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Schroeder H. "S/A pivot in Toposa clause chaining.". In: Nilo-Saharan-Colloqium 2013. Cologne, Germany ; 2013.
Schroeder H. "The passive-enigma in Nilotic.". In: Passive in Southern and (other Nilotic languages). University of Nairobi, Kenya ; 2012.
Schumer M, Birger R, Tantipathananandh C, Aurisano J, Maggioni M, Mwangi P. "Infestation by a Common Parasite is Correlated with Ant Symbiont Identity in a Plant-Ant Mutualism." Biotropica. 2013;45(3):276-279. Abstract

In East Africa, up to four symbiotic ant species associate with the obligate myrmecophyte Acacia drepanolobium. These ant species differ in the extent to which they defend their host trees from both vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores, but other potential roles of ants in tree defense have not been studied. We investigate the distribution of a new species of parasitic midge targeting A. drepanolobium in a region where A. drepanolobium is inhabited almost exclusively by two ant species—Crematogaster nigriceps and C. mimosae. We find that the frequency of infestation correlates strongly with the identity of the ant occupant: trees inhabited by C. nigriceps are significantly less likely to be infested with parasitic midges. Although the two ant species responded similarly to simulated large herbivore disturbances, trees inhabited by C. nigriceps also had a lower invertebrate load than trees inhabited by C. mimosae. We suggest that differences in defensive behavior towards invertebrates could be one explanation of the observed differences in infestation of A. drepanolobium by parasitic midges.

Keywords:

Acacia ;
Crematogaster ;
gall midge;
herbivory;
Laikipia, Kenya;
myrmecophyte;
parasitism;
plant-ant interactions

Schwabbauer ML. "Use of the latent image technique to develop and evaluate problem-solving skills." Am J Med Technol. 1975;41(12):457-62. Abstract

This project involved designing, developing and evaluating a simulation module, utilizing the latent image technique. The general topic chosen for this simulation was the laboratory characterization of anemias. Target learner populations included medical technology students, physician assistant students, and pathology residents. Members of all three groups participated in the evaluation of the module and responded to its use in varied settings.

Schwabbauer ML. "Use of the latent image technique to develop and evaluate problem-solving skills." Am J Med Technol. 1975;41(12):457-62. Abstract

This project involved designing, developing and evaluating a simulation module, utilizing the latent image technique. The general topic chosen for this simulation was the laboratory characterization of anemias. Target learner populations included medical technology students, physician assistant students, and pathology residents. Members of all three groups participated in the evaluation of the module and responded to its use in varied settings.

Schwartz A, Pertsemlidis D, Inabnet III WB, Gagner M. Endocrine surgery. Taylor & Francis US; 2010. Abstract
n/a
Schwemer J. "Renewal of visual pigment in photoreceptors of the blowfly." Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 1984;154:535-547. AbstractWebsite

Spectrophotometric measurements of photoreceptors 1–6 in the blowfly demonstrate that rhodopsin undergoes a continuous renewal. This involves, in the dark, the slow degradation of rhodopsin whereas metarhodopsin is degraded at a much faster rate. The effect of light is to reduce the rate at which metarhodopsin is degraded, i.e. the rate is inversely related to the intensity of the light. Rhodopsin synthesis is dependent on the presence of 11-cis retinal which is formed via a photoreaction from all-trans retinal resulting from the breakdown of rhodopsin and/or metarhodopsin: the biosynthesis of rhodopsin is therefore a light dependent process. Light of the blue/violet spectral range was found to mediate the isomerization of all-trans retinal into the 11-cis form. It is proposed that this stereospecificity is the result of all-trans retinal being bound to a protein. On the basis of the results a visual pigment cycle is proposed.

P
Pope WH, Bowman CA, Russell DA, Jacobs-Sera D, Asai DJ, Cresawn SG, Jacobs WR, Hendrix RW, Lawrence JG, Hatfull GF. "Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity." Elife. 2015;4:e06416. Abstract

The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their genetic diversity is considerable, and there are 28 distinct genomic types (clusters) with related nucleotide sequences. However, amino acid sequence comparisons show pervasive genomic mosaicism, and quantification of inter-cluster and intra-cluster relatedness reveals a continuum of genetic diversity, albeit with uneven representation of different phages. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis shows that the mycobacteriophage population is not closed, and there is a constant influx of genes from other sources. Phage isolation and analysis was performed by a large consortium of academic institutions, illustrating the substantial benefits of a disseminated, structured program involving large numbers of freshman undergraduates in scientific discovery.

S
Scott A, Misiani HO, Zaitchik BF, Ouma GO, Anyah RO, Jordan A. "Inter-annual Variability of Temperature and Extreme Heat Events during the Nairobi Warm Season." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2016. AbstractSAO/NASA ADS Physics Abstract Service

Extreme heat events significantly stress all organisms in the ecosystem, and are likely to be amplified in peri-urban and urban areas. Understanding the variability and drivers behind these events is key to generating early warnings, yet in Equatorial East Africa, this information is currently unavailable. This study uses daily maximum and minimum temperature records from weather stations within Nairobi and its surroundings to characterize variability in daily minimum temperatures and the number of extreme heat events. ERA-Interim reanalysis is applied to assess the drivers of these events at event and seasonal time scales. At seasonal time scales, high temperatures in Nairobi are a function of large scale climate variability associated with the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) and Global Mean Sea Surface Temperature (GMSST). Extreme heat events, however, are more strongly associated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). For instance, the persistence of AMO and ENSO, in particular, provide a basis for seasonal prediction of extreme heat events/days in Nairobi. It is also apparent that the temporal signal from extreme heat events in tropics differs from classic heat wave definitions developed in the mid-latitudes, which suggests that a new approach for defining these events is necessary for tropical regions.

Scott, M.E., Maingi N, Prichard RK. "An interesting picture of anthelmintic resistance and fitness in Haemonchus contortus.". In: Meeting of the Canadian Society of Zoologists. North York, Ontario, Canada; 1989.
Scott, M.E., Maingi N, Prichard RK. "Moderate anthelmintic resistance reduces general fitness, but further anthelmintic selection improves fitness in Haemonchus contortus. .". In: Meeting of the American Association of Veterinary Parasitology, . Orlando, Florida, USA; 1989.
Scott AA, Misiani H, Okoth J, Jordan A, Gohlke J, Ouma G, Arrighi J, Zaitchik BF, Jjemba E, Verjee S, Waugh DW. "Temperature and Heat in Informal Settlements in Nairobi." PloS one. 2017;12(11). AbstractPLOS One

Nairobi, Kenya exhibits a wide variety of micro-climates and heterogeneous surfaces. Paved roads and high-rise buildings interspersed with low vegetation typify the central business district, while large neighborhoods of informal settlements or “slums” are characterized by dense, tin housing, little vegetation, and limited access to public utilities and services. To investigate how heat varies within Nairobi, we deployed a high density observation network in 2015/2016 to examine summertime temperature and humidity. We show how temperature, humidity and heat index differ in several informal settlements, including in Kibera, the largest slum neighborhood in Africa, and find that temperature and a thermal comfort index known colloquially as the heat index regularly exceed measurements at the Dagoretti observation station by several degrees Celsius. These temperatures are within the range of temperatures previously associated with mortality increases of several percent in youth and elderly populations in informal settlements. We relate these changes to surface properties
such as satellite-derived albedo, vegetation indices, and elevation.

