holstii and Ochna ovata) of the Ochnaceae family were investigated. Chromatographic (column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, preparative TLC and HPLC) separation of the extracts from the five plants led to the identification of a total of sixty six compounds, out of which ten are new. Four derivatives of the isolated compounds were also prepared. The structural elucidation of the compounds was performed using spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Ultra Violet spectroscopy (UV), Circular Dichroism (CD), X-ray crystallography, Polarimetry and Mass Spectrometry (MS). The crude extract of the leaves of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis yielded two new isoflavones (316 and 317) and four new structurally related rotenoids (318-321) along with eight known compounds. Similarly, the leaves of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis led to the identification of five rotenoids, three isoflavones and one triterpene, of which the isoflavone (312) is new. One of the known rotenoid (313) is reported here for the first time from the genus Millettia. The root bark extract of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis gave thirteen compounds (chalcones, rotenoids, flavanoids and cinnamyl alcohol) of which the chalcone (326) is a new compound. From the roots of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis, thirteen compounds were identified. Among these, the tetraglycoside isoflavone (306) is a new compound. Similar work on the root bark of Millettia dura yielded six isoflavones, one chalcone and a pterocarpan, named 3-O-prenylmaakiain (303) is new compound. Similarly, investigation of the stem bark and leaves of Ochna holstii yielded dimeric and monomeric flavonoids along with dasycarponin (332) and 2,4-dihydroxyphenylmethyl acetate (335). Furthermore, the root bark of Ochna ovata also gave seven compounds some of which were also obtained from the stem and leaves of Ochna holstii. Four alkaloids (336-339) obtained from root bark of Ochna ovata are reported here for the first time from the family Ochnaceae. This is the first report on the phytochemistry of the two Ochna species. The crude extracts and some of their constituents were evaluated for anticancer activities. The crude extract of the roots of M. oblata ssp. teitensis showed strong activity (4.5 μg/mL) against ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-line followed by crude extract of root bark of M. usaramensis ssp usaramensis (11.6 μg/mL). The pure compounds were also found cytotoxic aganist ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-line (IC50 10.5-88.1 μg/mL) among which the highest activity was recorded for usararotenoid C (154, 10.5 μg/mL) followed by maximaisoflavone J (325, 11.2 μg/mL). The activity of 154 is almost four times higher than that of epimillettosin (137, 39.7 μg/mL) with the only structural difference between the two is that 154 has a prenyl group at C-8 and a methoxyl group at C-9 while in 137 the prenyl has cyclized into 2,2-dimethylchromene. Similarly, the activity of maximaisoflavone J (325) is almost five times higher than maximaisoflavone B (304, 53.8 vii μg/mL); while the only difference between the two compounds is the replacement of the methoxyl group at C-4' in 325 by a methylenedioxy (C-3'/C-4') in maximaisoflavone B (304). The strong activities observed for the crude extracts; roots of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis and root bark of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis could be due to their active component; maximaisoflavone J (325) and usararotenoid C (154), respectively. Some compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxicity against Vero cells (IC50 6.7-67.4 μg/mL). Strong activity was recorded for the dimeric flavonoid, calodenone (253). This compound is ten times more active than the related compound, lophirone A (252), a compound which only differ from 253 by lack of a methoxyl group at C-15. The isolated constituents were also tested in Krebs-2 in vitro for translation inhibitory, but none of the compounds showed translation inhibitory activity. Overall, the investigation of the five plants yielded a wide range of new and known compounds as monomeric and dimeric flavonoids, rotenoids, isoflavonoids, chalcones, alkaloids, triterpene and two simple molecules (331 and 335), some of which showed moderate to low cytotoxicity on the ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-line and Vero cells.....

Tschanz SA, Makanya AN, Haenni B, Burri PH. "Effects of neonatal high-dose short-term glucocorticoid treatment on the lung: a morphologic and morphometric study in the rat." Pediatr. Res.. 2003;53(1):72-80. Abstract

Glucocorticoids are often applied in neonatology and perinatology to fight the problems of respiratory distress and chronic lung disease. There are, however, many controversies regarding the adverse side effects and long-term clinical benefits of this therapeutic approach. In rats, glucocorticoids are known to seriously impair the formation of alveoli when applied during the first two postnatal weeks even at very low dosage. The current study investigates short-term and long-term glucocorticoid effects on the rat lung by means of morphologic and morphometric observations at light and electron microscopic levels. Application of a high-dosage protocol for only few days resulted in a marked acceleration of lung development with a precocious microvascular maturation resulting in single capillary network septa in the first 4 postnatal days. By postnatal d 10, the lung morphologic phenotype showed a step back in the maturational state, with an increased number of septa with double capillary layer, followed by an exceptional second round of the alveolarization process. As a result of this process, there was an almost complete recovery in the parenchymal lung structure by postnatal d 36, and by d 60, there were virtually no qualitative or quantitative differences between experimental and control rats. These findings indicate that both dosage and duration of glucocorticoid therapy in the early postnatal period are very critical with respect to lung development and maturation and that a careful therapeutic strategy can minimize late sequelae of treatment.

Trudea J, G M, J M, I G, C O, E W. "Unusual presentation of invasive Basidiobolus mycosis as a pelvic mass in a 3-year old child: a case report." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2015;20(2):125-131.121474-333928-1-sm.pdf
Tropepe V, Coles BLK, Chiasson BJ, Horsford JD, Elia AJ, McInnes RR, van der Kooy D. "Retinal stem cells in the adult mammalian eye." Science. 2000;287:2032-2036. AbstractWebsite
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Troilo D, Li T, Glasser A, Howlandi H. "Differences in {Eye} {Growth} and the {Response} to {Visual} {Deprivation} in {Different} {Strains} of {Chicken}." Vision Research. 1995;35:1211-1216. Abstract
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Troilo D, Li T, Glasser A, Howland HC. "Differences in eye growth and the response to visual deprivation in different strains of chicken." Vision research. 1995;35:1211-1216. Abstract

Several laboratories studying visual deprivation myopia in the domestic chick report varying degrees of axial elongation and myopia induced by similar visual deprivation techniques. In this study we tested the hypothesis that in different strains of chick the eyes respond differently to visual deprivation. We compared under identical conditions two strains of White Leghorn chick commonly used in ocular development research–the Cornell-K strain (K) and Washington H & N Strain (H/N). The normal development of the eye was found to vary significantly between these strains of White Leghorn chicks. The K strain normally develops flatter corneas, thicker lenses, and larger eyes than the H/N strain. The response to visual deprivation also varies significantly between strains. For example, we find that 2 weeks of visual deprivation in the K strain results in less elongation of the vitreous chamber and flattening of the cornea yielding lower levels of induced myopia compared to the H/N strain. Our results show that while visual experience clearly affects normal ocular development in both strains of chick, the nature of the effect depends upon not only the type and duration of the experience but the genetics of the subject population as well.

