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Silver MA, Stryker MP. "Synaptic density in geniculocortical afferents remains constant after monocular deprivation in the cat." The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1999;19:10829-10842. Abstract

Monocular eyelid closure in cats during a critical period in development produces both physiological plasticity, as indicated by a loss of responsiveness of primary visual cortical neurons to deprived eye stimulation, and morphological plasticity, as demonstrated by a decrease in the total length of individual geniculocortical arbors representing the deprived eye. Although the physiological plasticity appears maximal after 2 d of monocular deprivation (MD), the shrinkage of deprived-eye geniculocortical arbors is less than half-maximal at 4 d and is not maximal until 7 d of deprivation, at which time the deprived arbors are approximately half their previous size. To study this form of plasticity at the level of individual thalamocortical synapses rather than arbors, we developed a new double-label colocalization technique. First, geniculocortical afferent arbors serving either the deprived or nondeprived eye were labeled by injection of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin into lamina A of the lateral geniculate nucleus. Then, using antibodies to synaptic vesicle proteins, we identified presynaptic terminals within the labeled arbors in layer IV of the primary visual cortex. Analysis of serial optical sections obtained using confocal microscopy allowed measurement of the numerical density of presynaptic sites and the relative amounts of synaptic vesicle protein in geniculocortical afferents after both 2 and 7 d of MD. We found that the density of synapses in geniculocortical axons was similar for deprived and nondeprived afferents, suggesting that this feature of the afferents is conserved even during periods in which synapse number is reduced by half in deprived-eye arbors. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that a rapid loss of deprived-eye geniculocortical presynaptic sites is responsible for the prompt physiological effects of MD.

Silverstein E, Friedland J, Lyons HA, Gourin A. "Markedly elevated angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes containing non-necrotizing granulomas in sarcoidosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 1976;73(6):2137-41. Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by the generalized formation of granulomas and is accompanied by elevation in the serum in less than half the patients of angiotensin converting enzyme, a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of the decapeptide, angiotensin I, to the pressor octapeptide, angiotensin II, and L-histidyl-L-leucine. Mean activity of angiotensin converting enzyme was elevated generally more than 10-fold in granuloma-containing lymph nodes, but not in lung in which normally it is abundant, in 19 of 20 patients with sarcoidosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes from subjects with sarcoidosis was similar to the enzyme from normal lung and lymph node with respect to activity as a function of pH, inhibition of activity by EDTA and o-phenanthroline, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and requirement for chloride for activity, but appeared to be more heat labile. The data suggest that the granulomas in sarcoidosis may be the source of the elevated serum enzyme and that cells of the granulomas, particularly the epitheloid cells which appear by electron microscopy to have active protein biosynthesis, may be actively synthesizing the enzyme.

Silvestri DM, Blevins M, Afzal AR, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony CA, Mwachaka PM, Ranjit N, others. "Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014;92:750-759. AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others. "Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Annals of Global Health. 2015;81:52. AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others. "Non-cognitive attributes predict medical and nursing students’ intentions to migrate or work rurally: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Annals of Global Health. 2015;1:63. AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others. "Non-cognitive attributes predict medical and nursing students’ intentions to migrate or work rurally: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Annals of Global Health. 2015;1:63. AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri DM, Blevins M, Afzal AR, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony CA, Mwachaka PM, Ranjit N, others. "Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014;92:750-759. AbstractWebsite
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Silvestri D, Blevins M, Afzal A, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony C, Mwachaka P, Ranjit N, others. "Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: {An} eight-country cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Annals of Global Health. 2015;81:52. AbstractWebsite
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Silvestrov K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. "Asian Options, Jump-Diffusion Processes on a Lattice and Vandermonde Matrices.". In: Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics. London: Springer; 2014. Abstract

Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics. Springer, London, Chapter 20, pages 337 – 366, XIX, 387 pages.
Summary:
Risk is the uncertainty of an outcome and it can bring unexpected gains but can also cause unforeseen losses, even catastrophes. They are common and inherent in financial and commodity markets; for example; asset risk, interest rate risk, foreign exchange risk, credit risk, commodity risk. Investors have various attitudes towards risk, that is, risk aversion, risk seeking and risk neutral. Over the past few years financial derivatives have become increasingly important in the world of finance since they are kind of a risk management tool. A financial derivative is a financial instrument whose value depends on other fundamental financial assets, called underlying assets, such as stocks, indexes, currencies, commodities, bonds, mortgages and other derivatives (since we can have a derivative of a derivative). As an underlying asset one can also use a non-financial random phenomenon like for instance, weather conditions e.g. temperatures. Pricing derivatives accurately and quickly is important for risk management. This is important for both those who trade in derivatives and those who are willing to insure them. In this paper some lattice methods for pricing Asian options modeled using a jump diffusion process will be described. These methods can often be adapted to pricing of other derivatives or solving other types of problems in financial mathematics, for instance a jump diffusion process can be used to describe incoming claims to an insurance company, see [20].

Simanovskaia VK, Kadishaite DL, Lisok TP, Siminina AA, Goluveb DB. "[Characterization of biological properties and glycopeptide composition of influenza virus type A grown in different cell systems]." Virologie. 1978;29(4):275-81.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of Water resources Access, Use and Management, in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):1-21.
Simeon Lesrima, GH Nyamasyo KKK. "Assessment of the trends and presence of Water Related Conflicts in the Upper Ewaso Nyiro North River Basin: A Case for Laikipia County." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management. 2018;1(8):22-40.
Simila HO, Karpukhina N, Hill RG, Bushby A. "Bioglass Incorporation into Biodentine: Impact on Biological and Physical Properties.". In: Internationa Association of Dental Research. Capetown, South Africa; 2014.
Simila HO, Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module I): Basic Scientific Principles.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module I): Basic Scientific Principles. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Simila HO, Karpukhina N, Hill RG, Andy B. "Bioglass Incorporation into Biodentine: Impact on Biological and Physical Properties." Journal of Dental Research. 2014;93(Special Issure B):315.iadr_poster_-_colour_copy.ppt
Simionescu M, Sima AV. "Morphology of {Atherosclerotic} {Lesions}." In: Wick G, Grundtman C, eds. Inflammation and {Atherosclerosis}. Springer Vienna; 2012:. Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial and multipart progressive disease manifested by the focal development within the arterial wall of lesions – the atherosclerotic plaques – in response to various deleterious insults that affect the vessel wall’s cells. Among the risk factors, as identified by classical epidemiology, there are dyslipidemia, vasoconstrictor hormones incriminated in hypertension, products of glycoxidation associated with hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory cytokines and smoking, out of which the first is a prerequisite for the initiation and progression of about half of arterial lesions. In other instances, an inflammatory reaction induced by putative antigens that stimulate T lymphocytes, certain heat shock proteins, components of plasma lipoproteins, and potentially, microbial structures induce atherosclerotic plaque in the absence of systemic hypercholesterolemia [1, 2]. Thus, the process is more complex than previously thought. The conventional view that stressed the role of dyslipidemia in the generation of atherosclerosis was rounded by extensive evidence that inflammation is a key contributor to all stages of this disease, from the initial lesion to the ruptured plaque [2]. In all cases, the atheroma formation entails a progressive process in which the gradual implication of various cells and their secretory products define a sequence of events that leads from the fatty streak to fibro-lipid plaque, and ultimately to plaque rupture and atherothrombosis.

