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O’Connell SA, Maturu BO, Mwega FM, Ndung’u N, Ngugi RW, Adam CS, Collier P. "Capital mobility, monetary policy and exchange rate management in Kenya.". In: Kenya Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press; 2010.
Ozwara HS, Olobo JO, Irungu LW. "Evaluation of immune associated cells in lesions of L. major infected vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)." African journal of health sciences. 1995;2(3):349-353. AbstractPubMed link

Vervet monkeys were used to characterize immune associated cell types recruited into lesion sites as a result of experimental primary and secondary infections with Leishmania major. A heavy cellular infiltration consisting primarily of CD8+ (cytotoxic/suppressor) T cells were observed in the lesions. A small number of B lymphocytes and NK cells were also stained. Changes in cell type populations observed in the lesions were similarly reflected in the draining lymph nodes. Studies from control sites in all the animals revealed the presence of CD8+ T cells both in the epidermis and dermal layers of the normal skin. B cells, CD16 (NK cells) and CD4 (helper T cells) positive cells were virtually absent in the normal skin. It was concluded that CD8+ T cells were the predominant cells in the lesions. It also appeared that similar cell types were restricting the parasites at the lesion site both in primary and secondary L. major infections in vervet monkeys.

Ozen OI, MORALIOGLU S, KARABULUT R, DEMIROGULLARI B, SONMEZ K, TURKYILMAZ Z, CAN BASAKLAR A, KALE N. "Surgical treatment of cervicofacial cystic hygromas in children." ORL. 2005;67:331-334. AbstractWebsite
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Oyungu E, Kioy PG PNB. "Proconvulsant effect of khat (Catha edulis) in Sprague dawley rats." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2009;121(3):476-8.oyungu_et_al_j_ethnopharmacol_2009.pdf
Oyungu E, Kioy PG, Patel NB. "Proconvulsant effect of khat (Catha edulis) in Sprague dawley rats.". 2008. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Catha edulis (khat) is a plant whose fresh young leaves are used by an estimated five million people in eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a drug of recreation. The fresh leaves and shoots are rich in cathinone, a psychostimulant with effects similar to those of amphetamines. Psychostimulants produce a dose-related excitation of the central nervous system which can lead to seizures and convulsions. However there are no reports on studies of the effect of this herb on brain excitability and seizures. This knowledge is useful for doctors who may prescribe drugs whose side effects include lowering seizure threshold because there could be additive proconvulsant effectamongkhat users. Aim of the study: to determined whether khat lowers pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold. Methodology: Male Sprague dawley rats were given fresh aqueous khat extract, old aqueous khat extract (3 g/kg bw), methylphenidate or saline and the timed intravenous (PTZ) seizure threshold test was used to study its effect on seizure threshold. Results: Fresh khat (3 g/kg) and methylphenidate (4 mg/kg) lowered PTZ seizure threshold. Conclusion: Khat lowers seizure threshold.

Oyungu E, Kioy PG, Patel NB. "Proconvulsant effect of khat (Catha edulis) in Sprague dawley rats.". 2008. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Catha edulis (khat) is a plant whose fresh young leaves are used by an estimated five million people in eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a drug of recreation. The fresh leaves and shoots are rich in cathinone, a psychostimulant with effects similar to those of amphetamines. Psychostimulants produce a dose-related excitation of the central nervous system which can lead to seizures and convulsions. However there are no reports on studies of the effect of this herb on brain excitability and seizures. This knowledge is useful for doctors who may prescribe drugs whose side effects include lowering seizure threshold because there could be additive proconvulsant effectamongkhat users. Aim of the study: to determined whether khat lowers pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold. Methodology: Male Sprague dawley rats were given fresh aqueous khat extract, old aqueous khat extract (3 g/kg bw), methylphenidate or saline and the timed intravenous (PTZ) seizure threshold test was used to study its effect on seizure threshold. Results: Fresh khat (3 g/kg) and methylphenidate (4 mg/kg) lowered PTZ seizure threshold. Conclusion: Khat lowers seizure threshold.

OYUNGE MRMONAYOALBERTV. "Advertising of cigarettes in Jabalpur City (M.P) India "A dissertation for a post graduate Diploma in Marketing and Sales Management.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
OYUNGE MRMONAYOALBERTV. "An introduction to business studies (An undergraduate text book) for students pursuing Bachelor of Education Degree (in process of writing manuscript).". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
Oyugi CCA. "La mise en valeur du non-dit en classe du français langue étrangère.". In: L’enseignement du français dans le contexte multilingue estafricain et kenyan (Teaching of French in a multilingual context in East Africa and Kenya). Kenyatta University; Submitted.conference_presentation-_k.u..docxconference_presentation_2-_k.u..docxconcilier_formation_doc__ku.docx
Oyugi CCA. "Anxiety in the foreign language class." ATINER -Languages and Cultures in Contact and Contrast: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. 2011;107:133-148.
Oyugi J, Otieno-Ayayo ZN, Ochanda H. "The silver cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea as the main diet source for rearing Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes." Journal of Mosquito Research. 2014;4 (17): 1-6.
Oyugi C. "Authentic documents in the teaching and learning of a foreign language." USIU- Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa,. 2008;1(1):25-33.
Oyugi, Lutiali, Saka, Musumba. Au Sommet 3: Une approche Intégrée et communicative . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2005.
Oyugi CCA. Bereavement Counseling for children . Nairobi: Uzima Press; 2007.
Oyugi WO;, Leonard DK. "Procedures for decentralized programming, budgeting and work planning: Lessons from Kenyan mistakes.". 1985. AbstractWebsite

In 1980 Kenya's Ministry of Agriculture instituted a new Management Manual, designed to improve the quality of district participation in programme identification, budgeting and implementation. Despite the fact that the Manual drew on modern programme budgeting techniques and was based on several years' experience with the management of Kenya's multi-district Integrated Agricultural Development Project, the new procedures have not taken hold. This experience is analysed in order to suggest lessons for the reform of management procedures elsewhere in the developing world.