Troel J, Odote C. "Climate Change Adaptation and Water in Kenya: Governing for Resilience.". In: Climate Change Adaptation and International Development: Making Development Cooperation More Effective in Kenya:Governing for Resilience. London: EarthScan; 2011.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1995). Hormone profiles around weaning in cyclic and anoestrous sows. J. Vet. Med. A., 42: 153-163,.". In: Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Tsuma, V.T. (1996). The influence of stress on early pregnancy in the pig. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 42: 165-172,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Kindahl, H. and Lundeheim, N. (1996). Effect of food deprivation during early pregnancy on endocrine changes in primiparous sows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 41: 267-278,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T. and Magnusson, U. (1992). Opsonic activity in mammary secretion and serum of gilts during the lactation period. J. Vet. Med. B., 39: 285-289,.". In: Proc. IV Int. Conf. On Pig Reprod. Missouri, USA,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Madej, A., Einarsson, S., Mburu, J.N. and Tsuma, V.T. (1998). Involvement of thyroid hormones and cortisol in the stress response and their possible effects on fertility in the pig. Reprod. Dom. Anim., 33: 317-320,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Kindahl, H. (1994). Effects of fasting sows during early pregnancy on hormone patterns and embryonic survival. J. Reprod. Fertil. Abstract series No. 14. PP 27,.". In: Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 502. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Mogoa, E.G.M., Omiti, J.M., Tsuma, V.T. and Bwanga, C.O. (2000). Some constraints and opportunities in the privatization of animal breeding services in Kenya.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Einarsson, S. and Tsuma, V.T. (1994). Relationship between nutrition and fertility. Reprod. Dom. Anim., 29: 340-342,.". In: 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. PP 31. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Njenga, J. M. and Tsuma, V. T. (2004). Sudden death following rupture of the middle uterine artery, in a bovine dystocia. Kenya Veterinarian 26: 27-28.". In: IHE/TU Delft, The Netherlands. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Roozen, A.W.N., Tsuma, V.T. and Magnusson, U. (1995). Effects of short-term stress on plasma concentrations of catecholamines, B-endorphin, and cortisol in gilts. Am. J. Vet. Res., 56: 1225-1227,.". In: Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S. and Madej, A. (1996). Adrenocortical activity and reproduction in primiparous sows. .". In: Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Mbai, K., Munyua, S.J.M., Gathumbi, P.K., Tsuma, V.T. and Nguhiu, J.M. (1991). Ovine contagious epididymitis associated with Actinobacillus seminis.". In: Proc. Of the 9th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya. PP 176-178,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Magnusson, U., Wattrang, E., Tsuma, V.T. and Fossum, C. (1998). Effects of stress resulting from short-term restraint on in vitro functional capacity of leucocytes obtained from pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res., 59: 421-425,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Mutiga, E.R., Mbai, K., Tsuma, V.T., Karitu, P.T. and Ojiayo, S.O. (1993). Incidence and causes of retained placenta in small-holder dairy herds. Indian Vet. J., 70: 333-336,.". In: Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 502. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Munyua, M., Mbai, K., Thaiya, A.G., Wabacha, J.K. and Tsuma, V.T. (1999). Reproductive health care in dairy animals. CAIS Magazine, Oct. 1999. PP 25-26,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1994). Endocrine changes during grouping of primiparous sows in early pregnancy.". In: Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 501. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Einarsson, S., Sterning, M., Tsuma, V.T. and Rydmer, L. (1995). Oestrus in primiparous sows: relationships with weight loss, metabolism and endocrine regulation.". In: 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. PP 31. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1995). Cortisol and B-endorphin in peripheral circulation around weaning in primiparous sows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 37: 175-182,.". In: Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Kindahl, H., Lundeheim, N. and Rojkittikhun, T. (1996). Endocrine changes during group housing of primiparous sows in early pregnancy. Acta Vet. Scand., 37: 481-490,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Mutembei, H.M., Mutiga, E.R. and Tsuma, V.T. (1998). Reproductive parameters in Kenyan GSD bitches.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Rojkittikhun, T. and Lundeheim, N. (1993). Peripheral plasma concentration of B-endorphin and cortisol in sows around weaning.". In: Proc. IV Int. Conf. On Pig Reprod. Missouri, USA,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Forsberg, M. and Lundeheim, N. (1998). Plasma levels of progesterone and cortisol after ACTH administration in lactating primiparous sows. Acta Vet. Scand., 39: 71-76,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1994). Endocrine changes during fasting of primiparous sows in early pregnancy.". In: Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 502. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Mutembei, H.M., Mutiga, E.R. and Tsuma, V.T. (2000). A retrospective study on some parameters of German shepherd bitches in Kenya. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass., 71(2): 115-117,.". In: IHE/TU Delft, The Netherlands. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Mutiga, E.R., Munyua, S.J.M. and Tsuma, V.T. (1994). The effect of improved reproductive herd health on milk production from peri-urban dairy farms. Kenya Veterinarian 18: 3-6,.". In: 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. PP 31. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
Treue T;. Community-based natural resource management.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

