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N. IH. "Teaching Practice experiences: Invaluable insights from video-cases in Kenya." The Fountain: Journal of Educational Research. 2011;V(1):11-30.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Kurt G. Steiner, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Gre.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "African Single Mothers: Socio-Ethical and Religious Investigations, Nairobi: Signal Press, 1994 (233 pp).". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1994.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui "Governance and its Implications for Gender Inequalities in the Jua Kali economy" IDS working Paper No. 543, Nairobi IDS university of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, Nancy K. and P.L. Woomer, 1998. Legume Response to Rhizobia Inoculation and farmer awareness of Inoculants in East and Southern Africa. (eds. J.A. Brink and B.A. Prior) pp. 76-91. UNESCO/BAC BETCEN: African Agricultural Research Council Pretoria,.". In: Proceedings of the sixth International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF) 12-17 September, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Indigenous knowledge: the basis of the Maasai ethnoveterinary diagnostic skills. Journal of Human Ecology, 16: 43-48.". In: Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N. DRIRAKIW. "April 14, 2007: Remittances, The good and the Ugly, SIRAS Conference, Frankfort, KY.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2007.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K.,1995. Contribution of biological nitrogen fixation towards food production in Africa and environmental challenges.". In: Paper presented at the TSBF/ Rockefeller Foundation Conference on " Soils Management in Eastern and Southern Africa " held in Bellagio Centre, Milan, Italy on 29th Jan. - 5th Feb. 1995.; 1995. Abstract
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "An overview of the structural and functional elements of pastoralism in Eastern Africa. Book chapter in Media handbook for reporting food security and drought in pastoral areas. Indigenous Information Network, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN, G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "H.N.Kariuki, T.I.Kanui, and P.G.Kioy: The analgesic effects of Clomipramine individually and in combination with Pethidine using the formalin test. 7 th International Symposium: The Pain Clinic . October 2-6, 1996 , Istanbul .". In: 7 th International Symposium. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of clinical multiple sclerosis among indigenous Bantu African Kenyans who have never been out of the country. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A private neurology and clinical electrophysiology clinic. SUBJECTS: All the patients referred to the clinic by neurologists and other specialists for electrophysiological tests with diverse neurological complaints. The patients examined and diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds and established criteria are reported. RESULTS: Out of 2831 patients referred for electrophysiological tests over a ten year period, nine patients were diagnosed as having definite multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds. Four of these had supporting laboratory findings (MRI scans, CSF studies and visual evoked responses). The presenting symptoms were predominantly visual disturbances and somatic sensorimotor disturbances which were seen in all the patients. Cerebellar dysfunction was observed less frequently, in less than half of the patients while sphincter disturbances were conspicuously rare. The sex distribution was overwhelmingly in favour of the female at a ratio of 7:2. A part from two patients of Indo-asian ethnicity, all the others were indigenous Bantu Africans who had never travelled outside their country before the onset of the illness. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis occurs amongst Bantu Africans and may not be as rare as previously suggested and its prevalence is certainly on the increase. The development of higher incidence rates in communities where the illness was previously unknown may present opportune settings for the study of aetiological factors of this illness as it emerges. There is a need therefore for proper epidemiological studies to evaluate these factors, especially environmental factors, as the new disease continues to appear. PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Arshad, M.A., Mureria, N.K., Keya, S.O. 1982. Effect of termite activity on soil microflora. Pedobiologia 24, 161-167.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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N. GJ, N. KC, K. IJ, M. MP. "Meat processing and preservation technologies practiced in Kenya’s Pastoral areas with potential for improvement based on product competitiveness.". In: “Policies for Competitive Smallholder Livestock Production” conference . Gaborone, Botswana; 2015.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. Antinocieptive Activities of the Root Extracts of Rhus natalensis Kraus and Senna singueana.". In: Phytopharmacology 2012, 2(2) 1-6. Inforesights Publishing Ltd.; 2012. Abstractantinocieptive_activity_of_the_root_extracts_of_rhus_natalensis_kraus.pdf

Rhus natalensis and Senna singuaenae are traditional African plants commonlyused as medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain. The plants areused for management of rheumatism among others. This study investigated theantinociceptive activities of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in Swiss albino miceusing the tail-flick and hot plate tests. Extract solvent (vehicle), morphine andaspirin were employed as controls. Root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg /kg) and 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the hot plate while the 200mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05). In the tail flick tests, root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg / kg) showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.01) while 200mg / kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05) compared to the controls. The 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick. This study lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in the management of painful conditions..Keywords: Rhus natalensis; Senna singuaenae; analgesic,;

