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Søren M, Lars S;. Guidelines for distribution of tree seed in small bags: small quantities and high quality.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

It has been assessed that the majority of trees planted in developing countries are planted by farmers. On-farm tree planting is likely to gain importance in the future as access to natural forests and trees is getting more and more difficult. On-farm tree planting, however, often suffers from lack of access to a diversity of high quality tree planting material. Quality tree seed are normally sold from major seed producers (national tree seed organisations) in a centralised manner, with only 1-3 outlets within the country, and often only in large quantities. Small holders cannot afford to travel long distances and need only small amounts of seed. Therefore the seed will have to be brought to the farmer

Søren M;, Lars S;. Guidelines for distribution of tree seed in small bags: small quantities and high quality.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

It has been assessed that the majority of trees planted in developing countries are planted by farmers. On-farm tree planting is likely to gain importance in the future as access to natural forests and trees is getting more and more difficult. On-farm tree planting, however, often suffers from lack of access to a diversity of high quality tree planting material. Quality tree seed are normally sold from major seed producers (national tree seed organisations) in a centralised manner, with only 1-3 outlets within the country, and often only in large quantities. Small holders cannot afford to travel long distances and need only small amounts of seed. Therefore the seed will have to be brought to the farmers

Szumiński M, Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk A. "[{Assessment} of retinal ganglion cells thickness in high myopia]." Klinika oczna. 2012;114:180-183. Abstract

PURPOSE: Studies on glaucoma markers have shown that assessment of thickness macular ganglion cell complex plays an important role in diagnosis of early stage open-angle glaucoma. There are no available data on thickness in ganglion cell complex in high myopic patients. We investigate thickness of macular ganglion cell complex in children with high myopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 38 children (aged from 9 to 19 years), with high myopia (over -6.00 D) underwent full ophthalmological examination, including SD-OCT of the macula and optic disc. The reference group consisted of 38 emmetropic or slightly hyperopic children aged from 8 to 18 years old. RESULTS: Superior and interior ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness were significantly lower in high myopic group compared to reference group: p {\textless} 0.01, respectively for GCC Sup. median was 90 microm (range 67-108.5) and 95 microm (range 80-105.5); for GCC Inf. median was 91 microm (range: 67-109.5) and 98 microm (range 85-109). Positive correlation between GCC and Total RNFL was found. CONCLUSIONS: In children with high myopia thinning of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer of the optic disc was found. These changes may be responsible for higher suspectibility of developing open-angle glaucoma in high myopic eyes. macular ganglion cell complex, high myopia, spectral optical coherence tomography.

Szumiński M, Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk A. "[{Assessment} of retinal ganglion cells thickness in high myopia]." Klinika oczna. 2012;114:180-183. Abstract

PURPOSE: Studies on glaucoma markers have shown that assessment of thickness macular ganglion cell complex plays an important role in diagnosis of early stage open-angle glaucoma. There are no available data on thickness in ganglion cell complex in high myopic patients. We investigate thickness of macular ganglion cell complex in children with high myopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 38 children (aged from 9 to 19 years), with high myopia (over -6.00 D) underwent full ophthalmological examination, including SD-OCT of the macula and optic disc. The reference group consisted of 38 emmetropic or slightly hyperopic children aged from 8 to 18 years old. RESULTS: Superior and interior ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness were significantly lower in high myopic group compared to reference group: p {\textless} 0.01, respectively for GCC Sup. median was 90 microm (range 67-108.5) and 95 microm (range 80-105.5); for GCC Inf. median was 91 microm (range: 67-109.5) and 98 microm (range 85-109). Positive correlation between GCC and Total RNFL was found. CONCLUSIONS: In children with high myopia thinning of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer of the optic disc was found. These changes may be responsible for higher suspectibility of developing open-angle glaucoma in high myopic eyes. macular ganglion cell complex, high myopia, spectral optical coherence tomography.

Syomiti M, Wahome RG, Kuria JKN. "The status of maize stover utilization as feed for livestock in Kiambu and Thika districts of Kenya: constraints and opportuniti.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Maize stover is an important feed resource in smallholder crop/livestock production systems. A situation analysis survey was undertaken in four administrative divisions, namely Kiambaa and Githuguri in the Kiambu district and Gatanga and Kamwangi in the Thika district as representatives of this system. The objective of the study was to establish baseline information on maize stover utilization as livestock feed and possible constraints and strategies to deal with these constraints. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling was used to select 15 respondents per district, giving a sample size of 30 households. Sampling criteria was based on dairy enterprise priority and a zero-grazing production system. Termite attacks during storage and low quality of stover were the major constraints in utilization of maize stover. Among the major strategies for dealing with the low quality of stover, was supplementation with spent brewers' grains, which was most important in Thika district, while in Kiambu district, supplementation with fodder grasses emerged highest. Treatment of dry maize stover with urea was among the least adopted technologies in the two districts. It was concluded from the study that the efficiency with which the available stover are utilized is compromised by poor handling before feeding. Some of the strategies adopted to overcome the identified constraint of low quality were also inappropriate. This may reflect the lack of technical know-how on how best to use the stover and/or inappropriateness of available technologies. There is a need to address this situation by adapting known and workable technologies under the local conditions.

Syomiti M, Wanyoike M, Wahome RG, Kuria JKN. "The status of maize stover utilization as feed for livestock in Kiambu and Thika districts of Kenya: constraints and opportuniti.". 2011. Abstract

Maize stover is an important feed resource in smallholder crop/livestock production systems. A situation analysis survey was undertaken in four administrative divisions, namely Kiambaa and Githuguri in the Kiambu district and Gatanga and Kamwangi in the Thika district as representatives of this system. The objective of the study was to establish baseline information on maize stover utilization as livestock feed and possible constraints and strategies to deal with these constraints. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling was used to select 15 respondents per district, giving a sample size of 30 households. Sampling criteria was based on dairy enterprise priority and a zero-grazing production system. Termite attacks during storage and low quality of stover were the major constraints in utilization of maize stover. Among the major strategies for dealing with the low quality of stover, was supplementation with spent brewers' grains, which was most important in Thika district, while in Kiambu district, supplementation with fodder grasses emerged highest. Treatment of dry maize stover with urea was among the least adopted technologies in the two districts. It was concluded from the study that the efficiency with which the available stover are utilized is compromised by poor handling before feeding. Some of the strategies adopted to overcome the identified constraint of low quality were also inappropriate. This may reflect the lack of technical know-how on how best to use the stover and/or inappropriateness of available technologies. There is a need to address this situation by adapting known and workable technologies under the local conditions.

Syomiti M, Wanyoike M, Wahome RG, Kuria JKN. "The status of maize stover utilization as feed for livestock in Kiambu and Thika districts of Kenya: constraints and opportuniti.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Maize stover is an important feed resource in smallholder crop/livestock production systems. A situation analysis survey was undertaken in four administrative divisions, namely Kiambaa and Githuguri in the Kiambu district and Gatanga and Kamwangi in the Thika district as representatives of this system. The objective of the study was to establish baseline information on maize stover utilization as livestock feed and possible constraints and strategies to deal with these constraints. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling was used to select 15 respondents per district, giving a sample size of 30 households. Sampling criteria was based on dairy enterprise priority and a zero-grazing production system. Termite attacks during storage and low quality of stover were the major constraints in utilization of maize stover. Among the major strategies for dealing with the low quality of stover, was supplementation with spent brewers' grains, which was most important in Thika district, while in Kiambu district, supplementation with fodder grasses emerged highest. Treatment of dry maize stover with urea was among the least adopted technologies in the two districts. It was concluded from the study that the efficiency with which the available stover are utilized is compromised by poor handling before feeding. Some of the strategies adopted to overcome the identified constraint of low quality were also inappropriate. This may reflect the lack of technical know-how on how best to use the stover and/or inappropriateness of available technologies. There is a need to address this situation by adapting known and workable technologies under the local conditions.

Symekher. SML, Bulimo. WD, Kakai. R, Simwa. J, Sang. A, Magana. J. "Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Influenza Viruses Isolated From Children Admitted at The Kenyatta National Hospital in April-July 2008.". In: 2nd MEDICAL AND VETERINARY VIROLOGY RESEARCH-2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya; 2012. Abstract
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Sylvain Beourou, Anne-Cécile Le Lamer, Séverine Maurel-Chevalley PCMFSCMNAVB. "Evaluation of the antiplasmodial activity of extracts of plants used in traditional medicine in Kenya." International Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2013;2(6):219-224.evaluation-of-the-antiplasmodial-activity-of-extracts-of-plants-used-in-traditional-medicine-in-kenya.pdf
Syka J. "Plastic {Changes} in the {Central} {Auditory} {System} {After} {Hearing} {Loss}, {Restoration} of {Function}, and {During} {Learning}." Physiological Reviews. 2002;82:601-636. AbstractWebsite

Traditionally the auditory system was considered a hard-wired sensory system; this view has been challenged in recent years in light of the plasticity of other sensory systems, particularly the visual and somatosensory systems. Practical experience in clinical audiology together with the use of prosthetic devices, such as cochlear implants, contributed significantly to the present view on the plasticity of the central auditory system, which was originally based on data obtained in animal experiments. The loss of auditory receptors, the hair cells, results in profound changes in the structure and function of the central auditory system, typically demonstrated by a reorganization of the projection maps in the auditory cortex. These plastic changes occur not only as a consequence of mechanical lesions of the cochlea or biochemical lesions of the hair cells by ototoxic drugs, but also as a consequence of the loss of hair cells in connection with aging or noise exposure. In light of the aging world population and the increasing amount of noise in the modern world, understanding the plasticity of the central auditory system has its practical consequences and urgency. In most of these situations, a common denominator of central plastic changes is a deterioration of inhibition in the subcortical auditory nuclei and the auditory cortex. In addition to the processes that are elicited by decreased or lost receptor function, the function of nerve cells in the adult central auditory system may dynamically change in the process of learning. A better understanding of the plastic changes in the central auditory system after sensory deafferentation, sensory stimulation, and learning may contribute significantly to improvement in the rehabilitation of damaged or lost auditory function and consequently to improved speech processing and production.

Syengo-Mutisya CM, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Psychiatric morbidity among sexually abused children and adolescents.". 2008.
Syagga PM. "Natural Resources and Employment."; 1992.
Syagga PM, Kamau GN. "Letters and Viewpoints.". 2001.Website
Syagga, P. M., Gachuru MW, Kimani MW. "The Process of Land Development in Kenya.". In: Workshop on the Implementation of Agenda 21 on systems of Urban and Regional Planning. Nairobi; 1995.
Syagga, PM; Kiamba JM. "Urbanization and Housing Problems in Africa.". 1991.
Syagga PM. Burnt Clay - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement For Kenyan Building Industry. .; 2003. Abstract

Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the Cly to Portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housin

Syagga PM, Gachuru MW, KIMANI M. "The Process of Land Development in Kenya.".; 1995.
Syagga PM. "Natural resources and development.". 1992.
Syagga, P. M., Gachuru MW, Kimani MW. "The Process of Land Development in Kenya.". In: Workshop on the Implementation of Agenda 21 on systems of Urban and Regional Planning. Nairobi; 1995.
Syagga, P.M; J.M K. "Urbanization and Housing in Africa.". 1991.
Syagga, PM; Mitullah WV; GSK. "Slum Upgrading Lessons Learned in Nairobi.". 2001.
Syagga, PM; Kiamba JM. " Urbanization and Housing Problems in Africa.". 1991.
Swazuri MA. "Gift of God: Kenya's Tourism Development Ignores Token Legal and lnfrastructural Support.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Tourism has emerged as Kenya's lop foreign exchange earner over the last twenty years. There is evidence 10 show that despite the impressive performance of tourism, the key player, namely the public sector, is doing little to support this growing sector There is little on official documented policy, more of master plans and relatively low levels of funding for tourism, considering its contribution to the country's economy The provision of infrastructure, training for and services associated with tourism are wanting and more is provided in words than in deeds, Legislation related to tourism is rather scattered and the roles of various agencies keep on overlapping or conflict each other. Despite this, tourism has continued to grow every year. The need to reverse this attitude and to repackage the industry should now be the priority of all the players and beneficiaries of tourism in and outside Kenya.