Oyoo.G.O, Genga.E. "Pulmonary manifestations in scleroderma: a review.". In: ISSN.; 2014. Abstractpulmonary_manifestations1.pdf

Background: Scleroderma is a chronic
multisystem autoimmune disease of
unknown aetiology. Scleroderma is
characterized by widespread obliterative
vasculopathy of small arteries and is
associated with varying degrees of tissue
fibrosis and multiple organ involvement.
Pulmonary disease is an important
component of SSc. It is estimated that
80% of patients with SSc have some
evidence of pulmonary disease. Systemic
sclerosis has the poorest prognosis
amongst rheumatology diseases with
the highest case-specific mortality of any
of the autoimmune rheumatic diseases
as well as causing major morbidity.
Objective: This article will review
pathogenesis, diagnosis and
management of pulmonary disease in
scleroderma.
Data source: Literature review of
relevant published literature from both
Africa and the rest of the world.
Data synthesis: The pathogenesis of
lung disease in scleroderma involves
a variety of pathways, including
immunological/inflammatory activation
and vascular injury. The primary
cytokines responsible for the disease
are unknown but it is postulated that it
involves a complex interplay between
inflammatory, B lymphocyte antibody
production, oxidative stress and fibrotic
pathways. This leads to the activation
of lung fibroblasts by inflammatory and
fibrotic mediators. Lung fibroblasts play
a central role in the deposition of excess
intracellular matrix. This inflammatory
response leads to fibrosis and occurs in
the setting of vascular derangements.
The most common symptoms are dry
cough and dyspnea on exertion. The
high morbidity and mortality seen in
SSc is generally attributed to the two
major pulmonary manifestations of the
disease: interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, or
interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary
arterial hypertension. Exertional dyspnea
and dry cough are the most common
presenting symptoms in patients
with SSc who develop pulmonary
involvement Algorithm of diagnostic
procedures in these patients does not
Department of Clinical
Medicine and Therapeutics,
College of Health Sciences,
University of Nairobi, Kenya
Corresponding author:
Dr GO Oyoo. Email:
geomondi@hotmail.com
Review Article
differ considerably from the procedures
of any other interstitial lung disease. At
the current time, cyclophosphamide
remains the best studied therapeutic
agent although alternatives are actively
being evaluated. The pathogenesis of
pulmonary disease in scleroderma is
still an enigma and is being actively
researched. This will advance our
understanding of the disease and ability
to care for these patients.
Conclusion: Pulmonary complications
are common in SSc and are the leading
causes of death. Careful evaluation
by the clinician is warranted to detect
the presence of an ILD and to select
patients appropriately for consideration
of therapy. It is a major clinical challenge
largely due to the enigma of the disease
pathology as well as limited therapeutic
options available. This is compounded
by the perceived lack of evidence for
clinical effectiveness of those treatments
that are currently in use. Clinical trials
are underway and offer hope for novel
approaches to this mysterious and
often devastating manifestation of
scleroderma.

Oyoo.G.O, Wanjohi.W, H.M K, Ogutu.E, Radia.K, Mutei.T.M. "Prevalence of gastroduodenal lesions in chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users presenting with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: ISSN.; 2014. Abstractprevalence_of_gastroduodenal2.pdf

Non-Steroidal Anti-
Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are
among the most widely prescribed and
used classes of drugs worldwide. They
are known to cause gastroduodenal
mucosal damage and can result in
ulcerations, upper gastrointestinal
bleeding, perforation and even death.
However, no local data exist to show the
prevalence.
Objectives: The main objective
was to determine the prevalence
of gastroduodenal lesions seen at
endoscopy and histopathology in
chronic NSAID users presenting with
dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National
Hospital.
Design: This was a hospital-based crosssectional
study.
Methods: Seventy patients aged
13 years and above, on NSAIDs for 4
weeks or more, and presenting with
dyspepsia were recruited and done
for endoscopies. Six biopsy specimens
were taken from each patient (2 from
each of the following sites: - corpus,
antrum and duodenum). One specimen
from each site was subjected to the
rapid urease test for H. pylori detection.
The remaining three were subjected to
histopathological evaluation.
Results: Forty male and 25 female
patients aged between 16-77 years, with
a mean age of 43.4 years were studied.
At endoscopy, only 10 (13.9%) patients
had normal gastroduodenal mucosa.
Gastritis was the most prevalent lesion
occurring in 50% of the patients. Peptic
ulcer disease had a point prevalence
of 30.5% (duodenal ulcers 22.2%, and
gastric ulcers 8.3%). Other lesions at
endoscopy were duodenitis 16.7%,
gastric erosions 5.6%, duodenal erosions
1.4% and hemorrhagic gastritis 1.4%.
At histopathology, only 5 (6.9%)
patients had normal gastroduodenal
mucosa. Chronic active gastritis was the
most prevalent lesion at 77.8%. Other
lesions were chronic gastritis 12.5%,
chemical gastritis 6.9%, duodenitis
41.7% and intestinal metaplasia 4.2%.
Prevalence of H. pylori in our study
population was 50%. There was no
association between the gastroduodenal
lesions and H. pylori infection.
Conclusions: There was a high
prevalence of gastroduodenal mucosal
lesions both at histopathology (93.1%)
and endoscopy (86.1%) in the chronic
NSAID users.

Oyoo.G.O, Odhiambo.J, Amayo.E. "An evaluation of quality of life in ambulatory patients with systemic lupus erythematosus attending rheumatology clinic in Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: ISSN.; 2014. Abstractan_evaluation_of_quality.pdf

