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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Efficacy of Kemron (low dose oral natural human interferon alpha) in the management of HIV-1 infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS64-70.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS64-70. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract

One hundred and ninety nine symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were treated with KEMRON, a natural human interferon alpha (nHIF alpha) stabilized in a complex polysacchariche carrier. Treatment was given for at least 10 weeks at a daily oral dose of approximately 2.0 IU of nHIF alpha per kg body weight. Karnofsky performance score increased from an average of 60.5 on entry into the study to 100 by the 10th week after treatment. Similarly, common clinical complaints associated with HIV-1 infection rapidly reduced per patient from an average of 3.8 to 0.05 and 0 by week 8 and 10 of treatment. Eighteen of the patients serodeconverted by both ELISA and western blot assays during the study period. These observations suggest that KEMRON used as recommended is beneficial in HIV-1 seropositive individuals.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The M.". In: Kenya Journal of Science & Technology, Series A, 2nd Issue. 117-124. Wiley Interscience; 1980. Abstract
n/a
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Multi-Agent Systems Scheduler in a Dynamic Environment Using a Load Optimizing Strategy. A PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi, June 2012.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Critical aspects of animal production, health sciences and environmental litigation. In: The Veterinary profession in a changing environment. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Veterinary Association/Kenya Veterinary Association joint Region.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otineo, M.R.B., McLigeyo S.O., Rogo, K.O. and Kigondu, C.S.: Menstrual disorders in patinents with chronic renal faliure. East African Medical Journal 70(1): 1-2, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(1): 1-2, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Methodology for Flood Risk scenarios for Burundi. Workshop on WFP & ICPAC Consultant mission on .". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O MS. " Pain management in Kidney Diseases. ." Health Line.. 2002;6(4):56-60.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Multi-Agent systems scheduler in a dynamic environment.". In: (Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 229-243. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2005.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. A comparison of timolol plus hydrochlorothiazide plus amiloride and methyldopa in essential hypertension in Black Africans. Trop Geogr Med. 1983 Sep;35(3):285-91.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1983 Sep;35(3):285-91. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Eric Ayienga, Elisha Opiyo, Bernard Manderick, Okello-Odongo, Ann Nowe (2006). Multiagent Systems for Bandwidth Optimization in Wireless Grids.". In: Second Annual International conference on sustainable capacity in developing countries - SREC06, AUGUST 6-9, 2006, MAKERERE UNIVERSITY, KAMPALA, UGANDA. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2006.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "Solution of the Coulomb scattering potential problem by method of contour integration and change of approximation functions.". In: African Journal of Sci. & Tech. 6(2):52-58. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, P G Mbuthia, H Kaburi 1993. Fish pathogens isolated from fish species inhabiting L. Naivasha and aquaculture systems of Nyandarua District, Kenya. European Association of Fish Pathologists (EAFP) 5th International conference. Diseases of fish a.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1993. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The development of beta adrenoceptors in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS LAW.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K. O. 1994. Vegetation, pp. 119-128; in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons.". In: in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo SO.Initial experience with CAPD in patients with HIV infection in a developing country. Perit Dial Int. 1992;12(2):267-8. No abstract available.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a well-recognized technique for sampling solid organs. It is used in renal transplantation to clarify the cause of a poorly functioning graft. Differential scoring techniques with respect to peripheral blood cell populations, and immunocytochemistry have been employed in this context. We describe the use of simple morphological criteria alone in renal transplant FNA. We compare these with needle biopsy and clinical parameters and show their value in the detection of active cellular rejection. Their limitations are discussed within the framework of other patterns of transplant pathology.
O DROPEREALFRED, M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "The need for a flood forecasting system in Kenya (revised).". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2002. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Current trends in the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in diabetes mellitus-practical therapeutics. East Afr Med J. 1981 Apr;58(4):244-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Apr;58(4):244-8. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFORINDADA. "External quality control performance in Clinical Chemistry experience in Kenya M. J. N. Mbiti, P. J. Ojwang and D.A.O. Orinda E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 70, No. 4 April, 1993.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract
Analysis of eleven biochemical laboratory tests was done during an International External Quality Assessment Scheme (IEQAS) in which the clinical chemistry laboratory at Kenyatta National Hospital participated. Technicon SMA II continuous flow system was used in the biochemical analyses apart from glucose which was assayed manually by the glucose oxidase method. Using the standard deviation index (SDI), twenty six percent of the results were found to be outside the two standard deviation (2SD) limit. However, when variance index score (VIS) was used, 42% of the results were found to be outliers. Overall, our laboratory performed poorly compared to other laboratories in both the IEQAS and the United Kingdom External Quality Assurance Scheme (UKEQAS). This poor performance is attributed to the use of improper equipment which is not regularly maintained, lack of diagnostic reagents, lack of quality control (QC) materials and inadequate staff training in the field of quality control.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Role of NGOs in Fostering Development and Good Governance at the Local Level in Africa with a Focus on Kenya," in Africa Development, Vol. XXXIX, No. 4, 2004, pp. 19-55, CODESRIA.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2004. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G. O. Rading, "The Effect of Welding on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" Welding J. Res. Supplement 37(7) (1993) p 307-s.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1993. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Sclerema neonatorum (a study of 16 cases in the special care unit, Mulago Hospital, Kampala). East Afr Med J. 1970 Jan;47(1): Bwibo NO, Anderson BT.". In: East Afr Med J. 1970 Jan;47(1):. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in strongly Magnetized Electron Gas; Kenya Journal of Science and Technology (A), 10 (1989).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Otieno L.S., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., and Sitati S. Management of lupus nephritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital East African Medical Journal, 67(6): 387-395; 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67(6): 387-395; 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Wakhungu J.W. and Bwanga, C.O.; and Kipleel D.B. Strictures on the choice criteria of dairy cattle breeds in smallholder farms in Kenya. Contract Research report to USAID-ARF-KARI, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A paper presented in the 3rd Commonwealth Veterinary Association Workshop on . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
O PROFORINDADA. "Plasma Oestradiol .". In: E. A. Med. Journal, Vol. 55 No. 4 April 1978. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralised Development Planning and Management in Kenya: An Assessment," in Ladipo Adamolekun et al., (eds.), Decentralisation Policies and Socio-Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (Washington, DC: Economic Development Institute of the World B.". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1992. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra H. Otolaryngology/Head and neck surgical services in developing countries: Challenges and future perspectives.". In: Editorial. East African Medical Journal 75: 321, 1998. MEDICOM; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Recent advances in mechanism of causation of diabetes mellitus in man and Acomys cahirinus. East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. E Afr Med J; 1974. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S. and McLigeyo S.O.: Acute Tubular Necrosis due to Acute Plasmodium Faciparum Infestation -review article and a summary of our experience. The African journal of Hospital Medicine (MEDICOM) 9 (5):139-142, 1987.". In: The African journal of Hospital Medicine (MEDICOM) 9 (5):139-142, 1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Precambrian Geology of the Ishiara area, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences. Vol.2 No.1 pp34-38. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1984. Abstract
n/a
O DROUTAGEORGE. "6. .". In: Governance Issues in East Africa. Centre for African Studies: University of Florida, Gainesville; 1995. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "Agricultural Administration in Kenya.". In: Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXVI, No.3. IPPNW; 1978. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. DRIRIMUGRACE, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Irimu G, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Ntoburi S, Opiyo N, Ayieko P, Peshu N, English M.Developing and introducing evidence based clinical practice guidelines for serious illness in Kenya.Arch Dis Child. 2008 Sep;93(9):799-804.". In: Arch Dis Child. 2008 Sep;93(9):799-804. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "A new flavonol tetraglycoside from Myrsina africana leaves.". In: Natural Products letters, 9, 121-126.; 1997. Abstract
n/a
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu, J. O. .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal December 1998. James Murimi; 1998. Abstract

Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong'any AA, Nissen EB.

Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Linnea.Warenius@ki.se

Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

PMID: 16713886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya.". In: Journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2009.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "McNeill PM, Macklin R, Wasunna A, Komesaroff PA. An expanding vista: bioethics from public health, indigenous and feminist perspectives. Med J Aust. 2005 Jul 4;183(1):8-9. No abstract available.". In: Med J Aust. 2005 Jul 4;183(1):8-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2005. Abstract
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. paul.mcneill@unsw.edu.au
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Munyua, S.J.M., Wahome, R.G. Mitaru, B.M., Agumbah G.J.O. and Kiptoon, J.C. (1992). Reproductive performance and wastage in small scale piggeries in Kenya. Ken. Vet. 93 - 95.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1992. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Meat supplementation improves growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes in Kenyan children. J Nutr . 2007 Apr; 137 ( 4 ): 1119-23 . PMID: 17374691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Neumann CG, Murphy SP, Gewa C, Grillenberger M, Bwibo NO.". In: J Nutr . 2007 Apr; 137 ( 4 ): 1119-23 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2007. Abstractmeat_supplementation_improves_growth.pdf

Department of Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. cneumann@mednet.ucla.edu

A randomized, controlled school feeding study was conducted in rural Embu District, Kenya to test for a causal link between animal-source food intake and changes in micronutrient nutrition and growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Children in Standard I classes received the local plant-based dish githeri as a midmorning school snack supplemented with meat, milk, or fat added to equalize energy content in all feedings. The Control children received no feedings but participated in data collection. Main outcome measures assessed at baseline and longitudinally were 24-h food intake recall, anthropometry, cognitive function, physical activity, and behaviors during school free play. For cognitive function, the Meat group showed the steepest rate of increase on Raven's Progressive Matrices scores and in zone-wide school end-term total and arithmetic test scores. The Plain githeri and Meat groups performed better over time than the Milk and Control groups (P < 0.02-0.03) on arithmetic tests. The Meat group showed the greatest increase in percentage time in high levels of physical activity and in initiative and leadership behaviors compared with all other groups. For growth, in the Milk group only younger and stunted children showed a greater rate of gain in height. The Meat group showed near doubling of upper midarm muscle area, and the Milk group a smaller degree of increase. This is the first randomized, controlled feeding study to examine the effect of meat- vs. milk- vs. plant-based snacks on functional outcomes in children.

PMID: 17374691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Group takes a fresh look at the lithosphere underneath southern Kenya,.". In: KRSIP Working Group EOS Transactions, AGU 76, 81-82. Wiley Interscience; 1995. Abstract
(including Nyambok, I.O.), .
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Prevention and treatment of acute renal failure using diuretics and/or low ("Renal") dose of dopamine: a critical review. Afr J Health Sci. 1997 Jan-Mar;4(1):2-8.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(10):605-606, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
The currently available evidence suggest that diuretics and/or low dose dopamine increases renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and natriuresis in experimental animals, and limits ATP utilisation and oxygen needs in nephron segments at high risk of ischaemic injury, actions that could potentially limit renal injury and accelerate recovery in acute renal failure (ARF). These effects have indeed been confirmed in most experimental animals while using mannitol or low dose dopanime. Frusemide, however, for unknown reasons, has been effective in some animal models, but not others. In humans, it can be said that diurectics have a limited value to prevent, reverse or speed recovery from acute renal failure. Most clinical studies have failed to demonstrate convincingly that low dose dopamine either prevents ARF in high risk patients or improves renal function or outcome in patients with established ARF. This confusing scenario is further complicated by the fact that both diuretics and low dose dopamine can result in severe metabolic and cardiovascular complications in critically ill patients.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1983. Geophysical investigations for kimberlite pipes in the greenstone belt of western Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences 1, 235-253. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1983. Abstract
n/a
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Whitelaw A, Gallimore R, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB. C-reactive protein and bacterial infection in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Mar;149(6):424-7.". In: Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Mar;149(6):424-7. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1990. Abstract
{ Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by a new solid phase ligand-binding radiometric monoclonal antibody immunoassay in a prospective study of 193 consecutively born preterm infants. In 104 with no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection the median CRP in cord serum was 0.125 mg/l (range 0.011-6.0 mg/l), at 24 h it was 1 mg/l (0.016-7.0) and at 48 h 2 mg/l (0.400-8.0). The present highly sensitive assay has enabled these normal ranges to be defined for the first time, at levels below the threshold of non-labelled immunoassays and of all commercially available CRP assays. The values in cord serum were significantly lower than in normal healthy adults (median 0.8 mg/l, range 0.07-29 mg/l
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO, Jowi JO, Amayo EO.Efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine.East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82. uon; 1995. Abstract
An open prospective study of the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, is presented. Thirty two patients were initially recruited and 24 completed the trial giving a drop-out rate of 25%. The age range was 17 to 55 years with a mean of 35 years. Sumatriptan was found to be effective in 22 (92%) out of 24 patients. Side effects occurred in 38% (9/24) patients. These were mild and transient and included nausea, vomiting, numbness of limbs, fever and a feeling of heat in the head. It is concluded that oral sumatriptan is an effective drug in the treatment of acute migraine headaches. It has few side effects and is well tolerated by majority of patients.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1981). The counter-current immunoelectrophoresis method in the diagnosis of C.fetus infection in cattle.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1981. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "R.N. Musoke, Care of the newborn. Chapter 2 in Primary Health Care. A manual for medical students and other health workers Ed. K. Mukelabai, N.O. Bwibo, F.E. Onyango, Second edition 1995, UNICEF.". In: manual for medical students and other health workers Ed. K. Mukelabai, N.O. Bwibo, F.E. Onyango, Second edition 1995, UNICEF. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1995. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. swhaley@mednet.ucla.edu

Previous observational studies in developing countries have suggested that diet quality, particularly increased animal source food (ASF) consumption, is positively associated with child cognitive development. This report presents findings from a study in rural Kenya, designed to test the impact of three different diets on the cognitive development of school children. Twelve schools with a total of 555 Standard 1 children (equivalent to U.S. Grade 1) were randomized to one of four feeding interventions: Meat, Milk, Energy or Control (no feeding). Feeding continued for seven school terms (21 mo), and cognitive tests were administered before the commencement of feeding and during every other term of feeding. Hierarchical linear random effects models and associated methods were used to examine the effects of treatment group on changes in cognitive performance over time. Analyses revealed that children receiving supplemental food with meat significantly outperformed all other children on the Raven's Progressive Matrices. Children supplemented with meat, and children supplemented with energy, outperformed children in the Control group on tests of arithmetic ability. There were no group differences on tests of verbal comprehension. Results suggest that supplementation with animal source food has positive effects on Kenyan children's cognitive performance. However, these effects are not equivalent across all domains of cognitive functioning, nor did different forms of animal source foods produce the same beneficial effects. Implications of these findings for supplementation programs in developing countries are discussed.