N. DRNJENGAHELLEN. "Low Pressure and Salt Effect on the Ethanol-Water Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium.". In: Ph.D. Thesis University of Wales. Elsevier; 1991.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 7: An Executive Summary of the Agenda Process.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Khisa, P.W., Gachene, C.K.K., Karanja, N.K. and Mureithi, J.G, 2000. Soil and nutrient losses due to erosion in a maize-legume based cropping system in Central Kenya.". In: Extended abstract in proceedings of the 4th regional Meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry (RF) 10-14th July 2000, Lilongwe, Malawi (pp. 79- 81).; 2000. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 2000, Tapping Opportunities in Jua Kali Enterprise Clusters: The Case of Ziwani and Kigandaini, IDS Working Paper No 525, IDS University of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
N. MUIVAMARGARET. "Poverty and Health: Implications for the Nurse Midwife." Kenya Nursing Journal, December, 2004. 2004;(December, 2004). AbstractWebsite

The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on
tissue culture facilities.
Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene
J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "M.B. Meso, P.L. Woomer, N.K. Karanja, C.W. Wood and K.L. Veverica, 1999. Application of fish pond effluent to French beans through drip irrigation at Sagana, Kenya.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Salvation and Being Saved, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Kinyanjui and Felix Kiruthu " Globalization Experience in East Africa Region: A Search for theory in Cornelissen,s (eds) What is globalization critical regional perspectives.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Mahesh S., N. P. Hanan, R. J. Scholes, J. Ratnam, D. J. Augustine, B. S. Cade, J. Gignoux, S. I. Higgins, Xavier Le Roux, F. Ludwig8, J. Ardo, F. Banyikwa, A. Bronn, G. Bucini, K. K. Caylor, M. B. Coughenour, A. Diouf, W. N. Ekaya, C. J. Feral, E C. Febru.". In: Nature, 438: 846 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2005. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N. DRIRAKIW, NJOKI MRSKIRUTHIZIPPORAH. "Capacity Building In The Kenya Dairy Industry.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2008.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Land use and spatial distribution of two gum and incense producing tree species in the Blue-nile valley of Wogidi district, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Ecology, 14:77- 87.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Wood, M. 1988b. Selecting Rhizobium phaseoli strains for use with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. II. Screening for tolerance of high temperature and antibiotic resistance . Plant and soil, 112, 15-22.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1988. Abstract
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N. PROFNGUGIELIZABETH. "Reproductive Health of Female Sex Workers in the Urban Informal Settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Female sex workers (FSWs) have long been recognized as important factors in the sub-Saharan HIV/AIDS epidemic. Because of their large number of sexual partners and high rate of partner change they may act as core groups that keep incidence rates high and as bridge populations, linking high-risk with low-risk sub-populations. What is far less recognized and researched are the roles that African FSWs fulfill as lovers and mothers. In these roles they are epidemiologically important due to mother-child HIV transmission while socially FSWs must provide childcare when they work outside the home. Building upon recently analyzed data for FSWs in the urban informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, this proposal outlines a pilot study employing a social epidemiological perspective to: 1) delineate and analyze FSWs reproductive histories, future fertility plans, and knowledge, access and usage of contraception methods and, 2) explore possible family-based intervention programs to provide child care for FSWs.
N. GA. Technical Manual : Organic Pineapple Production - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 7 1. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 4: Meru District.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui with Munguti, Kaendi, 2002 'Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48.". In: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Jane, J. Kapkiyai, Nancy K. Karanja, Javaid N. Qureshi, Paul C. Smithson and Paul L. Woomer, 1999. Soil organic matter and nutrient dynamics in a Kenyan nitisol under longterm fertilizer and organic input management. Soil Biol. and Biochem. 31, 1773-1782.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. ""Integral Transformation Through Easter for the Third Millenium" in E. Kamweru (ed.) THE VINEYARD, Nairobi: St. Paul, vol. 7 n. 2, april 2001.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui " From Home to Micro and Small Enterprises: Entrepreneurship and Female Gender Identities".". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. KG. "A distance – learning module for B. Ed students.". In: Educational Management. Nairobi: African Virtual University; 2009.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwendwa, K.A., N.K. Karanja, F. Zapata and S.W. Maingi 1997/1998. Evaluation of phosphorus uptake from Minjingu Phosphate Rock and Growth of six Agroforestry species on an Acid soils from Western Kenya. Int. J. of Biochem Physics, Vol. 6&7 (1&2), 79-85.