Swazuri MA. A study of housing needs assessment a case study of Malindi town .; 1986. Abstract

The gap between what amount of housing is available and the desired housing level represents housing need. Investigations have shown that this need is growing over time, with little in the form of more housing being provided. In order to gauge by how far this need is being satisfied, it is necessary to undertake some study of housing needs in an area. This project work comprises a study of methods for estimating overall housing needs. Prevailing theories of housing need have concentrated very much on the physical housing product itself as a representation of what and how much housing is required. Some of these theories and their practical applications in estimating housing needs are investigated. The results of most of these methods point out that the housing problem in many developing countries is one of unmanageable proportions, and that the needs have in many cases been measured unconvincingly. These methods have been applied to the study area of Malindi Town in the Coast Province of Kenya. The results of the study reveal the deficiencies in the current assessment methods. Any proper method for estimating housing needs should consider important elements like the environmental quality of the houses and their surrounding neighborhoods. It should also consider the level of housing services and peoples cultures that are necessary for the decent living of the occupants, whether these occupants can or cannot afford these essentials. The proposed model in this study incorporates a methodology for assessing housing needs in the light of the above prerequisites, which have often been neglected in the current housing need estimates. Though without fault, the method at least tries to reduce some of the defects inherent in the prevailing methods for estimating housing needs. There are three main parts to the study. First, housing needs are discussed in relation to current theories and methods of measuring them. Models are given and analysed against the magnitude of the housing problem as portrayed by other analysts. The second part is about the study area, Malindi Town in Coast Province, in which the various methods have been applied in order to test the hypothesis and carry out aims of the study. Data on population trends, household sizes, income structures, building materials, housing information .and construction activities are presented and analysed to provide a basis for the estimations. The third section links parts one and two in actual housing needs estimation using data obtained from a field survey. This section winds up with summary and recommendations obtained from the results of the estimations. Housing needs should not be assessed literayfor, they involve more than what meets the eye and more often they should be measured in recognition of the society's housing norms and allied attitudes

Swazuri MA. The valuation of waterfront properties along the coastline of Kenya .; 1996. Abstract

The valuation of waterfront properties along the coastline of Kenya Kenya is one of the coastal states that lie in the eastern part of Africa. For a long time now Kenyan valuation practice has been concentrated on land-based resources. Valuation of farms, houses, offices, industries etc. are now quite familiar in everyday life. However, a "new" era is now becoming important in world resources affairs, an area in which the valuation profession in Kenya can also participate. This area is the coastal or marine environment, where many sectors of the economy such as energy, transport and research are now increasingly turning to use. Whereas professional valuers in other countries have expanded their scope into these environments, the valuation profession in Kenya has been slow to realise its potential in the same. And because the full economic potential of the resources of the Kenyan coast is not known with certainty, it is logical to carry out studies of their estimation. Unlike land-based resources waterfront properties along the coastline Possess somewhat peculiar characteristics which imply that a free market or a purely price competitive mechanism will not allocate these resources properly. It is even worse for the methods of valuation which can be employed in such cases. Identification and exploitation of resources have to be enhanced by proper methods of the resources' estimation for them to be worthwhile. Two notable characteristics of the waterfront properties located along the Kenyan coastline are the extremitie in values of similar properties, sometimes even in the same localities, and the exclusive use of the market comparison method in such property valuations. This study contends that extremities in values have arisen from the use of improper methods for valuieing waterfront properties. And the method being used currently in the valuation disregards a number of important factors, most of which are difficult to quantify using the market comparison method. This study aims, therefore, to present better ways of valuing waterfront lands . .The valuation of waterfront lands 1.'3 influenced by both site- oriented, such as size and non-site-oriented variables like reasons for sale, date of transaction and so on. Evidence from the valuation pr ac t i.ce s in the study area suggests that only site-oriented characteristics of property are considered during valuations and this leads to either under valuation or overvaluation of these properties. Although some factors are not directly on the property being valued, they· are actually significant influences of value, and disregarding them altogether is not reasonable. The valuation method proposed in this study considers both site and non-site oriented factors. Using conventional multiple regression analysis (CMRA) it has been shown here that the choice of value- influencing variables is more scientific, more reasonable and less subjective than in the ordinary Comparison Method . Choice of influencing variables for valuation purposes is a necessary step if proper values have to be estimated. Many valuations have had faults because of inability to identify and measure these factors. Several regressiGn methods of valuation have been tried in this study, ranging from the simple mul tiple regression analysis to rank transformation regression. Each of- the methods has its merits and demerits, in most cases in terms of their usefulnes and accuracy involving waterfront lands. Conventional Multiple Regression Analysis (CMRA) and Rank Transformation Regression (RTR) were foun.d ·to be the best of the lot, accounting for 49% and 51% of the variation in property values in the area respectively. However, RTR seems to have the methodological problem of how to rank factors affecting value before using them in the procedure. While it is appealing and quite rational to rank factors, the criteria to be used for the ranking is contentious. CMRA was, therefore, found to be a 'better' method, because it produced better results in all the various tests the models underwent. For example, CMRA had a relatively high R2 of 49.1%, a relatively low MSE value of 13612 and the smallest Cp value of 277. CMRA's ability to rank the independent variables within itself during analysis can easily be understood by both the valuer and client, and is applicable in practice. Using the same methods, it was found that SIZE of property is the most important factor affecting value in the study area. The larger the size, the higher the value, although other factors such as width of the beach area (AREA), VIEW of the ocean waters, availability of water SPORTS on the beach etc, have also to be considered. Furthermore, no single factor alone can be used as the only basis for estimating values of waterfront lands. Despite the study advocating for the use of CMRA in waterfront valuations, _there are very few instances where the valuer will not use some form of comparison in the valuation process. Whether it is in the choice of independent variables or in the measurement of these variables, the principles of comparison have to be utilised to arrive at objective values. After all, valuation is all about the market, and if the valuer disregards the market trends then his valuation will be somewhat incomplete.

Swazuri MA. "Real Estate Sub-markets.". 1993.
Swamy M, Searle RF. "Anatomy teaching with portable ultrasound to medical students." BMC Medical Education. 2012;12:99. AbstractWebsite

PMID: 23088725

SWALEH AMIRI. "Ubainishi wa Mwanamke katika Natala.". In: Kiswahili language C onference . University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.
SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "3. Androgyny and Women’s Identity in Ari Katini Mwachofi’s Mama Ee." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;1(8):1-12 .
SWALEH AMIRI. Mwongozo wa Kifo Kisimani , Nairobi, Longhorn Publishers. Nairobi: ISBN – 9966 – 49 – 778 – 1.; 1996.
SWALEH AMIRI. "“Kosa la Nani?”.". In: “Kosa la Nani?” Na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Vide-Muwa; 2018.
SWALEH AMIRI, Walibora K, P. I. “Utamu wa Msamaha” in Sina Zaidi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: arget Publications, ISBN 978 – 9966 – 002 – 77 - 8. Pp. 20 - 33; 2011.
SWALEH AMIRI. "Lugha ya Kiswahili Pijini au Krioli ?" aasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili, Dar es Salaam. 2002.
SWALEH AMIRI, Wamitila KW. A short story “Jinga Likierevuka” in Wali wa Ndevu wa Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Vide - M uwa Publishers. ISBN 99766 – 773 - 55 - X, pp. 105 - 124; 2010.
SWALEH AMIRI. "Ushairi wa Kiswahili: Huru na wa Kimapokeo in Sauti ya Umma." Jari da la Maarifa ya Kiislamu . 1996;. No 69 :Pp. 22-23.
SWALEH AMIRI. Kosa la Nani? Na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Vide-Muwa; 2018.
SW M, E D, Oyugi JO, JW M, ST K, TM D. "Elimination of Biofilms in root canal system - a literature review." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2015.
Susan S Imbahale, Krijn P Paaijmans, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Ron van Lammeren, Githeko AK, Takken W. "A longitudinal study on Anopheles mosquito larval abundance in distinct geographical and environmental settings in western Kenya. ." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:81.
Susan S Imbahale, Collins K Mweresa, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Development of environmental tools for Anopheline larval control." Parasites & Vectors. 2011;4:130.
Susan S Imbahale, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Efficacy of neem chippings for mosquito larval control under field conditions." BMC ecology. 2015;15(1):8.
Suresh KP, Chandrashekara S. "Sample size estimation and power analysis for clinical research studies." Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. 2012;5:7-13. AbstractWebsite

Determining the optimal sample size for a study assures an adequate power to detect statistical significance. Hence, it is a critical step in the design of a planned research protocol. Using too many participants in a study is expensive and exposes more number of subjects to procedure. Similarly, if study is underpowered, it will be statistically inconclusive and may make the whole protocol a failure. This paper covers the essentials in calculating power and sample size for a variety of applied study designs. Sample size computation for single group mean, survey type of studies, 2 group studies based on means and proportions or rates, correlation studies and for case-control for assessing the categorical outcome are presented in detail.

Surapunt S, Nyamai CM, Hino M, Itagaki K. " Phase relations and Distributions of minor elements in the Cu-Zn-S, Cu- Fe-S and Cu-Pb-S Systems at 1473K. ." Metallurgical Review of MMIJ. 1995;12(2):84-97.
Sungura R, Onyambu C, Mathenge I. "The CT Angiographic Prevalence of Renal Accessory Arteries in Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2018;7(1):2745-2754.Online
Sungura R, Onyambu C, Mathenge I. "The CT Angiographic Prevalence of Renal Accessory Arteries in Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2018;7(1): 2745-2754.
Sun C, Dohrn J, Klopper H, Malata A, Omoni G, Larson E. "Clinical Nursing and Midwifery Research Priorities in Eastern and Southern African Countries: Results From a Delphi Survey." Nurs Res. 2015;64(6):466-75. Abstract

Because of the profound shortage of nurse and midwifery researchers in many African countries, identification of clinical nursing and midwifery research is of highest priority for the region to improve health outcomes.

Sun W, Li N, He S. "Large-scale morphological survey of mouse retinal ganglion cells." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2002;451:115-126. AbstractWebsite

Five hundred twenty ganglion cells in an isolated whole-mount preparation of the mouse retina were labeled using the “DiOlistic” method (Gan et al. [2000] Neuron 27:219–225) and were classified according to their morphological properties. Tungsten particles coated with a lipophilic dye (DiI) were propelled into the whole-mount retina using a gene gun. When a dye-coated particle contacted the cell membrane, the entire cell was labeled. The ganglion cells were classified into four groups based on their soma size, dendritic field size, and pattern and level of stratification. Broadly monostratified cells were classified into three groups: RGA cells (large soma, large dendritic field), RGB cells (small to medium-sized soma, small to medium-sized dendritic field), and RGC cells (small to medium-sized size soma, medium-sized to large dendritic field). Bistratified cells were classified as RGD. This study represents the most complete morphological classification of mouse retinal ganglion cells available to date and provides a foundation for further understanding of the correlation of physiology and morphology and ganglion cell function with genetically manipulated animals. J. Comp. Neurol. 451:115–126, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Sun C, Dohrn J, Omoni G, Malata A, Klopper H, Larson E. "Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries." Int Nurs Rev. 2016;63(1):104-10. Abstract

This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade.