Scott-Villier P, Ondicho T, Lubaale G, Ndungu D, Kabala N, Oosterom M. Roots and Routes of Political Violence in Kenya's Civil and political Society: A case Study of Marsabit County. London: IDS; 2014.
SD G, D P, Linden A AG, E B, J.F C, SR F, P J, M K, M L, F L, MA M, E O'F, S O, R R, F A. "A pilot comparison of standardized online surgical curricula for use in low- and middle-income countries." JAMA Surg. 2014;149(4):341-316.
Sebastian W, Justus S, Robinson M, Alex O. Promoting photovoltaic energy in Kenya through training.; 2013.
SEBITOSI, E. N., KAAYA, G.P., Young AS, AGBEDE RIS. "Lectins in brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus: Detection and partial characterization." International journal of Acarology. 1998;24:159-164.
SEBITOSI, E. N., KAAYA, G.P., MWOOTHE, T., WORZAMA S., AGBEDE, R. I. S. "Factors influencing vector/parasite transmission of Theileriosis in Africa.". In: Intern. Conf. Assoc. Institutions of Trop. Vet. Med. Harare, Zimbabwe ; 1998.
SEBITOSI EK, KAAYA GP. "Effect of bovine blood fractions on the infectivity of Theileria parva to bovine blood lymphocytes." Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia. 2006;3( 2):287-295.
SEBITOSI E, KAAYA GP. "Factors influencing transmission of Theileriosi in Africa.". In: The first Acarology Symposium. Pretoria, South Africa; 1998.
Secretary - Kachero F. Maintenance Policy. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.maintenance_policy.pdf
Seelig JM, Marshall LF, Toutant SM, Toole BM, Klauber MR, Bowers SA, Varnell JA. "Traumatic acute epidural hematoma: unrecognized high lethality in comatose patients." Neurosurgery. 1984;15:617-620. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Seifert AW, Kiama SG, Seifert MG, Goheen JR, Palmer TM, Maden M. "Skin shedding and tissue regeneration in African spiny mice (Acomys).". 2012. Abstract2012.skin_hedding_and_tissue_regeneration_in_african_spiny_mice_acomys..pdf

Abstract
Evolutionary modification has produced a spectrum of animal defence traits to escape predation, including the ability to autotomize body parts to elude capture. After autotomy, the missing part is either replaced through regeneration (for example, in urodeles, lizards, arthropods and crustaceans) or permanently lost (such as in mammals). Although most autotomy involves the loss of appendages (legs, chelipeds, antennae or tails, for example), skin autotomy can occur in certain taxa of scincid and gekkonid lizards. Here we report the first demonstration of skin autotomy in Mammalia (African spiny mice, Acomys). Mechanical testing showed a propensity for skin to tear under very low tension and the absence of a fracture plane. After skin loss, rapid wound contraction was followed by hair follicle regeneration in dorsal skin wounds. Notably, we found that regenerative capacity in Acomys was extended to ear holes, where the mice exhibited complete regeneration of hair follicles, sebaceous glands, dermis and cartilage. Salamanders capable of limb regeneration form a blastema (a mass of lineage-restricted progenitor cells) after limb loss, and our findings suggest that ear tissue regeneration in Acomys may proceed through the assembly of a similar structure. This study underscores the importance of investigating regenerative phenomena outside of conventional model organisms, and suggests that mammals may retain a higher capacity for regeneration than was previously believed. As re-emergent interest in regenerative medicine seeks to isolate molecular pathways controlling tissue regeneration in mammals, Acomys may prove useful in identifying mechanisms to promote regeneration in lieu of fibrosis and scarring.

Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Ojwang SB;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
Sekadde-Kigondu C, Mwathe EG, Ruminjo JK, Nichols D, Katz K, Jessencky K, Liku J. "Acceptability and discontinuation of Depo-Provera, IUCD and combined pill in Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

Sekadde-Kigondu C, Ndavi PM, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jensencky K, Ojwang SB, Gachara M. "A survey of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods among Kenyan medical doctors: secondary data analysis.". 1995. Abstract

This survey, conducted between October 1989 and March 1990, to determine the knowledge, attitude, practice, and provision of family planning of a sample of 376 Kenyan medical doctors, reports on the aspects of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods. Kenyan medical doctors had low-to-average knowledge of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of various medical conditions and the mechanism of action of steroidal contraceptives. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of various program methods was average to high. There was a linear relationship between monthly income and knowledge of effectiveness of OCs, according to which physicians earning more had less knowledge than their colleagues who earned less (Z = 2.318, p = 0.02). A stepwise unconditional logistic regression model showed that two variables, department where most work is performed and sex, are significantly associated with better knowledge. Use of these operational variables for assessing medical doctors' knowledge of FP methods gave a better resolution of the extent and perhaps the quality of counseling and advice they provided to their FP clients. At the same time, the need for update courses in FP for medical doctors is unquestionable and long overdue. author's modified author's modified

Sekadde-Kigondu C, Ndavi PM, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jensencky K, Ojwang SB, Gachara M. "A survey of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods among Kenyan medical doctors: secondary data analysis.". 1995. Abstract

This survey, conducted between October 1989 and March 1990, to determine the knowledge, attitude, practice, and provision of family planning of a sample of 376 Kenyan medical doctors, reports on the aspects of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods. Kenyan medical doctors had low-to-average knowledge of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of various medical conditions and the mechanism of action of steroidal contraceptives. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of various program methods was average to high. There was a linear relationship between monthly income and knowledge of effectiveness of OCs, according to which physicians earning more had less knowledge than their colleagues who earned less (Z = 2.318, p = 0.02). A stepwise unconditional logistic regression model showed that two variables, department where most work is performed and sex, are significantly associated with better knowledge. Use of these operational variables for assessing medical doctors' knowledge of FP methods gave a better resolution of the extent and perhaps the quality of counseling and advice they provided to their FP clients. At the same time, the need for update courses in FP for medical doctors is unquestionable and long overdue. author's modified author's modified

Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Seki M, Nawa H, Fukuchi T, Abe H, Takei N. "{BDNF} is upregulated by postnatal development and visual experience: quantitative and immunohistochemical analyses of {BDNF} in the rat retina." Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003:3211-3218. Abstract

PURPOSE. This study sought to elucidate changes in the levels and distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the retina throughout aging and depending on visual experience. METHODS. Protein and mRNA levels of BDNF were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Levels were assayed in the retinas of rats on postnatal day (P)2, P7, and P14 (approximate time of eye opening) and at 1 month (M), 3M, 8M, and 18M of age. Changes in BDNF expression and localization in the retina were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of monocular deprivation during infancy on retinal BDNF expression was also examined, by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. Both protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the rat retina increased after P14. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed

Semanyenzi SE, Karimurio J, Nzayirambaho M. "Prevalence and pattern of refractive errors in high schools of Nyarugenge District." Rwanda Med J. 2015;72(3):8-13.
Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
Senerwa DM;, Mutanda LN;, Olsvik O;, Gathuma JM. "An outbreak of diarrhea due to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in a nursery ward."; 1989.
Senerwa D, Mutanda LN, Gathuma JM;, Olsvik O. "Antimicrobial resistance of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains from a nosocomial outbreak in Kenya.". 1991. Abstract

The majority of the 78 enteropathogenic (EPEC) and the 151 non-EPEC Escherichia coli strains isolated from preterm neonates during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in a hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxaxole, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicillin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefotaxime, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E. coli analysed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns compared with 79% of non-EPEC strains which exhibited three resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between plasmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strains belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strains were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E. coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic treatment at all, died.

Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
Senerwa DM;, Mutanda LN;, Olsvik O;, Gathuma JM. "An outbreak of diarrhea due to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in a nursery ward."; 1989.
Senerwa DM, Sirma AJ, Lindahl JF, D G, EK K’ethe, Mtimet N. "Prevalence of aflatoxin in feeds and cow milk from five counties in Kenya (2016). ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16::1104-1121.
Seneveratne A, Absaloms H, Ginige T, Fry M. Effect of Timer Management on Protocol Execution Performance. Wollongong, Australia; 1993.
Senga J, Ndiritu M, Osundwa J, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Computer aided learning to link evidence to paediatric learning and practice: a pilot in a medical school in a low income setting.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Bridging the gap between research evidence and practice is problematic in low income settings. Wereport medical students' experience with a pilot computer aided learning (CAL) program developed to enable students to explore research evidence supporting national guidelines. We asked 50 students to enter data from pre-set clinical scenarios, diagnose the severity of pneumonia/asthma and suggest treatment and then compare their diagnosis and treatment with that suggested by a computer algorithm based on the guidelines. Links to evidence supporting the guideline-suggested diagnosis and treatment were provided. Brief evidence summaries and video clips were accessed by 92% of students and full text articles by 86%. The majority of the students showed an interest in the CAL approach and suggested the scope of the approach be expanded to other illnesses. Such a system might provide one means to help students understand the link between research and policy and ultimately influence practice.

Sengpiel F, Kind PC. "The {Role} of {Activity} in {Development} of the {Visual} {System}." Current Biology. 2002;12:R818-R826. AbstractWebsite

Neuronal activity is important for both the initial formation and the subsequent refinement of anatomical and physiological features of the mammalian visual system. Here we examine recent evidence concerning the role that spontaneous activity plays in axonal segregation, both of retinogeniculate afferents into eye-specific layers and of geniculocortical afferents into ocular dominance bands. We also assess the role of activity in the generation and plasticity of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex. Finally, we review recent challenges to textbook views on how inputs representing the two eyes interact during the critical period of visual cortical plasticity.

Sengpiel F, Kind PC. "The role of activity in development of the visual system." Current biology: CB. 2002;12:R818-826. Abstract

Neuronal activity is important for both the initial formation and the subsequent refinement of anatomical and physiological features of the mammalian visual system. Here we examine recent evidence concerning the role that spontaneous activity plays in axonal segregation, both of retinogeniculate afferents into eye-specific layers and of geniculocortical afferents into ocular dominance bands. We also assess the role of activity in the generation and plasticity of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex. Finally, we review recent challenges to textbook views on how inputs representing the two eyes interact during the critical period of visual cortical plasticity.

Sequeira RF;, Ojiambo HP. "The heart in pregnancy.". 1969.
Serem, J.K., Wahome, R.G., Gakuya, F., Kiama, S.G. Growth Performance and Feed Conversion Efficiency of Pigs Supplemented with Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MOLM). Bibliotheca, Alexandria, Egypt: TWAS; 2016.
Serem JK, G WR, DW G, SG K, G GC, DW O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
Serem JK, Wahome RG, D.W. Gakuya, S.G.Kiama, G.C.Gitao, D, W O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal health . 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
Serem 1 JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya. Nyeri, Kenya: APSK; 2012.
Serem, J.K., Wahome, R.G., Gakuya, F., Kiama, S.G. Potentials of Moringa oleifera as a Pig Feed Ingredient in Kenya. The Imperial Royale Hotel, Kampala Uganda: RISE AFNETT; 2015.
Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. "Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications. 2013;2(3):155-159.
Serem 1 JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. Challenges facing small holder rabbit production in Kenya. Entebbe Uganda: ACSS; 2013.
Serem Jared K., John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets Global Veterinaria 19 (1): 478-486, .". 2017.
Sereti DK. "Benchmarking." KASNEB Newsline. 2012;(Issue No. 1, January-March):3-7.
Sereti DK. "Time Management." KASNEB Newsline. 2011;(Issue No. 3, July-September):32-35.
Sereti DK. "Creating a Sustainable Competitive Advantage." KASNEB Newsline. 2010;(Issue No. 4, October- December):3-11.
Sernagor E, Grzywacz NM. "Influence of spontaneous activity and visual experience on developing retinal receptive fields." Current Biology. 1996;6:1503-1508. AbstractWebsite

Background The role played by early neural activity in shaping retinal functions has not yet been established. In the developing vertebrate retina, ganglion cells fire spontaneous bursts of action potentials before the onset of visual experience. This spontaneous bursting disappears shortly after birth or eye opening. In the present study, we have investigated whether the outgrowth of receptive fields in turtle retinal ganglion cells is affected by early spontaneous bursting or by early visual experience. Results Ganglion cells normally stop bursting spontaneously 2–4 weeks posthatching, the time when receptive-field areas reach adult size. When turtles are reared in the dark, the spontaneous bursting persists. Concomitantly, receptive-field areas expand to more than twice those observed in normal adults. To test whether chronic blockade of spontaneous bursting inhibits the expansion of developing receptive-field areas, we have exposed the retina to curare, a nicotinic cholinergic antagonist, because spontaneous bursting by ganglion cells requires acetylcholine. Curare was released from Elvax, a slow-release polymer that was implanted in the eye. When spontaneous bursting was chronically blocked with curare in hatchlings, dark-induced expansion of receptive fields was abolished. Moreover, receptive fields of ganglion cells exposed to curare in hatchlings reared in normal light and dark cycles were smaller than normal. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that early, acetylcholine-dependent spontaneous bursts of activity control the outgrowth of receptive-field areas in retinal ganglion cells. The onset of visual experience induces the disappearance of the immature spontaneous bursts, resulting in the stabilization of receptive-field areas to their mature size.

Serra AJ, McNicholas KW, Olivier HF, Boe SL, Lemole GM. "The choice of anticoagulation in pediatric patients with the St. Jude Medical valve prostheses." J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 1987;28(5):588-91. Abstract

Between February 1982 and January 1984 27 St. Jude Medical cardiac valve prostheses were implanted in 24 children ranging in age from 5 to 20 years (mean 12.38 years). There were 10 isolated aortic valve replacements, 14 isolated mitral valve replacements and one triple valve replacement (aortic, mitral and tricuspid). There was one operative and four late deaths. All patients were maintained on Aspirin and Dipyridamole from the early postoperative period. There were six documented thromboembolic events occurring in five patients. There were 0.68 thromboembolic events per patient year in the aortic valve group and 0.19 events in the mitral valve group. Because of the significant incidence of thromboembolic events in our patients, we now recommend universal anticoagulation with Coumadin in all pediatric age patients in whom the St. Jude Medical prosthesis is implanted.