This technical note gives a brief introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) and how this concept may be used as a development strategy. CBNRM has the triple objective of poverty reduction, natural resource conservation and good governance. The opportunity and challenge is to pursue these objectives simultaneously, as they are not, by default, mutually supportive. Lessons learnt from CBNRM will be useful when designing community-based climate adaptation strategies. Thus, this note is a contribution to an ongoing debate as well as a product of the long-standing experiences of Danida’s environmental portfolio. The note has been produced in cooperation with the Department for Forest, Landscape and Planning, Faculty of Life Sciences at the University of Copenhagen. Many practitioners have contributed through a fruitful peer review process. Dr. Thorsten Treue together with Iben Nathan have been the main contributors to the final note. Involving local communities and securing the rights of poor and marginalised groups in sustainable management of natural resources is a central theme in international development assistance. The poverty-governance-environment link has been further highlighted in recent years through interventions aimed at building capacity for resilience (disaster preparedness) as well as adapting to climate change. A successful implementation of CBNRM often requires changes at three different levels of society: 1) the national level, 2) the local level and the link between these, and 3) the intermediate level. At the national level, policies and the legislative framework normally needs adjustment and revision to establish an enabling environment that makes CBNRM attractive to local communities. At the intermediate level, it is important to promote the model of decentralised natural resource management that is most likely to work under the given political circumstances. In particular, this involves a choice between: (i) devolution of natural resource management authority to elected local governments, and (ii) deconcentration of line agencies, authorising district-level officers to delegate management authority to local communities. At the local level, it is crucial that CBNRM establishes significant economic incentives for managing and conserving the resource, which is closely related to clearly defined and officially supported tenure systems, as well as to revenue-sharing mechanisms. Furthermore, CBNRM should result in a coordination of resource use by numerous individuals, thus establishing an ‘optimal’ rate of production and consumption at the local level as well as for society at large. In practical terms, it is the elaboration, implementation and experience-based revision of resource management plans at local levels that determine the actual performance of CBNRM on the ground. The poverty reduction rationale of CBNRM, as an alternative to open access resource use, is that the total resource value can be maintained or enhanced, and that the costs and benefits of management can be distributed equitably, so that all community members, within a reasonable time horizon, experience a net gain, or at least a zero loss. Resource conservation requires harvest not to exceed increment over the long term. This calls for reasonably accurate knowledge about the extent and growth of the resource, as well as reliable recording of harvest volumes. Even so, CBNRM could still fail at the local level if inefficient rule enforcement allows free-riders to over-harvest the resource, and/or if inequitable distribution of costs and benefits leads to a breakdown of management rules and subsequent over-harvesting or permanent marginalisation of certain groups. Therefore, the establishment and maintenance of good governance or “appropriate decision-making iii arrangements” is the only feasible way to prevent the failure (or ensure the success) of CBNRM. Decision-making arrangements specify who decides what in relation to whom. Good governance at local level can be promoted through CBNRM legislation that establishes democratic conditions of collective choice, so that all members of a community (including women and other potentially vulnerable groups) get the opportunity to participate in defining: (i) the purpose of resource management, and (ii) the resulting management plan, including how it is enforced, and how products and benefits from the common resource are distributed. Furthermore, communities must hold authority to control free-riding by punishing defaulters, and community leaders must be downwards accountable to the people they represent. It would be naïve to assume that, once initiated, CBNRM is a guaranteed self-sustaining success, which needs no monitoring or adjustment. Regular monitoring of CBNRM processes should be conducted to adjust associated policies, legislative framework and implementation strategies, so that failures may be corrected and positive effects enhanced. Monitoring the progress of planned CBNRM activities should be simple and embedded within existing official monitoring systems to ensure sustainability. However, assessment of the degree to which CBNRM is achieving its triple objective should probably be carried out by independent research centres, NGOs and university departments that are not directly engaged in the implementation as such. CBNRM is not a stand-alone solution to poverty, resource degradation and bad governance. Rather it is a development process and constant power struggle. Thus, even after years of implementation, donors are still likely to have a mission in promoting CBNRM. Lessons learnt will feed into the new agenda of community-based adaptation to climate change. Donor support may be channelled as programme-based or as earmarked support for monitoring and research that deliver credible and easily accessible information. Checks and balances can be supported through civil society as well as the media. An informed public debate based on the results of sound monitoring is, in all likelihood, the key to the long-term success of CBNRM.

Trauth MH, Maslin MA, Deino A, Junginger A, Lesoloyia M, EO O, Olago DO, Olaka L, Strecker MR. "Human evolution in a variable environment: The amplifier lakes of Eastern Africa.". 2010.
Trachtenberg JT, Stryker MP. "Rapid {Anatomical} {Plasticity} of {Horizontal} {Connections} in the {Developing} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2001;21:3476. AbstractWebsite
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Trachtenberg JT, Stryker MP. "Rapid {Anatomical} {Plasticity} of {Horizontal} {Connections} in the {Developing} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2001;21:3476-3482. AbstractWebsite

Experience can dramatically alter the responses of cortical neurons. During a critical period in the development of visual cortex, these changes are extremely rapid, taking place in 2 d or less. Anatomical substrates of these changes have long been sought, primarily in alterations in the principal visual input from the thalamus, but the significant changes that have been found take 1 week. Recent results indicate that the initial physiological changes in the cortical circuit take place outside of the primary input layer. We now find that rapid plasticity of binocular responses in the upper layers of cortex is mirrored by similarly rapid anatomical changes in the horizontal connections between ocular dominance columns in the upper layers, which reorganize within 2 d.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Ole Maloiy GM, Juma F. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Juma F, Ole Miaron JO. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Juma FD. "Stimulation of mu and delta opioid receptors induces hyperalgesia while stimulation of kappa receptors induces antinociception in the hot plate test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).". 2006. Abstract

The antinociceptive effects of highly selective mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE) and kappa (U-50488 and U-69593) opioid agonists were evaluated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in the naked mole-rat. A hot plate test set at 60 degrees C was used as a nociceptive test and the latency to the stamping of the right hind paw (response latency) was used as the end-point. DAMGO (5-10 mg/kg) and DPDPE (2.5-5 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant decrease in the mean response latency. Subcutaneous injection of naloxonazine (20 mg/kg) 24h prior to the administration of DAMGO (5 mg/kg) also blocked the reduction in the response latency observed when DAMGO was injected alone. On the contrary, U-50488 (2.5-5 mg/kg) or U-69593 (0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant increase in the mean response latency. These results showed that activation of mu or delta receptors caused hyperalgesia, whereas activation of kappa receptors caused antinociception in the hot plate test in naked mole-rat. This suggests that mu and delta receptors modulate thermal pain in a different way than kappa receptors in the naked mole-rat. It is not possible at the moment to point out how they modulate thermal pain as little is known about the neuropharmacology of the naked mole-rat

