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Shepherd M, Lee DJ, Baker N, Kasem S, Ochieng JW, Bihua C;, Henry RJ. Corymbia genetics at Southern Cross University (Presentation Corymbia Research Meeting).; 2005.
Shepherd M, Kasem S, Ablett G, Ochieng J, Crawford A. Developing a genetic classification for gene pool management of spotted gums.; 2013. Abstract

Spotted gums (Genus Corymbia Section Politaria) occur as a species replacement series along the eastern seaboard of Australia, their distributions marked by regions of disjunction and sympatry. Their taxonomy remains controversial, with species assignment often challenging and reliant upon knowledge of geographic origin as well as subtle morphological or leaf oil variation. In this paper we explore a classification for spotted gums without assuming predefined geographic or taxonomic groups, instead using genetic structure at microsatellite marker loci (n=9) and a Bayesian model-based clustering approach implemented in STRUCTURE software. The C. torelliana outgroup (n=21; Section Cadagaria) formed a well resolved cluster (min. pairwise Fst = 0.19). Four populations were evident within the spotted gums (n=93) but structure was weak (pairwise Fst range 0.13 -0.05). Geography, both distance and topography were major determinants of structure, with migration among populations approximating a linear stepping-stone model. Corymbia maculata was resolved as a taxon and had the greatest genetic distance to any other population (min pairwise Fst 0.08). Three clusters were evident within the northern taxa but alignment with taxonomic groupings was poor. Corymbia citriodora material from north of a major disjunction in Central Queensland formed a Northern population. Corymbia citriodora, C. variegata and C. henryi material from below this disjunction but north of the Border Ranges, formed a Central population, whereas a Southern population was comprised of C. variegata and C. henryi from predominately south of the Border Ranges. Fewer ambiguous assignments occurred using genetic rather than taxonomic groups for self classification of the spotted gum reference population.

Shepherd M, Kasem S, Ablett G, Ochieng JW, Crawford A. "Genetic structuring in the spotted gum complex (genus Corymbia, section Politaria)." Australian Systematic Botany . 2008;21:1-11.2008_shepherd_et_al_asb.pdf
Sherr K, Gimbel S, Rustagi A, Ruth Nduati, Cuembelo F, Farquhar C, Wasserheit J, Gloyd S. "Systems analysis and improvement to optimize pMTCT (SAIA): a cluster randomized trial." Implement Sci. 2014;9:55. Abstract

Despite significant increases in global health investment and the availability of low-cost, efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) in low- and middle-income countries with high HIV burden, the translation of scientific advances into effective delivery strategies has been slow, uneven and incomplete. As a result, pediatric HIV infection remains largely uncontrolled. A five-step, facility-level systems analysis and improvement intervention (SAIA) was designed to maximize effectiveness of pMTCT service provision by improving understanding of inefficiencies (step one: cascade analysis), guiding identification and prioritization of low-cost workflow modifications (step two: value stream mapping), and iteratively testing and redesigning these modifications (steps three through five). This protocol describes the SAIA intervention and methods to evaluate the intervention's impact on reducing drop-offs along the pMTCT cascade.

Sherrif SS, Madadi V. "Adsorption of Lambda Cyhalothrin onto Athi River Sediments: Apparent Thermodynamic Properties." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(3):568-574.
Shibairo SI, Upadhyaya MK;, Toivonen PMA. "Potassium Nutrition and Shelf Life of Carrots (Daucus carota L.).". 1996. Abstract

The effect of potassium (K) nutrition on the shelf life of carrots was studied using a hydroponics system involving rockwool slabs as support. Carrots were grown for 192 days under greenhouse conditions and supplied with 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 15 mm of K. Increase in K concentration in the nutrient medium decreased postharvest weight loss. Carrot weight and tissue K content increased and water potential, osmotic potential, and relative solute leakage decreased with increasing K concentration in the nutrient feed. Differences in postharvest weight loss were mainly associated to root weight and relative solute leakage. Root weight correlated negatively and relative solute leakage correlated positively to water loss. Water and osmotic potential also correlated to water loss, but not as strongly as root weight and relative solute leakage. These results suggest that K nutrition influences postharvest weight loss by influencing carrot size and membrane integrity. Effects on cell water and osmotic potential are also important in this regard but to a lesser extent.

Shibairo SI, Nyabundi JO, Otieno W. "Effects of Temperature on Germination of Seeds of Three Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajant Genotypes.". 1993. Abstract

Two sets of incubator experiments to determine the effects of temperature on germination of three pigeonpea genotype seeds were carried out in the Crop Science Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi. The pigeonpea genotypes were NPP 670, Katheka and Kioko. In the first set of experiments, the pigeonpea seeds were germinated at 15, 20,25,30,35 and 40°C in darkness. In the second set of experiments the seeds were germinated at different 12 hour day and 12 hour night temperature combinations of 15/15, 20/15, 25/15, 30/15, 20/20°C, 25/20, 30/20 and 35/20°C for day and night, respectively. A broad temperature range (20-35°C and 20/15°C to 30/20°C day/night) maximum 13-day germination was obtained for all genotypes. Overall genotype NPP 670 had the highest per cent germination while Kioko had the lowest. However, Kioko had the highest per cent germination at 15°e. Initial germination was delayed at 15°C and 40°C for all genotypes. Time to 50 per cent germination was only Significantly (P = 0.05) increased at 15°C. Maximum per cent germination was observed at 25°C. At 40°C, genotypes Kioko and Katheka seeds imbibed water at a faster rate and exuded brownish substances that started smelling after 36 hours. A bacterial ooze from the seeds was observed for genotype Ka theka at 30°C, 20/15 and 25/ 20°e. NPP 670 showed low amounts of the bacterial ooze at all temperatures. The bacteria fluoresced under ultraviolet light suggesting that they belonged to the Pseudomonadaceae family. The results showed that per cent germination of pigeonpea seeds is decreased by both low and high temperatures. Other factors which include presence of seed borne micro-organisms may also affect the germination of seeds

Shibairo SI, Upadhyaya MK, Toivonen PMA. "Effects of Moisture Loss on Water Potential Components and Tissue Deterioration in Carrots during Short-term Storage.". 1995. Abstract