Seth D. Goldstein, MD1; Dominic Papandria MD2; ALMDMPH3;, ani Georges Azzies, MD4; Eric Borgstein FRCS5; CMD6; SFMDMPH7; PJMBCB;RG, Mary Klingensmith, MD9; Mohamed Labib10 FLMD; MMMD11; EO’F12; RRMDMPH7;A, Fizan Abdullah, MD PD1. “Innovative approaches to educating the global surgical worldforce: A pilot camparison of online curricula for use in low and middle income countries”.; Submitted.
Setty SNRS, Katikireddi RS. "Morphometric {Study} of {Human} {Cadaveric} {Caecum} and {Vermiform} {Appendix}." International Journal of Health Sciences and Research (IJHSR). 2013;3:48-55. AbstractWebsite
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Setty SNRS, Katikireddi RS. "Cadaveric study of arterial pattern of caecum and vermiform appendix - research article." International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2013;5:73-75. AbstractWebsite
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A
Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Muinga N, Edwards T, Allen E, Maleche-Obimbo E, English M. "Oral amoxicillin versus benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia among kenyan children: a pragmatic randomized controlled noninferiority trial." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2015;60(8):1216-24. Abstract

There are concerns that the evidence from studies showing noninferiority of oral amoxicillin to benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia may not be generalizable to high-mortality settings.

Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Muinga N, Edwards T, Allen E, Maleche-Obimbo E, English M. "Oral amoxicillin versus benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia among kenyan children: a pragmatic randomized controlled noninferiority trial." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2015;60(8):1216-24. Abstract

There are concerns that the evidence from studies showing noninferiority of oral amoxicillin to benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia may not be generalizable to high-mortality settings.

S
Sewe SO, Mung'atu JK. "Modelling Time Varying Dependence of Financial Time Series: A Copula Approach." International Journal of Statistics and Economics. 2015;16(1):1-15. Abstract

Dependence between financial markets is a key concern for investors who seek to diversify their portfolios as they manage risks arising as a result of their investment decisions. In this paper we apply the copula theory to model dependence between the equity and the exchange rate markets of Kenya. We use the Semi Parametric Copula Based Multivariate Dynamical (SCOMDY) model proposed by (Chen and Fan, 2006) to estimate the dependence between these two markets. Using the moving window maximum likelihood estimation technique, we extend the SCOMDY estimator to capture time variation in the dependence. Our findings point to symmetric dependence in the markets. Amongst the parametric copula models fitted into the data, the t copula with 10 degrees of freedom is found to be the most appropriate for capturing the static dependence over the entire study period. Extreme value dependence is also present in the bivariate series whereby both markets rise and fall during periods of boom and bust. The hypothesis of homogeneity in dependence is rejected in all but three trading periods, pointing to the insufficiency of static parametric copula models to capture the dependence.

Sewe S, Ngare P, Weke P. "Credit Scoring with Ego-Network Data." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(3):522-534. AbstractWebsite

This article investigates a stochastic filtering problem whereby the bor-rower’s hidden credit quality is estimated using ego-network signals. The hidden credit quality process is modeled as a mean reverting Ornstein-Ulehnbeck process. The lender observes the borrower’s behavior modeled as a continuous time diffusion process. The drift of the diffusion process is driven by the hidden credit quality. At discrete fixed times, the lender gets ego-network signals from the borrower and the borrower’s direct friends. The observation filtration thus contains continuous time borrower data augmented with discrete time ego-network signals. Combining the continuous time observation data and ego-network information, we derive filter equations for the hidden process and the properties of the conditional variance. Further, we study the asymptotic properties of the conditional variance when the frequency of arrival of ego-network signals is increased.

SG D. "Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry4th Edition, New Dehli, 2012, (Contribution to of chapter 28).". In: Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry. New Dehli: Arya (Med) Publishing House,; 2012.
Shabiby M, Karanja JG, Odawa F, Kosgei R, Kibore MW, Kiarie JN, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie. "Factors influencing uptake of Contraceptive implants in the immediate postpartum period among HIV infected and uninfected women in two Kenyan District Hospitals BMC Women’s Health." Factors influencing uptake of Contraceptive implants in the immediate postpartum period among HIV infected and uninfected women in two Kenyan District Hospitals BMC Women’s Health. 2015; 2015, 15: 62 .
Shadrack WM, Joseph OO. "Top Management Team Characteristics, Strategy Implementation and Performance of Tea Factory Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Research in Business & Technology. 2016;7(3):948-958.wasike_and_owino_2016_441948-957.doc
Shah PS. "The Mahogany Tree." African Fund for Endangered Wildlife 2 (2003):12.the_mahogany_tree.pdf
Shah PS, Irandu, Evaristus M. "The role of ecotourism in promoting women empowerment and community development: some reflections from Kenya.". In: Understanding oneself and the others: New Domestic and international Tourism Practices and the promotion of Heritage and Tourism in East Africa. French Institute of Research in Africa (IFRA); 2014.
Shah P, mwaura F, Moronge JM. "Gender Perspective in Water Conservation in Schools in Kenya: The case of a Junior School in Kenya." Hekima. 2014;Volume VI(Issue No. 1):pp 42-51.
Shah PS, Moronge JM. "Gender Perspective in Water Conservation in Schools in Kenya: The Case of a Junior School in Nairobi, Kenya." Hekima Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi. 2014;VI(1):42-51.
Shah PS. "Why learning institutions should carry out regular environmental audits." AFEW Giraffe News 14, 2012 (2012):21-22.
Shah P. "The role of Oshwal Community in Environmental Management." OERB Reach 16 (2013):76-77.
Shah PS. "Human dimensions of Biodiversity." OERB Reach No 16 (2013):14-18.
Shah PS, Irandu. EM. Ecotourism as a strategy for promoting conservation of biodiversity in Tana River County. Mombasa, Kenya: National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Wetlands International, University of Nairobi; 2014.
Shah K;, Choge S;, Wahome R;, Muchiri MN;, Kamondo B;, Ochieng D;, Wanjiku J. "Use of prosopis pods in livestock feeds industry: challenges and way forward.".; 2009. Abstract

Prosopis ('Mathenge') is now a common tree species in northern, northeastern and coastal districts of Kenya. From experience, managing the spread of Prosopis appears to be heavily dependent on the level of human interventions at seed stage. In absence of any intervention, the seed forms the main source of spread of the species. Due to the potential of Prosopis particularly prosopis pods to be utilized as a feed resource for livestock production, ILRI, in consultation with KEFRI, Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) and the Department for International Development (DFID) took the initiative to convene a national workshop in March 2007. The workshop theme was to link industry to the Prosopis resource. Its objectives were to bring together representatives of the Livestock Feeds Industry, researchers, developers, communities, local administration and other stakeholders to share local and international experience in the use of Prosopis as a feed resource and generate novel initiatives to catalyze the interest of feed companies on the use of prosopis pods as cost effective ingredient in the formulation of livestock feeds. This paper provides the results of the experiences of collecting, transporting and processing of prosopis pods in Kenya for the last one year. Recommendations towards community mobilization, pricing and promotion on the use of prosopis pods in Kenya's livestock feeds industry are highlighted.