Background: Systemic Lupus
Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic
autoimmune disease that affects all
organs of the body. It is becoming
increasingly clear that SLE is not as rare
in Kenya as was previously thought. Due
to its chronicity SLE has been known to
affect the quality of life of those affected
by it. There is minimal data on SLE in
East Africa and especially in Kenya. The
quality of life of SLE patients in this
country has never been assessed.
Objectives: To document the quality
of life of patients with SLE in Kenyatta
National Hospital using LUPUS QOL
questionnaire. We also sought to correlate
HRQOL with duration of illness, drugs
used and age of the patient.
Design: This was a cross sectional study
done on patients attending Rheumatology
Clinic in Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods: Patients who satisfy the ACR
criteria were consecutively recruited.
All patients with SLE attending the
clinic were included in the study.
Consent was obtained from the patients
after which their demographic data was
obtained. Patients were examined for
the presence of malar rash, discoid rash,
arthritis/athralgia, photosensitivity, CNS
symptoms, serositis and oral ulcers. The
patients then filled the LUPUS QOL
questionnaire. The information acquired
was then analysed using SPSS version
17.0 using student t test and regression
analysis. The quality of life was
calculated and then correlated with age,
duration of illness and drug management.
Results: Sixty two patients were analysed
(60 females 2 males). Mean age of the
population was 37.3 years (range 14-71
years). All patients had some level of
education with 61.3% of the population
having some form of secondary education.
Most patients 54.8% were married.
Mean age of diagnosis was 34.5 years
with mean duration of illness 1.5 years.
Majority (88.7%) had arthritis/ athralgia,
oral ulcers (62.9%), malar rash (59.7%),
photosensitivity (58.1%), serositis
(32.3%), CNS symptoms (27.4%) and
discoid rash (17.7%). Patients scored
globally low in all domains of LUPUS
QOL. Highest domain was planning
63.7 (29.3), emotional health 61.3 (26.5),
burden to others 58.9 (31.2), fatigue 57.5
(30.0), pain 56.6 (29.6), physical health
54.0 (23.3), body image 47.1 (24.2)
intimate relations 41.1 (38.4).The most
common drug in use in our population
was prednisone at 74.2%. This was
followed by HCQ at 69.4%, NSAIDS
54.8%, azathioprine 37.1%, methotrexate
22.6%, mycofenolate mofetil 8.1%, CCB
11.3%, cyclosporine 3.2%. HRQOL
correlated positively with advance in age
for the domains. Physical health, burden
to others, emotional health and fatigue.
There was no correlation between
HRQOL and duration of illness or drugs
used by the population.
Conclusion: The HRQOL of our SLE
patients was found to be low in all
domains and to correlate with advance
in age in the domains of physical health,
burden to others, emotional health and
fatigue. However there was no correlation
with duration of illness or the drugs used
by the patients

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Mineralization, Volatilization and Degradation and mobility of Carbofuran in Soil Samples from Kenya.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxic. (1996) 56. 37-41. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Oyoo GO, Muia B, Otieno FO, Ganda B, Otieno CF, Moots RJ. "Occurrence of crystal arthropathy in patients presenting with synovitis in Nairobi." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014; 2(2):75-77. Abstract

Background: Crystal arthropathies represent a heterogeneous group of skeletal (musculo-skeletal) diseases associated with the deposition of mineralized material within joints and periarticular soft tissues. Gout is the most common and pathogenetically best understood crystal arthropathy, followed by basic calcium phosphate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition diseases, and, in very rare cases, calcium oxalate crystal arthropathy. In Kenya there are no studies to demonstrate the prevalence of these diseases. This study endeavored to describe the different types of crystals seen in patients with synovitis in Nairobi from 1st January 2012 to 31st January 2014.
Objective: To describe different types of crystals seen in patients with synovitis in Nairobi.
Design: Descriptive prospective cross sectional study.
Results: There were 260 samples received from patients with synovitis. Of them, 61 (23.5%) were from males while 199 (76.5%) were from females. The age range of the patients was from 14 – 110 years. The mean, median and mode were 59.6, 60 and 55 years respectively. Majority of the patients were in the 51-60 years age category. Most of the patients recruited had no crystals (n=211; 81.2%)
diagnosed, with 14.2%(n=37) having uric acid crystals and 4.6 % (n=12) having CPPD crystals. For the patients who had uric acid crystals (n=37), when gender was cross tabulated against microscopy, males (n=32; 86.5%) were noted to have more uric acid crystals than females (n=5;
13.5%). Among patients diagnosed with CPPD (n=12), there were more females (n=9; 75%) patients compared to males (n=3; 25%). From the total population recruited (n=260), when age range categories were cross tabulated against microscopy, the age ranges 41-50 (n=9; 3.5%) 51-60 (n=12; 4.6%), and 61-70 (n=6; 2.3%) were noted to have more uric acid crystals than any other age category recruited. Patients in the age category 61-70 (n=6; 50 %) had more CPPD crystal detections than any other age category from the patients recruited.
Conclusion: Crystal arthropathy is a major cause of synovitis in patients seen in Nairobi.

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Persistence of 14CDDT in the Tropical Soils of Kenya.". In: In "Isotope Techniques for Studying the Fate of Persistent Pesticides in the Tropics". IAEATECDOC-476, 19-26. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "National Standards and Environmental Pollution.". In: paper presented at a Seminar organized by Kenya Bureau of Standards on National Standards and Technology for Development. Hotel Oceanic, Mombasa , 1982. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Occurence of Chlorenvinphos residues in cow milk in Kenya.". In: Bull.Environ. Contamin. & Toxicol 58. (6) 969-975. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1997. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "River pollution in developing countries - A Case Study II: Effect of industrial discharge on quality of Ruiruaka River waters in Kenya.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 4 (2) 89. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1990. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. ""Transition Metal Complexes with Schiff Base Derivatives of 1,1,1-Tris-(aminomethyl)- ethane".". In: Inorg. Chem. 11, 1349(1972). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1972. Abstract

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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Analysis of Chemical Pollution in Some Kenya Water Systems with Special Reference to Lake Nakuru.". In: in the Role of Water Resources in Development, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Symposium of the East African Academy, September 1977, p.120. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Variation of plant p,p' DDT uptake with age and soil type and dependence of dissipation and temperature.". In: Environment International, 25, 479-487. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1999. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Regional Co-operation in Education for Accelerated Development.". In: The African Journal of Sciences and Technology Series C 11. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1990. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Formation of Tris(2-4-Pentanediono) Chromium (III) in the presence of Trichloroethanoate and other Carboxylate ions in Aqueous Solutions".". In: Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 39, 769-771. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1974. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Dissipation behaviour of malathion and dimethoate from the garden pea plant (Pisum sativa).". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 64, 339 - 367. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2000. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Populations in nests of the termites Macrotermes jeanneli in Kenya.". In: J. Trop. Ecol. (1992) 8, 73-85. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1992. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Use of Complexing Ligands in the Determination of Antimony and Tin by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.". In: Talanta, 26, 333. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1979. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Effects of Chemical Events on Environment in Africa.". In: Pontifical Academy of Science's Study Week on "Chemical Events in the Atmosphere and Their Impact", November 1983, P.649-673. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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Oyoo GO, Joshi D, Nour HA. "PATTERNS OF KNEE, HIP AND HAND OSTEOARTHRITIS IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL.". In: EAOJ. Vol. 7.; 2013:. Abstractpatterns_of_knee_hip_and_hand.pdf