Studies were carried out to understand the effects of moisture loss on water potential and root deterioration in carrot (Daucus carota L. `Eagle') roots during short-term storage. The roots were stored at various temperatures and relative humidities (RH) to provide 0.7 (low), 3 (medium), and 9 mbars (high) of water vapor pressure deficit (WVPD). Carrots at high WVPD lost the most weight, followed by those at medium and lowest WVPD. Water potential and osmotic potential of the carrot tissue at high WVPD did not change significantly up to 6 days, but decreased thereafter. There was no change in water potential and osmotic potential for carrots at medium and low WVPD. A significant quadratic relationship (P = 0.05, r = –0.764) between water potential and carrot root weight loss was observed. Relative electrolyte leakage increased over time in carrots at the high WVPD. At medium WVPD, relative electrolyte leakage did not change up to 6 days, but increased significantly thereafter. Carrots at the low WVPD did not change in relative electrolyte leakage. Relative electrolyte leakage and weight loss correlated positively (P = 0.05, r = 0.789). The results suggest that water stress during short-term storage causes tissue deterioration that may further increase rate of moisture loss and hence reduce the shelf life of carrots.

Shibairo SI;, Omuollo FM. "Postharvest handling of indigenous vegetable leaves.".; 2001.
Shibata S. "Unique vasocontraction of okadaic acid isolated from black sponge, independent of extracellular Ca2+." Blood Vessels. 1987;24(3):104-7. Abstract

Okadaic acid (OA) isolated from black sponge (Halichondria) caused tonic contractions of human umbilical arteries and rabbit aorta both in the presence and absence of Ca2+. This tonic contraction was not affected by Ca2+ chelator, Ca2+ entry blockers and La3+. In addition, the antagonists of alpha-adrenoceptors, histamine, serotonin and ACh receptors had no effect on the OA-induced contraction. High K, ouabain and indomethacin failed to inhibit the response to OA. However, the combination of anaerobic conditions and absence of glucose abolished the response to OA. OA had no effect on the myosin B ATPase and saponin-treated skinned fibers of rabbit aorta. The contractile action of OA may not also be related to calmodulin-related PDE and mitochondrial respiration. In conclusion, although the precise mode of action is not evident at the present time, OA, in its unique pharmacological action--that of producing sustained contraction independent of extracellular Ca2+--may alter the handling of Ca2+ to intracellular store sites.

Shideler SE, Munro CJ, Tell L, Owiti G, Laughlin L, Chatterton R, Lasley BL. "The relationship of serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations to the enzyme immunoassay measurements of urinary estrone conjugates and immunoreactive pregnanediol-3-glucuronide in Macaca mulatta.". 1990. Abstract

Paired urine and serum samples from four conceptive and six nonconceptive ovarian cycles of seven adult Macaca mullatta were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for circulating estradiol (E2) and progesterone (Po), and urinary estrone conjugates (E1C) and immunoreactive preganediol-3-glucuronide (iPDG) using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Nonconceptive cycles exhibited a fivefold increase in urinary E1C and serum E2 levels from follicular phase levels to the preovulatory peak. Linear correlation between urinary E1C and serum E2 nonconceptive cycle hormone levels was significant (P <0.01, r = 0.69). Luteal phase levels of iPDG and serum Po levels were approximately parallel in nonconceptive cycles. Similarly, conceptive cycle urinary E1C levels and serum E2 measurements had a correlation coefficient that was significant (P<0.01, r = 0.45). Nonconceptive and conceptive cycle iPDG and Po levels were significantly correlated (P = 0.05, r = 0.63, and P<0.01, r = 0.66, respectively). These data demonstrate that EIA measurements of ovarian hormones in daily urine samples can be used to accurately monitor ovarian function and early pregnancy in Macaca mulatta.

Shihembesha L. "Burnt Clay Waste as a Pozzolanic Material in Kenya." Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT. 2002;2002.
Shihembetsa DLU. "Examining Contemporary Housing for the Urban Poor: The case of Pumwani Housing. ." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies (IJCRS).. 2018;Volume-2,(Issue-9, September):201 (1-23). ISSN 0249-4655.
Shihembetsa L. "A study on Revitalisation of Municipal Council of Nakuru Rental housing." Housing and Building Research Institute. 1997; Jan 1997.
Shihembetsa DLU, Ketter GK. "MANAGING FLOODING IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS OF NAIROBI: A CASE STUDY OF SOUTH C." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge (IJIRK). . 2018;Vol-3, (Issue-9, September-2018 ):(27-43). ISSN-2213-1356.
Shihembetsa L, Agevi E, Tuts R. "Neighbourhood Units in Nairobi: A Survey of Bahati and Ofafa." HRDU. 1989.
Shihembetsa L. "Land Utilisation in Inner City Areas: The case of Nairobi Kenya in Forum." CARDO Research Group. 1992;(University of Newcastle Upon Tyne).
Shihembetsa DLU. "Provision of Low-Income Housing through National Cooperative Housing Union (NACHU) in Kenya: An appraisal of the Project Delivery Structures." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies (IJCRS). . 2018;Volume-2, (, Issue-8, August 2018):(66-80).
Shihembetsa LU. Factors in the provision of low income housing a case study of kariobangi .; 1985. Abstract

Housing for the low-income group has been and is still a major problem in the developing countries. More attention has been put on this problem by the world in.the recent years. Kenya being one of the developing countries faces this problem like any other developing country. The population growth rates In third world countries' cities is too high as compared to developed countries. This study looked at the factors in the provision of low-income housing and how these factors hinder the process of provision of shelter. The factors included inter alia, National Housing Policy, Land, Financial Resources, Construction costs and Building standards. These factors were analysed independently in the various chapters of this study and then findings we r e drawn. The findings were used as guidelines for the recommendations made. The study was organised in six chapters. Chapter one was an introduction, giving what the study was all about. Chapter two looked at the National Housing Policy of Kenya pointing out the weaknesses of the policy. The study found that the policy has vague, unrealistic and too ambitious