Shah PS. "The current scenario of Lake Naivasha." OERB Reach 16 (2013):84-88.
Shah PS. "Life of Wangari Maathai." OERB Reach 16 (2013):9-11.
Shah PS. "Vanishing trees- The sad story of life." African Fund for Endangered Wildlife 2 (2003):11.vanishing_trees-_sad_story_of_life.pdf
Shah PS, Irandu EM. "The potential and challenges of promoting ecotourism in Kenya’s Wetlands.". In: Building communities, saving nature . Strathmore University, Centre for Tourism and Hospitality; 2014.
Shah P, mwaura F, Moronge J. Environmental Audits and Education Institutions. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Shah A, Fawole B, M'imunya JM, Amokrane F, Nafiou I, Wolomby JJ, Mugerwa K, Neves I, Nguti R, Kublickas M, Mathai M. "Cesarean Delivery Outcomes From The Who Global Survey On Maternal And Perinatal Health In Africa.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between cesarean delivery rates and pregnancy outcomes in African health facilities. METHODS: Data were obtained from all births over 2-3 months in 131 facilities. Outcomes included maternal deaths, severe maternal morbidity, fresh stillbirths, and neonatal deaths and morbidity. RESULTS: Median cesarean delivery rate was 8.8% among 83439 births. Cesarean deliveries were performed in only 95 (73%) facilities. Facility-specific cesarean delivery rates were influenced by previous cesarean, pre-eclampsia, induced labor, referral status, and higher health facility classification scores. Pre-eclampsia increased the risks of maternal death, fresh stillbirths, and severe neonatal morbidity. Adjusted emergency cesarean delivery rate was associated with more fresh stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and severe neonatal morbidity--probably related to prolonged labor, asphyxia, and sepsis. Adjusted elective cesarean delivery rate was associated with fewer perinatal deaths. CONCLUSION: Use of cesarean delivery is limited in the African health facilities surveyed. Emergency cesareans, when performed, are often too late to reduce perinatal deaths.

Shah P. "Facts about water in Africa." OERB Reach 16 (2013):16.
Shah K, Butt FMA DIEA. "Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic tumour: Pindborg Tumour." Anat Journal of Africa. 2013;2:135-136.pindborg_2013.pdf
Shah. P. and Irandu. E. "Ecotourism: The case of Karura Forest, Nairobi." African Journal of Tourism and Hospitality. 2015;Volume 2(2):21-40.
Shahmanesh M, Wayal S, Cowan F, Mabey D, Copas A, Patel V, Ngugi EN. "Suicidal behavior among female sex workers in Goa, India: the silent epidemic.". 2007. Abstract

Given that sex work is stigmatized In more countries Ihan not, it is likely to cause stress and increase sUicidal behaviour. This is significant and Iherefore the interventions should also include psychosocial counselling in order to support the sex workers' coping mechanisms. The findings of this study show that sooro-eccoormc empowerment reduces HIV risks in female sex workers who are from a low socio-economic class. My experience too has shown thai an empathetic attitude from care providers increases the sex-workers' self-worth and therefore the ability to cope. Studies have shown that female sex work in Africa, part of ASia and some inner cities of developed countries is poverty-driven. The majority of women are really practising survival as they also have children to feed, clothe and send to school. My experience in Kenya is that the interaction between poverty and stigma increases stress and therefore SUicidal tendency. The added problem is when the female sex worker would also turn out to be HIV-infected. Holistic and responsive interventions are recommended for quality mental health in female sex workers A major question that still remains IS how can poverty-driven sex work be effectively reduced. A limitation of the study is that the study population size was not sufficiently large to allow generalization. For further reading please see ret (1}. on which I am an author. whose results give female sex workers power to reduce dependency on sex income or exit.

Shaka M, Dulo SO, wycliffe S, Joseph K, Timothy I, James K, Paul K, Patrick O, simon G, Victor K, Roseln O, Deksios T. "Flood And Drought Forecasting And Early Warning Program (For The Nile Basin).".; 2005.
Shakur H, Roberts I, Fawole B, Chaudhri R, El-Sheikh M, desina Akintan, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Kidanto H, Vwalika B, Abdulkadir A, Etuk S, Noor S, Asonganyi E, Alfirevic Z, Beaumont D, Ronsmans C, Arulkumaran S. "Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Summary
Background
Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of
tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration
of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage.
Methods
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a
clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries.
We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual
care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of
tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box
containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those
assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15
000 women with a composite primary
endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became
apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although
tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore
increased the sample size from 15
000 to 20
000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of
death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with
ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283.
Findings
Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20
060
women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive
tranexamic acid (n=10
051) or placebo (n=10
009), of whom 10
036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis.
Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10
036 patients
vs
191
[1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given
treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group
vs
127 [1·7%] in the placebo group,
RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group
vs
351 [3·5%] in the placebo
group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group
vs
546 [5·5%]
in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did
not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group.
Interpretation
Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no
adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as
possible after bleeding onset.
Funding
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Shanmugam KT, Chan I, Morandi C. "Regulation of nitrogen fixation. Nitrogenase-derepressed mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;408(2):101-11. Abstract

1. A new procedure is described for selecting nitrogenase-derepressed mutants based on the method of Brenchley et al. (Brenchley, J.E., Prival, M.J. and Magasanik, B. (1973) J. Biol. Chem. 248, 6122-6128) for isolating histidase-constitutive mutants of a non-N2-fixing bacterium. 2. Nitrogenase levels of the new mutants in the presence of NH4+ were as high as 100% of the nitrogenase activity detected in the absence of NH4+. 3. Biochemical characterization of these nitrogen fixation (nif) derepressed mutants reveals that they fall into three classes. Three mutants (strains SK-24, 28 and 29), requiring glutamate for growth, synthesize nitrogenase and glutamine synthetase constitutively (in the presence of NH4+). A second class of mutants (strains SK-27 and 37) requiring glutamine for growth produces derepressed levels of nitrogenase activity and synthesized catalytically inactive glutamine synthetase protein, as determined immunologically. A third class of glutamine-requiring, nitrogenase-derepressed mutants (strain SK-25 and 26) synthesizes neither a catalytically active glutamine synthetase enzyme nor an immunologically cross-reactive glutamine synthetase protein. 4. F-prime complementation analysis reveals that the mutant strains SK-25, 26, 27, 37 map in a segment of the Klebsiella chromosome corresponding to the region coding for glutamine synthetase. Since the mutant strains SK-27 and SK-37 produce inactive glutamine synthetase protein, it is concluded that these mutations map within the glutamine synthetase structural gene.