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRIRAKIW. "Supply Chain Management Practices at the University of Nairobi, .". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "KY Dawd, NKR Musimba, WN Ekaya and KO Farah.The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. DRIRAKIW. "Research Assistant to Dr. Maury Granger under a Grant from University Scholars Center, JSU. Project title: .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2003.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Odee, D.,1989. The use of biotechnology in enhancement of Nitrogen fixation in plants.". In: paper presented at the workshop on Plant biotechnology held on 24 to 26 May, 1989 Nairobi, Kenya.; 1989. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "R.W. Kahama, D.N. Kariuki, H.N. Kariuki and L.W. Njenga: Flourosis in Children and sources of Fluoride around Lake Elementaita region of Kenya . Fluoride 30 (1) 19-25,1997.". In: Fluoride 30 (1) 19-25,1997. MOH; 1997. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 1:South Nyanza, Machakos, Murang'a and Meru Districts. Report for the Fourth African Population Advisory Committee (APAC) Meeting, Botswana, September, 1992.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, Dorothy McCormick, and Mitullah, Winnie. How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "P.L. Woomer, N.K. Karanja and J.R. Okalebo, 1999. Opportunities for improving integrated nutrient management by smallhol farmers in the Central Highlands of Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 441-454.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Third Millenium African Single Mothers and Mother Widows: Ethno-Religio-Philosophical Touch, Nairobi: Media Options, 2003 (387 pp).". In: Published by the Media Options. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.book_abstract.pdf
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1992, "Finance And Availability of Capital for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Central Kenya", in Journal of East African Development and Research, Vol. 23. Pp. 63-87.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer P.L., J.H.P. Kahindi and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Nirogen replenishment in the East African Highlands through Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Legume Inoculation. Agronomie Africaine (Special Issue) No. 1, 387-413.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, D. and Kimuyu, P., 'Firm Level Institutions in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Participatory classification and problem identification in management of rangeland: an example from Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewer for Decision Sciences Institute Conference Papers.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2004.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Woomer, P.L., 1994. Response to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to selected Rhizobium phaseoli strains on acid soils in Kenya. In: Biotechnology for Rapid Development.". In: Proceeding of the Africa Regional Symposia in biotechnology for Rapid Development. (ed. Amadou Tidiane B9) pp. 224-228. Nairobi, Kenya 17-21 February, 1992. African Biosciences Network (ABN), 1994. ISBN: 92-9091-012-7.; 1992. Abstract
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Botanical and chemical composition of livestock diets on a semi-arid rangeland. Discovery and Innovation, 9: 235-241.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
N. MWEKEA, W. DRKIMENJUJOHN, A. SEIFA, K. MUTUAG, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Potential of Sequential Cropping in the Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Okra." Asian Journal of Plant Sciences . 2008;7(4):399-403.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki and Teresa N. Kinyari (Editors). National Palliative Care Training Manual. (Manual submitted to the MoH for launch).". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. Ministry of Health; 2011. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, S. Wangaruro and B.M. Anyango, 2002. Performance of indigenous Bradyrhizobia strains isolated from Kenyan soils.". In: 9th AABNF Conference on Challenges and Imperatives for Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Research and Applications in Africa for the 21st Century, 2002 (eds. Nancy K. Karanja and James H.P. Kahindi) pp. 198-204. John Philips Africa Ltd. Publishers, Na.; 2002. Abstract
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N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Access to Non-formal Education for Rural Families: A Case Study of Family Life Education Programme, IDS, W.P. No. 318, 1977.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1977. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "J.W. Kimenju, N.K. Karanja and I. Macharia, 1999. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean in Kenya and the effect of Meloidogyne infection on bean nodulation. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 489-497.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1996, "Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises Formation and Development in Central Kenya: Entrepreneurship or Plodding Along?" in McCormick, D. and Pedersen, P.O. (editors.), Small Enterprises: Flexibility and Networking in Africa.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Jesus Christ Our "Muthamaki" (Ideal Elder): An African Christological Study based On the Agikuyu Understanding of Elders, Nairobi Phoenix Publishers, 1992.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.