Shilabukha K. "Circumcision mask: Ingolole.". In: Hazina: Transittions, trade and tradtions in Eastern Africa. Nairobi and London: National Museums of Kenya and the British Museum; 2006.
Shilabukha K. "Indigenous knowledge, bio-diversity, technology and economic values: Rethinking the link.". In: The role of research and studies in the development of Africa and the African Diaspora. Lagos: CBAAC; 2007.indigenous_knowledge.pdf
Shilabukha K. "The Persistence of Female Genital Cutting Among the Abagusii and Maasai Communities of Kenya .". In: A Tapestry of Human Sexuality in Africa. Action Health Inc; 2010.
SHILANGALE RP, DI GIANNATALE E, CHIMWAMUROMBE PM, KAAYA GP. "Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Salmonella in Animal feed produced in Namibia. ." Veterinaria Italiana. 2012; 48 (2):125-132.
Shillington K. ""Urbanization, Housing and Environment".". In: (ed) Encyclopedia of African History. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers; 2007.
Shilo S, Werner D, Hershko C. "Acute hemolytic anemia caused by severe hypophosphatemia in diabetic ketoacidosis." Acta Haematologica. 1985;73:55-57. Abstract

Hypophosphatemia in diabetic ketoacidosis is well recognized, but is believed to be usually of moderate severity. We describe 2 patients in whom acute hemolytic anemia secondary to severe (0.19-0.35 mmol/l) hypophosphatemia has developed 1-2 days following treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis. Our experience indicates that severe hypophosphatemia requiring phosphate supplementation does occur in diabetic patients, and calls for increased awareness for the clinical and laboratory manifestations of this complication of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Shimizu M, Matsumoto T, Hirokawa M, Monobe Y, Iwamoto S, Tsunoda T, Manabe T. "Solid-pseudopapillary carcinoma of the pancreas." Pathology international. 1999;49:231-234. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Shiningavamwe AN, Obiero, G.O, Albetyn, K, Nicaud J-M, Smit MS. "Heterologous expression of the benzoate para-hydroxylase encoding gene (CYP53B1) from Rhodotorula minuta by Yarrowia lipolytic." Journal of Applied Biotechnology and Biotechnology. 2006;72:323-329.
Shinuo Cao, Gabriel Oluga Aboge MATMZYLLYYLYGKK. "Cloning, characterization and validation of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase of Babesia gibsoni as molecular drug target." Parasitology International. 2013;62(2013):87-94.dr._aboge_1.pdf
Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, R W Nduati, Githanga J, Wamalwa D. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2012. Abstract

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, R W Nduati, Githanga J, Wamalwa D. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, R W Nduati, Githanga J, Wamalwa D. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2012. Abstract

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, Nduati R, Obimbo E, D. W. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ." East Afr Med J. 2009 Dec;86(12 Suppl):S52-7.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital.
DESIGN:

Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control.
SETTING:

Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%.
RESULTS:

One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%.
CONCLUSIONS:

Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

PMID:
21591510
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Shisia KS, Murungi J, Nyambaka H, Jumba IO, Oduor FDO, Ngure V. "Soil-Plant composition in relation to mineral requirements for grazing cattle in Uasin Gishu District." Journal of Technology & Socio-Econmic Development. 2011;1(1).
Shisia KS, Nyambaka H, Oduor FDO, Ngure V. "Mineral deficiency diagnosis in grazing cattle of Usin Gishu District, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2012;4(13):229-233.
Shisia K. S1*, Ngure V 4, Oduor F. D. 0.3, Jumba I.O.3, Nyambaka H.2, Murungi J.2. "Soil-plant composition in relation to mineral requirements for grazing cattle in Uasin Gishu district." Journal of Technology & Socio - Economic Development. 2011;Volume 1 No.1(September 2011 Issue ):126. Abstract

Livestock industry is one of the major contributors to the country's GDP and provides one third of the total available food in the country. Mineral deficiencies and imbalances in soils and forages can be a challenge in relation to production in grazing cattle in developing countries. A number of factors influence the availability of such minerals in terms of proper growth and development of cattle. The study was done in selected parts of Uasin Gishu and revealed severe nutritional deficiencies in soils and forages. The study also revealed a number of factors that influenced mineral concentration in the region. The study has suggested recommendations to help identify and alleviate any constraints on animal health and production.
Key words Livestock industry, mineral deficiencies, soils, animal health and production

Shisia* KS, Nyambaka H, Jumba IO, Oduor FDO, Ngure V. "Minerals deficiency diagnosis in grazing cattle of Uasin Gishu District, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology . 2012;Vol. 4(13)(ISSN-2141-226X ©2012 Academic Journals):pp. 229-233. Abstract

Grazing cattle in the tropics and especially in Uasin Gishu district depend on a variety of plant species for their mineral supply. One area of concern is that the grazing cattle may be experiencing mineral imbalances due to lack of proper mineral mapping of the region to ascertain the levels of imbalance. A study conducted in the Uasin Gishu region revealed severe deficiencies of mainly Cu (3.30 ± 0.90) and Zn (6.70 ± 0.40) in soils, the elements Na (1.00 ± 0.39), K (11.80 ± 5.00), Ca (0.57 ± 0.19), Mg (1.35 ± 0.72), P (6.34 ± 3.22), Fe (56.00 ± 0.53), Cu (5.32 ± 2.84), Zn (19.50 ± 8.20) in pasture species and the elements Fe (2.43 ± 1.53), Mn (0.26 ± 0.14 ), Cu (0.60 ± 0.17), Mg (0.02 ± 0.01) in animal blood. The study recommends immediate mineral supplementation schemes to grazing cattle in the region and encouragement of certain pasture species in the region.

Shiundu PM, Munguti SM, Williams KRS. "Practical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation.". Submitted. AbstractPractical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

Modification of ionic strength of an aqueous or non-aqueous carrier solution can have profound effects on the particle retention behavior in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These effects can be considered as either advantageous or not depending on the performance criteria under consideration. Aside from the general increase in retention time of particulate material (latexes and silica particles), our experiments indicate improvement in resolution with increases in electrolyte concentration. Absence of an electrolyte in the carrier solution causes deviations from the theoretically expected linear behavior between the retention parameter l (a measure of the extent of interaction between the applied field and the particle) and the reciprocal temperature drop across the channel walls. A negative interaction parameter d of about 20.170 was determined for 0.105- and 0.220-mm polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in either a 0.25 or a 1.0 mM TBAPcontaining acetonitrile carrier and for 0.220 mm PS in 0.50 and 1.0 mM NaCl-containing aqueous medium. This work also demonstrates that optimum electrolyte concentrations can be chosen to achieve reasonable experimental run-times, good resolution separations, and shifts in the steric inversion points at lower field strengths, and that too high electrolyte concentrations can have deleterious effects such as band broadening and sample loss through adsorption to the channel accumulation surface. The advantages of using ionic strength rather than field strength to effect desired changes are lowered power consumption and possible application of ThFFF to high temperature-labile samples.