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic rheumatic disorders and is associated
with significant morbidity and disability. Few studies examined the spectrum of rheumatic diseases in sub-
Saharan Africa. Obesity is not only a risk factor for incidence of OA but also for the progression of the
disease.
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the patterns of knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis as well
as obesity prevalence in the patients with established disease.
Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, we examined patients with knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis
to describe the patterns of osteoarthritis in 201 patients who fulfilled the ACR diagnostic criteria. Their
body mass indices were also studied to determine the prevalence of obesity in this cohort of patients
Results: A total of 201 patients with knee, hip or hand osteoarthritis were studied. Of these participants,
77% had knee OA, 15% hip OA, 3% hand OA and 5% had combined knee and hip OA. Obese participants
were 41% and 32% were overweight. There were 89 (44.3%) participants with bilateral knee or hip disease
while 112(55.7%) had unilateral disease. Obesity was more common in participants with knee than in hip OA
(45.3% vs 10.3% respectively) P < 0.001. The bilateral disease was higher in obese (55.2%) and overweight
(44.6%) participants compared to participants with normal body mass indices (26.5%) P value < 0.007.
Conclusion: Knee OA was very common and the majority of the patients were overweight and obese.
Bilateral OA was more prevalent in obese and overweight participants compared to normal weight
participants. Obesity is an easily modifiable risk factor for knee OA so it can be made a valid target for
preventing as well as halting the progression of OA.

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The effect of boiling on the removal of persistent malathion residues from stored grains.". In: J. Stored Products Res. 38,1-10. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2002. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "DDT Persistence in a Tropical Climate.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. Series (A), (1984) 5, 31-44. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Genetically modified foods: Potential, Fate and Future in Developing Countries.". In: Science and Society. 4: 93-97. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2005. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Distribution and dissipation of Carbofuran in a paddy field in the Kano Plain of Kenya.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. and Toxic. 56 (4).pg. 584. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Persistence of g-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane (g -HCH) in Tropical Soils in Kenya.". In: Isotope Techniques for Studying the Fate of persistent pesticides in the Tropics". IAEA-TECDOC-476, 77-82,. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Concentration of Heavy Metals: Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Mercury, Iron and Calcium in Head Hair of Randomly Selected Sample of Kenya People.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology (A) 3, 27-41 (1982). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The State of Chemical Pollution in Kenya.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences and Technology, Series (A),. 11 (1-2): 18-33. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Distribution of Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, in Lake Victoria Sediments.". In: Bulletin of Enviromental Contamination and Toxicology (1989) 42 (6)807. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1989. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. ""Dipole Moments of Halogenogermanes from Non-Resonant Absorption of Vapours.". In: Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 11, 70 719 (1974. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Induced Optical Rotation in Zinc(II) and Cobalt(II) Complexes Derived from 1,1,1-Tris- (aminomethyl) ethane and cis, cis-1,3,5-Triaminocyclohexane,.". In: Science and Technology Journal, 1980 Series A: 1 (1), 23-26. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The fate and dissipation of surface applied 14 "C-DDE in a tropical soil.". In: J. Toxic and Environmental Chemistry 65, 9-16. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1998. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Prospects for University- Industry Co-operation in Africa.". In: Ibid, 1990 1, 17. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1990. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Evidence for the pseudo Octahedral Geometry and Ready Racemization of 1,1 1 Tris-(pyridine-2-carboxaldiminomethyl)-ethaneiron(II),.". In: Soc. Chem. Commun., 1572 (1970). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The metabolism and distribution of [14C-phenyl]-ethyl arathion in a tropical soil under field conditions.". In: Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 69, 459-468. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1999. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Lead Contamination in Street Soils of Nairobi City and Mombasa Island , Kenya.". In: Bull.Environ. Contamination and Toxicology;, 46: 782-789. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1991. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Some Group VB Chloride Complexes with Thiourea and N.N'-diethyldithioxamide.". In: Inorg. Nucl. Chemistry, 41 (7), 941. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1979. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Use and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in Africa.". In: Pure and Applied Chemistry 73 (7) 1147 - 1155. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Water Pollution - Effect of Industrial and Sewage effluent discharged on the quality of Nairobi River Water.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series A 17 (1-2): 95-110. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1995. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Concentration of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediments and Plants of Kenya Lakes.". In: Kenya J. of Science and Technology. Series (A) (1983) (2): 89-94. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Studies on biodegradation of 2,4-D and metribuzin in soil under controlled conditions.". In: Toxicol.72:504-513. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2004. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The persistence and Fate of malathion residues in stored beans (phaseolus vulgaris)and maize (zea mays),.". In: Pestic Science 46 215-220. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Concentration of Heavy Metals: Manganese, Iron, Copper, Cadmium, and Lead in sediments from the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria and Fish Bought in Mombasa Town Markets.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series A (Vol. 8 (1-2): 5-18. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1987. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Termites: A Potentially Large Source of Atmospheric Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Molecular Hydrogen.". In: Science, 218, 563, (1982). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1982. Abstract

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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Water quality issues in East Africa.". In: Academic Press Elsevier. Academic Press Elsevier; 2009. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Oyoo GO, Genga EK, Otieno CF, Ilovi CS, Omondi EA, Otieno FO. "Clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients on treatment for osteoporosis in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2015;9:62-66.clinical_and_socio-demographic.pdf
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Adsorption/Desorption and Mobility of Cabofuran in a soil sample from Kenya.". In: Bull.Environ. Contamin. & Toxic. 56 (4) pg. 575. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Determination of_-BHC (Lindane) in Breast Milk of Kenyan women.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiopia. 2(1), 39-44. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Concentrations of Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Rivers and Lakes in Kenya ,.". In: Sinet: 1981, 3, 67. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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Oyoo GO, Genga EK, Otieno CF, Ilovi CS, Omondi EA, Otieno FO. "Clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients on treatment for osteoporosis in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2016;9(2). Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is a chronic, progressive disease of multifactorial aetiology and one of the most common metabolic bone diseases worldwide. There is a paucity of data on osteoporosis in Africa as it’s generally thought not to affect the non-Caucasian population. We sought to describe the population with osteoporosis in a Nairobi rheumatology clinic.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with osteoporosis seen at a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi.

Methods: Clinical, with emphasis on musculoskeletal manifestations, treatment and selected comorbidities in 56 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis were followed up and evaluated in the Nairobi Arthritis Clinic.