Sulway MJ, Malins JM. "Acetone in diabetic ketoacidosis." Lancet. 1970;2:736-740. Abstract
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Sullivan N, Omwansa T. "Prepaid & Pay-as-you-go Models for Asset Financing.". In: Extreme Inclusion. Boston, USA; 2013.prepaid_nicholas_sullivan_and_tonny_omwansa.pdf
Suleman MA;, Muchemi G;, Wango EO. "Survival of the species.".; 1990.
Suleman MA;, Muchemi G;, Wango EO. "Survival of the species.".; 1990.
Sugut, W.K; Rambo OCM & JA. "Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of HIV/Aids Programmes among Community Based Organizations in Kericho County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2017;22(10).
Sugut, W.K; Rambo OCM & JA. "Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of HIV/Aids Programmes among Community Based Organizations in Kericho County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2017;22(10).
Sueker J, Blazes DL, Johns MC, Blair PJ, Sjoberg PA, Tjaden JA, Montgomery JM, Pavlin JA, Schnabel DC, Eick AA, Tobias S, Quintana M, Vest KG, Burke RL, Lindler LE, Mansfield JL, Erickson RL, Russell KL, Sanchez JL. "Influenza and respiratory disease surveillance: the US military's global laboratory-based network." Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2010;4:155-61. Abstract

The US Department of Defense influenza surveillance system now spans nearly 500 sites in 75 countries, including active duty US military and dependent populations as well as host-country civilian and military personnel. This system represents a major part of the US Government's contributions to the World Health Organization's Global Influenza Surveillance Network and addresses Presidential Directive NSTC-7 to expand global surveillance, training, research and response to emerging infectious disease threats. Since 2006, the system has expanded significantly in response to rising pandemic influenza concerns. The expanded system has played a critical role in the detection and monitoring of ongoing H5N1 outbreaks worldwide as well as in the initial detection of, and response to, the current (H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic. This article describes the system, details its contributions and the critical gaps that it is filling, and discusses future plans.

Subramanian BR, S.Villinger, Muthomi J, R.D NJ, Pappu HR. "First report of Tomato yellow ring virus (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) Infecting tomatoes in Kenya.". 2012;96(1384).
Subramanian S, Pappu HR, Birithia R, Muthomi JW, Sseruwagi P, Narla RD. "Diversity and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onion in Eastern Africa.". In: 4th Conference of the International Working Group on Legume and Vegetable Viruses (IWGLVV). Antequera, Málaga, Spain; 2012.
Subramanian S, H.R P, Birithia, R. S, Muthomi O, P JS, R.D N. "Diversity and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions ." Narla, R.D. 2011;101(S172).
Subbo WK. "Cultural Diversity and Integration in Kenya." Bulletin of the International Committee on Anthropological and Ethnological Research. 1994;3(36):45-99.cultural_diversity_and_national_integration_in_kenya.pdf
and Subbo, W. K. WWRS. "Behaviour change in the area of HIV: Challenges and planks for positive living." Aids and Sexual Reproductive Health: Policy Implications. 2009;1(16):34-38.behaviour_change_in_the_era_of_hiv_aids_-_dr._subbo.docx
Subbo, Wilfred K.; Wakabe R; WS. "Behaviour change in the area of HIV: challenges and planks for positive living. Aids and Sexual Reproductive Health.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

In Spite of considerable efforts and resources by government and NGOs to preventing the spread f HIV/AIDS in Kenya, little seems to have been achieved. While awareness is generally high, it is clear there is a gap between information and behavior change that must be bridged. This paper attempts to address this issue using the bridge model of behavior change. It first discusses the challenges that are the ‘valley’ between information and behavior change, then examines the planks that can be used to surmount the challenges, creating a bridge between the two ‘banks’.

Subbo W. Gender training in and resource manual.; 2002. AbstractWebsite

Why a Christian Gender Manual The Church plays a pivotal role in contributing to a world where justice, peace, truth, freedom and solidarity prevail, a world where God reigns. Thus the Church is committed to protecting the dignity of women like any other human being. These include elimination of gender-based discrimination, exclusion and violence among others. Addressing gender is translating the Christian message of love of neighbor into action. This manual will guide users to address gender imbalances in the light of Christian virtues-the Social Teaching of the Church and to plan for active peace-building that will bridge the Gender Gaps and harmonise relations between women and men of God. It will assist development workers of the Kenya Episcopal Conference – Catholic Secretariat in particular and Church Organisations in general, to plan for interventions that will correct gender imbalances and lead to more equitable and sustainable human development. This manual is primarily meant for Catholic Development Workers and Trainers. It is envisaged that this manual: • Provide a comprehensive training for gender trainers that also takes into account vital African and theological perspectives. • Help promote gender awareness thus increasing he empowerment of the Family of God – both women and men.

Subbo W, et al. Gender Training Manual. Nairobi: Catholic Secretariat; 2005.training_manual.pdf
Subbo WK. Women empowerment in slum settlements: An annotated bibliography. Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Human Developments (UN_HABITAT; 2003.Women empowerment in Slum Settlement. pdf
Subbo WK. "Settlement Schemes as Centres of Socio-Economic Change: The Case of Nyansiongo Scheme Nyamira District, Nyanza Province, Kenya .". 1990. AbstractWebsite

Field work for this study was conducted between the months of November 1989 and February 1990. Its purpose was to establish the direction and magnitude of change that had occurred among the resettled farmers, socially and economically.To achieve that goal, it became necessary to document and analyze the socio-economic changes among the settlers in the scheme. The demonstration model was the theoretical orientation that was used to guide and inform this study. It presupposes that for any meaningful changes to be effected, government change agents such as veterinary and agricultural extension workers should have dialogue with the farmers. It is indicated that the demonstration model is viable for planned social change. The methodology that was used to collect data in this study was documentary library search, focus group discussion, interviews and participant observation methods. The respondents were randomly selected using systematic random sampling, in which every 5th household head was interviewed. The household was the unit of analysis.The findings indicate that, on the overall, Abagusii farmers in Nyansiongo settlement have undergone significant socioeconomic transformations. They enjoy a higher standard of living than they did in the pre-settlement area. They now have bigger pieces of land that they utilize in the production of more food and cash crops. Most of them derive adequate income from their farming activities which they invest in both farming and non-farming ventures. It was also established that, socially, there settlers have to a large extent adapted to the new environment by leading lifestyles that tend to be urban oriented, characterized by investing in the environment, being more individualistic and self-reliant. In brief, they have taken farming as a commercial activity.

Subbo WK. "Wife Beating among the Abagusero." African Academy of sciences: Discovery and Innovations. 2006;18(4):295-303.
Subbo WK. "Concept of Gender and Development.". In: Gender Sensitization Workshop. Kisumu; 2002.concept_of_gender_and_development.pdf
Subbo, W and Moindi MN. "Recycling of wastes as a strategy for for Conservation in Lake Victoria Basin: The case of women groups in Kisumu, Kenya." African journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2008;5(2):319-322.recycling_of_waste.pdf
Su R-C, Plesniarski A, Ao Z, Kimani J, Sivro A, Jaoko W, Plummer FA, Yao X, Ball TB. "Reducing IRF-1 to Levels Observed in HESN Subjects Limits HIV Replication, But Not the Extent of Host Immune Activation." Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2015;4:e259. Abstract

Cells from women who are epidemiologically deemed resistant to HIV infection exhibit a 40-60% reduction in endogenous IRF-1 (interferon regulatory factor-1), an essential regulator of host antiviral immunity and the early HIV replication. This study examined the functional consequences of reducing endogenous IRF-1 on HIV-1 replication and immune response to HIV in natural HIV target cells. IRF-1 knockdown was achieved in ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and monocytes with siRNA. IRF-1 level was assessed using flow cytometry, prior to infection with HIV-Bal, HIV-IIIB, or HIV-VSV-G. Transactivation of HIV long terminal repeats was assessed by p24 secretion (ELISA) and Gag expression (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)). The expression of IRF-1-regulated antiviral genes was quantitated with RT-PCR. A modest 20-40% reduction in endogenous IRF-1 was achieved in >87% of ex vivo-derived peripheral CD4(+) T cells and monocytes, resulted in >90% reduction in the transactivation of the HIV-1 genes (Gag, p24) and, hence, HIV replication. Curiously, these HIV-resistant women demonstrated normal immune responses, nor an increased susceptibility to other infection. Similarly, modest IRF-1 knockdown had limited impact on the magnitude of HIV-1-elicited activation of IRF-1-regulated host immunologic genes but resulted in lessened duration of these responses. These data suggest that early expression of HIV-1 genes requires a higher IRF-1 level, compared to the host antiviral genes. Together, these provide one key mechanism underlying the natural resistance against HIV infection and further suggest that modest IRF-1 reduction could effectively limit productive HIV infection yet remain sufficient to activate a robust but transient immune response.

Stuart-Shor EM, Kariuki JK, Chateauneuf J, Kimani S, Karani AK. "PCNA Annual Symposium Abstracts.". 2012. Abstract

Global risk assessment has become an important part of comprehensive CV evaluation and guides treatment. Most global risk tools require laboratory measurement of lipids, a test not readily available in resource-constrained countries. The Gaziano Risk Score (GRS) is a non-lab based model which includes age, gender, diabetes, smoking, systolic BP and substitutes BMI for cholesterol. In comparative effectiveness analysis the GRS has similar predictive value compared to the Framingham score. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to add risk stratification using clinical estimations of the number of CV risk factors (CVRF) and the GRS to our community-based CV screenings.