Tovide O, Jaheed N, Mohamed N, Nxusani E, Sunday CE, Tsegaye A, Ajayi RF, Njomo N, Makelane H, Bilibana M, Baker PG, Williams A, Vilakazi S, Tshikhudo R, Iwuoha EI. "Graphenated polyaniline-doped tungsten oxide nanocomposite sensor for real time determination of phenanthrene." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:138-148. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
A graphenated polyaniline/tungsten oxide (PANI/WO3/GR) nanocomposite sensor was prepared by electropolymerisation of a mixture of aniline monomer and tungsten oxide on a graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The PANI/WO3/GR/GCE nanocomposite electrode was tested as a sensor for the determination of phenanthrene. The direct electro-oxidation behaviour of phenanthrene on the PANI/WO3/GR modified GCE was carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the PANI/WO3/GR/GCE sensor was more sensitive to phenanthrene (with a dynamic linear range of 1.0 - 6.0 pM and a detection limit of 0.123 pM.) than GCE, PANI/GCE or PANI/WO3/GCE. The sensor exhibited excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. The sensor exhibits lower detection sensitivity than the WHO permissible level of 1.12 nM phenanthrene in wastewater.

Torsney E, Hu Y, Xu Q. "Adventitial progenitor cells contribute to arteriosclerosis." Trends in cardiovascular medicine. 2005;15:64-68. Abstract

Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of vascular progenitor cells in the development of arteriosclerosis, including transplant arteriosclerosis, angioplasty-induced restenosis, vein graft atherosclerosis, and spontaneous atherosclerosis. Recently, it was found that the adventitia of the arterial wall contains a large number of progenitor cells, which can differentiate into smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. These progenitor cells were able to migrate from the adventitia into the intima, where they accumulate to contribute to atherosclerotic lesions of vein grafts in apoE-deficient mice. Thus, these cells may be a source of smooth muscle cells and might have implications for cellular, genetic, and tissue engineering approaches to vascular disease.

Toroitch W, Migosi J, Sakaja Y. "Influence of Resource Controls on the Performance of Infrastructural Projects in ECDE County Projects in Soy Sub-County." International Journals of Academics & Research. 2020;7(8):38-44.
Topps JH;, Goodall ED;, Kay RNB;, Maloiy GMO. "Urinary Excretion Of Nitrogenous Compounds By Sheep And Red Deer."; 1968.
Too, K V; Mutai MMMEBK; J. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts.". 2012. Abstract

The groundnut, Arachis hypogaea Linn, samples were collected from the majorly grown areas of western Kenya to investigate the viscoelastic properties pertinent to grain handling, storage and processing. In particular, the study conducted at the University of Nairobi, Department of Environmental and Biosystems laboratories in July 2010, aimed at investigating the stress-strain properties of bulk groundnuts in relation to Maxwell polymer viscoelastic model. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was also applied to bulk groundnuts. Three samples were prepared for triaxial tests; each weighing 1062.4 g. The moisture content of the samples was 7.6%. The sample size for triaxial testing was 100 mm diameter and 199 mm height. Density of the samples during the tests was 678.6 kg/m3. Confining stresses of 200, 400 and 600 kPa were used and Axial Strain Rate (ASR) of 0.5 mm/min was used for the triaxial compression tests. For the senstar universal testing machine relaxation time was about 30 min for each of the samples. Relaxation data was recorded after every 30 sec for the duration of the test (30 min). These results showed that the Maxwell model for viscoelastic polymers can be applied to accurately describe the behaviour of bulk groundnuts.

Too KV, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 2012;4(10):1260-1267.
Too KV, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. " Vicoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering & Technology. 2012;Vol. 4 (No. 10 ISSN 2041-3238). Abstract

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Tonya Renee Thurman, Jarabi B, Rice J. "Caring for the caregiver: evaluation of support groups for guardians of orphans and vulnerable children in Kenya, AIDS Care." Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, DOI:10.1080/09540121.2011.644229. 2012.
Tonya R. Thurman, Kidman R, Nice J, Ikamari L. "Family Functioning and child behavioural problems in HIV/AIDs affected households in Kenya." AIDS and Behaviour . 2014;D01 10.1007/S10461-014-0897-9.
Tonny O, Nicholas S. Money, Real Quick: Kenya's Disruptive Mobile Money Innovation. London: Guardian; 2012.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka-Volterra model." Ecological Modelling . 2008;220:60-70.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Owino JO, Ochanda H, Löhr B. "Host–parasitoid population density prediction using artificial neural networks: diamondback moth and its natural enemies." Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 2010;12:233-242.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka–Volterra model." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220(1):60-70. Abstract

The Lotka–Volterra model was applied to the population densities of diamondback moth
(DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) and its exotic larval parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum
(Hellen) data that was collected earlier by icipe's DBM biological control team. The
collections were done for 15 months before the release and 36 months after release of the
parasitoid in two areas; in Werugha, Coast Province of Kenya and Tharuni, Central Province
of Kenya, respectively. For each area in pre-and post-release periods, we estimated Lotka ...

Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Owino, J., Ochanda H, Löhr B. "Evaluation of discrete host–parasitoid models for diamondback moth and Diadegma semiclausum field time population density series. ." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220:1735-1744.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Application of differential equation modelsto the population dynamics of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid - Diadegma semiclausum (Helllen).". In: The 5th International Workshop on “Management of Diamondback Moth and other Crucifer Insect Pests”. Beijing, China; 2007.
Tominaga Y, Tsujisaka Y. "Purification and some enzymatic properties of the chitosanase from Bacillus R-4 which lyses Rhizopus cell walls." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):145-55. Abstract

A strain of Bacillus sp (Bacillus R-4) produces a protease and a carbohydrolase both of which have the ability to lyse Rhizopus cell walls. Of the enzymes, the carbohydrolase has been purified to an ultracentrifugally and electrophoretically homogeneous state, and identified as a chitosanase. The enzyme was active on glycol chitosan as well as chitosan. Molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated as 31 000 and isoelectric point as pH 8.30. The enzyme was most active at pH 5.6 and at 40 degrees C with either Rhizopus cell wall or glycol chitosan as substrate, and was stable over a range of pH 4.5 to 7.5 at 40 degrees C for 3 h. The activity was lost by sulfhydryl reagents and restored by either reduced glutathione of L-cysteine. An abrupt decrease in viscosity of the reaction mixture suggested an endowise cleavage of chitosan by this enzyme.

Tomedi A, Mwanthi MA, Tucker K. "A strategy to increase the number of deliveries with skilled birth attendants in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

To increase the number of deliveries with skilled birth attendants (SEAs) in Kenyan health facili¬ties, with assistance from traditional birth attendants (TBAs). MetllOds: In the Yatta district of Kenya, TEAs were recruited to attend meetings in which they were encouraged to educate pregnant women about the importance of delivering in health facilities; they were offered a small stipend for each pregnant woman they brought to a facility for SBA delivery. The primary outcome was the percentage of prenatal care patients who delivered at intervention health facilities compared with control facilities. Results: During the year preceding the intervention, 102/524 (19.5%) and 413/2068 (20.0%) prenatal care patients had SBA deliveries at intervention and control facilities, respectively, During the t-year study period, 217/440 (49.3%) prenatal care patients delivered at intervention health facilities and 415/1995 (20.8%) delivered at control facilities (P

Tomedi A, Rohan-Minjares F, McCalmont K, Ashton R, Opiyo R, Mwanthi M. "Feasibility and effectiveness of supplementation with locally available foods in prevention of child malnutrition in Kenya." Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(4):749-56.
TOM DONDICHO. "Battered Women: A Socio-legal perspective of their experiences in Nairobi.". In: Mila 2: 19-28. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism development in Kenya: Conditions and problems.". In: Publications in Annuals of Tourism Research. East African Social Science Research Review 16 (2): 49-70; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM DONDICHO. "Battered Women: A Socio-legal perspective of their experiences in Nairobi.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "The effects of the global economic crisis on Kenyan migration.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Just Change 16:8-9; 2009.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism in Kenya: Past, present and future challenges.". In: In reflections on international tourism: Motivations, behaviour and tourist types, Robinson, M.J. Swarbrooke, N. Evans, P. Long and R. Sharpley eds. Newcaste and Sheffield: Athenaeum Press. New Castle: Athenaeum Press; 2000. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism development in Kenya: Constraints and opportunities.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. The African Anthropologist, 10(1): 4-22.; 2003.
TOM DONDICHO. "Land alienation, land tenure and tourism in Maasailand, Kenya.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Mila, 6: 64-72.; 2005. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism, power and politics: The challenges of Maasai involvement in tourism development.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. PhD Dissertation, Massey University; 2010. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
Tom FK, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Chemining'wa GN. "Susceptibility of locally grown maize varieties to infestation by maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.).". In: 13th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters; 2012.
TOM DONDICHO. "Land alienation, land tenure and tourism in Kajiado district of Kenya.". In: African Studies monograph to be considered for publication. East African Social Science Research Review 16 (2): 49-70; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM DONDICHO. "Where are the women in African governance?". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Just Change 17:21; 2010.
TOM DONDICHO. "Battered women: A social-legal perspective of their experiences in Nairobi.". In: In reflections on international tourism: Motivations, behaviour and tourist types, Robinson, M.J. Swarbrooke, N. Evans, P. Long and R. Sharpley eds. Newcaste and Sheffield: Athenaeum Press. African Study Monographs, 21(1): 35-44; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM, MUTHOMI OLUBAYOANDCHEMINING’WA, TOM, MUTHOMI OLUBAYOANDCHEMINING’WA, TOM, MUTHOMI OLUBAYOANDCHEMINING’WA. "RESISTANCE OF LOCALLY GROWN MAIZE GENOTYPES TO INFESTATION BY MAIZE WEEVIL (SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS ." E.A Agric j. 2013;1(5):84-90.
TOM DONDICHO. "Land alienation, land tenure and tourism in Maasailand, Kenya.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Mila, 6: 64-72.; 2005.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism development in Kenya: Constraints and opportunities.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. The African Anthropologist, 10(1): 4-22.; 2003. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "The effects of the global economic crisis on Kenyan migration.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Just Change 16:8-9; 2009. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Domestic violence as an obstacle to develoment in Kenya.". In: Mila 2: 19-28. Mila 2: 19-28; 1998. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM DONDICHO. "International tourism in Kenya: Development, problems & challenges.". In: In East African Social Science Research Review XVI, No. East African Social Science Research Review 16 (2): 49-70; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism, power and politics: The challenges of Maasai involvement in tourism development.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. PhD Dissertation, Massey University; 2010. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006.
TOM DONDICHO. "Environment impacts of tourism in Kenya.". In: In reflections on international tourism: Environmental management and pathways to sustainable tourism, Robinson, M.j. Swarbrooke, N. Evans, P.Long & R. Sharpley eds. New Castle: Athenaeum Press,; 2000. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Where are the women in African governance?". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Just Change 17:21; 2010. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
Tole NM, W GS, Imalingat B. "Radiation dose as a factor in the choice of routine pre-operative dental radiographs.". 1993. Abstract