Shanower TG,; Ongaro JM;;, Nderitu JH, Songa J. "Natural enemies associated with arthropod pests of pigeon pea in Easter Africa. International Chickpea and Pigeon pea .". In: Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics . JKUAT; 2001.
Share JB. "Review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome persons." Am J Ment Defic. 1976;80(4):388-93. Abstract

A review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome individuals was presented. Drugs used to modify behavior, as well as drugs used with the goal of affecting cognitive processes, were discussed. Some observations were offered as to the effectiveness of past and current drugs on Down's syndrome and some methodological problems relating to drug studies presented. There have not been any drugs that have demonstrated remarkable improvement in the status of Down's syndrome individuals that have been widely accepted as effective.

Share JB. "Review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome persons." Am J Ment Defic. 1976;80(4):388-93. Abstract

A review of drug treatment for Down's syndrome individuals was presented. Drugs used to modify behavior, as well as drugs used with the goal of affecting cognitive processes, were discussed. Some observations were offered as to the effectiveness of past and current drugs on Down's syndrome and some methodological problems relating to drug studies presented. There have not been any drugs that have demonstrated remarkable improvement in the status of Down's syndrome individuals that have been widely accepted as effective.

Sharif SK. Autoimmune Profile In Insulin' Dependent Diabetes Mellitus At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1985. Abstract

131 patients with IDDM attending K.N.H. were studied.
The mean age of onset of IDDM was 20.1 years. There
was a male predominance with M:F ratio of 1.4:1 There
was a low prevalence of IDDM among first degree
relatives of diabetic probands. Definitive history of
viral infection preceding the onset of IDDM was found in
one patient. None of the patients had thryroglobulin
antibodies; thyroid microsomal antibodies were found in
0.7% of the patients. Parietal cell antibodies were
found in 4.6% of the patients. Islet cell antibodies
were found in 3.7% of patients with IDDM.· The prevalence
of autoantibodies in Kenyan Africans with IDDM is much
lower when compared with Caucasians and Black Americans
with IDDM. In view of the low prevalence of autoantibodies
in Kenyan Africans with IDDM, primary autoimmune diabetes
mellitus is considered rare in Kenyan Africans with IDDM.

Sharma SB, Gupta V. "Acute appendicitis presenting as acute hemiscrotum in a boy." Indian journal of gastroenterology: official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology. 2004;23:150. Abstract

A 6-year-old boy presented with diffuse abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting followed by features of acute scrotum. Laboratory and radiological evaluation suggested presence of infective pathology in the inguinoscrotal region. Surgical exploration revealed patent right processus vaginalis with purulent collection resulting from the presence of perforated tip of appendix in the hernial sac. Appendectomy with drainage of scrotal collection and ligation of hernial sac resulted in satisfactory recovery.

Sharma TC, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK. "A Markov model for critical dry and wet days in Kibwezi, Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

The role of probability theory in providing information on the critical dry and wet periods using daily rainfall data was studied. The methodology was illustrated using the daily rainfall data from Kibwezi rainfall station, Kenya, with 55 years of records. The theory of runs, conditional probability, Poisson probability density and Chi-square statistics were used in the analysis. The model performed well and simulated the critical dry and wet periods (days) adequately. Results showed that one may expect the critical dry period to be about 24 and 12 days during the long and short rainy seasons, resp. Similarly, the critical wet spell is expected to last for 5 and 6 days, resp. It is suggested that drought analysis in the Kibwezi region should be based on the dry periods of the long rainy season, and runoff, soil erosion and rain harvesting analysis on the wet periods of the short rainy season.

Sharma RK, O’Leary TE, Fields CM, Johnson DA. "Development of the outer retina in the mouse." Developmental Brain Research. 2003;145:93-105. AbstractWebsite

Mice represent a valuable species for studies of development and disease. With the availability of transgenic models for retinal degeneration in this species, information regarding development and structure of mouse retina has become increasingly important. Of special interest is the differentiation and synaptogenesis of photoreceptors since these cells are predominantly involved in hereditary retinal degenerations. Thus, some of the keys to future clinical management of these retinal diseases may lie in understanding the molecular mechanisms of outer retinal development. In this study, we describe the expression of markers for photoreceptors (recoverin), horizontal cells (calbindin), bipolar cells (protein kinase C; PKC) and cytoskeletal elements pivotal to axonogenesis (beta-tubulin and actin) during perinatal development of mouse retina. Immunocytochemical localization of recoverin, calbindin, PKC and beta-tubulin was monitored in developing mouse retina (embryonic day (E) 18.5 to postnatal day (PN) 14), whereas f-actin was localized by Phalloidin binding. Recoverin immunoreactive cells, presumably the photoreceptors, were observed embryonically (E 18.5) and their number increased until PN 14. Neurite projections from the immunoreactive cells towards the outer plexiform layer (OPL) were noted at PN 0 and these processes reached the OPL at PN 7 coincident with histological evidence for the differentiation of the OPL. Outer segments, all the cell bodies in the ONL, as well as the OPL were immunoreactive to recoverin at PN 14. Calbindin immunoreactive horizontal cells were also present in E 18.5 retinas. These cells became progressively displaced proximally as the ONL developed. A calbindin immunoreactive plexus was seen in the OPL at PN 7. PKC immunoreactive bipolar cells developed postnatally, becoming distinguished at PN 7. Both beta-tubulin and actin immunoreactive cells were present in the IPL as early as E 18.5; however, appearance of processes labeled with these markers in the OPL was delayed until PN 7, concurrent with the first appearance of photoreceptor neurites, development of the horizontal cell plexus, and development of synaptophysin immunoreactivity at this location. These results provide a developmental timeframe for the expression of recoverin, calbindin, synaptophysin, beta-tubulin and actin. Our findings suggest that the time between PN 3 and PN 7 represents a critical period during which elements of the OPL are assembled.

Sharma BD, Jalota SK, Kar S, Singh CB. "Effect of nitrogen and water uptake on yield of wheat.". 1992.Website
Sharma VK, Jain A, Mbuya OS. "Removal of arsenite by Fe(VI), Fe(VI)/Fe(III), and Fe(VI)/Al(III) salts: effect of pH and anions.". 2009. Abstract

The removal of arsenate and arsenite from drinking water poses challenges, especially when arsenite is present in a significant amount. The removal of arsenite by K(2)FeO(4), K(2)FeO(4)/FeCl(3), and K(2)FeO(4)/AlCl(3) salts was studied at pH 6.5 and at an initial As concentration of 500 microg As(III)L(-1). The arsenite removal in Fe(VI)/Fe(III) and Fe(VI)/Al(III) systems was also examined as a function of pH (6.0-8.0). Arsenite was first oxidized by Fe(VI) to arsenate, which was subsequently removed through adsorption by Fe(III) or mixed Fe(III)-Al(III) oxy/hydroxide phases. Fe(VI)/Al(III) salts had higher removal efficiency of arsenite than Fe(VI) and Fe(VI)/Fe(III) salts. A molar ratio of 6(3/3):1 for Fe(VI)/Al(III) to As(III) decreased arsenite concentration from 500 to 1.4 microg L(-1) at pH 6.5. Arsenite removal increased with a decrease in pH from 8.0 to 6.0 and exhibited less pH dependence in the Fe(VI)/Al(III) system than in the Fe(VI)/Fe(III) system. Aluminum chloride salts performed better than FeCl(3) and FeCl(3)/AlCl(3) salts (Fe:Al=1:1) in removing As(V) from water. Effect of anions (phosphate, silicate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and sulfate) on the arsenite removal by Fe(VI)/Al(III) salts at pH 6.5 was examined. Phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate ions interfered with the removal of arsenite in water. Nitrate and sulfate had none to minimal effect on arsenite removal. Fe(VI)/Al(III) salts showed a potential for removing arsenite below the current drinking water standard (10 microg L(-1)).