N. MJ. "Evaluation of Stiffnesss of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Dry and Green Bamboo." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(4):676-687.
N. B. Mirza, I. A. Wamola ENMPBASJ. "Typhim Vi vaccine against typhoid fever: A clinical trial in Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 1995;72(3):162-164.
and N. B. Mirza, B. B. Estambale WNKOKPIASJ. " Bacterial meningitis in children admitted in hospitals within Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 1998; 75(2):73-76.
and N. J. Muthama, C. Oludhe OGO. "A SIMPLE MODEL FOR DETERMINING THE POTENTIAL RISKS OF LIGHTNING STROKES OVER THE CITIES OF NAIROBI AND MOMBASA." Journal of African Meteorological Society. 2003;Vol.6 (No. 2):19-24.Lightning.pdf
N. Kituu, Chokwe TM, Mbithe H. "Post mortem practise, and mortality and morbidity meetings among Kenyan anaesthesiologists: a baseline survey ,." EAMJ. 2016;Vol. 93(No. 9 September 2016).
N.I DROONGEZABLON. "Maillacheruvu K.Y., Parkin G.N., Chen Ye Peng, Wen-Chien Kuo, Oonge Z.I., and Lebduschka V.; 1993; Sulfide Toxicity in Anaerobic Systems Fed Sulfate and Various Organics.". In: Water Environment Research Vol 65 No. 2 pp 100-109. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 1993.
N.I DROONGEZABLON. "Omosa I and Oonge Z.N.I., Assessment of the Biological Treatability of Black Tea Processing Effluent.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.4 No.1, April 2007, pp 65-78. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2007.
N.I DROONGEZABLON. "Oonge Z and Parkin G.F. Poisoning of Sulfate Reductions with Molybdenum in Anaerobic Reactors Fed Glucose.". In: In Proceedings of the 45th Industrial Waste Conference May 8, 9, 10, 1990; Purdue University. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 1990.
N.I DROONGEZABLON. "Ogaro Lugard Kaunda and Oonge Z.N.I., Cheap Engineering Solutions in Conservation of Natural Resources in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands, A case study of Nuba Mountains, Sudan.". In: Presented in the 7th International Sudan Studies Conference in University of Bergen, Norway, on 8th of April 2006 to celebrate . World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2006.
N.I DROONGEZABLON. "Nyikuri R.N, Oonge Z.N.I., Klein J.and Odira P.M.A, 2005: Trends in Heavy Metal and Faecal Coliform levels in the Rivers of the Nairobi Region and Measures to reduce this Pollution.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol. 2, No. 2, 2005 pp 61-76. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2005.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B. Ochieng, S.K. Ngari, B.N.K.Njoroge, .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B.N.K. Njoroge and J. K. Wairuri .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "Mwangi, Faith Wanjiru and B.N.K. Njoroge, Alternative Solid Waste Management Model for the Nairobi City.". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "Njoroge, B. N. K. .". In: Proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium, Division of Environmental Chemistry, San Diego,California,. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1986. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "JN Mukabi, BN Njoroge and N Shimizu .". In: on Construction Technology (Contec 2001). Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "S. M.Njoroge, S.K.Ngari and B.N.K.Njoroge .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B.N.K.Njoroge and S.G. Mwamachi .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "Murigi, Mwangi Peter and B.N.K. Njoroge Efficacy of Polyaluminium Chloride as a substitute for Alum in Water Treatment.". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. ". Bernard N. Kimani Njoroge, William P. Ball, Robert S. Cherry .". In: Proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium, Division of Environmental Chemistry, San Diego,California,. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1986. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "Njoroge, Bernard N. Kimani .". In: on Construction Technology (Contec 2001). Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1994. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "Nancy Macharia, B.N.K.Njoroge, D.M.Wanjau .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "D.M.Migwi, B.N.K.Njoroge and D.M.Wanjau .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "B.N.K.Njoroge and Githere P.G. .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "Njoroge, Bernard Kimani N.; Robert S. Cherry and William P. Ball .". In: Proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium, Division of Environmental Chemistry, San Diego,California,. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1994. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "J.N.Mukabi, B.N.Njoroge, T.Toda .". In: Proceedings 14 th Road World Congress, Paris. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
N.K. Karanja, F.O. Ayuke, E.M. Mua, Musombi BK, Nyamasyo GHN. "Soil Macrofauna community structure across land-use systems of Taita, Kenya, ." Tropical and Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. . 2009:385-396.
N.M.MARIKA, H.OCHANDA. "Impact of ICT on education.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2012. Abstract