Simiyu J, Aduda B, Mwabora JM. Conduction Band Edge of TiO2-SnO2 Solid Mixtures Tuning for Photoelctrochemical Applications. San Francisco, California, USA: Materials Research Society; 2009. Abstract

We report investigation of effect of conduction band edge on the dye injection and transport by preparation of (Ti,Sn)O2 solid mixtures in ratios of 80:20 and 90:10 as possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells. SEM micrographs showed highly porous with nanometer sized particles of around 6 - 10μm diameter. X-ray diffraction patterns showed strong TiO2 anatase peaks with crystal orientation directions (101) being the strongest in both the solid mixtures and in pure TiO2. XPS studies have shown an apparent chemical shift for Ti 2p and O1s core level spectra with an energy difference between the unmodified and the solid mixture being 0.65eV. Initial I-V studies have shown high Voc but low short circuit photocurrent, showing a possible unfavorable band edge shift between the semiconductor and the dye LUMO level.

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "J.M. Kariuki: A biography. Nairobi.". In: East African Educational Publishers. Taylor & Francis; 2001. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "A.B.C. Ocholla-Ayayo and J. Akong'a - Eds. Family change and human development in Kenya Fertility, Mortality and Culture.". In: Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu V. "Social Differenciation in Kenya since 1963.". In: Mizizi. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press-; 2012.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "A social and cultural history of Kenya in the 19th and 20th centuries.". In: Longman, Nairobi (Ed.). Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu, J., B.O A, Mwabora JM, Lindqvist S-E, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "Titania Nanotubes Prepared by Synthesis Method for Dye Sensitized Electrochemical Solar Cells." African Physical Review Special Issue (Materials). 2008;83(2):161.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia. 2014;57:817-825. Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa, and more specifically the East African region, has the lowest rates of access to electricity in the world. On average, at most 15% of the rural population has access to electricity. Rural households and remote institutions use traditional energy sources such as charcoal, firewood, kerosene and diesel for generator sets, batteries and dry cell batteries. On the other hand, the region is one of the most promising in the world in economic development with growth levels being high and market saturation is a far away future problem. This growth has
however been hampered by several factors with lack of energy being one of them. Kenya being one of the countries
in the region faces a similar problem with the traditional sources of hydro facing weather related challenges. The
situation is more wanting in the rural setting having only achieved electrification rates of between 5 and 10%. The rural being where the majority of low-income earning groups reside is further compounded with large geographical imbalance in electricity demand and supply. The main challenge to adopting pv utilization however, is lack of local capacity to handle the uptake all the way from solar home systems to grid connected and hybrid systems. According to Kenya Renewable Energy Association (KEREA), it is estimated that between 800 and 1000 pv technicians have been in practice since this sector started in Kenya in the late eighties, majority of them having the basic skills but no formal training to provide the service. They however have been offering necessary service to end-users and are hence an important aspect in the pv sector as a whole. Currently the pv (mainly SHS) comprise an over the counter trade system which provides loopholes when it comes to quality of products and installation. To safeguard the quality and safety of installations, formal training has to be incorporated in the system.

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Changes into the productive roles of the family: The case of Babukusu of Bungoma District.". In: Paper read at a seminar on. Taylor & Francis; 1992. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Traditional medicine among the Abaluyia.". In: In Traditional medicine in Africa, pp. 117-128. I. Sindiga, C. Nyaigoti-Chacha and M.P. Kanunah (Eds.). Taylor & Francis; 1995. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Changing roles in the Bukusu family. In African families and the crisis of social change, pp. 332-340. T.S. Weisner, C. Bradley and P.L. Kilbride (Eds.).". In: Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. Taylor & Francis; 1997. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Iron Age Archaeology in East Africa: The state of the discipline. In African Archaeology. B.W. Andah and C.A. Folorunso (Eds.).". In: University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "2. Mary T. Simiyu, Francis W. NyongesaApplication of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste-Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania,; 2019.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Ancient and modern ceramic traditions in the Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya.". In: Azania, 25: 69-78. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia. 2014;7:817-825.
Simiyu J, Domtau DL, Ayieta EO, Asiimwe GM, Mwabora JM. "Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed TiO2 Thin Films." Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. 2016;2016. Abstract

Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films were studied. TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt %) of carbon black were deposited by screen method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated on glass substrate. Carbon black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength of 300-1500 nm while absorbance was studied in the range of 350-900 nm. Band gaps and refractive index of the films were studied using the spectra. Reflectance, absorbance and refractive index were found to increase with concentrations of carbon black. There was no significant variation in band gaps of films with change in carbon black concentrations. Transmittance reduced as the concentration of carbon black in TiO2 increased. Currents and voltages (I-V) characteristics of the films were measured by a 4 point-probe. Resistivity (

Simiyu, J., Aduda BO, Mwabora JM. "Conduction Band Edge of (Ti,Sn)O2 Solid Mixtures Tuning for Photoelectrochemical Applications.". In: International Conference on Electroceramics. Vol. 1171. Arusha, Tanzania; 2009:.
Simiyu J, Aduda B, Mwabora J. "Electron Transport and Recombination Studies on TiO2 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Employing Electrochemical Potential Techniques: the Effect of Film Thickness.". In: 5th International Conference on Electroceramics, 2011 (ICE 2011) . University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 2011. Abstract

Electron transport and recombination has been investigated in dye-sensitized electrochemical solar cells at varying TiO2 film thickness using experimental electrochemical potential technique. Photocurrent transients resulting from small-amplitude square wave modulation of the incident light were analyzed, and the effect of illumination intensity and film thickness studied. Photovoltage decay measurements were studied on solar cells when switched from short-circuit and under illumination to open circuit and dark at varying illumination intensity for different film thickness. The analysis was done for varying film thickness at constant illumination intensity and varying illumination intensity at constant film thickness. The varying film thicknesses in this study were 3.0 m, 6.0 m, 12.8 m, 23.5 m and 25.3 m while illumination intensities were 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 5.1, 9.0 and 15.6 mWcm-2. The voltage decay measured (known as open circuit voltage, Vsc) was seen to first rise to a maximum value then followed by decay. The maximum Vsc (Vsc, max) increased with film thickness at constant prior illumination. On the other hand, Vsc, max was found to depend on the prior illumination and exhibited logarithmic increase with light intensity. The time (tmax) to attain Vsc, max varies exponentially with light intensity and closely matches the electron transport time measured by photocurrent decay measurements.