Results: The age distribution was 31- 95 years with majority being above the age of 60 years at 71.5%. Majority were female (89.3%). The main musculoskeletal manifestations were polyarthralgia (30.4%) followed by lower back pain (19.6%) and pathological fractures (12.5%). The types of osteoporosis were grouped as primary (9%), secondary (44.6%) and post-menopausal (46.4%). The most common clinical association being rheumatoid arthritis (39.3%) followed by steroids therapy (25%). Other comorbidities included osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, systemic lupus erythromatosus and diabetes. Seven study participants had history of fracture with lumbar spine fractures leading at 42.8%. None of the study participants were smokers. The number of patients on calcium supplements was at 71.4% and bisphosphonates was low at 32%.

Conclusion: The findings of this study from age to comorbidities on osteoporosis are in keeping with literature. The number of patients on bisphosphonates was low which differed from Western literature. Persons at increased risk for osteoporosis in this set-up include post-menopausal women with debilitating chronic illness causing reduced mobilization over time and presenting with bone pains.These patients should be investigated for osteoporosis and effective treatment administered early.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Clinical profile, Nairobi, Kenya

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Impact of Industries on the environments. In Industries and Enforcement of Environmental Law in Africa.". In: Industry experts Review environmental practice. UNEP/UNDP 9 - 23. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1998. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "River Pollution in Developing Countries - A case study. Effects of Waste Discharges on quality of Ruiruaka River Waters in Kenya.". In: Bull Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 4((2) 89-103. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1990. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Electric Dipole Moments of Monohalogen Derivatives of German.". In: Letters. 7, 71 (1971). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Review of Crystallographic and Molecular Structures of Complexes formed between N,N ' -dialkyloxamides, and N,N ' -dialkydithio-oxamides, dialkylmolonamides, N,N ' -dialkylsuccinamides, and Toluene, 3,4 dithiol with group VB and IV metal holides.". In: Pure and Appl. Chem, 71 (6) 1019 - 1024. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1999. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "River pollution in developing countries - A Case Study III: Effects of industrual discharge on quality of Ngong River waters in Kenya.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 5 (2) 49 - 64. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1991. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. ""Pollutants; Their Effects on Man, Vegetation and Material.". In: Post Kenya II 23 (). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1975. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The major environmental factors that influence rapid disappearance of pesticides from tropical soils in Kenya.". In: Toxic and Environ. Chem. 00, 1-37. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Fate of 14C-DDT in Kenyan Tropical Soils,.". In: J. Env. Scie. Health (1994) B29 (i) 57-64. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1994. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. ""Interference Effects of Different Metal in the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Determination of Chromium",.". In: Analytische Chemie, 296 135-139. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1979. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Analysis of Nitrosamines in Grains, Flours and Local Alcoholic Beverages.". In: Final Report to the National Council for Science and Technology Grant No. NCST/SEC/440055, 1983. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in soil and water from River Nyando drainage system within Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.". In: Contam. Toxicol. 72: 335-343. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2004. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Organochlorine Pesticides: Curse or Blessing in Tropical Agriculture.". In: In "Environment and Development" Proc. 1996. The Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Public Lecture Series. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
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Oyoo GO, Muia B, Otino FO, Ganda B, Otieno CF, Moots CF. " Occurrence of crystal arthropathy in patients presenting with synovitis in Nairobi." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):75-77. Abstract

Background: Crystal arthropathies represent a heterogeneous group of skeletal (musculo-skeletal) diseases associated with the deposition of mineralized material within joints and periarticular soft tissues. Gout is the most common and pathogenetically best understood crystal arthropathy, followed by basic calcium phosphate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition diseases, and, in very rare cases, calcium oxalate crystal arthropathy. In Kenya there are no studies to demonstrate the prevalence of these diseases. This study endeavored to describe the different types of crystals seen in patients with synovitis in Nairobi from 1st January 2012 to 31st January 2014.
Objective: To describe different types of crystals seen in patients with synovitis in Nairobi.
Design: Descriptive prospective cross sectional study.
Results: There were 260 samples received from patients with synovitis. Of them, 61 (23.5%) were from males while 199 (76.5%) were from females. The age range of the patients was from 14 – 110 years. The mean, median and mode were 59.6, 60 and 55 years respectively. Majority of the patients were in the 51-60 years age category. Most of the patients recruited had no crystals (n=211; 81.2%)
diagnosed, with 14.2%(n=37) having uric acid crystals and 4.6 % (n=12) having CPPD crystals. For the patients who had uric acid crystals (n=37), when gender was cross tabulated against microscopy, males (n=32; 86.5%) were noted to have more uric acid crystals than females (n=5;
13.5%). Among patients diagnosed with CPPD (n=12), there were more females (n=9; 75%) patients compared to males (n=3; 25%). From the total population recruited (n=260), when age range categories were cross tabulated against microscopy, the age ranges 41-50 (n=9; 3.5%) 51-60 (n=12; 4.6%), and 61-70 (n=6; 2.3%) were noted to have more uric acid crystals than any other age category recruited. Patients in the age category 61-70 (n=6; 50 %) had more CPPD crystal detections than any other age category from the patients recruited.
Conclusion: Crystal arthropathy is a major cause of synovitis in patients seen in Nairobi.

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Mathane Emissions by Tropical Termites Feeding on Soil, Wood, Grass and Fungus Combs.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series A 8(1-2):19-25. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1987. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Future of Atmospheric Chemistry in Africa.". In: Impact of Science on Society, 1982. (3), 339-345. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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Oyiro P, Mwanda W, Odhiambo A, Ogutu E, Otieno CF, Abdalla F. "Serum Ferritin Levels In Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). 2018;17(3):31-40.serum_ferritin_sickle_cell_knh.pdf
Oyieke F, Ondiba I, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Nyamongo I, Estambale B. "Diversity and Distribution of Mosquitoes Transmitting Malaria and Rift Valley Fever in Baringo County, Kenya." South Africa; 2016.poster-columbia.pptx
Oyieke FA. "Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma evansi steele by heamatophagous flies.". In: Paper presented at 8th Annual medical Scientific Conference of KEMRI/KETRI, . Nairobi, Kenya; 1987:.
Oyieke J, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Mbayaki R, Mbayaki R. "Strategies to improve HIV test acceptance and uptake of interventions in PMCT sites.". 2004. Abstract

HIV testing in the antenatal clinic is an entry point for interventions to prevent mother to child transmission. It is therefore crucial that all women learn their HIV status during pregnancy. The approach used may influence the uptake of testing. HIV testing at the Kisumu District Hospital was initially offered using and ‘opt-in’ approach whereby in-depth counseling is instituted and women are required to request for the test as a separate component of their care.