test

N.M.Monyonko. "GLUON BREMSSTRAHLUNG CORRECTIONS TO THE AMPLITUDE ZERO IN THE PROCESS q anti-q gamma." KENYA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 1988;8A(A):41-.
N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "WHAT IS CHARGE RADIUS OF A NEUTRINO." PROGRESS IN THEORETICAL PHYSICS,. 1985;73:734-.
N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "DO QCD CORRECTIONS DESTROY THE AMPLITUDE ZERO IN THE PROCESS q anti -q-gamma?". In: QCD WORKSHOP,OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY; 1983.
N.M.Monyonko. "THE PHASE SPACE DISTRIBUTIONS AND THE CORRESPONDENCE PRINCIPLE." KENYA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE ,SERIES A. 1985;11(2):9-13.
N.M.Monyonko. STATISTICAL PHYSICS. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI ; 2006.
N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM A CALICULATION OF THE NEUTRINO CHARGE RADIUS. DUDUVILLE,NAIROBI; 1981.
N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "TEST OF QCD CORRECTIONS IN THE PROCESS q anti-q-w-gamma(jet)." Z.PHYSIK. 1985;C29(C):381-.
N.M.Monyonko. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM TW0. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2004.
N.M.Monyonko, Kumar M, L.G.Wori. "THE CONFIGURATION QUASI-PROBABILITY FORMULATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS.". 2007. Abstract

We apply a dynamical correspondence principle between ordinary functions of classical and quantum mechanical distribution function and derive its operator equation.We further examine one of the methods of finding the particular solutions to this equation in the algebra of coordinate-momentum ordered pair.

N.O. O. Theory and Practice of Mixed Modeling. Saarbrucken: VDM-Verlag Dr.Mueller; 2010.
NA M, CK M, KA S, PC M, DSB O, EW K. ""Jatropha curcas poisoning in children in Western Kenya- A case report." ." J. Pharm. Sci. . 2015;18(2015):32-34.
Naamara W, Kunimoto DY, D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H, Ronald AR, Plummer FA. "Treating chancroid with enoxacin.". 1988. Abstracttreating_chancroid_with_enoxacin.pdf

Increasing resistance of Haemophilus ducreyi to antimicrobials necessitates further trials of new antimicrobial agents for treating chancroid. Enoxacin has excellent in vitro activity against H ducreyi, and a randomised clinical trial of three doses of enoxacin 400 mg at intervals of 12 hours compared with a single dose of trimethoprim/sulphametrole (TMP/SMT) 640/3200 mg was therefore conducted. Of 169 men enrolled in the study, 86 received enoxacin and 83 received TMP/SMT. Ulcers were improved or cured in 65/73 men treated with enoxacin and 57/70 men treated with TMP/SMT. This difference was not significant. At 72 hours after treatment, H ducreyi was eradicated from ulcers of 72/77 men treated with enoxacin and of 67/74 of those treated with TMP/SMT. Patients with buboes responded equally well to both treatments. Of 100 H ducreyi strains tested, all were susceptible to both 0.25 mg/l enoxacin and the combination of 0.25 mg/l TMP and 5 mg/l SMT. Although most men treated with either regimen were cured, neither regimen appeared to be the optimum treatment for chancroid. This study shows the efficacy of enoxacin for a soft tissue infection caused by Gram negative organisms.

Naarding MA, Fernandez N, Kappes JC, Hayes P, Ahmed T, Icyuz M, Edmonds TG, Bergin P, Anzala O, Hanke T, Clark L, Cox JH, Cormier E, Ochsenbauer C, Gilmour J. "Development of a luciferase based viral inhibition assay to evaluate vaccine induced CD8 T-cell responses." J. Immunol. Methods. 2014;409:161-73. Abstract

Emergence of SIV and HIV specific CD8 T cells has been shown to correlate with control of in vivo replication. Poor correlation between IFN-γ ELISPOT responses and in vivo control of the virus has triggered the development of more relevant assays to assess functional HIV-1 specific CD8 T-cell responses for the evaluation and prioritization of new HIV-1 vaccine candidates. We previously established a viral inhibition assay (VIA) that measures the ability of vaccine-induced CD8 T-cell responses to inhibit viral replication in autologous CD4 T cells. In this assay, viral replication is determined by measuring p24 in the culture supernatant. Here we describe the development of a novel VIA, referred to as IMC LucR VIA that exploits replication-competent HIV-1 infectious molecular clones (IMCs) in which the complete proviral genome is strain-specific and which express the Renilla luciferase (LucR) gene to determine viral growth and inhibition. The introduction of the luciferase readout does provide significant improvement of the read out time. In addition to switching to the LucR read out, changes made to the overall protocol resulted in the miniaturization of the assay from a 48 to a 96-well plate format, which preserved sample and allowed for the introduction of replicates. The overall assay time was reduced from 13 to 8 days. The assay has a high degree of specificity, and the previously observed non-specific background inhibition in cells from HIV-1 negative volunteers has been reduced dramatically. Importantly, we observed an increase in positive responses, indicating an improvement in sensitivity compared to the original VIA. Currently, only a limited number of "whole-genome" IMC-LucR viruses are available and our efforts will focus on expanding the panel to better evaluate anti-viral breadth. Overall, we believe the IMC LucR VIA provides a platform to assess functional CD8 T-cell responses in large-scale clinical trial testing, which will enhance the ability to select the most promising HIV-1 vaccine candidates capable of controlling HIV-1 replication in vivo.