Shivoga WA, Muchiri M, Kibichi S, Odanga J, Miller SN, Baldyga TJ, Enanga EM, Gichaba MC. "Influences of Land Use/ Cover on Water Quality in the Upper and Middle Reaches of River Njoro, Kenya .". In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management . Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty LTD; 2007. Abstract

Data from 10 sampling sites along the River Njoro are used to examine the contribution of nutrients from upstream land uses draining each of the sampling sites. The data also are used to assess whether both the proportion of land uses and the size of the subwatersheds account for the variability in water quality in the River Njoro watershed. Geographical Information System analysis was used to determine the spatial distribution of land-cover types and subwatersheds contributing run-off to the sampling sites in the River Njoro. Standard Digital Elevation Model-based routines were used to establish the watershed area contributing run-off to each sampling site. Water and sediment samples were collected for chemical analysis, and the nutrient levels were related to the upstream land-use types and the size of the subwatersheds. The mid-stream portion of the River Njoro (near Egerton University) accounts for the highest nutrient contributions. The percentage contribution is magnified by additions from industrial, human settlements and agricultural land uses around the University. There is a significant decrease in nutrient levels downstream, however, indicating natural purification as the river flows through an area of large-scale farming with intense, well-preserved riparian and in-stream vegetation. Steep slopes of the land upstream of Egerton University enhance erosion and nutrient losses from those subwatersheds. Mixed small-scale agricultural and bare lands contribute over 55% of the phosphorus load to the upper and mid-reaches of the River Njoro. The size of the subwatershed accounts for about 53% of the variability in the soluble phosphorus in the river. The land~use subwatershed proportions are important for characterizing and modelling water quality in the River Njoro watershed. Upland land uses are as important as near-stream land uses. We suggest that conservation of intact riparian corridor along the river and its tributaries contributes significantly to natural purification processes and recovery of the ecological integrity of the River Njoro ecosystem.
Key words: Ecological integrity, ‘natural purification, nutrient levels, riparian zone, subwatersheds, upland land use, water quality.

Shivonga WA, Muchiri M, Kibichi S, Odanga J, Miller SN, Baldyga TJ, Gichaba CM. "Impact of land use on water quality in River Njoro Watershed, Kenya.". In: XX International Grassland Congress: Offered Papers. Wageningen- Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2005. Abstract

Keywords: upland land use, subwatershed, downstream water quality, riparian zone

INTRODUCTION

Water resources Within the River Njoro watershed have become degraded due to high population growth rate and change in land use upsetting environmental stability. Land cover classification using Landsat images (Baldyga et al., 2004) shows loss of about 20% of forested areas between 1986 and 2003 in the Watershed. The forested and large-scale farm areas have been converted mainly into srnall-scale mixed agriculture and human settlements. These changes have impacted negatively on the ecological integrity and hydrologic processes in the watershed (Shivoga. 2001) but little is known about the influence of specific land uses on water quality of the river.

Shivonje FM;, Okwach GM;, Kironchi G. "Soil crust formation as affected by slope gradient on clay soils of semi-arid Machakos District, Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Surface crusts formed by impact of raindrop restrict water infiltration into soil. The decrease in infiltration not only leads to an mcrease in surface flow and accelerated erosion, but also to reduced available water to plants. Upon drying the surface crust may impede plant emergence and growth, thereby reducing yield. This study was carried out with the aim of assessing the effect of slope gradient on crust properties with a view of developing elationships between crust formation and slope gradient when soil is subjected to natural rainfall. A surface of the top horizon (Ap) of a chromic Luvisol was exposed to rainfall at four slope gradients (1 %, 10%,20% and 30%) for two rain seasons. Crust thickness, crust strength and crust conductance were measured under various cumulative rainfall amounts. Thick and strong crusts were observed at the soil surface after the first rainfall event. Crust thickness and strength were significantly different (PO .05) between slope gradients, with crust formation being more pronounced at lower slop gradients (1% and 10 %) compared to higheI slope gradients (20% and 30%). Both crust thickness and strength followed a similar trend; as cumulative rainfall increased, they showed a slight increase after 2-3 storms, followed by a gradual decline as rainfall increased. Crust conductance was reduced by between 60% and 80% after the first ramfall event, and increased thereafter as the surface crust continued to decay with rainfall increase. Crust conductance was more strongly correlated to crust thickness (r

Shou TD, Liu H, Xue JT. "[{Binocular} competitive mechanisms in the visual cortex in early developing kittens of monocular deprivation and reverse suture revealed by pattern visual evoked potential]." Sheng li xue bao: [Acta physiologica Sinica]. 1994;46:281-287. Abstract