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "With L.A. Muruli. The role of family structure on children's health in sub-Saharan Africa. Paper read at the ".". In: First International Conference on Social Science and Medicine, Africa Network (SOMA-NET), Nairobi, 10-13 August, 1992. Taylor & Francis; 1992. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu J, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Ogacho A, Boschloo G, Hagfeldt A, Lindquist S-E. Synthesis and Characterization of Titania Nanotubes for Dye Sensitized Electrochemical Solar Cells. Arusha, Tanzania.; 2007. Abstract

TiO2 nanofibres have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process in 10M NaOH. TEM images have shown that nanofibres measuring average length 500nm and diameter 10nm were formed by this method. XRD analysis indicated strong anatase peaks with crystal orientation in the direction (101) with slight rutile peaks appearing at 5000C calcinations temperature. Thin films prepared from the nanofibres had thickness varying from 4.5 – 5.5μm. The films were used to fabricate complete dye sensitised solar cells with Ruthenium complex dye as sensitizer. I-V characteristics yielded Voc and Jsc of 0.46V – 0.58V and 0.16mA/cm2 – 4.5mA/cm2 respectively under standard illumination of 100mW/cm2 (using a halogen lamp and data acquired using Keithley 2400 Source Meter® controlled by LabVIEW® software).

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Bukusu sacred sites. In Sacred sites, sacred places and sites of significance.". In: The University of Calgary Press, Calgary. Taylor & Francis; 1994. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu W. "Western Bantu: Babukusu .". 1989.Website
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "The socio-cultural and economic context of pottery production in Kenya.". In: MILA (N.S.), 2:52-60. Taylor & Francis; 1997. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia . 2014;57 :817-825.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "With J. Barbour (Eds.) Kenyan pots and potters. Nairobi.". In: Oxford University Press. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu KW, Gathura PB, Kyule MN, Ombui JN. "Toxin production and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli river water isolates.". 1998. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: To establish the types of E. coli isolates that are found in river water around Nairobi and to assess the potential risk of use of this water to human health. Design: Multiple stratified sampling was carried out. Surface sampling was used in the entire study. Setting: The study was carried out on river waters surrounding Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Forty Escherichia coli strains isolated from river water. Main outcome measures: Serotyping, toxin gene tests and susceptibility to tetracyclines, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin were analysed. Results: None of the isolates could be specifically serotyped using the available antisera. Toxin gene production tests using the colony hybridisation technique revealed that nine (22.5 %) of the strains were positive for heat stable (ST) toxin, seven (17.5 0/0) to the heat labile (L T) toxin and two (5 0/0) to both. Using the Agar Disk Diffusion technique, eighty per cent of the strains were susceptible to all four antibiotics, while twenty per cent of the strains showed multiple resistance. None of the strains was resistant to all four antibiotics while no strain showed resistance to kanamycin. Conclusion: None of the E. coli isolates was serotypable and it was therefore not possible to determine whether serologically identical strains of ETEC were haboured by man or animals. Toxin gene tests results showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhoea causing ETEC to man and animals. Toxin gene tests results showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhoea causing ETEC to man and animals if they consume this water untreated and there is evidence to show resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, hence appropriate health measures should be adhered to.

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Archaeology in the 1990s and beyond: The Kenyan case.". In: World Archaeological Congress 2, Barquisimeto, Venezuela, 4-8 Sept. 1990. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu, Benjamin N.; Butt F; DEA; WEADGSSPG; O; W. "Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumours of the Jaws and Associated Pathologies:.". 2012.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Craft and manufacturing industries.". In: An economic history of Kenya, pp. 17-33. W.R. Ochieng. Taylor & Francis; 1992. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu, J., J. MM, B.O A. "Stability of Anthocyanin Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Solar Cells." Africa Journal of Science and Technology. 2002;6(2):56-61.
Simiyu J, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Lindquist S-E, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "Titania Nanotubes Prepared by Synthesis Method for Dye Sensitized Electrochemical Solar Cells.". In: Presented at the International Conference on Microstructures and Nanotechnologies (ICMNT2006). Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria; 2006. Abstract

The area of nanostructured materials for dye sensitized solar cells has gained great interest by scientists, especially after a breakthrough by Gratzel and coworkers in developing a solar cell from nanostructured oxide of titania gaining an overall efficiency of about 11%. Since then research has been going on with emphasis on improvement on this achievement.

TiO2 nanofibres measuring average length 500nm and diameter 10nm have been prepared by synthesis method using 10M NaOH and dispersed in alcohol. Thin films prepared from the nanofibres had thickness varying from 4.5 – 5.5μm. The films were used to fabricate complete dye sensitised solar cells with Ruthenium complex dye as sentizer. I-V characteristics yielded Voc and Isc of 0.41V – 0.58V and 0.18mA – to 1.1mA respectively under standard illumination of 100mW/cm2 (using a halogen lamp and data acquired using Keithley 2400 Source Metre® controlled by LabVIEW® software). XRD analysis indicated strong anatase peaks with crystal orientation in the direction (101). This showed that there was no lose of crystalline structure of the TiO2 during the synthesis process. However, as the sintering temperature was raised, the percentage crystal content of anatase reduced as the rutile structure slowly formed.

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Craft and manufacturing industries.". In: In an Economic history of Kenya. W.R. Ochieng'and R.M. Maxon (Eds.), pp. 17-33, Nairobi. East African Educational Publishers. Taylor & Francis; 1992. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Masinde Muliro: A biography. Nairobi:.". In: East African Educational Publishers. Taylor & Francis; 1996. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Simiyu BN, Butt F, Dimba EA, Wagaiyu EG, Awange DO, Guthua SW, Slootweg PJ. "Keratocystic odontogenic tumours of the jaws and associated pathologies: a 10-year clinicopathologic audit in a referral teaching hospital in Kenya." J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2013;41(3):230-4. Abstractkcot_published_edition_.pdf

To establish the pattern of occurrence and the clinicopathological features of keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) over a 10-year period.