PMID: 14672297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Oldoinyo Lenkiyio Range: Geology, geomorphology and hydrographic pattern of the.". In: In Kenya from Space. A contribution to a CREDU publication. East African Educational Publishers. 116-119. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
n/a
O MRAKELOERNEST, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN. "Inventory Management by Simulation Analysis .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
This paper presents the findings of a study that explored the use of Monte Carlo simulation method to optimally manage inventory in the water equipment industry. The study treated both demand and lead time as stochastic. It proposes an inventory model that will minimize the total inventory costs through simulation analysis while demonstrating how simulation technique can be effectively used to solve inventory management problems
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Technology Transfer and the Innovative Process in Biomedical Sciences in the Developed World. Discovery and Innovation. Vol. 14 No. .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Were AJ, McLigeyo SO.Cost consideration in renal replacement therapy in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jan;72(1):69-71.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 91-93, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. (1984). Use of milk records for cow and sire evaluation in Kenya. Ph.D. Thesis University of whales.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1984. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Precambrian Geology of the Ishiara area, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences. Vol.2 No.1 pp34-38. Wiley Interscience; 1984. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2001. Chemicals in the livestock industry. Workshop on chemical management. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 12 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "S.O. McLigeyo, J.K. Kayima Evolution of nephrology in East Africa in the last seventy years .". In: East African Medical Journal, 70(6): 362 - 368; 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Ndetei, C.J. , Opere, A.O. and Mutua F.M. (2007): Flood frequency analysis in Lake Victoria basin based on tail behaviour of distributions. Journal of KMS, vol., pp.44-54. ISSN 1995-9834.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: approach to the therapy of diarrhoeal diseases. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jun;61(6):493-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFOWINOJOHN. "ODHIAMBO, J. W. & OWINO, J. (1985): .". In: Kenya j. Sci & Tech Vol., 6 (1) pp 59-67. 1999; 1985. Abstract
n/a
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Meme J. S., Hillma D., Hillman E., Macleod S., Bwibo N. O. University of Nairobi, Department of Paediatrics: The McGill Legacy Clin. Invest. Med 9: 14 1986.". In: Clin. Invest. Med 9: 14 1986. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract

A case of fanconi's anemia was referred to the Dental School from the Department of Pediatrics. The patient was a 24-year-old male and a product of a consanguineous marriage. His chief complaint was loose and falling teeth, which has started at the age of 16 years. The first teeth to fall out were the first permanent molars followed by mandibular and maxillary anteriors. General examination showed that the patient was of normal intelligence and small for his age. He had no palmar plantar hyperkeratosis and was not diabetic. A total of 19 teeth remained in the mouth, most of them with grade three mobility. The remaining molars and first maxillary premolars had grade three furcation involvement. Most of the teeth had periodontal pockets more than 10 mm deep. Full mouth intraoral periapical radiographs and orthopantomographic views showed severe horizontal bone loss uncommensurate with the patient's age. In view of the patient's history and severe bone loss at an early age, the diagnosis was juvenile periodontitis associated with Fanconi's anemia.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Some historical and philosophical aspects of Geology.". In: Thought and Practice, Vol. l (2). Wiley Interscience; 1974. Abstract
n/a
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga, Katherine Getao, Bernard Manderick, Okello-Odongo, Ann Now.". In: In Proceedings of the 4th International Operations Research Society of East Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 23rd-24th Oct 2008, Nairobi, Kenya. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2008.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Hematopathological observations in Kenyan children with sickle cell anemia in the first decade of life. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1982 Summer; 4 ( 2 ): 182-6 . PMID: 6180653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kasili EG, Bwibo NO.". In: Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1982 Summer; 4 ( 2 ): 182-6 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

This paper reviews clinicopathological and hematological manifestations of sickle cell anemia as seen in Kenyan children in the first decade of life. The information is based on a study of 447 patients. The findings are similar to those that are well documented from America, West Africa, and other parts of Africa. However, local variations and complications such as malnutrition and topical infections that may affect prognosis are high-lighted.

O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "MMM AFRICA! (KISWAHILI).". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2004.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1996. Kenya Veterinary Association Privatization Scheme (KVAPS). Background current status and futures perspectives. Proceedings of the joint Regional Commonwealth Veterinary Association, Mauritius veterinary association/ Pan- African Veterinar.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1996. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of antithyroid drugs. East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE QUOTABLE PLO.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K.O., A. F. Tanaka, and N. E. West. 1988. Autecology and population biology of dyers woad (Isatis tinctoria) . Weed Science 36:186-193.". In: Proceedings of a national workshop of the Pastoral Information Network Programme (PINEP) held at Machakos, Kenya, 14-15 October 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Use of intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis in patients with refractory heart failure. Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
O DROPEREALFRED. "N. J. Muthama, A. O. Opere and C. Oludhe (2003): Equatorial Total ozone as a predictor of sea surface temperatures useful for East African seasonal rainfall prediction. Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.6.no2, (2003) p1-10.". In: Journal of African Meteorological. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2003. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Clinical trials in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):809-13. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFORINDADA. "Nyakundi PM, Kinuthia DW, Orinda DA. Clinical aspects and causes of rickets in a Kenyan population.East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):536-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):536-42. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Clinical Research Centre, Nairobi. Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions. PMID: 7867549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Public Service Reform in Kenya: Lessons and Experience," in Kiragu, K., and Mutahaba, G., (eds.), Public Service Reform in Eastern and Southern Africa: Issues and Challenges, Dar es Saalam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2006. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, J. Li and J.T. Berry "Fatigue Crack Growth in Cast Al-Cu Alloy A206 With Different Levels of Porosity" AFS Trans. 45 (1994) p 57-61.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994. Abstract

The fatigue crack growth (FCG) characteristics of a cast Al-Cu alloy A206 in the T7 temper condition were studied in laboratory air at a frequency of 30 Hz and an R-ratio of 0.2. Two different (as cast) thicknesses and two different casting conditions (casting with and without a chill) were investigated with the aim of characterizing the effect of porosity on the FCG behavior. The level of porosity in each sample was determined by the point-counting method and varied from 2.4 to 4.0% before hot isostatic pressing (HIP).<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

The study covered both near-threshold and mid-range regimes of FCG. The results indicate that for this limited range of porosity, there exists no systematic relationship between casting conditions (i.e., chilled or non-chilled) or the as-cast thickness and the average level of porosity. However, in the near-threshold regime, the FCG resistance decreased as the level of porosity increased, while in the mid-range of FCG, the FCG rate was fairly independent of the amount of porosity.