Oyieke J, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Mbayaki R, Musyoka R. "Strategies to improve HIV test acceptance and uptake of interventions in PMCT sites.". 2004. Abstract

HIV testing in the antenatal clinic is an entry point for interventions to prevent mother to child transmission. It is therefore crucial that all women learn their HIV status during pregnancy. The approach used may influence the uptake of testing. HIV testing at the Kisumu District Hospital was initially offered using and ‘opt-in’ approach whereby in-depth counseling is instituted and women are required to request for the test as a separate component of their care.

Oyieke F, Ondiba I, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Nyamongo I, Estambale B. "Diversity and Distribution of Mosquitoes Transmitting Malaria and Rift Valley Fever in Baringo County, Kenya.". 2015.
Oyieke J, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Mbayaki R, Musyoka R. "Strategies to improve HIV test acceptance and uptake of interventions in PMCT sites.". 2004. Abstract

HIV testing in the antenatal clinic is an entry point for interventions to prevent mother to child transmission. It is therefore crucial that all women learn their HIV status during pregnancy. The approach used may influence the uptake of testing. HIV testing at the Kisumu District Hospital was initially offered using and ‘opt-in’ approach whereby in-depth counseling is instituted and women are required to request for the test as a separate component of their care.

Oyatsi DP, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO. "Incidence of rickets of prematurity at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 1999;76(2):63-6. Abstract

Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants.

Oyang WA, P.A K, J.I. K. "Effects of Varied Nitrogen Levels and Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Nerica 1 Rice Variety ." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) . 2019;12(3):72-77.
Oyamo GO. Identification by saturation mutagenesis of a single residue involved in the a-galactosidase agab regioselectivity.; 2002. Abstract

a-Galactosidase AgaB from Bacillus stearothermophilus displays a major a(1~6) and a minor a(1~3) regioselectivity in hydrolysis and transglycosylation. Its corresponding gene, agaB, was subjected to saturation mutagenesis at codon 442 in order to change its regioselectivity. The mutant genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using pBTac2 as vector. The regioselective activity of the mutants was determined using thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A single point mutation, G442R, resulted in a mutant displaying an a(1~2) regioselectivity. Other amino acid substitutions at this site also gave mutants with altered regioselectivity and transglycosylation profiles. This is the first demonstration that single point mutations can lead to a strong modification of the regioselectivity of a glycosyl hydrolase. The kinetic parameters of the enzyme variants were determined and a preliminary investigation of possible substrates for condensation reactions conducted.

Oyagi MO, Onyatta JO, Kamau GN, Guto PM. "Simultaneous Determination of Trace Lead (II), Cadmium(II) and Cobalt(II) by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using Polyacrylic acid/Glassy Carbon Electrode." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2015;23(2):324-334.
Oyagi MO, Onyatta JO, Kamau GN, Guto PM. "Validation of the Polyacrylic acid/Glassy Carbon Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Sensor for Simultaneous Analysis of Lead(II), Cadmium(II) and Cobalt(II) ions." International Journal of Electrochemical Science (IJES). 2016;11:3852-3861.
Oyagi MO, Onyatta JO, Kamau GN, Guto PM. "Simultaneous Determination of Trace Lead (II), Cadmium (II) and Cobalt (II) by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using Polyacrylic acid/Glassy Carbon Electrode." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2015;23(2):324-334.
Oyagi M, Michira I, Guto P, Iwuoha E, Kamau G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles using tea extracts and their Application in nanobiosensors." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2013;21:30-44.
Oyagi MO, Michira IN, Guto PM, Baker P, Kamau GN, Iwuha E. "Polydisperse low Diameter ‘Non-toxic’ Silver Nanoparticles Encapsulated by Rooibos Tea Templates." Nano Hybrids. 2014;8:57-72.
Owusu F, Kalipeni E, Awortwi E. "Building research capacity for African institutions: confronting the research leadership gap and lessons from African research leaders." International Journal of Leadership in Education. 2015:1-26.
Owuor G, Wangia SM, Onyuma S, Mshenga P. "Self-Help Groups, A social Capital for Agricultural Productivity.". 2004.
Owuor B, Okech-Rabah H, Kokwaro J. "Reinventing therapo-spiritual Fellowships: The “jolango” Luo independent churches." Mental Health, Religion and Culture. 2006;9(5):423-434.
Owuor SO;, Foeken D, King’ori PW. The support.; 2006.Website
Owuor B, Ochanda JO, Kokwaro JO. "In vitro antiplamodial activity of selected Luo and Kuria medicinal plants." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012.
Owuor SO, Foeken D. The crops.; 2006.Website
Owuor B, Kokwaro JO. "Indigenous snakebite remedies of the Luo of Western Kenya." Journ. Ethnobiology. 2005;25(1):129-141.
Owti EA, Oleche MO. "Costing of Antiretroviral Treatment in Mbagathi District Hospital, Kenya." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT. 2015;4(3):28-37.
Owour PROFROBERTOBUDHO;ASO. "One Hundred Years of the City of Nairobi, Kenya: Towards An Urban Regional Planning Strategy." Nairobi: Centre for Urban Research ; 2012.
Owour, S & Mbatia T. "Nairobi.". In: Power and Powerlessness: Capital Cities in Africa. Nairobi: HSRC Press; 2012.
Owiti EA. "Survival Analysis of HIV and aids Treatment In Kenya." The Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research . 2015;18(3):Page A233.
Owiti FR, Olando Y, Kuria MW, Likata GUM. "Sexual Dysfunction among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus." Greener Journal of Medical Sciences ISSN: 2276-7797. 2012;2(6):138-145. Abstract