Stuart-Shor EM, Kariuki JK, Chateauneuf J, Kimani S, Karani AK. "PCNA Annual Symposium Abstracts.". 2012. Abstract

Global risk assessment has become an important part of comprehensive CV evaluation and guides treatment. Most global risk tools require laboratory measurement of lipids, a test not readily available in resource-constrained countries. The Gaziano Risk Score (GRS) is a non-lab based model which includes age, gender, diabetes, smoking, systolic BP and substitutes BMI for cholesterol. In comparative effectiveness analysis the GRS has similar predictive value compared to the Framingham score. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to add risk stratification using clinical estimations of the number of CV risk factors (CVRF) and the GRS to our community-based CV screenings.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Chiappini J, Arbib F, Heyraud JD, Flechaire A, Gontier C. Subacute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumopathy with favorable outcome without corticotherapy. Rev Mal Respir. 1995;12(1):25-8.". In: Rev Mal Respir. 1995;12(1):25-8. uon press; 1995. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. The authors report a case of acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia, a recently described entity of unknown etiology. The patients develop a rapidly progressive respiratory failure which is reversible following steroid therapy. The key to the diagnosis is an eosinophilia in the broncho-alveolar lavage or in the lung biopsy. Our observation of a favourable outcome in this case without steroid therapy is evidence perhaps of a less aggressive form of the disease.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Aortic-pulmonary chemodectoma (non-chromaffin paraganglioma). Apropos of a case which followed an adrenal pheochromocytoma. Rev Mal Respir. 1990;7(3):283-6.". In: Rev Mal Respir. 1990;7(3):283-6. uon press; 1990. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. The authors present the 61st published case of an aorticopulmonary chemodectoma diagnosed in patient of 59 years who had been operated on 7 years previously for a right sided adrenal pheochromocytoma. The diagnosis was provided by the histological examination of the operative specimen, since computerised tomography had predicted that this large hypervascular tumour of the anterior mediastinum would be totally resectable.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Dastot H, Schmid M, Gontier C, Amiot M, Mathieu-Mahul D, Bensussan A, Boumsell L. Correlation between T cell receptor gamma delta isotypic forms and cytotoxic activity: analysis with human T cell clones and lines.Cell Immunol. 1990 Feb;125(2):315-25.". In: Cell Immunol. 1990 Feb;125(2):315-25. uon press; 1990. Abstract
INSERM U 93, Institut de Recherche sur les maladies du sang, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris, France. Three biochemically distinct isotypic forms of the human T cell receptor (TcR) gamma delta structure can be expressed at the cell membrane. This unique variation in structure of TcR, which is due to C gamma gene segments utilization, prompted us to look for isotype-association functional differences. In this regard, we have developed human T cell clones or lines from normal thymus or peripheral blood from several patients. In the present report, we have selected by phenotypic, biochemical, and TcR gene rearrangement analysis representative pairs of IL2-dependent clones or lines for each TcR gamma delta isotypic form. The results showed a lack of correlation between the TcR isotypes and the ability of the cells to proliferate in response to TcR stimulation mediated through the CD3 molecular complexes. By contrast, despite the fact that all of these representative cells exhibit an NK-like activity, as measured by their ability to kill K562, the strongest lytic activity was observed with the cells having the disulfide-bonded form of the receptor. Moreover only those latter cells were able to efficiently kill the LAK-sensitive Daudi cell line.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "An analysis of blood and body fluid exposures sustained by house officers, medical students, and nursing personnel on acute-care general medical wards: a prospective study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1991 Oct;12(10):583-90.". In: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1991 Oct;12(10):583-90. uon press; 1991. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the epidemiology of blood and body fluid exposures sustained by medicine housestaff, medical school students, registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), and nurses' aides (NAs) on general medicine wards and to define problem areas that may be amenable to change.
DESIGN: Daily data collection during 9 months using a self-reporting questionnaire.
SETTING: General medical wards in 2 tertiary referral hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Medicine housestaff/students and nursing personnel. RESULTS: Physicians reported 644 exposures, of which 98 (15.2%), 296 (46.0%), and 250 (38.8%) were sustained by medicine residents, interns, and students, respectively. Blood contact occurred with 591 (91.8%) exposures. For physicians, 575 (89.3%) exposures occurred during venipuncture, intravenous catheter manipulation, and arterial punctures. Interns and students most commonly incurred exposures during venipunctures and intravenous manipulations; residents commonly were exposed during emergent intravenous catheter placements. Five-hundred-twenty-two (81%) exposures occurred between 7 A.M. and 7 P.M. During 524 (81.4%) exposures, physicians were not using barrier devices. Nurses reported 235 exposures, of which 140 (59.6%), 23 (9.8%), and 72 (30.6%) were sustained by RNs, LPNs, and NAs, respectively. RN exposures commonly occurred during intravenous manipulations and glucometer fingersticks. LPNs and NAs incurred a higher percentage of exposures during nonprocedural patient care. Blood contact and wound drainage accounted for 167 (71.1%) and 31 (13.2%) exposures, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to blood and body fluids frequently are incurred by healthcare workers on general medical wards. Efforts to reduce these exposures should be directed not only at improving procedural skills of healthcare workers for venipunctures, intravenous catheter insertions, and glucometer fingersticks, but also in increasing barrier use during procedural and nonprocedural tasks.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER, STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Morgeaux S, Tordo N, Gontier C, Perrin P. Beta-propiolactone treatment impairs the biological activity of residual DNA from BHK-21 cells infected with rabies virus. Vaccine. 1993;11(1):82-90.". In: Vaccine. 1993;11(1):82-90. uon press; 1993. Abstract
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. The effects of beta-propiolactone (BPL), an alkylating and virus inactivating agent, on the structural and in vitro biological properties of different DNA preparations from BHK-21 cells were investigated. Both uninfected and rabies virus-infected cells were used. Purified cellular DNA (celDNA) was used as the reference, and supernatants from infected cells were treated with BPL. For structural and biological studies three types of DNA preparation were tested: celDNA; purified DNA from cell (infected or uninfected) supernatant (pcsDNA) with or without BPL treatment; and residual cell DNA present in purified rabies virus (inactivated or not) preparations. Rabies infection and BPL (diluted 1:4000) treatment induced modifications in the structure of the three DNA types, including strand breaks and nicks. The damage to the DNA structure by BPL modifies the biological properties of the pcsDNA appraised by its ability to serve as the template in vitro for different polymerases. When rabies virus was inactivated with BPL diluted 1:1000 the DNA damage increased dramatically: small double-stranded DNA fragments (50-200 base pairs) were generated which could not function as templates for polymerases.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Zenone T, Marti-Flich J, Heyraud JD, Gontier C, Beaulaton A. Pulmonary legionellosis disclosing HIV infection in a 75-year-old man.Rev Med Interne. 1995;16(5):370-1.". In: Rev Med Interne. 1995;16(5):370-1. uon press; 1995. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. The authors report a case of acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia, a recently described entity of unknown etiology. The patients develop a rapidly progressive respiratory failure which is reversible following steroid therapy. The key to the diagnosis is an eosinophilia in the broncho-alveolar lavage or in the lung biopsy. Our observation of a favourable outcome in this case without steroid therapy is evidence perhaps of a less aggressive form of the disease.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Morales R, Bessonnat JF, Pucheu HJ, Boscagli G, Gontier C. Traumatic pneumatoceles of the lung. apropos of a case. Poumon Coeur. 1983;39(3):159-62.". In: Poumon Coeur. 1983;39(3):159-62. uon press; 1983. Abstract
Pneumatocele, a special form of lung injury, is characterized by intrathoracic images of cavities detected on X-ray films. These cavities develop immediately after a trauma of the thorax, disappear rapidly and have a relatively favourable outcome.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Bories JC, Loiseau P, d'Auriol L, Gontier C, Bensussan A, Degos L, Sigaux F. Regulation of transcription of the human T cell antigen receptor delta chain gene. A T lineage-specific enhancer element is located in the J delta 3-C delta intron.J Exp Med. 199.". In: J Exp Med. 1990 Jan 1;171(1):75-83. uon press; 1990. Abstract

Laboratoire d'Hematologie Moleculaire, Hopital St. Louis, Paris, France. We have defined transcriptional enhancing sequences inside the TCR-delta gene locus, using transient transfections with constructs containing DNA fragments cloned upstream to a reporter gene fused to a heterologous promoter. A 14-kb DNA region extending from the J delta 3 segment to 6 kb 3' to C delta was analyzed. We show the presence of positive regulatory sequences inside the J delta 3-C delta intron and have localized these sequences to two DNA fragments of approximately 300 and 258 bp. Analysis of cell specificity of the activation of such sequences demonstrates a T cell pattern for one of the two fragments. The nucleotide sequence of the T cell-specific element shows motifs sharing homology with previously described core enhancers.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Perrin P, Joffret ML, Zanetti C, Bourhy H, Gontier C, Fritzell C, Leclerc C, Sureau P. Rabies-specific production of interleukin-2 by peripheral blood lymphocytes from human rabies vaccinees.Vaccine. 1991 Aug;9(8):549-58.". In: Vaccine. 1991 Aug;9(8):549-58. uon press; 1991. Abstract
Unite de la Rage, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Cell-mediated immunity induced by rabies vaccination was studied in humans by the determination of specific interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in a large number of donors (postexposure immunized patients and pre-exposure immunized laboratory workers). Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 35 donors were tested for IL-2 production after in vitro stimulation by different rabies and rabies-related viruses. IL-2 responses were compared to antibody recognition of these different virus serotypes by sera from the same individuals. IL-2 was produced by PBL from more than 85% of donors after stimulation with inactivated and purified rabies viruses (IPRV) prepared from either Pittman Moore (PM) or Pasteur Virus (PV) strains. IL-2 was also produced by 65 and 45% of donor PBL stimulated with IPRV from the European Bat Lyssavirus (EBL) and Mokola (Mok) rabies-related virus strains respectively. No correlation was found between the production of IL-2 by PBL and the levels of virus neutralizing antibody (VNAb). Moreover, 50, 25 and 35% of donors produced IL-2 after stimulation of their PBL with ribonucleoprotein (RNP) from PV-, EBL- and Mok-viruses, respectively. These results obtained with a large number of human rabies vaccinees and using an assay specific to T-cell activation confirm the significant cross-reactivity of T-cell responses directed against rabies and rabies-related viruses. This study shows that IL-2 production could be used for the study of cell-mediated immunity and T-cell memory induced in humans by rabies vaccination.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Lin HX, Gontier C, Saron MF, Perrin P. A new immunostimulatory complex (PICKCa) in experimental rabies: antiviral and adjuvant effects.Arch Virol. 1993;131(3-4):307-19.". In: Arch Virol. 1993;131(3-4):307-19. uon press; 1993. Abstract
Rabies Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. The activity of an immunostimulatory complex (PICKCa) which is widely used against several human diseases in China was tested in experimental rabies prophylaxis. PICKCa protected mice against peripheral infection with both fixed and wild rabies strains. It also enhanced the protective activity of an experimental rabies vaccine injected either before or after rabies infection. PICKCa enhanced both non-specific immune responses and specific immunity including antibody production and cell mediated immunity as assessed by interleukin-2 production.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Devouassoux G, Heyraud JD, Gontier C. Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory infections in hospitalized patients. Rev Mal Respir. 1994;11(5):473-7.". In: Rev Mal Respir. 1994;11(5):473-7. uon press; 1994. Abstract

Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgennettes, Lyon. We report a study of 8 patients with acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection of the respiratory tract admitted to the Army Hospital Desgenettes over a 10 months period. Our clinical observations are compared with a review of the literature. We observed a seasonal outbreak in spring and autumn. This infection was encountered mainly in young people. The two most common clinical findings were cough and fever. Our report describes mild forms of this disease. Definitive etiological diagnosis is based on a four-fold or higher rise in titers. The macrolides or tetracyclines remain the most effective antibiotics.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER, STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Roy P, Aubert-Jacquin C, Avart C, Gontier C. Benefits of a thickened infant formula with lactase activity in the management of benign digestive disorders in newborns.Arch Pediatr. 2004 Dec;11(12):1546-54.". In: Arch Pediatr. 2004 Dec;11(12):1546-54. uon press; 2004. Abstract
Bledina, Villefranche sur Saone, France. This study aimed at evaluating the interest of a thickened infant formula with lactase activity by comparison with a standard infant formula in the management of benign digestive disorders in infants. Infants of both sex (N =109), ranging in age from 0 to 3 months, were included in a randomised double blind trial. Infants went to the paediatrician because of benign digestive disorders such as regurgitation, eructation or hiccup, colic, persistent crying and/or meteorism. Nine hundred and three infants were included and randomised in two parallel groups: they consumed daily either the thickened infant formula with lactase activity or a standard infant formula. There were no significant difference in the infants included in both groups. Both formula were well accepted and tolerated. Growth of the infants and compliance during the study were identical and good in the two groups. The efficiency of the formula tested was showed on digestive symptoms through: a decrease of the intensity of the digestive discomforts more important in the test than in the standard formula group; a decrease of the intensity of the gaz significantly more important in the test than in the standard formula group; significant decreases in frequency and intensity of the gaz in the test group while there were no significant diminution in the standard group; This study showed the good tolerance, acceptability and efficiency of a thickened infant formula with lactase activity on benign digestive disorders of young infants.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Zalcman G, Jancovici R, Paraf F, Vilain C, Gontier C. A rare tumor of the mediastinum: benign hemangioma.Rev Pneumol Clin. 1990;46(1):31-4.". In: Rev Pneumol Clin. 1990;46(1):31-4. uon press; 1990. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. Mediastinal hemangiomas are rare tumours occurring more often in children and young adults. A new case is reported in a 21 years old male who had an anterior mediastinal mass detected on a routine chest roentgenogram. Pre-operative investigations including CT, venous digital angiography, MRI did not aid in the right diagnosis. The mass was totally removed surgically although involving extensively adjacent structures. Histologic examination of the tumour showed it to be a benign venous hemangioma. Clinical, radiological, pathologic features of mediastinal hemangiomas are reviewed and discussed.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Arbib F, Thevenet F, Gamondes JP, Heyraud JD, Gontier C, Loire R. Primary tumor of the thoracic wall unusual in aged patients: costal osteosarcoma. Rev Pneumol Clin. 1991;47(5):220-4.". In: Rev Pneumol Clin. 1991;47(5):220-4. uon press; 1991. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. Osteosarcoma is a tumour that is encountered in children and young adults but is exceptional in elderly people. Moreover, it is very rarely located in the chest. A case of costal osteosarcoma revealed by a pleural blood effusion is reported in a 66-year old male patient. Full surgical excision completed by parietal reconstruction was performed. The diagnosis of osteosarcoma was definitely confirmed at pathological examination. A few months later, a local recurrence associated with ipsilateral lung metastasis, was discovered and the patient was put on chemotherapy. The clinical, radiological and therapeutic aspects of this case are discussed.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Perrin P, Gontier C, Lecocq E, Bourhy H. A modified rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses: RREID-lyssa.Biologicals. 1992 Mar;20(1):51-8.". In: Biologicals. 1992 Mar;20(1):51-8. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Rabies Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. This paper presents a modification of the previously described Rapid Rabies Enzyme Immuno-Diagnosis test (RREID) by using biotinylated antibodies, streptavidin conjugate and a mixture of monospecific polyclonal antibodies against several lyssaviruses. In the modified technique (RREID-lyssa), microplates were sensitized with a mixture of purified antibodies against ribonucleoprotein (RNP) from Pasteur virus (Lyssavirus serotype 1), European Bat Lyssavirus (EBL, unclassified) and Mokola virus (Lyssavirus serotype 3). Bound RNP was detected by the same antibodies labelled with biotin and peroxidase-strepavidin conjugate. These techniques were used for the detection of RNP of different Lyssavirus serotypes (rabies and rabies-related viruses). For lyssavirus specimens of serotype 1, the threshold of detection of RREID and RREID-lyssa were similar. However, a smaller amount of labelled antibodies was needed when biotinylated antibodies were used. For specimens infected by rabies-related strains (serotypes 2, 3, 4 and EBL), the threshold of detection of the RREID-lyssa was between two and 512 times lower than with the RREID. The sensitivity and the specificity of the RREID-lyssa for rabies virus (serotype 1) when tested on a small field trial (53 specimens) were found to be identical to the RREID. Consequently, RREID-lyssa can be a useful tool for diagnostic laboratories that receive specimens infected by rabies-related viruses.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER, STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Zenone T, Heyraud JD, Gontier C. Bronchiectasis following colectomy for hemorrhagic rectocolitis. Rev Med Interne. 1993 May;14(5):326-7.". In: Rev Med Interne. 1993 May;14(5):326-7. uon press; 1993. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. Pulmonary disease is an uncommon extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. We report the case of a patient in whom colectomy for ulcerative colitis was followed by development of bronchiectasis. A discussion of the relation between ulcerative colitis and bronchial disease is presented.

Strotmann, A. N'ang'a CW & O. "Multilingual Access to Mathematical Exercise Problems.". In: Proceedings of the Internet-accessible Mathematical Computation Workshop (ISSAC 05).; 2005. Abstract

TheWeb Advanced Learning Technologies (WebALT) project, financed through the European Union’s eContent programme, is working to provide pan-European (and eventually world-wide) multilingual and multicultural internet access to a repository of algorithmically generated exercises for students and teachers of mathematics at the secondary and tertiary education levels, building as much as possible on existing frameworks, standards, and software. The two-year WebALT project has reached its quarter mark now, and we can now report early results. We are working on a framework in which a large percentage of undergraduate and highschool mathematics exercises can be created in the language independent form of content markup in a way that captures both the meaning of the simple sentences and the formulas embedded in them that together make up a math problem. Such content, expressed in OpenMath because it is more easily extended with the extra concepts required here, is then localized using language-specific content-topresentation markup stylesheets for the embedded formulae, and natural language generation techniques for rendering the embedding sentences that tell the students what to do with those formulae in the language of their choice.

Stringer JSA, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Bolu O, Anekthananon T, Jariyasethpong T, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Borkowf CB, Mbori-Ngacha D, Muiruri P, Ong'ech JO, Zulu I, Njobvu L, Jetsawang B, Pathak S, Bulterys M, Shaffer N, Weidle PJ. "Effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in women previously exposed to a single intrapartum dose of nevirapine: a multi-country, prospective cohort study." PLoS Med.. 2010;7(2):e1000233. Abstract

Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine (NVP) reduces the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also induces viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. This drug resistance largely fades over time. We hypothesized that women with a prior single-dose NVP exposure would have no more than a 10% higher cumulative prevalence of failure of their NNRTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the first 48 wk of therapy than would women without a prior exposure.

Strettoi E, Dacheux RF, Raviola E. "Cone bipolar cells as interneurons in the rod pathway of the rabbit retina." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1994;347:139-149. Abstract

In the mammalian retina, rod signals are transmitted by rod bipolars to the narrow-field, bistratified (AII) amacrine cell. This neuron, in turn, makes gap junctions with the axonal arborization of cone bipolar cells that reside in the vitreal half (sublamina b) of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). After examining rod bipolars and AII amacrines in the rabbit retina, we have now reconstructed from electron micrographs of continuous series of thin sections the synaptic connections of the axonal arborizations of cone bipolar cells that make the highest number of gap junctions with AII amacrines. These axonal arborizations were narrowly confined to stratum 4 (S4) of the IPL and made ribbon synapses to dyads of postsynaptic dendrites that belonged to either ganglion or amacrine cells. In the population of postsynaptic processes, 30% were ganglion cell dendrites. These dendrites were probably originating, at least in part, from on-center ganglion cells because their course was confined to sublamina b of the IPL. Of the remaining postsynaptic processes, 51.7% belonged to amacrine cells and 18.3% were not identified. Among the postsynaptic amacrine cell processes, 33.3% returned a reciprocal synapse onto the cone bipolar endings. These reciprocal synapses represented 21.3% of the total input onto the axonal arborizations, the remaining fraction (78.7%) arising from a heterogeneous population of amacrine dendrites that were purely presynaptic to the cone bipolars endings. Pre- and postsynaptic amacrines were part of several distinct microcircuits which suggest complex local processing of both rod and cone signals. Thus, the cone bipolars that make gap junctions with AII amacrines in sublamina b of the rabbit IPL exhibit a substantial output onto ganglion cells. This fact, in conjunction with our previous observations that in this sublamina ganglion cells receive negligible input from rod bipolars and AII amacrines, demonstrates that in the rabbit cone bipolars represent a necessary link in the pathway followed by rod signals to enter on-center ganglion cells. Thus, rod and cone signals ultimately share the same integrating mechanisms and converge onto the same set of ganglion cells.

Strettoi E, Dacheux RF, Raviola E. "Cone bipolar cells as interneurons in the rod, pathway of the rabbit retina." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1994;347:139-149. AbstractWebsite

In the mammalian retina, rod signals are transmitted by rod bipolars to the narrow-field, bistratified (AII) amacrine cell. This neuron, in turn, makes gap junctions with the axonal arborization of cone bipolar cells that reside in the vitreal half (sublamina b) of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). After examining rod bipolars and AII amacrines in the rabbit retina, we have now reconstructed from electron micrographs of continuous series of thin sections the synaptic connections of the axonal arborizations of cone bipolar cells that make the highest number of gap junctions with AII amacrines.These axonal arborizations were narrowly confined to stratum 4 (S4) of the IPL and made ribbon synapses to dyads of postsynaptic-dendrites that belonged to either ganglion or amacrine cells. In the population of postsynaptic processes, 30% were ganglion cell dendrites. These dendrites were probably originating, at least in part, from on-center ganglion cells because their course was confined to sublamina b of the IPL. Of the remaining postsynaptic processes, 51.7% belonged to amacrine cells and 18.3% were not identified. Among the postsynaptic amacrine cell processes, 33.3% returned a reciprocal synapse onto the cone bipolar endings. These reciprocal synapses represented 21.3% of the total input onto the axonal arborizations, the remaining fraction (78.7%) arising from a heterogeneous population of amacrine dendrites that were purely presynaptic to the cone bipolars endings. Pre- and postsynaptic amacrines were part of several distinct microcircuits which suggest complex local processing of both rod and cone signals.Thus, the cone bipolars that make gap junctions with AII amacrines in sublamina b of the rabbit IPL exhibit a substantial output onto ganglion cells. This fact, in conjunction with our previous observations that in this sublamina ganglion cells receive negligible input from rod bipolars and AII amacrines, demonstrates that in the rabbit cone bipolars represent a necessary link in the pathway followed by rod signals to enter on-center ganglion cells. Thus, rod and cone signals ultimately share the same integrating mechanisms and converge onto the same set of ganglion cells. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Strauss O. "The retinal pigment epithelium in visual function." Physiological reviews. 2005;85:845-881. Abstract

Located between vessels of the choriocapillaris and light-sensitive outer segments of the photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) closely interacts with photoreceptors in the maintenance of visual function. Increasing knowledge of the multiple functions performed by the RPE improved the understanding of many diseases leading to blindness. This review summarizes the current knowledge of RPE functions and describes how failure of these functions causes loss of visual function. Mutations in genes that are expressed in the RPE can lead to photoreceptor degeneration. On the other hand, mutations in genes expressed in photoreceptors can lead to degenerations of the RPE. Thus both tissues can be regarded as a functional unit where both interacting partners depend on each other.

Strauss O. "The {Retinal} {Pigment} {Epithelium} in {Visual} {Function}." Physiological Reviews. 2005;85:845-881. AbstractWebsite

Located between vessels of the choriocapillaris and light-sensitive outer segments of the photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) closely interacts with photoreceptors in the maintenance of visual function. Increasing knowledge of the multiple functions performed by the RPE improved the understanding of many diseases leading to blindness. This review summarizes the current knowledge of RPE functions and describes how failure of these functions causes loss of visual function. Mutations in genes that are expressed in the RPE can lead to photoreceptor degeneration. On the other hand, mutations in genes expressed in photoreceptors can lead to degenerations of the RPE. Thus both tissues can be regarded as a functional unit where both interacting partners depend on each other.