Application of HIP led to a reduction in the porosity level from about 4% to less than 0.4%, but this was accompanied by improvement in the FCG resistance only, close to the threshold. The results are rationalized in terms of the effect of porosity on the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack growth and the initiation of secondary cracks caused by the size, distribution and morphology, of the pores.

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rules for Relativistic Classical Plasmas in a Magnetic Field; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 28 893 (1989). 30. R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in Strongly coupled.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: advances in antibiotic therapy. East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Otieno LS, Kinuthia DM, Mwongera FK, Wairagu SG.Outcome of pregnancy in nephrotic syndrome: a report on five cases. East Afr Med J. 1991 Jun;68(6):477-83.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a 6 year period (1984-1989) we have had the opportunity to take care of five patients who had nephrotic syndrome and became pregnant. Four of them had mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis while one had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Four of the pregnancies went to term while one was terminated at 34 weeks gestation because of deteriorating renal function in the mother. All the pregnancies ended in delivery of normal babies. However, two patients have since died of end stage renal disease, while the remaining three continue to be nephrotic with reduced levels of renal function following the deliveries.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Mogoa E.G.M., Omiti J.M., Tsuma V.T., Bwanga C.O; Some constraints and opportunities in the privatization of animal breeding services in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
O PROFORINDADA. "Kasili EG, Orinda DA, Mudasia J.Serum lysozyme (muramidase) levels in the normal and various pathological states in Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):163-70.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):163-70. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1981. Abstract
PMID: 7249984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Kenya: Contextual Factors and the Policy Process" in Louis A. Picard and Michele Garrity, (eds.), Policy Reform for Sustainable Development in Africa: The Institutional Imperative (Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers).". In: African Journal of Political Science Vol. 2 No. 2,pp. 41-69. IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra HO, Idenya M.Frequency of adenotonsillectomy in some Nairobi hospitals.East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7):338-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7):338-42. MEDICOM; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The efficacy of dyazide in the treatment of fluid retention and hypertension. East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):495-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):495-9. E Afr Med J; 1980. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Individual behaviour for health. The African Journal of Medicine 10(4): 35, 1988.". In: The African Journal of Medicine 10(4): 35, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O DROUTAGEORGE. ". .". In: Mid American Alliance for African Studies conference (MAAAS). Kansas State University, USA,; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and Rural Development in Africa,".". In: Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXVI, No. 2, April-June, pp. 418-442. IPPNW; 1980. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Two prenylated flavonones from stem bark of Erythrinna burtii.". In: Phytochemistry, 48, 8 1439-1443).; 1998. Abstract
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O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu J.O. New Developments in Nursing Education , Kenya Nursing Journal Volume 34 Number 1 June 2006.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Volume 34 Number 1 June 2006. James Murimi; 2006. Abstract

Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong'any AA, Nissen EB.

Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Linnea.Warenius@ki.se

Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

PMID: 16713886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. DRIRIMUGRACE, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "English M, Irimu G, Wamae A, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Peshu N.Health systems research in a low-income country: easier said than done.Arch Dis Child. 2008 Jun;93(6):540-4.". In: Arch Dis Child. 2008 Jun;93(6):540-4. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in the health systems of many low-income countries. If the Millennium Development Goal for child survival is to be achieved, hospital care for referred severely ill children will need to be improved considerably in parallel with primary care in many countries. Yet little is known about how to achieve this. This article describes the evolution and final design of an intervention study that is attempting to improve hospital care for children in Kenyan district hospitals. It illustrates many of the difficulties involved in reconciling epidemiological rigour and feasibility in studies at a health system, rather than an individual, level and the importance of the depth and breadth of analysis when trying to provide a plausible answer to the question: does it work? Although there are increasing calls for more health systems research in low-income countries, the importance of strong, broadly based local partnerships and long-term commitment even to initiate projects is not always appreciated.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Makoni, L.T., Ogaa, J.S. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1994). The efficiency of an Oestrone sulphate ELISA kit to detect pregnancy in sow in zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 25 92) 64 -69.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1994. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Dietary micronutrients are associated with higher cognitive function gains among primary school children in rural Kenya. Gewa CA, Weiss RE, Bwibo NO, Whaley S, Sigman M, Murphy SP, Harrison G, Neumann CG.Br J Nutr. 2008 Sep 30:1-10. [Epub ahead of print].". In: Br J Nutr. 2008 Sep 30:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2008. AbstractDietary micronutrients.pdf

With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.

O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Anti-feedant effects of surface accumulated flavonoids of Polygonum senegalense.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. (1990), 4(2), 123.; 1990. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "13th July, 2007 .". In: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.; 2007. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo S.O.: Successful aging - An ideal developing countries should aim for. East African Medical Journal. 74(10):605-606, 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(10):605-606, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., Method for depth estimation on aeromagnetic vertical gradient anomalies.". In: Geophysics 50, 963-968. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1985. Abstract
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O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80. uon; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1983). Vibriosis: Current Diagnostic trends.". In: Annual Conf. Ken. Vet. Assoc. April, 1983, Nairobi. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1983. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "The impact of dietary intervention on the cognitive development of Kenyan school children. J Nutr . 2003 Nov; 133 ( 11 Suppl 2 ): 3965S-3971S . PMID: 14672297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Whaley SE, Sigman M, Neumann C, Bwibo N, Guthrie D, Weiss RE, Alb.". In: J Nutr . 2003 Nov; 133 ( 11 Suppl 2 ): 3965S-3971S . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. swhaley@mednet.ucla.edu

Previous observational studies in developing countries have suggested that diet quality, particularly increased animal source food (ASF) consumption, is positively associated with child cognitive development. This report presents findings from a study in rural Kenya, designed to test the impact of three different diets on the cognitive development of school children. Twelve schools with a total of 555 Standard 1 children (equivalent to U.S. Grade 1) were randomized to one of four feeding interventions: Meat, Milk, Energy or Control (no feeding). Feeding continued for seven school terms (21 mo), and cognitive tests were administered before the commencement of feeding and during every other term of feeding. Hierarchical linear random effects models and associated methods were used to examine the effects of treatment group on changes in cognitive performance over time. Analyses revealed that children receiving supplemental food with meat significantly outperformed all other children on the Raven's Progressive Matrices. Children supplemented with meat, and children supplemented with energy, outperformed children in the Control group on tests of arithmetic ability. There were no group differences on tests of verbal comprehension. Results suggest that supplementation with animal source food has positive effects on Kenyan children's cognitive performance. However, these effects are not equivalent across all domains of cognitive functioning, nor did different forms of animal source foods produce the same beneficial effects. Implications of these findings for supplementation programs in developing countries are discussed.