Simiyu J, Buregeya A. ""Misuse of Kiswahili noun class markers in Kenya", The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 1, pp. 48-70." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2010;1(1):48-70. AbstractWebsite

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Simiyu A.N., Mile J. K. RGKR. "On The Relationship Between the Spectrum and Numerical Range of a Unbounded Linear Operator." Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2012;vol.23(No.2).
Simiyu J., Waita S, Musembi R, Ogacho A, Aduda B. Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance. Cancun, Mexico: Science Direct Energy Procedia ; 2014.
Simon E. Bull 1, 3 Rob W. Briddon 1, 4 William S. Sserubombwe, 1 Kahiu Ngugi 2, and PM11 G, Stanley J. "Genetic diversity and phylogeography of cassava mosaic viruses in Kenya." Journal of General Virology. 2006;87, :3053-3065.genetic_diversity_and_phylogeography_of_cassava_mosaic_viruses_in_kenya.pdf
Simon E. Bull 1 4, Rob W. Briddon 1, 1 William S. Sserubombwe, 1 3 Kahiu Ngugi, and PM12 G, Stanley1 J. "Infectivity, pseudorecombination and mutagenesis of Kenyan cassava mosaic begomoviruses." Journal of General Virology . 2007;88, :1624-1633.infectivity_pseudorecombination_and_mutagenesis.pdf
Simonich CA, Williams KL, Verkerke HP, Williams JA, Ruth Nduati, Lee KK, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies with Limited Hypermutation from an Infant." Cell. 2016. Abstract

HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) develop in a subset of infected adults and exhibit high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) due to years of affinity maturation. There is no precedent for eliciting highly mutated antibodies by vaccination, nor is it practical to wait years for a desired response. Infants develop broad responses early, which may suggest a more direct path to generating bnAbs. Here, we isolated ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) contributing to plasma breadth of an infant at ∼1 year post-infection, including one with cross-clade breadth. The nAbs bind to envelope trimer from the transmitted virus, suggesting that this interaction may have initiated development of the infant nAbs. The infant cross-clade bnAb targets the N332 supersite on envelope but, unlike adult bnAbs targeting this site, lacks indels and has low SHM. The identification of this infant bnAb illustrates that HIV-1-specific neutralization breadth can develop without prolonged affinity maturation and extensive SHM.

Simonich CA, Doepker L, Ralph D, Williams JA, Dhar A, Yaffe Z, Gentles L, Small CT, Oliver B, Vigdorovich V, Mangala Prasad V, NNduati R. "Kappa chain maturation helps drive rapid development of an infant HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody lineage.". 2019.
Simonsen PE, Estambale B, Agger M. "Antibodies in the serum of golden hamsters experimentally infected with the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni.". 1991. AbstractWebsite

The serum antibody response in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni was examined with ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blot, and IFAT techniques. All methods showed that the hamsters responded slowly but developed a clear positive humoral response to the infection. In most hamsters, an antibody response to infection could not be detected earlier than 11-13 weeks after infection with 6 or 25 metacercariae, and responses were weak when compared to previous results from mice infected with the same parasite. IFAT with positive hamster sera on live juvenile E. caproni showed only fluorescence at the posterior tip, which is a different pattern from that seen using from infected mice, indicating a different response to antigens on the juvenile parasites by these two hosts. The results are discussed in relation to the limited selfcure and development of resistance which is observed in golden hamsters infected with E. capron

Simpson NO. "Direct Shear Box And Ring Shear Test Comparison: Why Internal Angle Of Friction Vary.". 1999. Abstracticastor_paper_-_shear_box_and_ring_shear.pdfWebsite

The direct shear box and the ring shear test as conventionally used for measuring the strength parameters of soil for use in classical stability analyses have the major disadvantage that the stress conditions in the specimen during the test are not known. The ring shear test was specially instrumented with ‘artificial shear plane’ to investigate the shear deformations and stresses acting on the sample. The ‘artificial shear planes’ were made from plane papers with ink-marks and introduced into the specimen. New data is presented from internal measurements in terms of photographs just before failure in the ring shear. An interpretation is given for the internal angle of friction and its relationship with the strain propagation in both the methods, and a comparison made. Results are presented from both the direct shear box and the ring shear test, and these are compared. Both the tests yield varying internal angle of friction when carried out on the same specimen and conditions. Results reveal that the internal angle of friction obtained from a direct shear test is lower than that obtained from the ring shear test. It is established that the ring shear test has an inherent tendency to squeeze out material from the cell due to high stress accumulations at the outer edges. The inner edge is always understressed. The direct shear box has both of its sides equally stressed and this sharing of strains and stresses enable it to register lower bound values than those from the ring shear box. The structures which appear in the direct shear box sample before and after failure indicate that the central portion of the specimen is in simple shear. A close examination of the failure mechanism in the direct shear box shows that kinking is the dominant mode of deformation, which is different from that in the ring shear. In the ring shear, the sample is very small, and there is non-equal distribution of stresses. When this non-equal distribution of stresses is accompanied by a tendency to squeeze out of material, kinking does not dominate.

Simwa, R.O.;Kithinji MM, Ottieno JAM. "Application of Burr XII Mixture Distributions to model unemployment duration in Pricing Unemployment Insurance Assuming USA Data." International Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications,. 2016;2(3):27-34. AbstractFull text link

The objective of this research is to consider varying unemployment duration in the pricing of unemployment insurance with application to USA data. The study assumes that unemployment duration follows Burr XII mixture distribution while the discount rate to use in the pricing of the scheme will bedetermined by fitting market data into the capital asset pricing model. The Burr XII mixture distribution has been used to model unemployment duration in order to allow for heterogeniety in the unemployment duration of the insured employees. The results yield a mean unemployment duration of approximately 16 weeks and premium contribution rate of 5.10% of the taxable wage base per month for a benefit of 45% of the taxable wage base per month payable on weekly basis during spells of unemployment.

Keywords
Burr XII Mixture Distribution, Unemployment Insurace, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Taxable Wage Base, Discounted Cash Flow, Mean Present Value, Premium Rate

Sinei KA, Nduni LW. "Patterns of acute poisoning of paediatric patients in Kenyatta National Hospital between in the years 2014 – 2017." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;21(21):16-20.
Sinei K, Okalebo FA, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. "An investigation of anti-microbial activity of Acmella caulirhiza." The African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(4):130-133. Abstract

Background: Acmella Caulirhiza is a plant that is used traditionally to treat several disorders such as oral thrash, mouth ulcers, toothache and earache, among others. It is a small annual or perennial herb whose location is widespread worldwide.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine whether the leaves, stem and the flowers extract of the plant possess antibacterial and antifungal activity and to find out which part of the plant is the most active, if any.

Methodology: Acmella caulirhiza was collected from the wild in Kericho County. The flower heads, the leaves and the stems were dried separately, ground into a powder and extracted with chloroform. The plant extracts were tested for activity against Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Bacillus pumilus.

Results and Discussion: The plant extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus. The activity was highest in the stems extracts. The extracts, however, did not have any anti-fungal activity when tested against Candida albicans. It was concluded from these results that the anti-bacterial activity may aid in the efficacy when the plant is used to treat mouth ulcers or oral thrash.

Sinei K, Okalebo FA, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. "An Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Acmella caulirhiza." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2013;2(4):130-133.
Sinei KA, Mwang JW. "An in vitro study on the oxytocic action action of Adenia Globosa Engl." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In Press.
Sinei K, Mwangi JW, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. An in vitro study on the oxytocic action of Adenia globosa Engl.. Second International Scientific Conference of the College of Health Sciences,University of Nairobi & Kenyatta National Hospital; 2013. Abstract

BACKROUND: Adenia globosa Engl. (Passifloracea) is found in many parts of Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia. It is a shrub or climber with stems emerging from above-ground tuber of up to 2.5M wide. Some local names (of Adenia ssp.) are: Kilyambiti, Kasikimara, Ghole, Ngoli, Mugore, Mgore, Munua Nyoka etc.