Stover J, Achia T, Mohamed BF, Oyugi FJO, Mutua GN, Anzala O. "What impact would an HIV/AIDS vaccine have on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Kenya?". 2012. Abstract

To estimate the potential impact of an HIV/AIDS Vaccine in Kenya. Design: The Kenyan HIV/AIDS epidemic was modeled using the most current data from national sources including epidemiology and behavioral surveillance. The model’s baseline projection was validated against adult HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics and ge- neral population surveys. The model was used to analyze the effects of scaling up current pre- vention programs and adding potential HIV vac- cines with varying levels of effectiveness and coverage. Results: Even with full scale-up of currently available prevention, care and treat- ment programs, new infections will continue to burden Kenya. The introduction of a partially ef- fective AIDS vaccine could significantly alter the trajectory of the epidemic. Conclusion: The game changing impact that an AIDS vaccine could have on the AIDS epidemic in Kenya under- scores the importance of sustaining political support and financial investment to accelerate HIV/AIDS vaccine research and development.

Stover J, Achia T, Mohamed BF, Oyugi FJO, Mutua GN, Anzala O. "What impact would an HIV/AIDS vaccine have on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Kenya?". 2012. Abstract

To estimate the potential impact of an HIV/AIDS Vaccine in Kenya. Design: The Kenyan HIV/AIDS epidemic was modeled using the most current data from national sources including epidemiology and behavioral surveillance. The model’s baseline projection was validated against adult HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics and ge- neral population surveys. The model was used to analyze the effects of scaling up current pre- vention programs and adding potential HIV vac- cines with varying levels of effectiveness and coverage. Results: Even with full scale-up of currently available prevention, care and treat- ment programs, new infections will continue to burden Kenya. The introduction of a partially ef- fective AIDS vaccine could significantly alter the trajectory of the epidemic. Conclusion: The game changing impact that an AIDS vaccine could have on the AIDS epidemic in Kenya under- scores the importance of sustaining political support and financial investment to accelerate HIV/AIDS vaccine research and development.

Stoute JA, Aluoch JR, Gondi SMO, Odera MM, Estambale BBA, Otieno W. "Sickle Cell Trait (HbAS) is Associated with Increased Expression of Erythrocyte Complement Regulatory Proteins CR1 and CD55 Levels in Children.". 2013. Abstractbenson_b._a._estambale.pdfAbstractAbstract

Erythrocyte complement regulatory proteins, complement receptor 1 (CR1) and decay accelerating factor (CD55) protect red blood cells (RBCs) from complement mediated damage by controlling complement activation cascade and potentially protect RBCs from complement mediated damage that may occur when immune complexes are formed following malaria infection. Given the important role of RBCs in regulation of complement activation, we considered the competence of sickle cell trait RBCs in these functions. Methods: Children (age 0-192 months; n=116) were enrolled in a nested case controlled study conducted in Kombewa Division, Kisumu west District between October and December 2004. Based on hemoglobin (Hb) type, children were stratified into those with HbAS (n=47) and HbAA (n=69). The 47 HbAS individuals were matched to the 69 HbAA individuals of similar age (± 2 months or ± 24 months for those below or more than 192 months, respectively) at a ratio of 1:1 or 1:2. Circulating CR1 levels and CD levels were quantified using a FACScan cytometer under normal and reduced oxygen saturation. Results: The mean CR1 copy numbers per RBC was comparable in the two groups. However, between the ages of 49-192 months, the mean CR1 copy numbers per erythrocyte was significantly higher in children who had HbAS compared to those with HbAA (P=0.0332). The mean CD55 levels were comparable between the two groups but after deoxygenation, the mean CD levels in RBCs of individuals with HbAS was significantly higher than in the HbAA (P=0.011). Conclusion: The mean CR1 and CD55 copy numbers per RBC were comparable between the two groups under normal and reduced oxygen saturation. Beyond the age of 49 months, the CR1 copy numbers was higher in the HbAS compared to HbAA and this was also true for CD55 levels under deoxygenated conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in the younger age groups, the protection afforded by HbAS against severe manifestations of malaria may be due to other factors other than complement regulatory proteins but beyond the age of 49 months, this protection may be partly due to the high CR1 copy numbers in the HbAS individuals.

Storz JF. "Hemoglobin function and physiological adaptation to hypoxia in high-altitude mammals." Journal of Mammalogy. 2007;88:24-31. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Understanding the biochemical mechanisms that enable high-altitude animals to survive and function under conditions of hypoxic stress can provide important insights into the nature of physiological adaptation. Evidence from a number of high-altitude vertebrates indicates that modifications of hemoglobin function typically play a key role in mediating an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia. Because much is known about structure–function relationships of mammalian hemoglobins and their physiological role in oxygen transport, the study of hemoglobin variation in high-altitude mammals holds much promise for understanding the nature of adaptation to hypoxia from the level of blood biochemistry to the level of whole-organism physiology. In this review I 1st discuss basic biochemical principles of hemoglobin function and the nature of physiological adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia in mammals. I then discuss a case study involving a complex hemoglobin polymorphism in North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that illustrates how integrative studies of protein function and fitness-related physiological performance can be used to obtain evolutionary insights into genetic mechanisms of adaptation.

Stoof-Leichsenring KR, Junginger A, Olaka LA, Tiedemann R, Trauth MH. "Natural environmental variability and anthropogenic overprint in the Lake Naivasha Basin Central Kenya Rift: A diatom record over the last two centuries.". 2012. AbstractNatural environmental variability and anthropogenic overprint in the Lake Naivasha Basin Central Kenya Rift: A diatom record ove

Lake Naivasha, Kenya, is one of a number of freshwater lakes in the East African Rift System. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, it has experienced greater anthropogenic influence as a result of increasingly intensive farming of coffee, tea, flowers, and other horticultural crops within its catchment. The water-level history of Lake Naivasha over the past 200years was derived from a combination of instrumental records and sediment data. In this study, we analysed diatoms in a lake sediment core to infer past lacustrine conductivity and total phosphorus concentrations. We also measured total nitrogen and carbon concentrations in the sediments. Core chronology was established by 210Pb dating and covered a ~186-year history of natural (climatic) and human-induced environmental changes. Three stratigraphic zones in the core were identified using diatom assemblages. There was a change from littoral/epiphytic diatoms such as Gomphonema gracile and Cymbella muelleri, which occurred during a prolonged dry period from ca. 1820 to 1896 AD, through a transition period, to the present planktonic Aulacoseira sp. that favors nutrient-rich waters. This marked change in the diatom assemblage was caused by climate change, and later a strong anthropogenic overprint on the lake system. Increases in sediment accumulation rates since 1928, from 0.01 to 0.08gcm−2year−1 correlate with an increase in diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations since the beginning of the twentieth century. The increase in phosphorus accumulation suggests increasing eutrophication of freshwater Lake Naivasha. This study identified two major periods in the lake’s history: (1) the period from 1820 to 1950 AD, during which the lake was affected mainly by natural climate variations, and (2) the period since 1950, during which the effects of anthropogenic activity overprinted those of natural climate variation.

Stoof KR, Junginger A, Olaka LA, Tiedemann R, Trauth MH. "Natural environmental variability and anthropogenic overprint in the Lake Naivasha Basin Central Kenya Rift: A diatom record over the last two centuries." Journal of Paleolimnology. 2011;45:353-367.
Stone DM, Wessel T, Joh TH, Baker H. "Decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase, but not aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, messenger {RNA} in rat olfactory bulb following neonatal, unilateral odor deprivation." Molecular Brain Research. 1990;8:291-300. AbstractWebsite

Unilateral naris cauterization in rats results in occlusion of the affected naris and blockade of odorant access to ipsilateral olfactory receptor cells in the olfactory. These receptor cells project exclusively to the olfactory bubl (OB) and appear to regulate expression of the dopaminergic phenotype in a population of OB juxtaglomerular neurons. Unilateral odor deprivation results in a loss of normal stimulatory input to the OB and a marked and specific decrease in ipsilateral OB tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression. The expression of co-localized aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is not similarly affected. We have used this procedure in neonatal rats to examine the effect of stimulation deprivation on OB TH and AADC mRNA levels. Both Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses revealed a pronounced decrease in ipsilateral as compared to contralateral OB TH mRNA levels 40 days after naris closure. In contrast, the levels of OB AADC mRNA were unaltered by naris closure. By in situ hybridization histochemistry, both TH and AADC mRNAs were localized to OB juxtaglomerular neurons. Odor deprivation was associated with an apparent region-specific reduction in TH mRNA within the ipsilateral OB glomerular layer. By densitometric analysis, the loss of TH-specific message was quantitatively consistent with the decrease in TH activity, suggesting that the observed plasticity of OB dopaminergic neurons following functional deafferentiation can be attributed to a selective, transneuronally-mediated down regulation of TH gene transcription.

Stomeo F;, Wamalwa M;, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A. "Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery."; 2013.
Stomeo F;, Wamalwa, M;,, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A;. "Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery."; 2013.
Stolberg HO, Norman G, Trop I. "Randomized {Controlled} {Trials}." American Journal of Roentgenology. 2004;183:1539-1544. AbstractWebsite
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Stokx J, Dochez C, Ochieng P, Bahl J, Were F. "Evaluation of a Training DVD on Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Kenyan EPI Healthcare Workers." Education for Health. 2016;29(1). Abstractevaluation_of_a_training_dvd_on_pneumococcal_conjugate_vaccine_for_kenyan_epi_healthcare_workers.pdf

Background: The Kenyan Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation was the first in Africa to introduce the new 10‑valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, PCV‑10, in 2011. For successful implementation and to avoid adverse events following immunisation, specific training on handling and storage of the PCV‑10 vaccine was required. Therefore, a training DVD was recorded in English and partly in Kiswahili to be used in combination with in‑classroom training. Since the Kenyan Immunisation Programme was the first to use a DVD for training healthcare workers, an evaluation was done to obtain feedback on content, format and use, and propose suggestions to improve quality and uptake of the DVD. Methods: Feedback was obtained from nurses and vaccinology course participants through the completion of a questionnaire. Nurses also participated in focus group discussions and trainers in key informant interviews. Results: Twelve trainers, 72 nurses and 26 international vaccinology course participants provided feedback, with so e notable differences between the three study groups. The survey results confirmed the acceptability of the content and format, and the feasibility of using the DVD in combination with in‑classroom teaching. To improve the quality and adoption of the DVD, key suggestions were: Inclusion of all EPI vaccines and other important health issues; broad geographic distribution of the DVD; and bilingual English/Kiswahili use of languages or subtitles. Discussion: The Kenyan DVD is appreciated by a heterogeneous and international audience rendering the DVD suitable for other Anglophone African countries. Differences between feedback from nurses and vaccinology course participants can be explained by the practical approach of the DVD and the higher education and service level of the latter. A drawback is the use of DVD players and televisions due to lack of electricity, but it is a matter of time before all rural health facilities in Africa will have access to electricity and modern technology.