PMID: 14672297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Naivasha: Geology and natural resources.". In: In Kenya from space. East African Educational Publishers. 60-62. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Owino J., Eric S. Mitema, William O. Ogara, and Herwig O. Gutzeit. 2004. Heat Shock Affects Attachment and Proliferation of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Primary Hepatocytes. In-Vitro cell. Developmental Biol. Animal.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Wanyoike M.N., Waiyaki P.G., McLigeyo S.O., Wafula E.M.: Bacteriology and sensitivity patterns of pyogenic meningitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi - Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 72: 658-660, 1995.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 91-93, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Rege, J.E.O. and R.O. Mosi (1989). Analysis of the Kenyan Friesian breed from 1968-1984: Genetic and environmental trends and related parameters of milk production.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 37:267-278. Elsevier; 1989. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Tombe M, Bhatt KM, Obel AO. Quinine loading dose in severe Falciparum malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):670-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):670-4. E Afr Med J; 1992. Abstract

From July 1989 to February 1990, 17 non-pregnant patients with severe falciparum malaria, aged 14 years and above received an initial intravenous quinine dihydrochloride loading dose of 20 mg/kg in 500 mls of normal saline or 5% dextrose infused over 4 hours followed by 100mg/kg infused 8 hourly for at least 24 hours. Sixteen comparable controls were similarly treated but without an initial loading dose. Oral quinine bisulfate 10mg/kg 8 hourly was substituted for a total of 7 days when patients were well enough. There was no significant difference in clinical and parasitological response between the two groups. Fever clearance time in hours was 44.00 +/- 13.92 (mean +/- SD) in the study group and 51.43 +/- 19.63 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (p > 0.05). Parasite clearance time in hours was 42.40 +/- 9.75 (mean +/- SD) in the study group and 47.05 +/- 7.69 (mean +/- SD) in the control group (p > 0.05). One patient from each group died. Mild toxic effects were common in both groups. Transient partial hearing loss occurred significantly more in the study than control group (p < 0.05). Hypoglycaemia during treatment occurred in 3 (18%) patients in the study group and 1 (6%) in the control group. The mean trough and peak plasma quinine levels in 3 patients per group was persistently higher than 9mg/L after first infusion. We conclude that though fairly well tolerated, quinine loading dose appears to have no advantage over the standard treatment for severe falciparum malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N O and Health Service (chapter 11 pp 154 .". In: Publishers . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1988. Abstract

One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index.

PMID: 2591328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O 2001. Economic benefits of standards and regulations. In: Report on Public Education and Awareness on Regulations And Standards Of The Environmental Management And Coordination Act, 1999. Pages 15-23.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Ngugi P.N., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., Otieno L.S., Mogere R. Vascular access for Haemodialysis. East African Medical Journal, 68(6): 442-447; 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal, 68(6): 442-447; 1991. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1991. Abstract
In a fifteen month period (August 1987 to November 1988) forty patients requiring haemodialysis had 83 angioaccess procedures performed. Arteriovenous (AV) shunts and arteriovenous fistulae were the commonest procedures, comprising 56 (67%) and 20 (24%) of the patients respectively. Subclavian catheters and artificial grafts were used less frequently. Nephrologists and senior house officers attached to the Renal Unit were responsible for fashioning A-V shunts and inserting subclavian catheters while the A-V fistulae were fashioned by the urologists and vascular surgeons. The commonest complication of A-V shunts were clotting, occurring in 31 (55.4%) followed by bleeding in 14 (25%). Eight (32%) of the A-V fistulae never functioned from the beginning. It is noted that we are still very dependent on A-V shunts for vascular access in end stage renal disease (ESRF) patients and this is associated with an unacceptable level of complications. This dependency on A-V shunts in ESRD patients should be stopped or phased out. A-V fistulae should be used more frequently. Their constructions should be well thought out, executed and supervised by the few surgeons who are versed in them together with their follow-ups.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Amayo EO, Kayima J, McLigeyo SO, Kioy PG.Autonomic nervous function in patients with chronic renal failure at the Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Autonomic nervous function was assessed in twenty two patients (16 males and 6 females) with chronic renal failure on conservative management. The presenting symptoms were postural dizziness in 10(45%), impotence in 4(18%) patients and 1 patient each with diplopia, urinary urgency and nocturnal diarrhoea. The following autonomic function tests were performed; valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to posture and postural change in blood pressure. Fifteen (68%) patients had abnormal autonomic function tests. Out of these patients, 14(93%) had abnormalities of the parasympathetic system and only one had abnormalities in the sympathetic system. There was a negative correlation between the creatinine levels and the following; valsalva ratio (r = -0.72 p < 0.001), heart rate response to standing (r = -0.56 p < 0.01) and heart rate response to deep breathing (r = -0.45 p < 0.05).
O DROPEREALFRED. "OPEN AND DISTANT LEARNING MATERIALS WRITTEN & REVIEWED: 1. SMR 103: Quantitative methods & Computer Applications I 2. SMR 309: Hydrometeorology I 3. SMR 307: Thermodynamics & Cloud Physics.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2010. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOWINOJOHN, O PROFOWINOJOHN. "OWINO J. & OMOLO B. (1997): .". In: In proceedings of the fifth IBS (group Kenya) conference. Also in Egerton J. Sci. (in press). 1999; 1997. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. The development of beta adrenoceptors in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Oct;61(10):733-5. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Gonadotropin excretion during puberty in malnourished children. J Pediatr . 1984 Aug; 105 ( 2 ): 325-8 . PMID: 6431069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kulin HE, Bwibo N, Mutie D, Santner SJ.". In: J Pediatr . 1984 Aug; 105 ( 2 ): 325-8 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1984. Abstract

p6nadotropins were measured by radioimmunoassay of urine samples from 285 privileged Nairobi adolescents and from 238 rural peripubertal Kenyan boys and girls who had had moderate malnutrition during childhood. Gonadotropins were reduced at all ages in the rural adolescents, but pubertal stage-matched comparisons showed no differences between children of the two study areas in middle or late phases of sexual maturity. These results document the pattern of gonadotropin changes in an environment of reduced caloric intake and confirm the presumed hypothalamic-pituitary origin of the delayed adolescence that occurs under such circumstances.