PROPERTIES AND USES: Many of the Adenia species are extremely toxic and have been used for homicidal or suicidal purposes or for poisoning wild animals and fish. Nevertheless, several of the species are used in traditional herbal medicine: an anthelmintic, remedy for snake bite, antidote for arrow poison, orchitis, malaria and syphilis. It is also claimed that freshly prepared juice of the tuber of given to cows and goats that have difficulty in giving birth to hasten the process.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study was to investigate the effect of the water extract of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus and how this could be affected by well known uterine stimulants such as ergometrine, oxytocin and prostaglandin F2α. and also by antagonists of acetylcholine and adrenaline.

SETTING: Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, KNH Campus.
STUDY DESIGN: It was a laboratory based study. The crude extract and the other drugs were tested on isolated rat uterus set up in an organ bath under the usual laboratory conditions.

RESULTS: The results obtained demonstrated that the plant extract caused a dose-depended contraction of the rat uterus which was not antagonized by atropine nor phenoxybenzamine. The contractile effect was however potentiated by small doses of ergometrine, oxytocin and prostaglandin F2α.

CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded from these observations that the contractile action was not mediated through cholinergic nor adrenergic system. Secondly, it was postulated that since prostaglandin F2α and oxytocin are also released at the time of labour, the potentiatory action probably occurs in vivo when the plant preparation is given to domestic animals to ease and speed up the process of giving birth as claimed in the traditional use of this plant. This traditional use of the plant preparation is therefore scientifically justifiable

Sinei S, Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Melissa A, okonya D. "Complications of use of intrauterine devices among HIV-1-infected women.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background A WHO expert group and the International
Planned Parenthood Federation recommend against use of
intrauterine devices (IUDs) in HIV-1-infected women based
on theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased
blood loss. We investigated whether the risk of
complications after IUD insertion is higher in HIV-1-infected
women than in non-infected women.
Methods 649 (156 HIV-1 infected 493 non-infected) women in
Nairobi, Kenya, who requested and met local eligibility criteria
for insertion of an IUD were enrolled. We gathered information
on IUD-related complications, including pelvic inflammatory
disease, removals due to infection, pain, or bleeding,
expulsions, and pregnancies at 1 and 4 months after insertion.
Patients’ HIV-1 status was masked from physicians.
Findings Complications were identified in 48 of 615 women
(11 [7·6%] HIV-1-infected women, 37 [7·9%] non-infected).
Incident pelvic inflammatory disease (two [1·4%] HIV-1
infected, one [0·2%] non-infected) and infection-related
complications (any tenderness, removal of IUD for infection
or pain; ten [6·9%] HIV-1 infected, 27 [5·7%] non-infected)
were also rare and similar in the two groups. Complication
rates were similar by CD4 (immune) status. Multivariate
analyses suggested no association between HIV-1 infection
and increased risks for overall complications (odds ratio 0·8
[95% CI 0·4–1·7]) or infection-related complications (1·0
[0·5–2·3]), adjusted for marital status, study site, previous
IUD use, ethnic origin, and frequency of sexual intercourse,
but a slight increase cannot be ruled out.
Interpretation Our data suggest that IUDs may be a safe
contraceptive method for appropriately selected HIV-1-
infected women with continuing access to medical services.
Lancet 1998; 351: 1238–41

Sinei KA;, Mwangi JW;, Munenge RM;, Mwaura AM. "An In Vitro Study On The Oxytocic Action Of Adenia Globosa Engl.". 1985.
Sinei KA, Redfern PH. "The Time-Dependent Effect of the Antidepressant Drug Paroxetine on the Synthesis of 5-Hydroxytryptamine in the Rat Brain." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2012;15(2):46-54. Abstractabstract

The effect of paroxetine on the day--night variations in the synthesis of 5HT was determined in the rat brain in an effort to gain an insight into the mechanism of action of this drug. This was done by determining its effect on the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5HT in serotonergic neurons. The enzyme activity was determined in two brain regions, cortex and the brainstem, at two time points of 12hr light/12hr dark cycle, namely, mid-light and mid-dark. The results obtained showed that the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase was significantly greater in control animals during the dark than light phase both in the cortex and brainstem. They also demonstrate that the rate of synthesis of 5HT was affected by paroxetine in a time-dependent manner. It was therefore concluded that these time-dependent changes observed in paroxetine effect may influence the activity of serotonergic input into the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hence the regulation or expression of certain circadian rhythms. This action may help correct or compensate for abnormalities present in depressive illness.

Sinei SK, Mati JKG, Mungai J, Mailu C, Mbugua Mulandi T, Ndavi PM. "Prevalence Of Anaemia Of Pregnancy And The Role Of Malaria In Its Aetiology In Rural Kenya.". 1984.
Sinei KA. The effect of Antidepressant Drugs on the Circadian Rhythm of 5-Hydroxytrptamine Synthesis in The Central Nervous System. Redfern. S:PH, ed. Bath, England: PhD Thesis, University of Bath; 1987.
Sinei KA, JW M. "Effect of the tuber of Adenia globosa extract on the isolated rat uterus." Int. J. Pharmacog.. 1995;33 (3).
Sinei K, Okalebo FA MHNMJM. "An Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Acmella caulirhiza." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(4):130-133.
Sinelnikova EM, Dvoretskova TV, Kagan ZS. "[Intermediate plateaux in kinetics of the reaction catalyzed by biodegradative L-threonine dehydratase from Escherichia coli]." Biokhimiia. 1975;40(3):645-51. Abstract

It has been shown that for the reaction catalyzed by "biodegradative" L-threonine dehydratase from E. coli strains K-12 and 980 in 0.5 M phosphate-carbonate buffer, pH 8.4 and pH 9.5, the plots of initial reaction rate (v) versus the initial substrate concentration ([S]0 are characterized by several inflection points, i. e. an intermediate plateau. The plot of v versus the allosteric activator (AMP) concentration have very complicated shapes: there are several inflection points, and also the maximum at L-threonine concentration equal to 3-10(2) and 5-10(-2) M. High AMP concentrations inhibit the enzyme at high substrate concentrations. The reduced glutathion dose not influence the enzyme and does not alter the activating effect of AMP. On the basis of the data obtained it is proposed that the substrate and AMP shift the equilibrium between multiple oligomeric enzyme forms differing in catalytic activity and kinetic manifestations of allosteric interactions between the active and allosteric AMP-binding sites towards polymerization. Thus, the functioning the enzyme under study is discussed in the frames of the model of dissociating regulatory enzymes with multiple intermediate oligomeric forms.