Using contrast reversing square- wave gratings as stimuli the pattern visual evoked potentials (P-VEP) and pattern electroretinograms (P-ERG) were simultaneously recorded to determine the spatial frequency tuning curves for kittens of monocular deprivation (from 8th to 12th postnatal week) and reverse suture (from 12th to 15th postnatal week), as compared with those of normal kittens of the same age and adult cats. The results showed that in the range from spatial frequency 0.12 to 1.5 c/d the amplitudes of P-VEP responses driven respectively by the left and the right eyes in normal kittens were similar but clearly smaller than those driven binocularly. For kittens with one eye deprived, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the deprived eye decreased markedly. In contrast, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the undeprived eye increased significantly, while the P-VEP amplitudes driven by simultaneous stimulation of both eyes were intermediate between the two monocular responses. For the reversely sutured kittens, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the formally deprived eye recovered to some extent, while the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the reversely sutured eye decreased, and their amplitudes tended to be quite close. The P-VEP amplitude driven by both eyes was the biggest. Neither such shift of spatial frequency tuning curves of the P-VEP in adult cats, nor such functional competition between the two eye in P-ERG responses during early development of kittens of monocular deprivation and reverse suture was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Shrestha KB;, Jha PK;, Suman S. Commercial distribution of tree seed in small bags - results from a pilot and action research project in Nepal.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Access to quality tree seed implies specific problems for tree planting farmers in developing countries. Since most of them are smallholders, they need only few seed. Distribution networks usually do not exist for such small quantities. In 2001 it was decided to test a new approach to distribution of tree seed on a pilot basis in Nepal: Commercial distribution of tree seed in small bags through commercial enterprises dealing with horticultural and agricultural seed. In Nepal, such enterprises are known as agro-vets. The development objectives were (a) to increase access to high quality tree seed for farmers, FUG and other small-scale tree-planters, and (b) to support the operations of two tree seed co-operatives, NAFSCOL-Kaski and NAFSCOL-Kabhre by contributing to their increased turnover. The research objectives were to assess the financial, viability and social biodiversity impact of the approach cf. the project description in annex 1. The pilot project ran from 2003-2004 and had two phases. During phase 1, the pilot project was prepared and implemented. Small bags were designed, produced and packed with tree seed from five different fodder species. Agro-vet dealers located in all the different regions of Nepal sold the bags. During phase 2, lessons learned from the pilot project were collected and analysed. Distribution channel: the pilot project confirms that agro-vets can work as channels for reaching small-scale tree planters. There is scope for developing the market further through advertisement and by targeting FUG more directly. Species: the project included five fodder tree species. The choice of these species was appropriate in the sense that the species sold well. Dealers and customers suggested more species to be included. Size of bags: two sizes of bags were produced and distributed with a view to testing which of them would be the most suitable. The smallest bags contained seed for 50 seedlings, the larger bags for 500. The smallest size appeared to be the most suitable, especially for private nurseries, farmers and other small-scale tree planters. The larger size was useful but not required for targeting large-scale tree planters. Design: dealers and customers appreciated the aluminium material and the colourful and attractive design of the bags. The design and the dealers helped convincing the customers to buy the seed. Information on the bags: the respondents found that the information printed on the bags was useful, but requested additional information on sowing season. Some dealers had ordered a second lot of small bags. These bags were not packed properly, which may have implied loss of credibility. Guidelines on germination: guidelines on how to make the seed germinate were elaborated as part of the project. Brochures containing the guidelines were added to the bags and distributed to dealers and other interested persons. Only few of the interviewed customers consulted the guidelines.

SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Prof Odingo, R S & Weere, WBS; Proposal on establishment of an Integrated Geographic and Environmental Information Systems .". In: presented during International donor Conferen. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Weere,WBS; Obel, J D:Integration of Technology and Business towards enhancement of Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya.". In: presented during International donor Conferen. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Obel, J D; Weere, WBS: Application of Geo-Information System for Conflict Resolution of disputed Boundary between Osilalei and Eselenkei Ranches;.". In: presented during the Kajiado District Heads. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Ayugi O.; Weere, W.B.S; Mwairo, J.M;Aerial Triangulation and Block Adjustment of Migori block with Independent Models.". In: published by Institute of Surveyors of Kenya. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Weere,WBS; Obel, J D:Integration of Technology and Business towards enhancement of Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya.". In: presented during International donor Conferen. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Obel, J D; Weere, WBS:Establishment of Geo- Information System to phases one and two boundary disputes; problem solving approach of Ewuaso Kedong Group Ranch Project.". In: presented during the Kajiado District Heads. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Weere, WBS: Draft Project Proposal on planning and Facility Management of research activities within Africa Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) setup.". In: published by Institute of Surveyors of Kenya. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
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Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Chege NC. "Molecular characterization and identification of biocontrol isolates of Trichoderma harzianum from Embu district, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2011;(13):81-90. Abstract

Species in the genus Trichoderma are important commercial source of several enzymes, biofungicides and growth promoters. The most common biological control agents of the genus are strains of T. harzianum, T .viride and T. viriens. In this study, sixteen selected isolates of T. harzianum from different land use types in Embu, Kenya were tested for antagonistic action against five soil borne phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp, Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp phaseoli and F. oxysporum f. sp Lycopersici) using dual culture assay and through production of non-volatile inhibitors. Seven isolates were further characterized using RAPD-PCR procedure to determine genetic variability. All T. harzianum isolates had considerable antagonistic effect on mycelial growth of the pathogens in dual cultures compared to the control. Maximum inhibitions occurred in Pythium sp-055E interactions (73%).The culture filtrates obtained from Czapek‟s liquid medium reduced the dry weight (mg) of the mycelia significantly while those from the potato dextrose broth showed minimum inhibition growth. Pythium sp. was most sensitive compared to other pathogens. Genetic similarities generated using Jaccard‟s coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.231 to 0.857 for isolates 055E, 011E, 010E and 015E. Since all T. harzianum isolates evaluated were effective in controlling colony growth of the soil borne pathogens both in dual cultures and in culture filtrates they could be tried as a broad spectrum biological control agent in the green house and under field conditions.

Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Chege NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma farzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research . 2010;1(3):47-54. Abstract

Species in the genus Trichoderma are important as commercial source of several enzymes and as biofungicides/growth promoters. The most common biological control agents of the genus are strains of T. harzianum, T. viride and T. viriens. In this study, sixteen selected isolates of T. harzianum from different land use types in Embu, Kenya were tested for anatognism against five soil borne phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp, Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp phaseoli and F. oxysporum f. sp Lycopersici) using dual culture assay and through production of nonvolatile inhibitors. Seven isolates were further characterized using RAPD-PCR procedure to determine genetic variability. All T. harzianum isolates had considerable antagonistic effect on mycelial growth of the pathogens in dual cultures compared to the controls. Maximum inhibitions occurred in Pythium sp- 055E interactions (73%).The culture filtrates obtained from Czapek’s liquid medium reduced the dry weight (mg) of the mycelia significantly while those from the potato dextrose broth showed minimum inhibition growth. Pythium sp was inhibited the most compared to other pathogens. Genetic similarities generated using Jacquard’s coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.231 between isolates 055E and 011E to 0.857 between isolates 010E and 015E. The technique of RAPD was efficient in demonstrating the DNA polymorphism in the isolates of T. harzianum tested showing intraspecific genetic variability. Since all T. harzianum isolates evaluated were effective in controlling colony growth of the soil borne pathogens both in dual cultures and in culture filtrates they could be tried as a broad spectrum biological control agent in the green house and under field conditions.