PMID: 6431069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFOWINOJOHN. "OWINO, J (1990): .". In: Ph.D. research thesis, university of Nairobi. 1999; 1990. Abstract
n/a
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geochemistry of the carbonatite complexes in East Africa in (Abstr.).". In: 2nd Symposium on the origin and distribution of elements. IAGC and UNESCO.102. Wiley Interscience; 1977. Abstract
n/a
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo (2009). Innovative applications in Healthcare. University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences, Institute of Tropical & Infectious Diseases, The UNITID Fellowship Programme, HIV Health Informatics Track.". In: Published by The University of Nairobi, Printed by College of Education and External Studies, 2009. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2009.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Serological determination of prevalence of congenital syphilis in two hospitals in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 6764198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

No abstract available.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1997. Microbiological, and physico-chemical characteristics of Siaga (Siaga tatarica Linneaus) meat during storage. Kenya Veterinarian Volume 24, 1-5.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Placebo-controlled trial of potassium supplements in black patients with mild essential hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Aug;14(2):294-6.". In: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Aug;14(2):294-6. E Afr Med J; 1989. Abstract
Forty-eight black patients with mildly increased blood pressure (BP) that had not yet been subjected to treatment took part in a double-blind clinical trial of the efficacy and tolerability of oral potassium supplements (64 mmol daily) versus a matching placebo (made of starch with coating) in a 16-week study. Potassium supplements produced a significant decrease in mean supine and standing BP within 4 weeks after treatment inception. Urinary potassium excretion increased significantly in the 24 patients who received potassium supplements (p less than 0.001). No significant changes occurred in plasma sodium and potassium concentrations or in urinary excretion of sodium during the study. All patients completed the trial without experiencing any notable untoward effects. These results are consistent with the premise that oral potassium supplements may exert hypotensive effects of clinically significant degree in patients with mild hypertension.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Diress, T. A., K. O. Farah, and D. M. Nyariki. 1999. Influence of settlements on land use and vegetation in the rangelands of northeastern Ethiopia: Application of aerial photographic technique. J. Hum. Ecol. 10: 349-356.". In: In: European Union Dryland series based on a regional workshop on pastoralism in the horn of Africa (this a book chapter). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Symptomatic treatment of nephrotic syndrome. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):1-2. No abstract available.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O., Mkhandi S., Willems, P. (2005): Homogeneity testing for peak flow in catchments in the equatorial Nile basins. Proceedings of the International conference of FRIEND/Nile FUST project, Sheraton Sharm Hotel, Sharm El Sheik, Egypt.". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2005. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFORINDADA. "Guidelines for Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management in Laboratory Medicine.M. J. N. Mbiti and D.A.O. Orinda C.C.A.K. Publication First Edition 1995.". In: C.C.A.K. Publication First Edition 1995. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1995. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers' milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was unnecessary.

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High Frequency Sum Rule of the Quantum Plasma dielectric Tensor; African Journal of Science and Technology B 5 (1), 43.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1991.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Benefit/risk comparisons in therapy. East Afr Med J. 1983 Apr;60(4):201-2. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Apr;60(4):201-2. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Treatment of urinary infections. East Afr Med J. 1991 Nov;68(11):841-3. No abstract available.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Acute renal failure (ARF) complicated the use of traditional herbal remedies in six adult patients seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in a 2-year period (August 1984 to August 1986). This comprised 10.9% of all the cases of ARF and 24% of the cases of ARF due to medical causes. All the patients were oliguric and the period of oliguria in the four patients who survived ranged between 19-57 days (mean 26.3 days). Five of the patients had evidence of fluid overload. The blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were elevated in all the patients. The serum sodium was normal in all, while the serum potassium was elevated in 2 cases. Identity of the herbal medication was unknown in all the cases. The indication was abdominal pain in 4 cases, infertility and abdominal pain in one and prophylaxis against witchcraft in the other. All the patients were started on haemodialysis, two of them having had periods of peritoneal dialysis for 12 and 16 days. Two patients died. Of the four surviving patients, follow up has been carried out for 8, 6, 5 and 4 months. At four months follow up the creatinine clearance in the 4 surviving patients have been 54, 63, 51 and 43 ml/min.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. and mutua, F.M. (1996): Transfer-Function model for Upper Athi river catchment of central Kenya. Proceedings of the 3rd workshop of the Kenya Meteorological Society workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, 7-11 October 1.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1996. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "The Impact of Law on the Management of Wetlands: The Case of Kenya," The People's Role in Wetlands Management, M. Merchand & H.A Udo Haes (eds), Leiden, 1989, at p. 601.". In: Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 5/2, (1993), at p. 191. Departmental seminar; 1989. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Recent advances in mechanism of causation of diabetes mellitus in man and Acomys cahirinus. East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1974 May;51(5):425-8. E Afr Med J; 1974. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFORINDADA. "A clinical, biochemical and histochemical study of carcinoma of the cervix as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1985 Apr;62(4):271-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Apr;62(4):271-8. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1985. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Governance in Kenya During Pre-Colonial and Colonial Period," in Wilhelm Hofmeister and Inglo Scholz, (eds.), Traditional and Contemporary Forms of Local Government in Africa (Johannesburg: Konrad Adenauer Foundation), pp. 89-102.". In: African Journal of Political Science Vol. 2 No. 2,pp. 41-69. IPPNW; 1997. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Structural Steel–Applications of Fracture Mechanics" M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi (1983).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1983. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Strongly Coupling Effect on Plasma Dispersion in a Magnetic Field; Ph.D. Thesis 1982, Boston College, U.S.A. (Unpublished).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1982.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra H and Idenya M. The frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya. Surgical indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy. East African Medical Journal, 2001: 78: 338-342.". In: East African Medical Journal, 2001: 78: 338-342. MEDICOM; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the time of evidence based medicine the analysis of the influence of demographic parameters and different environmental factors on the treatment concepts in a country is often neglected. This is also true for Otorhinolaryngology. METHOD: An evaluation of the situation concerning distribution of physicians, diagnostic procedures and epidemiology in Kenya has been performed. These factors are discussed in consideration of their effect on the incidence of different diseases and their treatment under the specific socio-economic conditions for the otolaryngological situation in Kenya. RESULTS: In Kenya 28 otolaryngologists are registered that concentrate on few urban regions. Chronic otitis media, malignant tumors in the head and neck region and AIDS associated diseases have meanwhile increased dramatically. Numerous instruments and equipment for diagnosis are missing. Bigger equipment for CT scans are nearly exclusively used by private hospitals. PERSPECTIVE: Beside a better provision with different equipment for diagnosis it is especially the organization of certain training programmes where local physicians are further educated that may lead to an optimised medical care in Kenya.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics. Medical treatment of peptic ulcers. East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Cyclical Oedema. Nairobi Journal of Medicine 13(2): 62-63, 1988.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine 13(2): 62-63, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Civil Bureaucracy in Africa: A Critical Analysis of Role Performance,).". In: The Leviathan (W. Berlin), Volume 6/pp. 197-215 (in German). IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1996). Knobbed acrosome and swollen in-piece defects associated with sub fertility in a ram. Zim. Vet. J. 28, 6 - 15.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1996. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Microprobe and X-ray diffraction analyses of the major minerals from the Jombo Hill alkaline rocks in Kenya.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences. Series A. Vol. 10(i): 40-59. Wiley Interscience; 1996. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Flavonoids of Polygonum senegalense (Meisn) Part II: More surface and Internal Tissue Flavonoid Aglycones.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethip. (1992, 6(2) 119-122.; 1992. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "22nd January, 2007 .". In: National Defense College, Karen, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Muraguri P, Mcligeyo S.O., Kayima J.K.: The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension in secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 1997;74(8):556-568.". In: East African Medical Journal. 1997;74(8):556-568. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O. and Nyambok, I.O., 1990. Earthquakes and their measurements,.". In: Geophysical 56, 133-138. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1990. Abstract
Science News 2, 125-132.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. The front line in the African AIDS crisis. Hastings Cent Rep. 2001 Sep-Oct;31(5):12. No abstract available.". In: Hastings Cent Rep. 2001 Sep-Oct;31(5):12. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2001. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies (birthweight < 2000 gm) of adolescent (age < 20 years) and older mothers. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The newborn Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All babies weighing less than 2000 gm at birth whose mothers consented to the study had their gestational age verified using the Dubowitz scoring system. They were then followed up by daily clinical assessment until discharge, death or up to one month in the ward. The babies were divided into two groups according to their mother's age and then compared with respect to episodes of illness, duration of hospital stay, and overall outcome. RESULTS: One hundred and forty two babies were studied. Of these, 64 were born to adolescent mothers. Babies of the adolescent mothers tended to be more premature (p = 0.0174), be lower in weight (p = 0.0078), had more occurrences of respiratory distress and anaemia (probably reflecting their increased prematurity) and had frequent multiple morbidity events They also had longer hospital stay and they were more likely to die (57.7% compared to 42.3% of babies of older mothers). CONCLUSION: Low birthweight babies of the adolescent mothers were found to be more likely to have increased morbidity and adverse outcome compared to similar babies of older mothers.