Shartry AM, Wilson AJ, Varma S. "Sequential Study of Lymph Node and Splenic Aspirates during Theileria Parva Infection in calves." Research in Veterinary Science. 1981;30:1980-1984.
Shawa K, Mwega F, DK M. "The Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle and Capital Mobility." African Journal of Social Science. 2012;2(3).the_feldstein-horioka_puzzle_and_capital_mobility.pdf
Shawa K, Mwega F, Manda D. "The Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle and Capital Mobility: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa' ." African Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;2(13):43-52.
Shawa K, Mwega F, DK M. "Private Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Approach." Journal of Economic Research. 2012;17(3).
Shawa K, Mwega F, Manda D. "'Private Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Approach' ." Journal of Economic Research. 2013.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990: Geodetic education in Africa: Facing the Challenge in the Nineties, presented paper to the 4th Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Tunisia, May 1990.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Patterns of Aerial Triangulation by Independent Models", Int. Arch. of Photogrammetry. & Remote. Sensing., XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992, Vol. XXIX, part B3, Commission III, pp 241-249.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: State of Geodetic education in African countries. Presented paper at the First International Symposium on Education in Geodesy, Gratz, Austria, September 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Monitoring Recent Crustal Movements in the Kenya Rift Valley by Global Positioning System (GPS) - A Proposal. J. Geodynamics Vol. 14, Nos. 1-4, pp 65-72, 1991.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1990 -1993, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 60-62, 1995.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Activities of the Education and Publications Committee for Geodesy in Africa: 1977 - 1981". A report presented to the Second International Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Nairobi, November, 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, l993: Monitoring of Mountainous Resources by Remote Sensing, A Study of the variations of Mount Kenya s Glaciers, a paper presented at the African Mountain Association, Second Workshop, Nairobi March l993.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: Enhancing Socio-Economic Development with Geoinformation Knowledge: The Challenges and Responsibilities. A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nov. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Surveying Education in Africa: State and Prospects. Presented paper to the International Colloquium in Surveying and Mapping Education, Fredericton, Canada, June 1985, and (with some modification) to the Third Symposium on Geodesy in Af.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1968: On the Effect of Differences in heights between Ground Points on the Accuracy of Analytical Relative Orientation, Scientific Bulletin No. 23, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1968.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Enhancing Socio-Economic Development with Geoinformation Knowledge: The Challenges and Responsibilities.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990 : Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1978-86-90, , Erdkunde, 44, pp 313-317.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1976: The use of Photogrammetry for Geographical Development, invited paper at the Second Arabic Geographic Conference, Baghdad, March 1976.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1976.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Mapping the Glaciers of Mt. Kenya in 1947, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 244-250.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1997.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Trends in Developments of Surveying Instruments and Methodologies. Lecture delivered at the University of Zambia, Lusaka, 1986.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990: Geodetic education in Africa: Facing the Challenge in the Nineties, presented paper to the 4th Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Tunisia, May 1990.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1978: Remote Sensing for Development, an invited paper at the Seminar of Surveyors in Kenya, Nairobi.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1978.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1997: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2005: Changing systems and changing landscapes: Measuring and interpreting land use transformation in African drylands. Geografisk Tidsskrift, Danish Journal of Geography 2005, Vol. 105(1), pp. 101-118.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Monitoring Recent Crustal Movements in the Kenya Rift Valley by Global Positioning System (GPS) - A Proposal. J. Geodynamics Vol. 14, Nos. 1-4, pp 65-72, 1991.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Education in Geodesy in Africa - State and Prospect, an invited paper to the Second International Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Nairobi, November 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1981.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Spatially Oriented Reference Systems in Kenya: The State and Needs: A paper presented at the Spatially-Oriented Referencing Systems Association Workshops and Symposium, (SORSA - 92), Ottawa, July 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, l993: Monitoring of Mountainous Resources by Remote Sensing, A Study of the variations of Mount Kenya s Glaciers, a paper presented at the African Mountain Association, Second Workshop, Nairobi March l993.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: Electronics cut errors and legworks. Kenya Engineers, January/February, 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Mapping the Glaciers of Mt. Kenya in 1947, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 244-250.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1997.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1985: Surveying Education at the University of Nairobi with Emphasis on the Foundation Courses. Presented paper to the Colloquium on Surveying and Mapping Education, Fredericton, Canada, June 1985.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1964: Analysis of some analytical methods of Determination of the Elements of Relative Orientation for Nearly Vertical Photographs: Ph.D. Thesis, Moscow.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1964.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1997: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Trends in Developments of Surveying Instruments and Methodologies. Lecture delivered at the University of Zambia, Lusaka, 1986.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1972: The use of Proper Weight Numbers in the Analytical determination of the Elements of Relative Orientation, Scientific Bulletin No. 36, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1972.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Analytical Photogrammetry finds its way and applications in Kenya. An area report, GIM, Aug. 1994, pp. 29-32.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2004: Geospatial Monitoring of the Glaciers on Mount Kenya. Presented Paper to the Fifth Conference of the African Association of Remote Sensing of the Environment (AARSE), 17-22 October, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Jour. Sci &Tech, vol. 4, No.1, pp104-109, with R.O.Simwa. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2005: Changing systems and changing landscapes: Measuring and interpreting land use transformation in African drylands. Geografisk Tidsskrift, Danish Journal of Geography 2005, Vol. 105(1), pp. 101-118.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1977: Teaching of Surveying at the University of Nairobi, presented paper at the inaugural meeting of the Geodetic Commission for Africa, Lagos, April 1977.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1977.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: A Manual GIS for Machakos District, Kenya. Proceedings of The International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, Oct. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya, paper TS 5.5.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Environmental Changes And Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Land Use Profile.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Spatially Oriented Reference Systems in Kenya: The State and Needs: A paper presented at the Spatially-Oriented Referencing Systems Association Workshops and Symposium, (SORSA - 92), Ottawa, July 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1980: Concept and accuracy of relative orientation, presented paper to the 14th International Congress of the International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Hamburg, July, 1980.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1980.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Education and Training in Developing Countries: Problems and Solutions. Presented Paper to the United Nations Inter-regional Seminar for Developing Countries on Educational Aspects: XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: Education in Geodesy at the University of Nairobi. Presented paper at the First International Symposium on Education in Geodesy, Gratz, Austria, September 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Patterns of Aerial Triangulation by Independent Models", Int. Arch. of Photogrammetry. & Remote. Sensing., XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992, Vol. XXIX, part B3, Commission III, pp 241-249.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Analytical Photogrammetry finds its way and applications in Kenya. An area report, GIM, Aug. 1994, pp. 29-32.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Surveying in developing Kenya: the role and the prospects. Inaugural Lecture, University of Nairobi, January 1986.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1990 -1993, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 60-62, 1995.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: A Manual GIS for Machakos District, Kenya. Proceedings of The International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, Oct. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya, paper TS 5.5.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1989: Variations of Mt. Kenya s Glaciers 1963 - 87, 1989, Erdkunde, 43, pp 202-210.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1969: The Use of Groups of Points Instead of Single Point for Analytical Relative orientation, Scientific Bulletin No. 27, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1969.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: Remote Sensing and GIS: Powerful Tools for Decision Makers. Opening Remarks, GIS Workshop for Decision Makers, RELMA & ICRAF, Nairobi, Dec. 2001.". In: African Jour. Sci &Tech, vol. 4, No.1, pp104-109, with R.O.Simwa. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Environmental Changes And Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Land Use Profile.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1976: Elements of Surveying for Civil Engineers, A textbook for Civil Engineering students, (in Arabic).". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1976.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: Enhancing Socio-Economic Development with Geoinformation Knowledge: The Challenges and Responsibilities. A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nov. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990 : Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1978-86-90, , Erdkunde, 44, pp 313-317.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Education and Training in Developing Countries: Problems and Solutions. Presented Paper to the United Nations Inter-regional Seminar for Developing Countries on Educational Aspects: XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Stability of relative orientation. Photogrammetric Record, 10(57): 343-357, April 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1980.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Enhancing Socio-Economic Development with Geoinformation Knowledge: The Challenges and Responsibilities.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
Shay TZ;, Haidar J;, Kogi-Makau W. "Magnitude of and driving factors for female genital cutting in schoolgirls in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a crosssectional study."; 2010. Abstract