Siameto, E. N., Okoth, S.A, Amugune, N.O., Chege NC. "Molecular characterization and identification of biocontrol isolates of Trichoderma harzianum from Embu district, Kenya." . Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2011;13: 81-90.
Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Njoroge NC. "Molecular characterization and identification of biocontrol isolates of trichoderma harzianum from Embu district, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2011;13:81-90 .
Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Njoroge NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma farzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research . 2010;Vol. 1(3):47-54.
Siameto E. N., Okoth S, Amugune N. O, Chege NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research. 2010;1(3):47-54.
Siddiqui KA, Banerjee AK. "Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase activity of Rhizobium species." Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 1975;20(5):412-7. Abstract

FDP aldolase was found to be present in the cell-free extracts of Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium phaseoli, Rhizobium trifolii, Rhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium lupini, Rhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium species from Arachis hypogaea and Sesbania cannabina. The enzyme in 3 representative species has optimal activity at pH 8.4 in 0.2M veronal buffer. The enzyme activity was completely lost by treatment at 60 degrees C for 15 min. The Km values were in the range from 2.38 to 4.55 X 10(-6)M FDP. Metal chelating agents inhibited enzyme activity, but monovalent or bivalent metal ions failed to stimulate the activity. Bivalent metal ions in general were rather inhibitory.

Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Olago D, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. Abstract

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Siegel S. "Evidence from rats that morphine tolerance is a learned response." J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1975;89(5):498-506. Abstract

It is proposed that the direct analgesic effect of morphine becomes attenuated over the course of successive administrations of the narcotic by a conditioned, compensatory, hyperalgesic response elicited by the administration procedure, the net result being analgesic tolerance. Using the "hot plate" analgesia assessment situation with rats, this conditioning view of tolerance is supported by several findings: (a) It is necessary to have reliable environmental cues predicting the systemic effects of morphine if tolerance is to be observed, (b) a hyperalgesic conditioned response may be observed in morphine-tolerant subjects when drug administration cues are followed by a placebo, and (c) merely by repeatedly presenting environmental cues previously associated with morphine (but now presented with a placebo), morphine tolerance can be extinguished.

Siele DK, Owuor PO, Kavoi MM. "A Test for Relative Efficiency in the Smallholder Tea Sub-sector in Kenya.". 2001. Abstractabstract.pdfWebsite

Despite availability of tea growing technologies to all Kenya tea farmers, green leaf production in smallholder sub-sector remains low. Tea in Kenya is grown in the East of the Rift Valley and the West of the Rift Valley regions. It is assumed that tea farms behave according to a certain decision rule termed as profit maximization. The objective of this study was to estimate the profit function for tea farms in the two regions and to compare/test the relative economic efficiency between them. A profit function model was fitted on 212 smallholder farms. The dependent variable was gross margin per farm per year. The independent variables were: number of tea bushes per farm per year, cost of fertilizer (Kshs.) per hectare per year, labour wage rate (Kshs.) per man-day in each farm and a dummy variable where D=1 for east Rift and D=0 for west Rift. The results depicted that the coefficients of the number of bushes, fertilizer cost/ha/year and labour wage rate/man-day were all positive and significant at 1 percent level. It had been hypothesized that there is no efficiency difference between East of the Rift Valley and West of the Rift Valley in tea production. Hence the coefficient of the region dummy would be zero. The results rejected the hypothesis of equal efficiency between the two regions at 10 percent level. Further more, the positive sign of the dummy variable indicates that East Rift Valley tea farms are more economic efficient, at all observed prices of the variable inputs given the distribution of the fixed factors of production. It is concluded that East Rift Valley is more successful in responding to the set of prices it faces (Price efficiency) and /or has higher quantities of fixed factors of production including entrepreneurship (technical efficiency).

Sifuma J, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK, Thomas DB. "Planning irrigation cropping systems.". 1993. Abstract

Farmers of the Sagana irrigation project, Kenya, have identified fluctuating and low prices for their agricultural produce as their main constraint. This paper reports results from a study carried out to identify an alternative cropping system that could be used to optimize their returns by harvesting their crops when the market price is highest. The study shows that there is a complex interaction of factors affecting the selection of a cropping system: climatic, water requirements, marketing and farmer preferences. It also illustrates how proper planning of the cropping calendar can reduce irrigation water requirements and maximize project benefits.

Sifuna DN, Abagi O, Wasike NM. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among the Wardei of Kenya: Practice, Effects, and Prospects for Alternative Rites of Passage." Journal of Anthropological Research (Fall 2016), the University of New Mexico . 2016;(Summer).
SIFUNJO MRKISAKAERASTUS. "Monetary Theory and Practice, Open and Distance Learning Module.". In: Economic Bulletin, Vol. 14, No.2, pp. 1 . University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
This study examined the RWH using the run tests, Ljung-Box statistics, and the unit root tests. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing prices of the Ksh/UD dollar spot rate. The main finding of this study is that the RWH is strongly rejected at the 5% significance level. The results indicate that the rejections are due to autocorrelation in currency returns. The exchange rate tends to appreciate most of the time over the sample period. Therefore failure of the EMH could be due to exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena. The unit root tests showed that the exchange rate data is non-stationary while returns are stationary. Therefore the evidence strongly suggested that the foreign exchange market is not efficient.
SIFUNJO DRKISAKAERASTUS. Public Finance, Open and Distance Learning Module,. University of Nairobi Press; 2009. AbstractWebsite

This study examined the RWH using the run tests, Ljung-Box statistics, and the unit root tests. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing prices of the Ksh/UD dollar spot rate. The main finding of this study is that the RWH is strongly rejected at the 5% significance level. The results indicate that the rejections are due to autocorrelation in currency returns. The exchange rate tends to appreciate most of the time over the sample period. Therefore failure of the EMH could be due to exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena. The unit root tests showed that the exchange rate data is non-stationary while returns are stationary. Therefore the evidence strongly suggested that the foreign exchange market is not efficient.