Stites DP, Caldwell J, Carr MC, Fudenberg HH. "Ontogeny of immunity in humans." Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol.. 1975;4(4):519-27.
Stigter CJ, den Van B, Daane JRV, Adam HS, Mohammed AE, Ng'ang'a JK, Mungai DN. "The “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison.". 1998. AbstractThe “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison

What distinguishes the “Picnic” model for research training at African universities from more classical models is reviewed and it is shown how the “Picnic” model deals with remaining drawbacks from the now popular “Sandwich” model. Starting with managerial experiences, criteria guiding this evaluation are used as sub-headings: realistic planning; adequate resource provision; partnership instead of aid; long term impact; high quality supervision; quality and quantity of student input; open and interactive communication; willingness to adapt to local circumstances; ongoing critical reflection; gradual expatriate withdrawal. The training output of the “Picnic” model tests in the four TTMI-countries is assessed after the actual and prospective jobs of its former students. The on-farm quantification of protecting systems/structures led in many TTMI PhD-research cases to improved design criteria for such systems/structures, with direct increases of yield or its preservation. In comparison with the “Sandwich” model, the “Picnic” model particularly incorporates institutional strengthening in the aim that the southern countries will become able to provide adequate education at the postgraduate level, teaching their students how to apply knowledge in their own environment. Degrees obtained at southern universities, therefore, have distinct advantages but joint responsibilities of universities for such degrees are difficult to organize, given the presently existing modes of output-related financing of Dutch universities. In a situation of institutional deterioration, such as Africa is experiencing, the best hope probably lies in strengthening networks of individuals and a collective sense of academic commitment, pending the revival of universities themselves. Emergency research related to the protection of the African agricultural environment by African universities, training NARS staff, must in the long run contribute to restoring an agricultural basis for part of the economies of the many poor African countries. Knowledge developed locally remains the most powerful vehicle for change from within.

Stigter CJ;, Coulson CL;, Mungai DN;, Kainkwa RMR;, El-Tayeb A;, Ibrahim MAA;, Mpelasoka FS;, Abdulai BI. "Some examples of quantification in tropical agrometeorology for low-resource agriculture in Africa: instruments and on-farm research conditions .". 1989.Website
Steyn P, Cordero J, P G, Smit J, Nkole T, Kiarie J, Temmerman M. "Participatory interventions involving both community and health care providers for family planning and contraceptive services: a scoping." The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care . 2016;21(Supplement 1):97.
Stevens KA, Paruk F, Bachani AM, Wesson HHK, Wekesa JM, Mburu J, Mwangi JM, Saidi H, Hyder AA. "Establishing hospital-based trauma registry systems: lessons from Kenya." Injury. 2013;44 Suppl 4:S70-4. Abstract

In the developing world, data about the burden of injury, injury outcomes, and complications of care are limited. Hospital-based trauma registries are a data source that can help define this burden. Under the trauma care component of the Bloomberg Global Road Safety Partnership, trauma registries have been implemented at three sites in Kenya. We describe the challenges and lessons learned from this effort.

Steven Awino, Afullo A. "Analytic BER of OFDM Powerline Communication at different IAT of Impulsive Noise.". In: SAUPEC. StellenBosch, South Africa; 2017.
STEVE DRNANGENDO. "A preliminary report of the contemporary ceramic industry of Babukusu.". In: In the Petrological investigations of Prehistoric pottery in Kenya. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
While the role of logistics and supply chain management in developing competitive business capabilities is beginning to be recognized by many global organizations, there is critical need to ensure that training institutions do their part in imparting market-driven skills to prospective and existing practitioners. The role and importance of supply chain management has largely been attributed to the effects of globalization, intensifying competition and an increasing emphasis on customer orientation (Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Webster, 2002). Against this backdrop, effective supply chain management is considered key to building a sustainable competitive edge through improved inter and intra-firm relationships (Ellinger, 2000).
STEVE DRNANGENDO. "Material culture.". In: Micro- and Macro-level interactions Among Babukusu in Bungoma District. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
While the role of logistics and supply chain management in developing competitive business capabilities is beginning to be recognized by many global organizations, there is critical need to ensure that training institutions do their part in imparting market-driven skills to prospective and existing practitioners. The role and importance of supply chain management has largely been attributed to the effects of globalization, intensifying competition and an increasing emphasis on customer orientation (Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Webster, 2002). Against this backdrop, effective supply chain management is considered key to building a sustainable competitive edge through improved inter and intra-firm relationships (Ellinger, 2000).
STEVE DRNANGENDO. "The dead people of Njoro.". In: Reappraisal of Hromniks's Articles. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
While the role of logistics and supply chain management in developing competitive business capabilities is beginning to be recognized by many global organizations, there is critical need to ensure that training institutions do their part in imparting market-driven skills to prospective and existing practitioners. The role and importance of supply chain management has largely been attributed to the effects of globalization, intensifying competition and an increasing emphasis on customer orientation (Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Webster, 2002). Against this backdrop, effective supply chain management is considered key to building a sustainable competitive edge through improved inter and intra-firm relationships (Ellinger, 2000).
Stephen M Mureithi, Ann Verdoodt CKKGJNVWSDNEMEVRTO. "Impact of enclosure management on soil properties and microbial biomass in a restored semi-arid rangeland, Kenya." Journal of Arid Land. 2014. Abstract
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and Stephen Karekezi, John Kimani BBNOKM. Energy Technology Policy and the Domestication of Renewable Energy Technologies in Africa". Nairobi: AFREPREN/FWD; 2009. AbstractWebsite

It is now widely recognized that the availability of affordable and reliable energy services is key to unlocking the economic growth potential especially in the African sub-region. However, the energy sector remains one of the key challenging areas in Africa, largely lacking in necessary infrastructural investment. The sector is characterized by lack of access to modern energy services (especially in rural areas), poor infrastructure, lack of expertise, low purchasing power, limited investments, lack of local manufacturing capacity and over-dependence on the traditional biomass to meet basic energy needs.

In most parts of Africa, especially Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), energy has been supplied in insufficient quantity, at a cost, form and quality that has limited its consumption by the majority of Africa’s population, making the continent the lowest per capita consumer averaging about 0.66 toe. Only 25% of SSA’s population has access to electricity and electrification is as low as 5% in some countries while per capita electricity consumption is below 50kWh in parts of the region (World Bank 2007).

The entire generation capacity of the 47 countries of SSA (excluding South Africa) is mere 28 GW (equal to that of Argentina). Capacity utilization and availability is poor, typically in the range of 30% - 40% of the installed capacities. Consequently, supplies are erratic and intermittent, with attendant frequent power cuts, load shedding and at-times outright grid collapses. An increasingly common response to the crisis has been short-term leases for emergency power generation by a handful of global operators. Though this capacity can be put in place within a few weeks, it is expensive. The costs of small-scale diesel units, for example, are typically about US$0.35/kWh. In eastern and western Africa, about one-third of installed capacity is diesel-based generators (IMF, 2008).

Over the past four decades, the gap between energy supply and demand in Africa has actually widened. Unless drastic interventions are made, recent trends indicate that this gap continues to grow, and the majority in Africa will continue to lack access to basic energy services and consequently will have limited chances of realizing any meaningful social and economic development. One form of intervention would be to promote renewable energy development.

The World Bank estimates that about USD 11 billion would be required annually for Africa to achieve 100% electrification by 2030. The IEA estimates that the African power sector infrastructure requires a cumulative investment of USD 485 billion to 2030. Most African countries have largely failed to attract investment in the power sector despite sectoral reforms which attempt to attract private investment. For example, total external capital flows to the power sector in SSA amount to no more than 0.1% of the region’s GDP (IMF, 2008).

Africa continues to face these energy problems despite the fact that the region has significant conventional and renewable energy potential. Renewable energy technologies (RETs) have especially the potential to play a key role in addressing many of the challenges in the energy sector including improving energy security, saving on foreign exchange outflows, availing decentralised energy to remote areas and promoting rural economic >development. Despite these apparent benefits, existing policies and regulatory frameworks have provided little resources to stimulate market growth. Except for hydropower and wind energy, most RETs in Africa are still in transition and therefore demand continuing research, development and demonstration efforts.

There is growing consensus among policy makers that efforts to deploy renewables in Africa have fallen short of expectations; renewables have not attracted the requisite level of investment or policy commitment they deserve. Needless to say, marginal successes have been attained by some countries. Past studies in Africa have identified number of barriers to renewable energy deployment which can generally be summarized into the following:

Lack of a level playing field for renewable energy technologies (due to continued subsidies for conventional technologies; externalities are not internalised in energy/fuel prices and unduly disadvantaging RETs; and poor feed-in tariffs offered for renewable electricity generation discourages investment)

Insufficient incentives for governments and private companies to support renewable energy development

Lack of affordable financing and access to finance for renewable energy technologies (Financial institutions are hesitant to finance RET projects)

Technology standards are lacking for renewable energy technologies

Energy markets are not prepared for renewable energy (difficulties in integration of intermittent energy sources; grid connection and access is not fairly provided)

Renewable energy skills and awareness is insufficient (lack of knowledge and acceptance of RETs; lack of training and education).

In order to overcome the above barriers a number of innovative renewable energy technology programmes have been established. For example, the Cogen for Africa project – an innovative and first-of-its-kind regional initiative was recently launched by the African Development Bank (AfDB) and UNEP/GEF and executed by AFREPREN/FWD. This initiative seeks to significantly scale up the use of efficient cogeneration technology options in seven eastern and southern African countries, namely: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Swaziland and Sudan.

The Cogen for Africa project will build on the success of cogeneration in Mauritius and plans to replicate this technological success in other countries of the region as well as in other key agro-processing sectors found in eastern and southern Africa. The initiative will also take on board relevant elements of the European Commission- supported regional cogeneration programme in south-east Asia, which has been successful in promoting numerous efficient cogeneration installations.

Another notable cogeneration initiative is the Eskom South Africa Cogeneration programme, which was launched in 2007 with a Call for Expression of Interest (EOI) in developing cogeneration. The original target was 900 MW. The call included a standard PPA, and a feed-in tariff to be based on avoided cost of thermal power units. The call received an overwhelming response, with 5000MW worth of EOIs received by end of September 2007 – which is approx. 10% of South Africa’s current installed capacity. A significant portion of the EOIs were from sugar and agro-industries. The South African Government and Eskom were so impressed by the response that a second phase of the cogeneration bids is planned with the aim of mobilizing investment totalling 5000MW [Karekezi, et al, 2007].

The important role to be played by the aforementioned cogeneration initiatives is underscored by the fact that, with regard to renewable energy investment, Africa is doing poorly when compared to other developing countries. However, there is promising large-scale solar development in North Africa and signs of change in South Africa, where targets for renewable energy have been set and the country’s first wind farm commissioned. Development of renewable energy continues to focus on North and South Africa, with the vast mass of SSA largely unexploited. Overall, investment volumes remain very low.

For most of Sub-Saharan Africa, small hydro holds a most near term potential in Africa with several mini-hydro projects in planning stages. There are also many opportunities for medium to largescale biomass-based cogeneration within the agro-industries. With regard to geothermal, Kenya is likely to see some investment in the expansion of its geothermal resources, e.g. the 60 MW Olkaria phase IV project already has secured funding from the Kenyan Government and KfW, but is still at the planning stage (UNEP, 2007).

Based on development plans tabled to date, significant investment in renewables is likely to occur in South Africa from a variety of technologies including cogeneration, wind, tidal, and solar energy. As Africa’s largest economy, South Africa has significant technological and financial capacity to implement large scale RETs development. Furthermore, by having a proactive utility - Eskom - South Africa is poised to become the region’s renewable energy investment hub in the short to medium term.