O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O., Patel, J.H. Kiere, S.M. and Mwangi, L. (1985).Massive obstructive urothiasis in a bull used for Artificial Insemination. Vet. Rec.117, 664 - 666.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1985. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Neumann CG, Bwibo NO, Murphy SP, Sigman M, Whaley S, Allen LH, Guthrie D, Weiss RE, Demment MW.Animal source foods improve dietary quality, micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan school children: background, study design and baselin.". In: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3941S-3949S. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Geology of Kenya from Landsat mosaic.". In: In Kenya from Space. CREDU, France. East African Educational Publishers, 12-15, Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. ""Peace and Security in Post-Cold War Africa: Safeguarding the Future", .". In: African Journal of Political Economy, 1993. Special Issue on African International Relations, pp 119-148.; 1993. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "A comparative study of gastrointestinal parasites between ranched and free ranging Burchell.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Were A.J.O., McLigeyo S.O.: Cost conseration in renal replacement therapy in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 72(1): 69-71, 1995.". In: East African Medical Journal 72(1): 69-71, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN, OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Okeyo, A.M. and R.O. Mosi (1999). Performance of Dutch Friesian Cows under semi-arid conditions in Kenya: Reproductive performance and productive life.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 47:87-95. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. B15 heterogeneity in East African Blacks. Tissue Antigens. 1980 Oct;16(4):326-32.". In: Tissue Antigens. 1980 Oct;16(4):326-32. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1980. Abstract

One-hundred-forty-one Blacks (135 unrelated) from Kenya and Tanzania have been tissue-typed (HLA-A, B and C loci) as part of a study of host factors involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and naso-pharyngeal carcinoma. Evidence is presented for the existence in this population of several B15-related antigens which together occur with a relatively high frequency of 30% in unrelated individuals. It is likely that these variants may include the antigens SV and perhaps Bu recently defined with population frequencies of under 1% in Caucasians. In the absence of monospecific typing sera, identification of these variants may be helped by their apparently strong association with C-locus antigens in Blacks. Recognition of these B15 variants has been largely responsible for reducing the proportion of unidentified or "blank" B-locus antigens in this population to only 6%. These findings substantiate and amplify previous reports suspecting the presence of such antigens in Blacks, and should facilitate studies of possible associations of disease with HLA in these populations.

O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO Stroke at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7):482-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7):482-6. uon; 1990. Abstract
Seventy two patients presenting with stroke to Kenyatta National Hospital were studied between January 1986 and January 1987. The majority were from the rural areas. There were about equal numbers between left and right sided hemipareses. The majority of the patients were in their 6th and 7th decades. 22 of the patients were hypertensive. Diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and valvular heart disease were some of the other factors associated with strokes. 46% of the patients died while the remainder had residual neurological deficits.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Relationship between nutrition and development in Kenyan toddlers. J Pediatr . 1989 Sep; 115 ( 3 ): 357-64 . PMID: 2769494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sigman M, Neumann C, Baksh M, Bwibo N, McDonald MA.". In: J Pediatr . 1989 Sep; 115 ( 3 ): 357-64 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1989. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine 90024-1759.

The relationship between mild to moderate malnutrition, as measured by food intake and anthropometric status, and developmental outcome was explored in 110 Kenyan toddlers. Developmental outcome was assessed at 30 months of age by the Bayley Mental and Motor scales and by evaluation of play behaviors. Verbalization and play during months 15 to 30 were also evaluated. Family background and home rearing conditions were assessed, and these variables were separated from the correlations between nutrition and outcome by partial correlation methods. Food intake was related to anthropometric status, play behaviors, and total amount of verbalization and play even when the potentially confounding effects of certain family background and home rearing variables were covaried. Food intake was not related to Bayley Mental and Motor scores, but measures of length and weight were, even when family background and home rearing variables were held constant. Mild to moderate malnutrition does appear to affect the child's development adversely even when other environmental characteristics, which also relate to development, are considered.