SIFUNJO MRKISAKAERASTUS. "An Analysis of the Efficiency of the Foreign Exchange Market in Kenya.". In: Economic Bulletin, Vol. 14, No.2, pp. 1 . BEP Electronic Press; 2008. Abstract
This study examined the RWH using the run tests, Ljung-Box statistics, and the unit root tests. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing prices of the Ksh/UD dollar spot rate. The main finding of this study is that the RWH is strongly rejected at the 5% significance level. The results indicate that the rejections are due to autocorrelation in currency returns. The exchange rate tends to appreciate most of the time over the sample period. Therefore failure of the EMH could be due to exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena. The unit root tests showed that the exchange rate data is non-stationary while returns are stationary. Therefore the evidence strongly suggested that the foreign exchange market is not efficient.
Sigana DA. "The Reproductive biology of Thalamita crenata Latreille at Gazi Bay in Kenya.". In: Marine Science Development in Tanzania and Eastern Africa. Zanzibar Tanzania: Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K; 2001.
Sigana DA, Mavuti KM, Ruwa RK. The influence of environmental parameters on fish fauna of the Bahari ya Wali, Kilifi creek, Kenya.. AVU Hall Kenyatta University: Kenyatta University Department of Biological Sciences; 2006. Abstract

isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died.

Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;

Sigana DAO. "The breeding cycle of Scylla serrata (Forskal, 1755) at Ramisi River estuary, Kenya." Wetlands Ecology and Management. 2002;10(3): 257-263.Website
Sigana DOA. The biology of the mullets (Pisces: Mugilidae) from Kilifi, a tropical mangrove creek on the Kenya coast. Mavuti KM, Ruwa RK, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Sigana DA. "The Breeding cycle of Thalamita crenata Latreille, 1829 at Gazi Creek (Maftaha Bay), Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2002;1(2):145-153.Website
Sihanya B. "Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions in Kenya." Law Society of Kenya Journal . 2016;12(2):1-38.
Sihanya B. "Constitutional change of Government in Kenya: Constraints and Opportunities." Advocate magazine, the Law Society of Kenya. 2016:52-53.
Sihanya B. "Intellectual property. Access to Information in the Technical Age." Utafiti News a publication of the Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research Production and Extension), University of Nairobi. 2015;(3).
Sihanya B. "Understanding IP and related rights." Utafiti News a publication of the Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research Production and Extension), University of Nairobi. 2014.
Sihanya B. "Emerging electoral jurisprudence in Kenya and Nigeria." International Conference on Emerging Electoral Jurisprudence in Africa in Nigeria. 2018.
Sihanya B. "Rights in a performance in Kenya." South African Intellectual Property Law Journal . 2014:59-85.
Sihanya B. "The role of Intellectual Property in Collaborative Research." Utafiti News, magazine of the office of Deputy Vice Chancellor (DVC), Research Production and Extension (RPE) University of Nairobi. 2016.
Sihanya B. Copyright enforcement in Kenya.; 2002.
Sihanya B, Juma C. Policy options for scientific and technological capacity-building.; 1993. AbstractWebsite

The ability of policies on biodiversity prospecting to contribute over the long term to economic development, conservation and the equitable sharing of genetic resources is examined. Consideration is given to: national innovation policy and biodiversity, the linkage of biotechnology to biodiversity, biotechnology transfer, technology assessment, and blind alleys and windows of opportunity. The discussion underlines that biodiversity prospecting will not contribute much to developing countries unless it helps them accumulate technological capacity through training programmes and technology development through scientific innovation. In order that national biotechnology policies enhance biodiversity prospecting much attention needs to be paid to human resource development, technological innovation, legal and institutional reforms, biotechnology regulation and intellectual property management. The experiences of INBio (Costa Rica's National Biodiversity Institute), a pilot technology transfer project, are discussed

Sihanya B. "Stopping reversal of Constitutional and Corporate Governance." Advocate magazine, the Law Society of Kenya. 2016.
Sihanya B. "IP and Innovation for building sustainable cities and communities in Kenya and Africa." Utafiti News a publication of the Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research Production and Extension), University of Nairobi. 2018.
Sihanya B. "Introduction to Copyright." Utafiti News a publication of the Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research Production and Extension), University of Nairobi.. 2014.
Sihanya B. "Copyright in audio-visual works in Kenya.". Forthcoming.
Sihanya B. "Conduct of IEBC Commissioners key to just 2017 General Elections." The Advocate, Law Society of Kenya Magazine. 2017;1(8).
Sihanya B. "Stopping reversal of Constitutional and Corporate Governance." Advocate magazine, the Law Society of Kenya. 2016:52-53.
Sihanya B, Mute L. Code of Conduct for Community Broadcasting.; 1997.
Sihanya B. " “Mandate, institution, militarisation, misuse, trade and of the National Youth Service in Kenya” ." Advocate magazine, the Law Society of Kenya. 2015:26-27.
Sihanya B. Copyright in E-Commerce and Music Industry in Kenya.; 2009. AbstractWebsite

This chapter analyses copyright in the context of e-commerce in Kenya. It explores whether the music industry in Kenya is sufficiently protected in the digital era by focusing on five interrelated themes. Part One explores the interrelationship between e-commerce and intellectual property in Kenya. It discusses e-commerce in the context of patent, trade mark, trade secret and domain names. Part Two, Copyright law in e-commerce. It introduces copyright law; copyright in musical works; music in the Internet; the music industry in Kenya; legal dimensions of online music; and the challenges facing the music industry in Kenya.. Part Three explores copyright enforcement in Kenya with respect to civil and criminal remedies for copyright infringement as well copyright management organizations. We conclude Part Four critically

Sihanya B. "Understanding copyright." Utafiti News a publication of the Office of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research Production and Extension), University of Nairobi.. 2015.
Sihanya B. "Copyright law in Kenya .". 2010.Website
Sihanya B. Combating Counterfeit Trade in Kenya.; 2009. AbstractWebsite