Radiation doses received by patients during dental x-ray examinations were measured in 95 patients referred to the X-ray Department of the Teaching Dental Hospital, University of Nairobi. The mean skin dose for single periapical films was 5.96 milligray (596 millirads) with the bitewing view recording a mean dose of 5.57 milligray (mGy). During a 14-film full-mouth periapical survey, mean doses ranged from 10.3-16.2 mGy for the upper jaw and 10.1-13.5 mGy for the lower jaw, respectively, depending on the region of dentition. In these full-mouth examinations, the distribution of skin dose over different parts of the dentition showed a characteristic pattern which may be explained by the overlap of radiation fields in the aggregated series of exposure. Orthopantomography recorded lower mean skin doses of 3.26 mGy in the molar region and 2.67 mGy at the posterior midline at the level of the 2nd cervical vertebra. The relative merits of intra-oral radiography versus orthopantomography are discussed, with radiation dosage as one of the factors to be considered. Some observations are made on measures to reduce patient dose

Tole NM. "Anomalies in the radiation output of a new x-ray tube.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Cavity ionization methods have been employed to show that the amOUI1l of X-radiation produced by a newly installed x-ray tube was grossly reduced. Qualitative information based on the techniques of radiological photography suggests that there was no fault with the kilovoltage generator and that the tube was therefore the source of the anomaly. Observations of tube current avalanche and sparking at high potentials provide further clue as to the nature of the fault. A discussion of the possible causes of the anomaly is presented. This study demonstrates that, when specialised equipment for detecting the origin of some faults in x-ray machines is not available, radiation dosimetry and sensitometry can provide a most useful alternative.

Tole NM. "Radiation exposure to patients during radiological examinations of the gastro-intestinal tract: intrahospital dose variations.". 1984. Abstract

Skin and gonad doses have been measured in 144 adult patients undergoing barium meal and barium enema examina-tions at a University Teaching Hospital. Intrahospital variations are discussed and their implications for national dose surveys considered, It is suggested that, due to differences in leakage and scattered radiation levels, overcouch tube machines may deliver higher doses to organs outside the useful beam than undercouch units, The study also points towards increased film consumption in GIT studies, National surveys of radiation doses to patients in diagnostic radiology are restricted to selected institutions over short periods of time. Consequently, although the dose data from such exercises may provide a broad picture of a national situation, detailed studies of intrahospital and interhospital variations for anyone type of examination are made difficult by the small numbers of examinations carried out at anyone institution during national surveys. Detailed surveys of doses received in selected examinations at single institutions, or within limited regions, enable better analysis of such variations to be made. Matthews and Miller (1969) have reported the results of a regional survey in Great Britain. A large hospital with staff of varying levels of skill provides a suitable environment for studying within-hospital dose variations. When a particular type of examination is performed by several radiologists in rotation, the "personal factor" in dose variation tends to be evened out in the mean values obtained. Furthermore, the use of uniform film¬processing conditions removes another of the , traditional causes of variations. The present survey was undertaken at the University Hospital of South Manchester in Great Britain. Studies of the radiation exposure to patients in diagnostic examinations of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) are important because this group of investigations gives large doses to the active bone marrow as well as the gonads of the irradiated individuals. Following a sharp decline in the frequency of mass miniature chest radiography, GIT studies now probably make the largest contribution to the annual ner canut mean bone marrow dose in Great Britain. despit~ their low frequency compared to othe; diagnostic examinations. The relatively low con¬tribution of GIT studies to the genetically-significant dose (Wall et ai, 1980) is due to a combination of their low frequency and the age distribution of the patients examined (Kendall et ai, 1980). It may be possible that the somatic stochastic risks associated with this group of examinations are more important than the genetic risks. However, the computation of mean bone marrow doses, which requires a model combining data on the distribution of active bone marrow in different segments of the body with estimated radiation doses to the bone marrow in those segments, is beyond the objectives of this paper. In the present work, gonad doses in male patients, and abdominal skin doses in female patients, have been measured for larger numbers of patients than are normally achieved at individual institutions during national surveys. In female patients, ovary doses have been calculated from the skin doses. In the case of barium enema examinations the skin doses may be found useful in estimating mean bone marrow doses.

Tole NM. "Radiation exposure to patients during chest X-ray examinations - a survey in Kenya.". 1987. Abstract

Radiation doses received by patients during chest X-ray examinations have been measured at six X-ray centres in Kenya. Absorbed doses from full-size radiography were found to be within acceptable limits at mean values of 29 millirad (0.29 milligray) per exposure for the postero-anterior view in adults and 20 millirad (0.20 milligray) for the antero-posterior view in children. The lateral view in full- ize examinations in children delivered a mean dose of 36 millirad (0.36 mGy). Photofluorography without image intensification delivered much higher doses, amounting to skin-entry doses of several hundred mrad per exposure, and showing large inter-hospital dose variations. Some observations are made on dose reduction measures.

Tohamy SA, Abdel Malek AK, Hassan FZ, Abdel Baky A. "Anthropometric characteristics of the mentally retarded children.". 1990.Website
Togoch H. Kemboi1, Irandu M. Evaristus TT. "Conflicts over Resource use in Kamnarok National Reserve and the adjacent community." Journal of Advanced Research in Environmental Studies. . 2018;1(1):1-14.
Togoch H. Kemboi, Irandu M. Evaristus TT. "Human Wildlife Conflicts and Livelihood Diversification among Kamnnarok National Reserve Adjacent Communities in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of the School of Environmental Studies. 2018;3(1).
Tofighi H, Taghadosi-nejad F, Abbaspour A, Behnoush B, Salimi A, Dabiran S, Ghorbani A, Okazi A. "The {Anatomical} {Position} of {Appendix} in {Iranian} {Cadavers}." International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine. 2013;3:126-130. AbstractWebsite

Background : Vermiform appendix is different in terms of anatomical position, length and mesoappendix.  Knowing the anatomical position of vermiform appendix is important for the surgeons in terms of diagnosis and management. The aim of this study is analysis of length, anatomical position and mesoappendix of vermiform appendix. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on the 400 randomly selected cadavers (306 male and 94 female) who have been referred to the autopsy hall of legal medicine organization of Tehran province to be autopsied between March 21, 2010 and March, 2011. The cause of death was very heterogeneous among autopsied cadavers. Results: According to our results the anatomical positions were pelvic, subcecal, retroileal, retrocaecal, ectopic and preileal in 55.8%, 19%, 12.5%, 7%, 4.2% and 1.5% respectively. The mean length of vermiform appendix was 91.2 mm and 80.3 mm in men and women, respectively. Mesoappendix was complete in 79.5% and incomplete in 20.5%. No association was seen between sex and anatomical position of vermiform appendix. Conclusion: Anterior anatomical position was the most frequent vermiform appendix position in our population which is in discrepancy with most of the reports from western countries. It might be possible that factors such as race, geographical regions and nutritional regiment play roles in determining the position of vermiform appendix.