Singh CB, Dervin KE, Gray SJ. "Effect of adrenalectomy on serum and tissue amylase.". 1965.Website
Singh R, Patel V, Mureithi MW, Naranbhai V, Ramsuran D, Tulsi S, Hiramen K, Werner L, Mlisana K, Altfeld M, Luban J, Kasprowicz V, Dheda K, Abdool Karim SS, Ndung'u T. "TRIM5α and TRIM22 are differentially regulated according to HIV-1 infection phase and compartment." J. Virol.. 2014. Abstracttrim5a_and_trim22_are_differentially_regulated_according_to_hiv.pdf

The antiviral role of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that TRIM5α and TRIM22 have differential transcriptional regulation and distinct anti-HIV roles according to infection phase and compartment, we measured TRIM5α, TRIM22 and type 1 interferon (IFN-1)-inducible MxA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during primary and chronic HIV-1 infection, and in matched PBMCs and central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells. Associations with biomarkers of disease progression were explored. The impact of IFN-1, select pro-inflammatory cytokines and HIV on TRIM E3 ligase-specific expression was investigated. PBMCs from individuals with primary and chronic HIV-1 infection had significantly higher levels of MxA and TRIM22 compared to HIV-1 negative PBMCs (P < 0.05, all comparisons). PBMCs from chronic infection had lower levels of TRIM5α compared to primary infection or HIV-1 uninfected (both P = 0.0001). In matched CNS-derived samples and PBMCs, higher levels of MxA (P = 0.001) and TRIM5α (P = 0.0001) were noted in the CNS. There was negative correlation between TRIM22 levels in PBMC and plasma viral load (r = -0.40, P = 0.04). In vitro, IFN-1 and rarely pro-inflammatory cytokines induced TRIM5α and TRIM22 in cell type-dependent manner and knockdown of either protein in CD4+ lymphocytes resulted in increased HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that there are infection-phase specific and anatomically compartmentalized differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 regulation involving primarily IFN-1 and specific cell types, and indicate subtle differences in the antiviral role and transcriptional regulation of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo.Importance Interferon type I-inducible TRIM E3 ligases are a family of intracellular proteins with potent antiviral activities mediated through diverse mechanisms. However, little is known about the contribution of these proteins to antiviral immunity in vivo and how their expression is regulated. We show here that TRIM5α and TRIM22, two prominent members of the family, have different expression patterns in vivo and that expression pattern depends on HIV-1 infection status and phase. Furthermore, expression differs in peripheral blood versus central nervous system anatomical sites of infection. Only TRIM22 expression correlates negatively with HIV-1 viral load but gene silencing of both proteins enhances HIV-1 infection of target cells. We report on subtle differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 gene induction by IFN-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CD4+ lymphocytes, monocytes and neuronal cells. This study enhances our understanding of antiviral immunity by intrinsic antiviral factors and how their expression is determined.

Singh RB, Mengi SA, Xu Y-J, Arneja AS, Dhalla NS. "Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: {A} multifactorial process." Experimental & Clinical Cardiology. 2002;7:40-53. AbstractWebsite

Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the western world. It has been recognized for over a century, and the understanding of its pathogenesis has undergone many changes. Pathophysiological studies have unravelled the interactions of molecular and cellular elements involved in atherogenesis. The focus has shifted to the novel risk factors as well as characteristics and stability of atherosclerotic plaque; the genetic predisposition has further broadened the pathogenetic mechanisms. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms involved in the evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque that may pave the way for selecting optimal therapies and preventing plaque complications. Atherosclerosis is no longer a disease attributed mainly to the high lipid content of the body. New insight into the disease pathology has shown it to be a disease of much greater ramifications. Endothelial damage and reactive oxygen species (and other free radicals) have predominantly emerged as factors in virtually all pathways leading to the development of atherosclerosis due to hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension or smoking. Novel risk factors such as hyperhomocysteinemia, infections and systemic lupus erythematosus have emerged. Atherosclerosis has come to be regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease with an autoimmune component. The genetic basis of the disease assumes significance as candidate genes are identified and gene therapy becomes a promising new addition to the existing, less substantial conventional therapies.

Singh L, Silim SN, Baudoin JP, Kimani PM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Pigeon pea(Cjanus cajan(L.) Millspuagh in“Crop Production in Tropical Africa.". 2010.
Singh CB, Munshi JD, Sinha SP. "A new basic chromosome number in Saccharum spontaneum L.". 1990. AbstractA new basic chromosome number in Saccharum spontaneum L.

Study of meiosis in a clone of S. spontaneum (2n = 54), revealed that 11.39 ± 2.52% of PMCs undergo cytomixis during premetaphase I. Only 18 bivalents migrated with the nucleolus into the recipient cell and 9 remained in the donor cell, which was taken to indicate the existence of a basic number of 9, in addition to previously reported basic numbers of 6, 8 and 10.

Sinja J;, Nyangaga J;, Karugia JT;, Waithaka MM;, Mwangi DM;, Romney DL. "Factors influencing farmer-to-farmer extension of forage legume technology."; 2004. Abstract

Forage legumes have been introduced to farmers in Central Kenya between 1980 and 2002 through various Institutional and Projects’ efforts. The adoption rate of these forages among farmers has been found to be rather low, with the NDDP reporting only 1.9 % of farms surveyed and an ICRAF report indicating that the technology was only reaching 1 % of smallholder farms. An evaluation of adoption of Calliandra and Desmodium was conducted to identify farm characteristics affecting the likelihood of sharing of Desmodium and Calliandra technologies as well as to characterise the spread or diffusion of the technology from the original contact groups and the effect of distance from those groups. Three groups of farmers were approached. A first generation who received planting material from the distributors, a second generation who received planting materials from the former, and a randomly selected group of farmers at various distances from the first contacts. Informal discussions were held with the farmers and formal questionnaires filled. Out of the 133 first generation farmers contacted 64.7% still had Desmodium and 89.5% still had Calliandra. More farms in the contact sub-locations had the plants than the sub-locations further away. The small sample size of those with the forages could not allow effect of distance to be worked out. Tobit estimates of effects of farmer attributes influencing sharing of planting materials shows that the status of the household head in the community positively affected the likelihood of giving out planting material. The technology has a rather slow spread as indicated by percentages of farms with the forages. For better adoption and spread proponents of the technology should have the technology introduced to farmers who have substantial positions in farmer groups or have been bestowed community responsibility.

Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Sinkeet S, Mwachaka P, Muthoka J, Saidi H. "Branching pattern of inferior mesenteric artery in a black African population: a dissection study." SRN Anatomy. 2013;doi.org/10.5402/2013/962904.
Sinkeet S, Mwachaka P, Muthoka J, Saidi H. "Branching Pattern of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in a Black African Population: A Dissection Study." {ISRN} Anatomy. 2013;2013:1-4. AbstractWebsite
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Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a {Kenyan} population." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:241-245. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type III notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type IV (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type III (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type III notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and II notches.

Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a {Kenyan} population." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:241-245. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type III notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type IV (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type III (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type III notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and II notches.

Sinkeet S, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H, Awori K. "Topography of The Posterior Communicating Artery in a Kenyan Population.". 2010. Abstract

Configuration and branching pattern of the posterior communicating artery influence occurrence and approaches to management of aneurysms. Distribution of the various configurations and branching patterns shows population variations but reports from Africa are scanty. Configurations observed in the Kenyan population are comparable to those reported in the Caucasian populations. From an anatomical standpoint, the two are equally predisposed to development of aneurysms. Posterior third of PComA had the least number of branches suggesting that the pterional approach to basilar tip aneurysm among Kenyans may be a safer procedure.

Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a Kenyan population." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:241-245. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type {III} notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type {IV} (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type {III} (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type {III} notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and {II} notches.

Sinkeet S, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H, Awori K. "Topography of the Posterior Communicating Artery in a Kenyan population." Ann Afr Surg. 2010;6:37-40.
Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2010;69(4):241-5. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type III notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type IV (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type III (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type III notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and II notches.

Sinkeet SR, Ogeng'o JA, Elbusaidy H, Olabu BO, Irungu MW. "Variant origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery in a black Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2012;71(1):15-8. Abstract

Variant origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery (FA) is important during harvesting of anterolateral thigh flaps, aortopopliteal by-pass, coronary artery grafting, and vascularised iliac transplant. The frequencies of variant origins display ethnic variations, but reports from black Africans are scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the variant origins of lateral circumflex FA in a black Kenyan population. Eighty-four (42 right and 42 left) lateral femoral circumflex arteries from 42 cadavers (31 male and 11 female) were exposed by dissection of the femoral triangles at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The arteries were then traced proximally to their parent trunks. Sites of origin were recorded and representative images of the variations taken using a high-resolution digital camera. Data were analysed using Statistical Program for Social Scientists version 16.0 for Windows and presented in tables and macrographs. The lateral circumflex artery was a branch of the profunda femoris in only 65.5% of cases. Variant origins included from a common trunk with medial circumflex artery (14.3%), with profunda femoris (10.7%), as a trifurcation with profunda femoris and medial circumflex FA (7.1%), and from FA (2.4%). Variant origin of the lateral circumflex FA occurred in nearly 35% of the Kenyan population studied, much lower than in oriental populations. The most frequent variant origin is as a common trunk with medial circumflex femoral and profunda femoris, with a very low prevalence of origin from FA. The unusual origins make the artery more vulnerable to iatrogenic injury during surgery and catheterisation. Preoperative angiographic evaluation of the femoral arterial system is recommended.

Sipulwa LA, Ongus JR, Coldren RL, Bulimo WD. "Molecular characterization of human coronaviruses and their circulation dynamics in Kenya, 2009-2012." Virol. J.. 2016;13(1):18. Abstractsipulwa_et_al_2016.pdf

Human Coronaviruses (HCoV) are a common cause of respiratory illnesses and are responsible for considerable morbidity and hospitalization across all age groups especially in individuals with compromised immunity. There are six known species of HCoV: HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-OC43, MERS-CoV and SARS-HCoV. Although studies have shown evidence of global distribution of HCoVs, there is limited information on their presence and distribution in Kenya.

Sipulwa LA, Ongus JR, Bulimo WD. Molecular characterization of human coronavirus circulating in Kenya, 2009-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: The genome of a human coronavirus (HCoV) is composed of a linear, single-stranded, non-segmented, positive-sense RNA of 27-32 kb. The pol gene of HCoV found in ORF1ab, is a good molecular chronometer for molecular characterization of HCoV types because in a region of ~900bp towards the 5’, it contains two conserved flanks with a hypervariable middle. Thus, this region of the pol gene has been used to type all known HCoVs. Thus, molecular typing using this gene segment corresponds well to the classical typing based on serological cross-reactivity which groups CoVs into four groups. HCoVs cause a variety of mild and severe respiratory tract diseases including SARS and MERS. To date there are six known types of HCoVs. Although studies have shown evidence of global distribution of HCoVs and the diseases they cause, there is limited information on their presence, distribution and genetic characteristics in Kenya.Objective: To isolate, type and infer the genetic diversity of HCoVs that circulated in Kenya from 2009-2012 using the pol gene.Methods: Archived nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens from consenting outpatients aged ≥2 months were screened by real-time RT-PCR using HCoV-specific primers. Positive specimens were inoculated onto LLCMK2 monolayers to isolate the virus. RNA was extracted from virus isolates followed by PCR amplification of the HCoV pol gene using gene-specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of amplicons was carried out using the BigDye chemistry prior to analyses using a suite of bioinformatics tools.Results and discussion: 29 of the 417 (7%) NP samples tested were positive for HCoV. The highest proportion (33%) were HCoV-NL63 followed by HCoV-HKU1 (30%), HCoV-OC43 (27%) and HCoV-229E (10%) respectively. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were not detected. Of the 29 positive samples, 14 (47%) yielded viral isolates for nucleotide sequencing. Sequence and Phylogenetic analyses identified 4 HCoV-HKU1, 5 HCoV-NL63, 4 HCoV-OC43 and 3 HCoV-229E. Mutation analyses revealed that 2/3 of the Kenyan HCoV-229E had Y4682L and one had F4821T amino acid substitutions relative to the prototype (GenBank Acc. No. NC_002645.1) The other human coronavirus types (HKU1, NL63 & OC43) had a few disparate silent mutations and were phenotypically identical to their respective prototypes. Conclusion: Four types of HCoVs circulated in Kenya during the study period. Genetic diversity in the hypervariable region of the pol gene was only observed in the HCoV-229E.