Product counterfeiting and trade in counterfeit products, labels and packaging involve imitation of genuine products that are marketed under brand names.3 Counterfeit products are becoming a major problem to consumers, innovators and traders in Kenya and globally. Such imitations are usually clones or falsified products, labels and packaging designed to look like those of genuine products. The aim is to confuse or deceive consumers as to their quality, source, origin or legitimacy. Counterfeits are manufactured, processed or supplied by unscrupulous traders who infringe and unlawfully apply other corporations’ or individuals’ innovations and intellectual property (IP).4 The basic thesis in this Chapter is that although there are short-term gains to consumers and the Kenyan economy from counterfeiting, the medium and long-term losses are massive. This Chapter adopts a three-pronged strategy on combating counterfeiting in Kenya. First, I evaluate the nature and extent of counterfeit trade in Kenya in the context of trade liberalization and the development of an information society. I also assess the effects of counterfeit trade on the various economic players including consumers, innovators, traders, investors, and the Kenyan Government. Second, I evaluate the intellectual property regime in Kenya and how IP can combat counterfeiting. I then carefully examine the anti-counterfeiting law and enforcement mechanisms in Kenya, including their effectiveness in addressing the problem. Third, I explore how that law can be reformed to ensure sustainable development by protecting innovators, consumers and other stakeholders.

Sihanya B. Devolution and Education.; 2013.
Sihanya B. "Imitative innovation and innovative imitation in the age of bling in Kenya." University of Nairobi Law Journal. Forthcoming.
Sika JO, Gravenir FQ, Riechi A. "Rate and Trends of Academic Performance Index and Level of Subject Satisfactory Outcomes." Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 2013;4:127-133. Abstract
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Sikei, Geophrey; Mburu J; LJ. Rural households’ response to Fuelwood scarcity around Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya.; 2013. Abstract

The debate on forest degradation in Kenya is mainly concerned with the utilization and exploitation of forest resources. Of particular interest is fuelwood, whose scarcity is a major forest degradation concern. Fuelwood gathered from the forested commons is the most important source of domestic energy in the rural areas of many developing countries. For the case of Kakamega, as shown by this study, there is a declining trend in the availability of fuelwood. Despite this state, rural households still depend largely on it for energy provision in the face of limited options constrained by low capital base. This study sought to examine how these households cope with the existing scarcity of fuelwood. The study employed both primary and secondary sources of data. For primary data, a total of 140 households were selected and interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Response mechanisms were analyzed through descriptive methods by looking at collection attributes, use patterns and fuel saving technologies applied by households. Majority of households in Kakamega have resorted to planting trees on their own farms to ease problems of fuelwood shortage. Findings further reveal that households in their endeavor to circumvent the problem of continued scarcity, have resorted to poorer quality tree/bushes for fuelwood, alongside other innovative methods of responding to the fuelwood scarcity. With improved economic well being, households become less reliant on forests for their livelihoods. Since reduced forest reliance is positively related with reduced demand for forest products, the findings suggest complementarities between strategies aimed at poverty alleviation and those towards forest conservation.

Sikuku. "ICT Matters - Kenya." ICT consultancy. 2006;no 1(6). Abstract

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Sila, M. M. N, N. GH, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Steinernema kari and Heterobabditis indica against sweet potato weevil (Cylas punticollis )." agric entomology. 2003;2(5):23-25.
Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong'o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optional Conditions." Nanohybrids and Composites. 2019;25:32-45.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Acetet Buffer Media on Glassy carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Sila JM, Kiio I, Mwaura FB, Michira I, Abong'o D, Iwuoha E, Kamau GN. "Green Syntheis of Silver nanoparticles Using Eucalyptus Corymbia Leave Extract and Antimicrobial Applications." Journal of BioChemPhysics. 2014;22.
Sila MM, Nyamasyo GHN, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Steinernema kari and Heterobabditis indica against sweet potato weevil.". In: African Crop Science Society.; 2003.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Square wave Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin V in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate containing Media on Glassy Carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;40(1):220-233.
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "An Electro - Optical Study of the Dimensions and Electric Polarisability of Chloroplasts and Sub - chloroplast fragments.". In: Journal: Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics. UNR; 1984.
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI, SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Electric Field Light Scattering Studies on the Mechanisms of Orientation of Chloroplast fragments.". In: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium and School on Colloid and Molecular electro -optics. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991.
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Systemes Photosynthetiques Arficiels.". In: Conference. CEAER - UNR; 1983.
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Electro et Magneto - Optiques des solutions macromoleculaires.". In: Notes de Cours. UNR; 1990.
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Les Mecanismes de Transfert des Charges a travers les Membranes biologiques.". In: Conference. CEAER - UNR; 1980.
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI, SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Photo - electrochemical methods for the utilization of solar energy.". In: International Journal of Ambient Energy, U.K. UNR; 1986.
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Theorie Electromagnetique de Maxwell et ses Applications. Electrodynamique Relativiste.". In: Etudes Rwandaises. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993.
Silen W, Machen TE, Forte JG. "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa." Am. J. Physiol.. 1975;229(3):721-30. Abstract

It has been established that H+ secretion can be maintained in frog stomach in the absence of exogenous CO2 by using a nutrient bathing fluid containing 25 mM H2PO4 (pH approximately equal to 4.5) or by lowering the pH of a nonbuffered nutrient solution to about 3.0-3.6. Exogenous CO2 in the presence of these nutrient solutions uniformly caused a marked decrease in H+ secretion, PD, adn short-circuit current (Isc) and an increase in transmucosal resistance (R). Elevation of nutrient [k+] to 83 mM reduced R significantly but transiently without change in H+ when nutrient pH less than 5.0, whereas R returned to base line and H+ increased when nutrient pH greater than 5.0. Acidification of the nutrient medium in the presence of exogenous CO2 results in inhibition of the secretory pump, probably by decreasing intracellular pH, and also interferes with conductance at the nutrient membrane. Removal of exogenous CO2 from standard bicarbonate nutrient solution reduced by 50% the H+, PD, and Isc without change in R; K+-free nutrient solutions reverse these changes in Isc and PD but not in H+. The dropping PD and rising R induced by K+-free nutrient solutions in 5% CO2 - 95% O2 are returned toward normal by 100% O2. Our findings support an important role for exogenous CO2 in maintaining normal acid-base balance in frog mucosa by acting as an acidifying agent.

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