Nabaweesi-Batuka J, Kitunguu PK, Kiboi JG. "Pattern of Cerebral Aneurysms in a Kenyan Population as Seen at an Urban Hospital." World Neurosurg. 2016;87:255-65. Abstract

Intracranial aneurysms constitute a significant part of the caseload for any neurosurgical service. Despite the occurrence of intracranial aneurysms and the availability of advanced diagnostic tools and management options, there is a paucity of published data concerning aneurysm patterns in Kenya.

Nabiswa A, Kinama J. "Adaptation of Jatropha curcas L. in the agroecological environments of Kenya: genotype × environment interactions ana lysis.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Jatropha curcas L. has the potential for becoming an important feedstock for biodiesel and bioenergy in Kenya. The objective of this study was to evaluate the e"ects of genotype X` environment interaction and to determine the stability of performance of the currently grown genotypes. Methodology:A field trial consisting of 49 genotypes was laid out in a lattice design of two replications in two contrasting agroecological environments, namely Thika and Kibwezi, for 2 years. The Eberhart and Russell stability method was used to measure the performance of yield components of the 49 genotypes. Results: Environmental variance in%uenced the performance of genotypes for all the traits measured and genotype#×#environment interactions were important in determining their performance.

Nabulindo DSM. Assessment of preoperative evaluation of geriatric Patients by anaesthetists at the Kenyatta national hospital.; 2010. Abstract

Geriatric is a term used to refer to any patient aged 65years and above. These patients have special needs when it comes to the practice and conduct of anaesthesia. Physiological changes in various organ systems occuring with age compounded by the high incidence of comorbidities in the elderly affect the conduct of anaesthesia .Currently about 1000 geriatric patients are admitted annually into orthopedic, gynecological and general surgical wards at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and most of them require some form of surgery. Part of the preparation before surgery includes preanaesthetic evaluation by the anaesthetist who will administer anaesthesia on the day of surgery. Currently there is no anaesthetist with a subspecialization in geriatric anaesthesia at KNH. Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the practice of preanaesthetic evaluation of geriatric patients by the anaesthetists at KNH and compare it with the international guidelines formulated by the American Society of Anaesthesiologists. Methodology. The study was an observational, descriptive, cross- sectional study of preanaesthetic evaluations by anaesthetists at KNH done on 100 geriatric patients scheduled for elective surgery.The study site was the KNH general surgical, orthopedic and gynecological wards.The eligible patients who formed the basis of a preanaesthetic review and the anaesthetists were required to fill a consent form before being recruited. Data was collected using a questionnaire from the patients' medical records .The data collected included demographic information,risk assessment,whether functional/mental status was assessed,presence of co-morbidities and if preoperative optimization and medical consultation was requested for 7 Results. Data from the medical records of 100 geriatric patients scheduled for elective surgery was collected with focus on the preanaesthetic evaluation.The ages ranged from 65 - 92 years with a mean of 72.6 years.90% of the patients in the study had a preanaesthetic evaluation done by anaesthetists of different cadres. Most of the patients (81%) were evaluated on the day before surgery.57.8% of the patients were found to have at least one co-morbid condition.ASA physical status was used for risk stratification in all patients although the functional and mental status of the patients was only evaluated in 8.9% of those evaluated.Prepoerative tests were mainly used routinely without considering the patients co-morbidities or the type of surgery.Preoperative optimization of geriatric patients at KNH was requested for by anaesthetists but requests for medical consultation were made for only 11.1% of the evaluated patients. Conclusions. The preoperative evaluation of geriatric patients at KNH does not meet the international standards as per guidelines formulated by the ASA.

Nabulindo NW, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN'eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Christian T, Oatley MJ, Oatley JM, Kemp S. "Culture of Kenyan Goat (Capra hircus) Undifferentiated Spermatogonia in Feeder-Free Conditions." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022;9. Abstract
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Nabulindo WN. BLOOD PROGESTERONE DETERMINATION BY LATERAL FLOW IMMUNOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE STATUS OF DAIRY CATTLE IN KENYA.. Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University …; 2016. Abstract
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Nacheri P1, Ogollah K. "Influence of Turnaround Strategy Adoption on Revenue Performance of Kenya Revenue Authority." Journal of Business and Management. 2015;17(4):84-89.nacheri_and_ogollah_2015.pdf
Nadenge M, Ngesu L, Muasya I, Maonga T, Mukhungulu M. "Parental socio-economic status and students academic achievement in selected secondary schools in urban informal settlements in West lands division, Nairobi County." International Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 2016;3(1):43-55.
Naeije R. "Physiological adaptation of the cardiovascular system to high altitude." Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 2010;52:456-466. Abstract