Siriba DN, Mwenda JN. Towards Kenya’s Profile of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG); 2013.
Siriba DN, Dalyot S. "Automatic georeferencing of non-geospatially referenced provisional cadastral maps." Survey Review. 2012;44(325):142-152.
Siriba DN, Matara SM, Musyoka SM. "Improvement of Volume Estimation of Stockpile of Earthworks Using a Concave Hull-Footprint." International Scientific Journal for Micro, Macro and Mezzo Geoinformation. 2015;5:11-25.
Siriba DN, Farah HO. "Land Management Information Systems in the Knowledge Economy: What options are there for Kenya.". In: Discussion and Guiding Principles for Africa - land management Systems in the Knowledge Economy. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa; 2007.
Siriba DN. "Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) for Land Administration: Is it Feasible?" Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2016;8(1):10-13.
Siriba DN, Voss W, Mulaku GC. "The Kenyan Cadastre and Modern Land Administration." Zeitschrift für Vermessung. 2011;136(3):177-186.
Siriba DN, Voss W, Mulaku GC. "The Kenyan cadastral system and modern land administration." ZfV (Germany)[ISSN 1618-8950]. 2011;136 (3):177-186.
Siriba DN, Dalyot S. "Should Volunteered Geographic Information on Land Parcels be Formalized or Coexist with the Formal Land Administration Systems?". In: Joint Workshop Fig Commission 7 and 3 - Crowdsourcing of Land Information & Annual Meeting . Malta, Italy; 2015.
Siriba DN, Mwenda JN, Dalyot S. "Time-enabled two-dimensional digital cadastre: Case of the Kenyan cadastre." South-Eastern European Journal of Earth Observation and Geomatics. 2014;3(1):109-121.
and Sirma A J; Ouko E. O., Gatwiri M. MMOKK’etheCIJN. "Prevalence of Aflatoxin contamination in cereals in Nandi County, Kenya. ." International journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. 2015;3(3):55-63.
Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl. JF, D G, K M, Mtimet N, EK K’ethe. "Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in Millet, Sorghum, and maize from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10991-11003:10991-11003.
Siro L, Kamuti I. "On the Actions of the Symmetric Group, Sn, n ≤ 7 on Unordered Quadruples, X(4)." International Journal of Algebra. 2013;Vol. 8, 2014(no. 3):115-120.
Sitati FC, Mogire TS. "Ankle Arthrodesis Using a Vertical Steinman’s Pin in a Severely Osteopenic Bone." East Central Africa Journal of Surgery. 2014;19(1):125-128.
Sitati IN, Musundi SW, Nzimbi BM, Kikete DW. "A note on quasi-similarity of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Mathematical Archives. 2015;6(7):49-54.
Sitati IN, Musundi SW, Nzimbi BM, Kirimi J. "On similarity and quasisimilarity equivalence relations." Bull. Soc. Math. Serv. and Standards. 2012;1(2):151-171.
Sitati F, Kingori JK. "A Novel Treatment for Severely Porotic Humerus Non Union with Plate and Rush Pin: A Report of 2 Cases." The Internet Journal of Orthopedic Surgery . 2009;14(2):7-19. Abstracta_novel_treatment_for_severely_porotic_humerus_non_unionwith_plate_and_rush_pin.pdf

The management of humerus non-union in severely porotic bone mainly encountered in the elderly is challenging .The incidence of nonunion is higher in cases involving porotic bones. Non unions can result in significant patient morbidity by limiting activities of daily living due to pain and loss of function especially in the elderly. The literature is replete with studies outlining the various methods of treating humeral shaft non unions with severely porotic bones following primary operative management. However no study describes combining a plate and rush pin together with cancellous bone graft for severely porotic humerus non unions. We have applied this technique in 2 cases of previously plated porotic humerus non unions in the elderly with good results. This technique could be a very useful procedure in underdeveloped countries and rural hospitals where facilities like methylmethacrylate, a plate with a blade and spiked nuts that lock the screws to the plate are not available.

Sitienei JJ, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Cheserem EJ, Siika AM, Nangami M, Kimaiyo S, Maina F. "Patients’ views on the care they receive in Express Care, a task-shifting model in HIV care, at AMPATH, Western Kenya ." Journal of Scientific & Innovative Research. 2013;2(2):243-251.patients_views_on_the_care_they_receive_in_express_care_a_task-shifting.pdf
Sitienei JK, Kipruto K, Borus P, Nyambati V, Sitienei JC, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ. "Predictors of low body mass index among patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health. 2014;4(4):427-436.predictors_of_low_body_mass_index_among_patients_with_smear_positive_pulmonary_tuberculosis_in_kenya.pdf
Sitonik N. "Functionality of the Dispute Settlement System: A world Trade Organization's (WTO) Approach." Global Journal of Politics and Law Research. 2016;4(2):19-28.
Sitta J, Nzuve F, Olubayo FM, Mutinda C, Muiru WM, Miano DW, Muthomi JW, Leley PK. "Response of Assorted Maize Germplasm to the Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Kenya." Journal of Plant Studies. 2017;6(2):65-76.
Situma J, Attoh F, Ndohvu J. "Mapping Out the Identity of African Arts and Aesthetics." Thought and Practice. 2016;7(1):77-102.
Situma J, Ndohvu JB. "Poverty and Human Rights: Dimensions of Morals and Ideas.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Siundu G. Imagining Home and Community in East African Asian Writings. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller; 2009.
Siundu G. "Beyond Auto/Biography: Power, Politics, and Gender in Kenyan-Asian Women Writings." Research in African Literatures. 2011;42(3):117-131.
Siundu G. "Metaphors and the Economy of Hope in Jared Angira’s Lament of the Silent & Other Poems.". In: East African Literature: Essays in Written and Oral Traditions. Berlin: Logoa Verlag; 2011.
Siundu G. "Gender Affirmation or Racial Loyalties? Women and the Domestication of History in Neera Kapur-Dromson’s From Jhelum to Tana.". In: Rethinking Eastern African Literary and Intellectual Landscapes. New Jersey: Africa World Press; 2012.
Siundu G, W B. " “Christianity in Early Kenyan Novels: Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s Weep Not, Child and The River Between” ." Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa . 2010;Vol. 2 No. 1: :292-310.
Sivapalasingam S, McClelland RS RACCMGMMJAP, Shafi J, Masese L FAMEJKAEMW &. "An Effective Intervention to reduce intravaginal practices among HIV-1 uninfected Kenyan women." AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses . 2014;30(11)::1046-57.
Sixsmith DG, Watkins WM, Kokwaro GO. "The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions on sterilization and storage.". 2009. Abstract

The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values

SJ S. "Effect of homemade dental powder on population of streptococcus mutans." journal of dentistry and oral care. 2016;2(4):1-7.
SK M, M W, JK S, CK G. ") Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Breed characteristics, Farmer Objectives and Preferences in Kenya: A correspondence analysis." Discourse Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2014;2(4):118-125.
SK M, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Njagi LW. "Prevalence and pathology of Echidnophaga gallinacean in free-range local ducks.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual scientific conference. Safari park hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.2012-prevalence_and_pathology_of_e.gallinacea_in_ducks.pdf
SK M, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Njagi LW. "Prevalence of haemoparsites in free-range local ducks.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual scientific conference. Safari park hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.2012-_prevalence_of_haemoparasites_in_ducks.pdf
Skadhauge E;, Maloiy GMO. "The intestine and osmoregulation."; 1979.
Skandalakis L, Colborn G, Weidman T, Skandalakis J, Skandalakis P. "Skandalakis' {Surgical} {Anatomy}: {The} {Embryologic} {And} {Anatomic} {Basis} {Of} {Modern} {Surgery}.". In: {SKANDALAKIS}' {SURGICAL} {ANATOMY}: {The} {Embryologic} and {Anatomic} {Basis} of {Modern} {Surgery}. Athens, Greece: Paschalidis Medical Publications; 2004:. Abstract
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