Background. Female genital cutting (FGC) is practised throughout the world, and is common in many Asian and African countries. Although FGC in Ethiopia has decreased, the practice is still very widespread. Methods. A cross-sectional study design with an analytical component was used to study girls attending randomly sampled primary schools in Addis Ababa between August and June 2008. A total of 407 girls, selected from four primary schools, and their respective families were recruited. Data were collected through self-administered and open-ended questionnaires and analysed using bivariate and multivariate models. Results. In this group of schoolgirls, 26.0% had undergone FGC at a median age of 4 years. FGC had most commonly been performed at age 1 - 5 years, when 50.9% of the total group had been circumcised. Of the girls attending government schools, 36.6% had undergone FGC. The majority of the procedures had been performed by traditional circumcisers (62.3%), followed by health workers (22.6%). The decision to subject the girl to FGC was most frequently made by mothers (38.7% of the FGC group), the remainder of the decisions being made by fathers (24.5%), both parents (22.6%) and relatives (14.2%). There was a significantly higher prevalence of FGC among girls attending government schools, girls of Guraghe ethnicity, and girls whose mothers had no knowledge about the harm of FGC. A smaller proportion of girls living with both parents than of those living with relatives had undergone FGC. Conclusions. FGC is prevalent in primary schoolgirls in the capital city of Ethiopia, despite improved availability of health information. This situation underscores the need to reinforce the national law against FGC. Creation of awareness should be focused on parents of Guraghe ethnicity and on government schools. Parental education should be promoted, and empowerment of women is required to fight FGC.

Shee Ali, Onyari JM WJNMD. "Methylene Blue Adsorption onto Coconut husks/Polylactide Blended Films: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014;Vol.6(No.11):28-37.
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Al-Bustan.; 2008.
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Fundamentals of Arabic Grammar.; 2009.
Sheikh MA. Colostomy closure as seen at kenyatta national hospital both retrospective and prospective study.; 2003. Abstract

This is both a prospective study of thirty patients from March 2002 to February 2003 and a
retrospective study of eighty-five patients from January 1999 to February 2002 who underwent colostomy closure at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There was no significant difference in the
results of the two groups.
The main objective of the study was to analyse variables that determine outcome of colostomy
closure. All patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study.
The average age of patients in the prospective group was 34 (range, 15-85) years and 35 (range
16-87) years in the retrospective group. There were more males than females in the study with a
male to female ratio of 5:1 and 4.3:1 in the prospective and retrospective groups respectively.
The common indications for colostomy were colon injury and colon obstruction accounting for
more than eighty five percent (85%) of the patients.
Hartman's colostomy was the commonest type of colostomy fashioned accounting for fifty
percent (50%) and 44.7% of the colostomies in the prospective and retrospective studies
'respectively. Seventy percent (70%) of the colostomies in the prospective group and 58.8% of
those in the retrospective group were sited at the sigmoid colon. Mean time until colostomy
closure was 7.6 (range, 0.82 to 91) months in the prospective group and 5.3 (range, 0.79 to 29) ,
months in the retrospective group.
All the patients had mechanical bowel preparation. Seventy three percent (73%) in the
prospective group and 63.3% in the retrospective group had prophylactic systemic antibiotics.
All the patients had intraperitoneal closure of the colostomy. About ninety percent (90%) of the
patients in the study had two-layer anastomosis of the colon. About sixty percent (60%) of the
patients in the study had their colostomies closed in less than two hours. The average hospital
stay for patients in the prospective group was 7.1 (range, 2 to 18) days and 9.8 (range, 4 to 61)
days in the retrospective group.
The rate of developing early complications was 16.7% in the prospective group of which 13.4%
had wound infection and 15.3% in the retrospective group of which 11.8% had wound infection.
There was no death. There was a trend of increasing morbidity in patients who had colon
obstruction, colostomies sited at the sigmoid colon, Hartman's colostomy, operations lasting
more than two hours and those operated by Registrars.

SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. How to nature our children properly.; 1996.
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Arabic Stracture.; 2010.
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Arabic Morphology.; 2012.
SHEM MRON'GONDO. "LL.M Course Work Essay (1994), Humanitarian law and the International Protection of victims of Armed Conflicts.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
SHEM MRON'GONDO. "LL.M Course Work Essay (1993), University of Nairobi. The individual as a Subject or Object of International Law.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
SHEM MRON'GONDO. "Thesis LLM (1998) University of Nairobi: The International Seabedd Authority. A Regine Beyond the Reach of Developing States.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
SHEM MRON'GONDO. "LL.M Thesis, 1987, Towards Sustainable Development: Environmental Degradating and the rural Poor of Kenya.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1987. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
SHEM MRON'GONDO. "Work Essay 1994 LL.M (1994), International Law Protection for Refugees and Stateless Persons.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Shenoy S, Baliga S, Saldanha DR, Prashanth HV, others. "Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of {Pseudomonas} aeruginosa strains isolated from various clinical specimens." Indian journal of medical sciences. 2002;56:427. AbstractWebsite
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Shepelo GP, Maingi N. "Major causes of poultry mortality in Nairobi and its environs established from autopsie." A Journal of The Kenya Veterinary Association. 2014;38(1):32-42.

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