Todd, Judith; Friedman A; KPW, Friedman A;, Kariuki PW. "Women growing stronger with age: The effect of status in the United States and Kenya .". 1989. AbstractWebsite

Previous research suggests that there is a shift in the perceived balance of interpersonal power in the second half of life in favor of older women, towards equality between men and women. To see if this age shift in power is universal, a study of women in two cultures, the United States and Kenya, examined the effect of status on the shift. As an indirect measure of interpersonal power, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) stories were collected from 60 U.S. and 60 Kenyan women and rated by trained judges for aspects of the interpersonal power of the characters in the stories. In each country there were two groups of 15 women under age 36 and 15 women over age 44, one of higher and one of lower status. In both countries, only the higher status women showed the shift in power with age. That status modulated the shift in power with age in two different cultures is discussed in terms of the necessity for a resource base for power.

Tocho JA, Waema TM. "Towards an e-waste management framework in Kenya." info. 2013;15(5):99-113.Website
Tobias Homan, Pasquale A, Ibrahim Kiche, Onoka K, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins Mweresa, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W, Nicolas Maire. "Innovative tools and OpenHDS for health and demographic surveillance on Rusinga Island, Kenya." BMC research notes. 2015;8(1):397.
Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Mariabeth Silkey, Jane Alaii, Teun Bousema, Cees Leeuwis, Smith TA, Takken W. "The effect of mass mosquito trapping on malaria transmission and disease burden (SolarMal): a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial." The Lancet. 2016;388(10050):1193-1201.
Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Pasquale AD, Ibrahim Kiche, Collins Mweresa, Wolfgang Mukabana, Thomas Smith, Takken W, Nicolas Maire. "Measuring outcomes of the first trial of odour-baited mosquito traps for malaria control using a state of the art health and demographic surveillance system." Malaria journa. 2014;13(1):P97.
Tobias Homan, Pasquale AD, Onoka K, Ibrahim Kiche, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins Mweresa, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Masiga D, Takken W, Nicolas Maire. "Profile: the Rusinga health and demographic surveillance system, western Kenya." International journal of epidemiology. 2016;43(5):718-727.
Tobias Homan, Nicolas Maire, Alexandra Hiscox, Pasquale A, Ibrahim Kiche, Onoka K, Collins Mweresa, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Ross A, Smith TA, Takken W. "Spatially variable risk factors for malaria in a geographically heterogeneous landscape, western Kenya: an explorative study." Malaria journal. 2016;15(1):1.
Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Smith TA, Takken W. "Stepped wedge cluster-randomised trial of the impact of mass mosquito trapping on malaria (SolarMal)." Impact of odour-baited mosquito traps for malaria control. 2016:125.
Titus O. Magomere1 4*,, J.N Kiiru, Silas D. Obukosia2, and EM1, Shibairo SI. "The population structure of wild sorghum species in agroecological zones of." African Journal of Biotechnology . 2015.The population structure of wild sorghum species in agroecological zones of. .pdf
Titus A, Nicholas G, Penn L, Callistus O. "Towards sustainable gamebird management by rural communities in Laikipia, Kenya: a guineafowl case study." Discovery and Innovation. 2008;20:155-161. Abstract
n/a
Tirop LJ. Polymer-surfactant stabilised drug nanoparticles. London: King's College London; 2012.
Tirop LJ. "Type 1 Diabetes in Kenya: Treatment Options and Emerging Trends." African Journal of Diabetes Medicine. 2013;21:32-36.ajdm_nov_pp_32-36.pdf
Tiri G, Ogollah K, Mburu DK. "INFLUENCE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP ROLE ON PERFORMANCE OF VIRTUAL PROJECT TEAMS IN SAFARICOM LIMITED." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management . 2015;3(2):26-32.ogollah_and_tiri_2015.pdf
Tipton SG, Smyrk TC, Sarr MG, Thompson GB. "Malignant potential of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas." British Journal of Surgery. 2006;93:733-737. AbstractWebsite
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Ting JYS, Farley R. "Subhepatically located appendicitis due to adhesions: a case report." Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2008;2:339. AbstractWebsite

Acute appendicitis occurs frequently and is a major indication for acute abdominal surgery. Subhepatic appendicitis has rarely been reported and is more difficult to diagnose. PMID: 18973703

Tindyebwa, D. KMENC &BJPB. "Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers (revised 1st ed.) .". In: Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers (revised 1st ed.) . ANECCA.; 2006.
Tindyebwa, D. KMENC &BJPB. "Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers .". In: Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa for medical students, doctors and primary care workers . ANECCA; 2011.
Tina LD, Omoni G, Lee K, WAKASIAKA S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.". 2013. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills. an uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted, informed by Kirkpatrick's four-stage model of evaluation; we report on the first two stages. We included a cohort of third and fourth year midwifery students who were studying at one university in Nairobi. The same hypothetical case scenario was used, pre- and post-implementation of the World Health Organization partograph e-learning tool, to assess students' partograph completion ability. Views on the tool were also sought, using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using standard statistical techniques and framework analysis. 92 (88%) students participated. Students expressed positive views about the e-learning tool. However, the mean post-intervention score (27.21) was less than half of the maximum obtainable score. There was some improvement in test scores; year three mean score pre-intervention was 21.39 (SD 5.72), which increased to 25.10 (5.41) post-intervention (paired-t=3.47, p=0.001); year four mean score pre-intervention was 24.39 (5.98) which increased to 29.30 (6.77) post-intervention (paired t=3.85, df=91, p<0.001). In the post-test, year four students scored higher than year three students (unpaired t=3.28, df=90, p=0.001). Students were unable to plot cervical dilatation correctly, once established labour had been confirmed. e-Learning training is acceptable to student midwives and has the potential to be an effective means of teaching the practical application of the partograph. However, in this study, their inability to correctly plot transference from the latent to active phase of labour suggests that the partograph itself may be too complicated. Modifications and further evaluation of the e-learning tool would be required before any widespread implementation. Furthermore, students need the clinical support to operationalise their learning; educating qualified midwives and obstetricians to be positive role models when completing the partograph would be one potential solution. Further research is required, taking on board the recommendations from our pilot study, to investigate the impact of partograph e-learning on practice and clinical outcomes.