Altitude exposure is associated with major changes in cardiovascular function. The initial cardiovascular response to altitude is characterized by an increase in cardiac output with tachycardia, no change in stroke volume, whereas blood pressure may temporarily be slightly increased. After a few days of acclimatization, cardiac output returns to normal, but heart rate remains increased, so that stroke volume is decreased. Pulmonary artery pressure increases without change in pulmonary artery wedge pressure. This pattern is essentially unchanged with prolonged or lifelong altitude sojourns. Ventricular function is maintained, with initially increased, then preserved or slightly depressed indices of systolic function, and an altered diastolic filling pattern. Filling pressures of the heart remain unchanged. Exercise in acute as well as in chronic high-altitude exposure is associated with a brisk increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The relationships between workload, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake are preserved in all circumstances, but there is a decrease in maximal oxygen consumption, which is accompanied by a decrease in maximal cardiac output. The decrease in maximal cardiac output is minimal in acute hypoxia but becomes more pronounced with acclimatization. This is not explained by hypovolemia, acid-bases status, increased viscosity on polycythemia, autonomic nervous system changes, or depressed systolic function. Maximal oxygen uptake at high altitudes has been modeled to be determined by the matching of convective and diffusional oxygen transport systems at a lower maximal cardiac output. However, there has been recent suggestion that 10% to 25% of the loss in aerobic exercise capacity at high altitudes can be restored by specific pulmonary vasodilating interventions. Whether this is explained by an improved maximum flow output by an unloaded right ventricle remains to be confirmed. Altitude exposure carries no identified risk of myocardial ischemia in healthy subjects but has to be considered as a potential stress in patients with previous cardiovascular conditions.

NAFUNA TERESAM, Waweru PW, Kimathi BM, Njiru LN, Osuala TM, Osiemo MR, Orucho MN, Koimur S, Mwenje SN, Njeru FM, Okoola RE, Ininda JM, Mugo RM, Ombaka EO, Muthama NJ, Manene MM, Mutai BK, Ang’u C, Opere AO, Nzioka JM, Ouma JO, Andang’o HA, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Kimani NM. Challenges Faced By Kenya Sugar Board In Implementing Strategy On Service Delivery To Sugar Cane Millers In Kenya.; 2012. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

A company's strategy is management's action plan for running the business and conducting its operations. Strategy on service delivery is thus an important element of this management process. For global business market acceleration, business must respond to customers faster than ever with value added products and services, while they struggle to maintain temporary competitive advantage. The study was guided by the main objective which was to identify the challenges of implementation of strategy on service delivery by Kenya Sugar Board to Sugar Millers and to determine possible solutions to these Challenges. It utilized a case study on the Kenya Sugar Board. The target population was the managerial personnel at KSB and a total of eight representatives (one from eight sugar factories). Primary data was collected by the use of interview guide.

Nagata JM, Fiorella KJ, Young SL, Otieno OD, Kapule I, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. "Socio-demographic and health associations with body mass index at the time of enrollment in HIV care in Nyanza Province, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Low body mass index (BMI) at the time of enrollment into HIV care has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality independent of CD4 count. This study investigated socio-demographic associations with underweight (BMI < 18.5) among adults in Nyanza Province, Kenya, upon enrollment into HIV care. BMI, socio-demographic, and health data from a cross-sectional sample of 8254 women and 3533 men were gathered upon enrollment in the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) program in Nyanza Province, Kenya, between January 2005 and March 2010. Overall, 27.4% of adults were underweight upon enrollment in HIV care. Among each women [W] and men [M], being underweight was associated with younger age (W: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.85-4.55; M: AOR, 5.87; 95% CI, 2.80-12.32 for those aged 15-19 compared to ≥50 years old), less education (W: AOR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.83-4.65; M: AOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04-2.31 for primary education compared to some college/university), low CD4 count (W: AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.50-3.03; M: AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.76-2.70 for 0-250 compared to ≥750 cells/mm3), and poor self-reported health status (W: AOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.89-3.33; M: AOR, 9.78; 95% CI, 1.26-75.73 for poor compared to excellent). Among all enrollees to HIV care, low BMI was associated with male gender, lower educational attainment, younger age, and poor self-reported health. HIV care and treatment programs should consider using socio-demographic and health risk factors associated with low BMI to target and recruit patients with the goal of preventing late enrollment into care.