Sexual dysfunction can impact a person’s ability to form or sustain intimate relationships and co morbidity between sexual dysfunction and anxiety as well as depression has been reported. Yet epidemiological, etiological, and health association to sexual dysfunction has only begun to be explored in Kenya. To determine the prevalence, types of sexual dysfunction and their socio demographic correlate in diabetic patients. Descriptive cross- sectional study The study was conducted at the outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. This is the main referral hospital in Kenya. A total of 350 participants were enrolled in the study. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used to evaluate sexual dysfunctions in female and male patients respectively. The participants were composed of 164 females aged between 18-74 years and 186 males aged between 19- 100 years. In males, prevalence of sexual dysfunctions were: erectile dysfunction (68.8%); orgasmic dysfunction (48.4%); sexual desire (81.7%); intercourse satisfaction (86.6%) and overall satisfaction (68.4%).The female sexual dysfunction was 36.6% and was categorized as mild (17.1%); moderate (18.3%) and severe (1.2%). Diabetic patients have a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction

Owiti E, Awiti M, Mwabu G. "The Care of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Kenya: A Cost - Effectiveness Analysis.". In: XV International AIDS Conference. Bangkok . Medimond, Italy; 2004.
Owiti OH, Omulo EOT, William Okelo-Odongo, Manderick B. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Algorithms for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem." International Journal of Computer and Information Technology. 2014;Volume 03(Issue 06).
Owiti L. "Women and Culture: Harmful Cultural Practices.". In: ACK Ladies Conference. Nairobi; 2010.
Owiti O, okello(eds) J. "Consumer Protection in Kenya Theory, Law and Practice." Implementation in Kenya of the United Nations Guidelines for Consumer protection; Submitted. Abstract
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Owiti EA, Oleche MO. "Costing of Antiretroviral Treatment in Mbagathi District Hospital, Kenya." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT. 2015;4(3):28-37.
Owiti OH, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Algorithms for the Job Shop Scheduling problem.". In: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA). Nairobi; 2014.
Owiti E, Awiti M, Mwabu G. "The Demand for Healthcare by Orphans and Vulnerable Children: A Case of Migori District.". In: XV International AIDS Conference. Bangkok . Medimond, Italy; 2004.
Owiti L. "Gender Based Violence in Relation to Power and Resources.". In: YWCA and CFC Seminar. Limuru; 2010.
Owiti Z, Ogallo LA, Mutemi J. "Linkages between the Indian Ocean Dipole and East African Seasonal Rainfall Anomalies." J.Kenya Meteorol. Soc.. 2008;2(1):3-17.abstract.doc
Owiti E. "Cost Effectiveness Analysis of HIV and AIDS Treatment in Kenya: a Comparative Study of Mbagathi District and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospitals.". In: A paper presented at the 19th ISPOR Annual Meeting, Palais des Congrès de Montréal, QC. Canada ; 2014.
Owiti F, editor Ndetei, D.M., Maru HM, Mugherera M, Musisi S. "Forensic Psychiatry."; 2006.
Owiti L. Kenya's Achievements and Challenges in Implementing the Beijing Platform for Action. Nairobi: Kenya Avancement for the Rights of the Child; 2005.
Owiti PO, Kosgei RJ, Kihara BA, Ogutu O, Kizito W, Edwards JK, Tweya H, Takarinda KC, Sitienei JK, Kamau EM. "Editorial: Structured operational research and training in the public health Sector: the Kenyan experience." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Owiti L. "Women and the Politics of Transition.". In: Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
Owiti O,(eds) OJ. "Standard Form Contracts." Chapter 2 of Consumer Protection in Kenya. Theory, Law Practice; 1991. Abstract

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Owiti GO, Persson E, Oduor-Okelo D. "Ultrastructure of the chorioallantoic placenta and chorionic vesicles of the lesser bush baby (Ga/ago senega/ensis).". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The ultrastructure of the chorioallantoic placenta of the lesser bush baby (Galago senegalensis) has been studied. The placenta was shown to be of the diffuse, epitheliochorial and adeciduate type. The trophoblasts of the chorionic villi, other than those lining the chorionic vesicles, were characterized by the presence of many lipid droplets. In the later stage of gestation, the fetal capillaries indented the trophoblastic epithelium reducing the distance between fetal and maternal circulations. In addition chorionic vesicles were observed. The trophoblasts lining the chorionic vesicles have outward bulging apical surfaces. There are clefts between these cells and this region is occupied by microvilli of adjacent cells. Several layers of fusiform cells that did not extend up into the cores of the chorionic vesicle villi formed the outer component of the vesicular wall. Granulated cells were observed within the maternal connective tissue and their possible role is discussed

Owino-Gerroh C, Keter A, Mbuvi JP. "Agronomic response estimates of acidulated and uncidulated phosphorus sources for tea (camellia spp l.) growing in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

Studies were conducted on two tea fields, one with tea bushes planted in 1957 and another with tea bushes planted n LgTg in Kaaga, Kenya to determine the response of green tea leaf production to acidulated (Tripleiuper phosphate) and unacidulated (Minjingu phosphate rock) phosphorus fertilisers in the 1993194 af,d lg%lg1 Cropping seasons. The soils yere fairly acidic, low in exchangeable Ca and Mg and high in exchangeable ,ciaty and Al. Al saturation was high ( > 480 g kg-') in both soils. In both tgg3tg4 and 1994195 cropping seasons significantly (P 50.001) higher tea yields were obtained in the field with tea bushes planted in 19?9. The yield for 1994195 cropping season was significantly (P S0.m1) higher. than that for the 1993194 cropping season. There were no significant differences between the two P sources and also that of the control. The higher yields observed in the field with tea planted n lg/g was attributed to the high yielding varieties (clones) which had been planted. Higher yields observed in the 1994195 cropping season were due to improved management practices compared to that of the previous year. The lack of significant response of the crop to either of the P sources was attributed to the 'Al complexation' tolerance mechanism whereby the plant is still able to absorb Ca and P.