Tina LD, Omoni G, Lee K, WAKASIAKA S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.". 2013. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills. an uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted, informed by Kirkpatrick's four-stage model of evaluation; we report on the first two stages. We included a cohort of third and fourth year midwifery students who were studying at one university in Nairobi. The same hypothetical case scenario was used, pre- and post-implementation of the World Health Organization partograph e-learning tool, to assess students' partograph completion ability. Views on the tool were also sought, using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using standard statistical techniques and framework analysis. 92 (88%) students participated. Students expressed positive views about the e-learning tool. However, the mean post-intervention score (27.21) was less than half of the maximum obtainable score. There was some improvement in test scores; year three mean score pre-intervention was 21.39 (SD 5.72), which increased to 25.10 (5.41) post-intervention (paired-t=3.47, p=0.001); year four mean score pre-intervention was 24.39 (5.98) which increased to 29.30 (6.77) post-intervention (paired t=3.85, df=91, p<0.001). In the post-test, year four students scored higher than year three students (unpaired t=3.28, df=90, p=0.001). Students were unable to plot cervical dilatation correctly, once established labour had been confirmed. e-Learning training is acceptable to student midwives and has the potential to be an effective means of teaching the practical application of the partograph. However, in this study, their inability to correctly plot transference from the latent to active phase of labour suggests that the partograph itself may be too complicated. Modifications and further evaluation of the e-learning tool would be required before any widespread implementation. Furthermore, students need the clinical support to operationalise their learning; educating qualified midwives and obstetricians to be positive role models when completing the partograph would be one potential solution. Further research is required, taking on board the recommendations from our pilot study, to investigate the impact of partograph e-learning on practice and clinical outcomes.

Tina L, Grace O, Karen L, Sabina W, James W, Matthews M. "Students' experiences of using the partograph in Kenyan labour wards.". 2011. Abstract

Previous research has demonstrated the likely benefits of partograph use in low-resourced settings. However, the challenges of completing a partograph are also reported. The objective of this study was to examine students' views and experiences of partograph use to gain understanding of the realities of using this tool in the labour ward. Methods: In a qualitative study, 51 student nurses, undertaking their maternity placement at a university in Nairobi, Kenya, participated in five focus group discussions. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results: Four main themes emerged from the analyses: challenges to 'doing the right thing'; theory-practice disconnectedness; negative role models; and retrospective recording. Conclusions: The results provide insight into the challenges faced by students when practising in the labour ward environment. A more effective approach to partograph training and implementation should be adopted to support students. However, student midwife training is unlikely to be implemented into practice unless the qualified team supports their learning. Given that the partograph had little status in the labour ward, change may only happen when senior health professionals (midwives and obstetricians) lead by example. Further research is required to explore the views of obstetricians and qualified midwives on partograph use. Appropriate implementation strategies also warrant further investigation

Timu, A. G., Mulwa, J.K, Okello, J.J., Kamau M. "The role of varietal attributes on adoption of improved seed varieties: the case of Sorghum in Kenya." Agriculture & Food Security. 2014;3(9):1-7.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Thematic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwanakupona: A Swahili/Islamic Perspective.". In: Institut National des Langues et civilization (INALCO). Paris; 2013.
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. "5. A Thematic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwana Kupona: A Swahili/Islamic Perspective." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;vol. 4(No. 28):Journal of Education and Practice.
Timammy GBJR&. "Uchanganuzi linganishi wa Suala la Maadili kwa Vijana wa Kiume katika Tenzi mbili: Siraji na Adili in Mwanga wa Lugha ." Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi Juzuu. 2017;1(2):133-147 .
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Mshairi Mcheza kwao Lakini asiyetuzwa.". In: Swahili International Conference. Mombasa Kenya; 2013.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Ushairi katika Siasa Lamu.". In: Kiswahili, Utangamano na Maendeleo Endelevu Afrika Mashariki. Zanzibar: Kamisheni ya Kiswahili ya Afrika Mashariki; 2019.
Timammy R, Oduor J. "The Treatment of Kiswahili in Kenya’s Education System." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2016;5(2224-1655):174-194.
Timammy R, Nyamasyo E, Wasamba P. "Historia za maisha binafsi kutoka kwale.". 1999.Website
and Timammy JHR. "Politeness among the Swahili of Mombasa: A family perspective." Mwanga wa Lugha - Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi . 2018;2(2412-6993):35-53 .
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. Riwaya ya Kiswahili (BSW 308) . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
and Timammy JHR. "The State of Kiswahili in Kenya and Challenges of Its Implementation as an Official Language." Asian Journal of African Studies, Institute of African Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies . 2018;44(2466-1821):47-65 .
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Rununu kama Chombo cha Uendelezaji wa Ushairi na Kiswahili kwa Ujumla.". In: Ukuzaji na Maendeleo ya Kiswahili: Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbalimbali. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2014.
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. "4. Characterization and the Construction of Gender Identity in John Habwe’s Maumbile si Huja." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;vol. 1(No. 9):1-18 .
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Athari za Ndani na za Kilimwengu: Ujenzi wa Jadi ya Ushairi wa Kiswahili." . https:// creative commons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ . 2017:116-132.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "6. Gender Perspective in Selected English and Kiswahili Stories." The Nairobi Journal of Literature, UoN. 2013;7(1):pgs107-117.
Tilahun Y, Soliman K, Lawrence KS, Cseke LJ, Ochieng JW. "Nuclear ribosomal DNA diversity of a cotton pest (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in the United States." Afr. Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(18):3217-3224.2008_tilahun_et_al_ajb.pdf

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