PMID: 2769494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Effects of clay minerals on the stabilization of black cotton and lateritic soils.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology, Series A. Vol. 7. 5-23. Wiley Interscience; 1986. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Bernard O. Okuku, Elisha T. O. Opiyo. An efficient agent-based wireless communication model. In the proceedings of The 3rd International Conference on Internet Technology and Applications (iTAP 2012), August 18-20, 2012 in Wuhan, China. To appear in EEE X.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O OD, O WANDIGAS, A A’oD. "Synergistic Effects of Titanium (IV) Oxide Modified Clay for Disinfection and Purification of Water." European International Journal of Science and Technology . 2017;6(5):7-32.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "S.O. McLigeyo, J.K. Kayima Evolution of nephrology in East Africa in the last seventy years .". In: East African Medical Journal, 70(6): 362 - 368; 1993. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
O OL. "Development Journalism in Africa: Capitulation of the Fourth Estate?". Africa Media Review 5, 2: 197-209; 1990. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Notgi A, McLigeyo S.O., Anderton J.L.: Effects on Nifedipine versus other antiphypertensive treatment on renal allograft survival. African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "OWINO J. N. J., MUTHAMA and MARIGI S.2002): .". In: Journal of the African Meteorological Society, Vol 5. 1999; 2002. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of antithyroid drugs. East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Iron distribution in aegirine-augite clinopyroxenes, studies by the M.". In: UUDMP Research Report No. ll. 10p. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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O E, Robert SJ. Acknowledgments.; 1995.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Paperna I, W Ogara, M Schein M, 1997. Goussia hyperolisi n. sp.: a coccidian infection in reed frog Hyperolius viridiflavus tadpoles, which expires towards metamorphosis. Dis. Aquat. Org. 31:79-88.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Koech DK. Outcome of intervention with or without low dose oral interferon alpha in thirty-two HIV-1 seropositive patients in a referral hospital. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS71-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS71-6. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
Thirty two critically ill patients were admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with a diagnosis of HIV-1 seropositivity on both ELISA and Western Blot between October 1989 and January 1990. Sixteen of the patients received low dose oral interferon alpha while the other 16 patients received intensive supportive management alone. Of the 16 patients who received low dose interferon alpha, 14 were discharged from the Hospital within 2 to 4 weeks of admission in a reasonable state of health while two of the patients died after 18 and 42 days from the time of admission. All the 16 patients who received intensive supportive management alone were dead within 4 weeks of entering the Hospital, their mean (+/- SD) stay after admission being 8.6 +/- 6.8 days. These results suggest that low dose oral interferon alpha may be of value in the care of critically ill HIV-1 seropositive patients.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Aboud, A. A., K. O. Farah, and W. N. Ekaya 2000.Towards sustainable pastoral productions in Eastern Africa: Approaches, Constraints, and prospects.". In: Proceedings of a regional workshop of the Pastoral Information Network Programme (PINEP) held at the Kenya College of Communications Technology, Mbagathi, Nairobi, Kenya, 4th . Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mathenge RN, McLigeyo SO, Muita AK, Otieno LS.The spectrum of echocardiographic findings in chronic renal failure. East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):107-11.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a six month period at the Kenyatta National Hospital, 46 patients (30 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 22 healthy subjects have had a clinical and echocardiographic study of their cardiovascular systems. The patients with CRF were further classified as stable or in end stage renal disease (ESRD), the latter group requiring dialysis. Hypertension and circulatory congestion were the commonest clinical cardiovascular findings in patients with CRF. The patients with ESRD had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine than the ones with stable CRF. Echocardiographically right ventricular size, left atrial size, aortic root diameter, left ventricular internal diameters, left ventricular end diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septal thickness, ejection time and mitral and aortic peak flow rates were significantly higher in patients with CRF than in controls. In contrast, the circumferential fibre shortening and the ejection fraction were reduced in patients with CRF. Global left ventricular dysfunction was found in 47.8% of the patients. Using doppler flow studies, valvular incompetence was detected in a number of patients, mitral regurgitation being found in 84%.76% of the patients with CRF had varying degrees of pericardial effusion. The echocardiographic abnormalities and the pericardial effusions responded six weeks of haemodialysis in a variable manner.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: advances in antibiotic therapy. East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFORINDADA, A DRRAJABJAMILLA, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rajab JA, Waithaka PM, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Analysis of cost and effectiveness of pre-transfusion screening of donor blood and anti-malarial prophylaxis for recipients. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of malaria in donor units in a low and a high endemic region in Kenya and evaluate the cost effectiveness of recipient anti-malarial prophylaxis and pre-transfusion screening (using an automated method) as options to prevent post transfusion malaria. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks, Nairobi and its environs (National Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) a low malaria endemic region and western region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu) high malaria endemic region. SUBJECTS: All the donated units were included in the study for analysis, during the duration of study, from the two study sites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of malaria in donor units in low endemic area (Nairobi) and high endemic area (Kisumu). Cost per case prevented for the two options, Option I Prophylactic administration of anti-malarial (sulfadoxine pyrimethamine SP) drugs to recipients, and Option II pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. RESULTS: A malaria prevalence of 0.67% was found in Nairobi and its environments (low endemic) and 8.63% for Kisumu and its environments (high endemic area). The cost analysis showed a cost per case prevented of Ksh.105 (US$1.4) adult, Ksh.52.5 (US$0. 69) and paediatric for the option of recipient prophylaxis using an SP based drug. The cost escalated to Ksh.592 (US$7.79) adult Ksh.444 (US$5.84) paediatric if the prophylaxis was upgraded to the recommended artemisinin derivative (ACT-artemisinin based combination) and for the option of pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique the cost was Ksh.2.08 (US$0.03). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malaria in donors showed the expected regional variation in the low and high endemic areas and was comparable to data obtained elsewhere. If malaria positive donor units were to be excluded from the national blood supply, an estimated 5% (compared to 1.3% for human Immunodeficiency virus, 3.6% for hepatitis B virus and 1.3% for hepatitis C virus) would be wasted. The cost per case prevented of transfusion-associated malaria is considerably higher for recipient antimalarial prophylaxis than pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. The cost escalates by five to seven times if the newer artemesinin based combination antimalarial drugs are adopted.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo, Elisha T. O. (1995). Case-based reasoning for expertise relocation in support of rural health workers in developing countries.". In: In Manuela Veloso, Agnar Aamodt (Editors), Case- Based Reasoning Research and Development, First International Conference, ICCBR-95, Sesimbra, Portugal, October 1995, Proceedings. Springer -Verlag. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1995.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, S. M. Mutuli and G.O. Rading Stress Characterization in Autofrettaged Thick Walled Cylinders Int. J. Mechanical Engineering Education. 31(4) (2003) p 370-389.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2003. Abstract

The inaccessibility of commercial software has necessitated the development of low-cost, general-purpose finite element method (FEM) computer programs for structural analysis. Using the FEM program, the elastic, elastic-plastic, residual and service stresses and displacements in a closed ended, thick-walled cylinder under internal pressure were established. The displacement formulation was implemented and eight-noded brick isoparametric elements chosen. The frontal solution technique and the incremental theory of plasticity were used, as only limited computing facilities were available. The results were found to be in very good agreement with the through-thickness analytical values. The benefits of autofrettage were demonstrated and an optimum overstrain of 16% established for a cylinder with a thickness ratio of 2. The material economy achieved through autofrettage and the limitations imposed are illustrated. The FEM program could therefore be reliably used for other complex geometries and load conditions.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Congenital biliary atresia. East Afr Med J . 1977 Oct; 54 ( 10 ): 535-8 . No abstract available. PMID: 608421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Ongeri SK, Bwibo NO, Kinuthia D.". In: East Afr Med J . 1977 Oct; 54 ( 10 ): 535-8 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1977. Abstract

No abstract available.

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rule Expansion for Relativistic Quantum Plasma Dielectric Tensor IV; Radiation Effect; International Journal of Theoretical Physics.". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the role of diuretics in current medicine. East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):656-8. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):656-8. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE INTERPRETATION OF THE 1929 EGYPT-BRITISH NILE WATERS TREATY AND ITS LEGAL RELEVANCE AND IMPLICATIONS ON THE STABILITY OF THE REGION.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O MROUKOKENNEDY. "May, 1993: "The Implication of Social Change for Gender Relations in Kenya". Published in Gender: Between family & State, VENA, 1993.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1993. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otineo, L.S., and McLigeyo, S.O.: Renal failure diagnosis and management. East African Medical Journal 68(3):216-224, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(3):216-224, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.

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