Owino-Cerroh C, Keter ] KA. "The Effects of Nutrient Solution Acic{ity (l'il}, Aluminium Content Taproot Elongation, Formation on Field Rosecoco f)iscovery and Innovatior Vol. 5 no. 1 March 1993 Rcrct Crowth in Irhosroils r,l.tlgatis L. cv Roser-trco 35 and Rhizobium Inoculati*n rrn .". 1993. Abstract

The effects of nutrient solution pH.aluminium concentration and Rhizobium irr6ttrrlalis.,i i,i1 !-rl\rir::f r,16;11g6{i111r, rgi1t p:rt-,wth and nqltrle ftrrmatittn on field beans (Plrascolrts ttulgaris L). cv Rosecoco, Ct.l, 2lyyc ., .., ,.ii;, li",! i;r i'r grr,fitlrr;rrsr' Ilrere was a highly significant reduction (p < 0.001) of the mean taproot length. lVith res1..,,,,'l t'i nutrient solution afli(ri,t, the highest mean taprrxtt length was observed at pH 4.0. These differences were attlitruil .r !,r i|16, exis{:ence of forrns of Al having varying degrees of toxicity, controlled by the ptl of the nutrient solutirxr. 'l'he c*o,.r,nlration of Al in ttrr: nrrtriept solution did not affect the mean root dry matter weight significantly but affected thc nlr.li,lo lrumbers wltirh dpcr+,ased as the concentration of this eleme,nt increased in the nutrient solution. The highest ntean trrurl!q,r,r.rf rro,;lrrles li:rrtred was 13.12 at pH 5.8 and 0 ppm Al. Field beans cultivar "Rosecoco", CLP 2, showed a poor teslxlrrse trr irirN:ui;rtiorr corlparxl tg pthers. Nutrient solution acidity inhibited nodulation of the beans. It is suggested that tlre inhibitliy efft,::t *f Al nray d;:pend on the sPecific ionic form of this element apart from its concentration and pH of the nutrient sr,iiir,ir;i;.

Owino OJ. "FACTORS DETERMINING CUSTOMER COMMITMENT TO SERVICE PROVIDERS IN KENYAN MOBILE TELEPHONE INDUSTRY."; 2011. Abstractfactors_determining_customer_commitment_to_service_providers_in_kenyan_mobile_telephone_industry.pdf

The study was designed to determine factors which contribute to customer commitment in the mobile telephone service industry. The population of interest comprised of subscribers to mobile telephone companies in Nairobi and Mombasa cities. Two hundred respondents were sampled for purposes of data collection. Data was collected through interviewer administered questionnaires. Factor analysis was used to identify variables which determined customer commitment. It was established that calling habits varied across the two cities. The length of time customers stayed in business relationship had significant influence on their trust for service provider. Commitment to relationship was predominantly determined by level of trust customers had in service providers. Other factors which explained commitment include service quality, reliability and marketing activities by the service provider. Switching costs had significant and positive impact on commitment.
Based on results of analysis, it was concluded that customer commitment to relationship vary across industries and geographic market segments. Commitment in Kenya's mobile telephone industry was determined by customer’s psychological and emotional factors as well as firm related factors. It was also concluded that efforts towards building trust have significant contribution to commitment. In addition, high switching costs increased commitment only when customers had developed trust in the service provider. The study recommends that studies should be carried out to assess the relative contribution of various marketing mix elements to customer commitment.
Key words: commitment, trust, relationship

Owino WO, Ambuko J. "Postharvest Ripening Physiology of Crops.". Submitted. Abstract
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OWINO MISSOKETCHEMMA. "Affirmative Action and the Gender Agenda.". In: Strathmore University Press, 2006. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) occurs in up to one fourth of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Some of the factors implicated in its causation include hypergastrinaemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, drugs and, recently, Helicobacter pylori infection. Studies on the latter have been few, with none having been carried out in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic findings and to determine the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients with dyspepsia. STUDY DESIGN AND POPULATION: A prospective study of seventy seven consecutive patients with CRF and dyspepsia compared with consecutive age, sex and socio-economically matched seventy seven controls (no CRF) with dyspepsia. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the major referral and teaching hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: In both the study population and the controls, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was carried out. H. pylori was tested for using the biopsy urease test and histology. Patients were considered to have H. pylori if they tested positive on both tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Findings at endoscopy and presence of H. pylori. RESULTS: Inflammatory lesions (gastritis, duodenitis) (42%) and duodenal ulcers (18.4%) were the commonest findings in the two groups combined. The prevalence of H. pylori in the 154 subjects studied was 54.5%. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients (53.2%) and the controls (55.8%) (p = 0.746). Patients with endoscopically proven PUD had a very high prevalence of H. pylori (87.3%) regardless of their renal function status. CONCLUSION: Dyspepsia in patients with or without CRF was due to multiple causes and over 50% were attributable to H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylon in dyspeptic CRF patients was similar to that in dyspeptic patients with normal renal function.
Owino B, Ogacho A, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Odari V. "Effect of TiO2 Compact Layer on Photovoltaic Characteristics of TiO2/Nb2O5 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania, ; 2019.
OWINO DRJUNG&#39;AJOSEPH. "Agnese, J-F., Adepo-Gourene, Owino J., Pouyand L., and R. Aman, (1999). Genetic characterization of pure relict population of Oreochromis esculentus, an endangered tilapia. J. Fish Biol. 54(5): 1119-1123.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
Owino BO, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "Socio-demographic and clinical aspects of rheumatoid arthritis.". 2009. Abstract

To determine the socio-demographic profiles and some clinical aspects of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ambulatory out- patient clinics of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a public national and referral hospital. SUBJECTS: Out of 180 patients interviewed and examined, 60 met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria of RA. RESULTS: Of the 60 patients recruited 52 (87%) were females with male: female ratio of 1: 6.5. The mean age of patients was 41.38(+/- 16.8) years. There were two peaks of age of occurrence, 20-29 and 40-49 years. In 75% of the study patients, one or more of metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand were involved in the disease. Other frequently involved sites were--wrists, elbows, knees, ankles and glenohumeral joints of shoulders in a symmetrical manner. Serum rheumatoid factor was positive in 78.9% while rheumatoid nodules were present in 13.3% of the study patients. A large majority of patients (88%) had active disease with 18% having mild disease, 38% moderate activity and 32% having severe disease. Only 12% of patients had disease in remission. Forty six point seven per cent (46.7%) of the study patients were on at least one Disease Modifying anti Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) from a selection of methotrexate, sulphasalazine, hydroxychloroquine and leflunamide. The most frequent drug combination was methotrexate plus prednisolone at 30% of the study population; while 66.7% were on oral prednisolone with 25% of the study patients taking only Non-Steroidal anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS). CONCLUSION: A large majority of ambulatory patients with RA had active disease. Most of them were sub-optimally treated, especially the use of DMARDS. About two thirds were on oral steroids. Sub-optimal therapy in relatively young patients, peak 20-29 and 40-49 years is likely to impact negatively on their disease control and quality of life.

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