RETs development in North Africa is mainly centred on Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt, particularly in solar and wind energy. By the end of 2007, Egypt had a cumulative wind installed capacity of 310 MW, while Morocco had 124 MW (El-Khayati, 2008). North Africa is also attracting interest from large-scale solar developers, especially in Tunisia. In Algeria, there are also plans to build a 25 MW parabolic trough solar energy plant as well as a 130 MW combined cycle gas power plant (UNEP 2008).

It is particularly important to deploy technologies that are technologically and economically mature and ensure that local expertise is available to handle the technology. In addition, it makes economic sense to piggyback RETs development on existing industries, institutions and technology developers. A number of demonstration programmes featuring RETs which are not yet mature have failed as outstanding design features hinder the technology’s full deployment. Examples include gasification trials in various African countries. Other technologies are still economically unattractive and still need to several years of learning experience before they are disseminated in large numbers. It is also critical that technology selection takes into account the capabilities of a country in terms of expertise to implement, operate and maintain. Africa has relied for too long on external technical expertise and this is demonstrated by the numerous disused small hydro plants in the region, many of them set up in the pre-independence era.

Investments in RETs need to take into account some key practical aspects which can contribute the effective deployment of the/domestication of renewable energy technologies. Especially important is the need to deploy technologies that are technologically and economically mature, cost competitive, can be operated and maintained by local expertise, and has potential for piggybacking on existing industries, institutions and technology developers.

Specific skills and institutional capacity are required for implementing, operating, modifying, adapting and continuously improving RETs in order to establish national systems of energy technological innovation. Both productive and innovative skills are required to scale-up RETs application in Africa. Many of these skills can be acquired in a technology incubator, which is also useful for commercialization of technologies. Policies that are required to domestic RETs include fostering technology transfer and also build human resource base with specialised skills and expertise. They also include policies that promote and strengthen domestic knowledge base, stimulate learning and innovation and the support structures to sustain these processes.

From projects implemented in various countries in Africa and elsewhere, several factors have been found to be central to the adaptation of RETs. They include educational drive to create awareness and impact, promotion of the utilisation of local raw materials, training of personnel on requisite techniques for equipment operation and maintenance and the emergence of private sector participation. A high political commitment and engaged local NGOs that support such initiatives are also key success factors in the adaptation of the technologies to local conditions.

This report concludes that appropriate energy technological has been recognised as the key driving force in economic development. The acquisition and progressive mastering of technologies has also been a central aspect of Newly Industrialised Countries, mainly in the East, that have grown so rapidly over the last half-century. However, Africa is presently faced with inadequate capacity to independently generate technological knowledge; undertake R&D, and modernize technology used in the industries. Nevertheless, technologies such as renewable energy can be promoted by having specific and targeted technology policies/strategies.These policies can be subdivided into two: Policies for the establishment of an enabling environment; and, Strategies for domestication of RETs.

In order to promote renewables for electricity supply, it is imperative that enabling policies are in place first.The aim of such policies would be to enhance investor confidence as well as ensure that renewable energy projects are sustainable in the long-term.These policies would serve as the foundation on which an energy technology policy would be based on, and they include:

1.Setting of national renewable energy targets

2.Feed-in tariffs for renewables

3.Standard PPAs for renewable energy technologies

Having established an enabling environment for promoting renewables, an energy policy could serve to provide guidelines to investors on various aspects of mature and priority technologies. More importantly, such an energy policy would guide the region towards domestication of renewable energy technologies. The key strategies for the successful domestication of renewables include:

Piggyback on existing industries
Promote mature technology
Capacity building in relevant technical skills
Identify and promote “local champions”

and Stephen Karekezi, Bereket Kebede JKNO. "Bridging Research and Policy: Influencing Policy in the African Energy Sector." GDN Research Monitor. 2006;1(1):12-14. AbstractWebsite

In this study, AFREPREN/FWD examined the research- policy link in the energy sectors of five Eastern and Southern Africa countries - Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The study focused on the preparation of the national energy policy documents in the five countries with the central objective of assessing the impact of research on energy policy and proposing options for enhancing its impact.
The study identified researches that had significantly influenced policy, specifically, the national energy policy
documents. Thereafter, the characteristics of influential research were examined to establish the critical features that made them potent in influencing policy.

Stephen Kainga, Margaret Chege MWSK. "Peripheral Neuropathy among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus attending Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference. Nairobi; 2012.
Stephen Juma Ndombi, Xu Jia-yu QT. "Epidemiology and control of lymphatic filariasis in Kwale district, Kenya: A review." Chinese Journal of Parasitology. 1994;14:133-138.
Stephen Gichuhi, Rose Bosire DM-N, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart. "Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009 ; 16(6): 337–345. doi:10.3109/09286580903144746. 2009. Abstractrisk_factors_for_neonatal_conjunctivitis_in_babies_of_hiv-1.pdf

Abstract
Purpose—To determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born
to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers.
Methods—This was a nested case-control study within a perinatal HIV-1 cohort. HIV-1
seropositive mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and mother-infant pairs followed after
delivery with assessment for neonatal conjunctivitis at 48 hours and up to 4 weeks after birth.
Genital infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and candida)
were screened for at 32 weeks gestation. Mothers received treatment for genital infections
diagnosed during pregnancy and short-course zidovudine. Newborns did not receive ocular
prophylaxis at hospital deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine
cofactors for neonatal conjunctivitis overall and stratified for infant HIV-1 status.
Results—Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal
conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR)
and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis
(adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91,
95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95%
CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis.
Conclusions—Despite detection and treatment of genital infections during pregnancy, neonatal
conjunctivitis was frequently diagnosed in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers suggesting a
need for increased vigilance and prophylaxis for conjunctivitis in these infants. Neonatal sepsis,
birth before arrival to hospital, and higher birthweight are factors that may predict higher risk of
neonatal conjunctivitis in this population.

Stephen F Omondi, George O Ongamo, James I Kanya DKP. "Genetic consequences of anthropogenic disturbances and population fragmentation in Acacia senegal." Conservation genetics. 2016;17(6):1235-1244.
Stephen F Omondi, Odee DW, Ongamo GO, Kanya JI, Khasa DP. "Mating patterns of the gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal synonym Senegalia senegal) in two different habitats." New Forests. 2018;49(1):53-65.
Stephen F Omondi, Ongamo GO, Khasa DP. "Mating patterns of the gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal synonym Senegalia senegal) in two different habitats." New forests. 2018;49(1):53-65.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "S. Gichuhi, K. H. M. Kollmann, P.V. Choksey The prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma in black diabetics East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 10, No. 1, Nairobi (2000).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 10, No. 1, Nairobi (2000). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Interventions for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18; (2):CD005643. Review. PMID: 17443606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Gichuhi S, Irlam JJ." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. . 2007;18(2):CD005643. AbstractWebsite

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Epidemiology, 615 North Wolfe Street, W5010, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. sgichuhi@jhsph.edu BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is a rare, slow-growing tumour of the eye, normally affecting elderly men around 70 years of age. In Africa, however, the disease is different. The incidence is rising rapidly, affecting young persons (around 35 years off age), and usually affecting women. It is more aggressive, with a mean history of three months at presentation. This pattern is related to the co-existence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, high HPV exposure, and solar radiation in the region. Various interventions exist, but despite therapy, there is a high recurrence rate (up to 43%) and poor cosmetic results in late disease. This review was conducted to evaluate the interventions for treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of interventions for treating squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals on local control, recurrence, death, time to recurrence, and adverse events. SEARCH STRATEGY: Using a sensitive search strategy, we attempted to identify all relevant trials, regardless of language or publication status, from the following electronic databases; Medline/PubMed, CENTRAL, AIDSearch, EMBASE, LILACS, African Healthline, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialised Register, and the Cochrane Cancer Network Specialised Register. We searched the clinical trial register of the US National Institutes of Health, searched the international conference proceedings of AIDS and AIDS-related cancers, and contacted individual researchers, research organisations, and pharmaceutical companies that manufacture the drugs used as interventions. Searches were done between September 2005 and June 2006. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving HIV-infected individuals with ocular surface squamous neoplasia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies and to retrieve the full articles. We independently applied the inclusion criteria to the potentially relevant studies. No studies were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria. MAIN RESULTS: No RCTs of interventions currently used against conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals were identified. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Implications for practice:Current clinical practice in treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva rests on a weak evidence base of case series and case reports.Implications for research:Randomised controlled trials for treatment of this disease are needed in settings where it occurs most frequently. Preventive interventions also need to be identified. HIV/AIDS research has not focused on treatment of this tumour. PMID: 17443606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Nderi GJ, Gichuhi S, Kollman M, Matende I. Outcome of glaucoma surgery at Mombasa Lighthouse for Christ Eye Center .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to evaluate the outcome of glaucoma surgeries in a centre for eye care in Kenya.   DESIGN: Retrospective case series.   SETTING: The study was conducted at Mombasa Light House for Christ Eye Centre- Kenya.   SUBJECTS: All patients diagnosed to have glaucoma and managed by surgery between 2004-2007.   MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 2004 to 2007 were retrieved and data collected on the surgeries done using a structured questionnaire. 2008 was left for follow up to avail a one year minimum follow up time. Analysis was done using SPSS version 13.   RESULTS: 265 operations were recorded in this period. 213 were retrieved and the outcomes analysed. There was good IOP control over the follow up period with a gradual rise post operation, though the pressures remained within normal. Most of the patients were controlled with no need for medications, or much less medication use.   The average intra-ocular pressure at two year follow up was 15.0mmHg against a baseline of 28.7mmHg (p< 0.001). 29 eyes (13.6%) required medication for intra-ocular pressure control. One type of medication was able to control the pressures post operatively. Surgery reduced topical antiglaucoma medication use by 72%.     CONCLUSION: Intra-ocular pressure was well controlled surgically for the two year follow up.   RECOMENDATIONS: Surgical intervention can be taken as a first option for glaucoma control in our set up, especially as most of our patients present late.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Does prospective monitoring improve cataract surgery outcomes in Africa? ." Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 May;86(5):543-7.. 2002. AbstractWebsite

Department of Epidemiology and International Eye Health, Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK. dhyorston@enterprise.net AIMS: To determine if prospective monitoring influences cataract surgical outcomes in east Africa. METHODS: A prospective observational study of all routine extracapsular cataract extractions with posterior chamber lens implants carried out at Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya, between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. RESULTS: Out of 1845 eligible eyes 1800 were included in the study. Two months' follow up was available in 67.2% of patients. The proportion achieving a good outcome increased steadily from 77.1% in the first quarter to 89.4% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.001). There was no change in the incidence of operative complications; however, the proportion of patients achieving a good visual outcome following vitreous loss increased from 47.2% in the first 6 months to 71.0% in the last 6 months (chi(2) p<0.05). Of the eyes with poor outcome (best corrected acuity <6/60 at 2 months) half were due to pre-existing eye diseases. The proportion of patients with known ocular comorbidity decreased from 10.2% in the first quarter to 5.9% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.05). Poor outcome was associated with age over 80 years, known diabetes, preoperative bilateral blindness, any ocular comorbidity, and intraoperative vitreous loss. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates improvement in visual outcome results after cataract surgery over a 1 year period. Monitoring of outcomes appears to be associated with a change in surgeons' attitudes, leading to greater emphasis on appropriate case selection, better management of surgical complications, and improved visual outcomes. PMID: 11973251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1771115

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

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