Nagelkerke NJ, Plummer FA, Holton D, Anzala AO, Manji F, Ngugi EN, Moses S. "Transition dynamics of HIV disease in a cohort of African prostitutes: a Markov model approach.". 1990. Abstract

The progression of HIV-related disease from infection to death is represented as a staged Markov model. Transitions between stages are considered reversible. The model is fitted to data from a cohort of African prostitutes by means of maximum likelihood. It appears that the progression to symptomatic disease (Centers for Disease Control stage IV) in this population is considerably more rapid than that reported from studies in Western countries. PIP: Identifying the incubation period of HIV infection is important for individual prognoses, for developing and testing intervention strategies, for determining the reproductive rate of the disease, and for prevalence of the disease. Mathematical modeling of HIV infection in Africa is necessitated because the disease is more widespread and the immune system is constantly active due to the exposure to diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis. The Markov model for this analysis was selected because parametric estimation is not based on the time a stage is entered, but on the duration between observations and the stages at the time of observation. The HIV infected female prostitutes in the Pumwani area of Nairobi, Kenya (a population primarily of Tanzanian origin) have been identified as a study population since 1985, and seen every 6 months in clinic, or as needed. Data are constricted by the movement out of the area in the end stage of disease, which is only partially solved by tracking with community health workers. The stages identified in incubation estimation are stage 1: seropositive but symptom free (CDC stage II); stage 2: generalized lymphadenopathy (CDC stage III); stage 3: symptomatic disease (CDC stage IV); and stage 4: death. Data reflect the movement back and forth between stage 1 and 2, between 2 and 3, so the model is not a pure Longini model but rather a timed homogeneous staged model with reversible stages called transition parameters computed in a numerical differentiation. The Fortran computer program for the analyses is available from the authors. The results suggest a quick transition between seroconversion and lymphadenopathy (2.4 months) and unlikely reversal, with the mean waiting time until passage to stage 3 is approximately 2.6 years and conversions are common. Since opportunistic infections are treatable, this makes sense. Assuming a correct model, the estimation of the transition time of 20 months of h34 value of .01 and .05, the mean passage time from stage 1, 2, 3 to 4 (death) is 9.1, 8.9, and 6.2 years 12.9, 12.7, and 10.1 years respectively. The implications are that 1) when infectiousness is hypothesized to be not uniform, peak infectivity occurs earlier in Africa than in the West at least among prostitutes, or 2) if infectivity is constant throughout the incubation period, then HIV transmission must be higher in Africa to explain the high rate of infection

de; Nagelkerke, Nico J D; Vlas SJP; LM; PFKRJA;. "Heterogeneity in host HIV susceptibility as a potential contributor to recent HIV prevalence declines in Africa.". 2009. Abstract

Background HIV prevalence has recently declined in several African countries, and prior to this the risk of HIV acquisition per unprotected sex contact also declined in Kenyan sex workers. We hypothesized that heterogeneity in HIV host susceptibility might underpin both of these observations. Methods A compartmental mathematical model was used to explore the potential impact of heterogeneity in susceptibility to HIV infection on epidemic behavior, in the absence of other causative mechanisms. Results Studies indicated that a substantial heterogeneity in susceptibility to HIV infection,, may lead to an epidemic that peaks and then declines due to a depletion of the most susceptible individuals, even without changes in sexual behavior. This effect was most notable in high-risk groups such as female sex workers, and was consistent with empirical data. Discussion Declines in HIV prevalence may have other causes in addition to behavior change, including heterogeneity in host HIV susceptibility. There is a need to further study this heterogeneity and its correlates, particularly as it confounds the ability to attribute HIV epidemic shifts to specific interventions, including behavior change.

Naidoo S, Dimba E, Yengopal V, Folayan MO, Akpata ES. "Strategies for oral health research in Africa and the middle eastern region." Advances in dental research. 2015;27:43-49. Abstract
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Naidoo S, Dimba E, Yengopal V, Folayan MO, Akpata ES. "Strategies for Oral Health Research in Africa and the Middle Eastern Region." Adv. Dent. Res.. 2015;27(1):43-9. Abstractstrategies_for_oral_health_research_in_africa_and_the_middle_eastern_region_-_abstract.pdf

The highest burden of diseases worldwide is in low- and middle-income countries, but due to lack of capacity and inadequate infrastructure, research output from these countries is unable to address existing and emerging challenges in health care. Oral health research has particularly been hampered by low prioritization, resulting in insufficient development of this sector. There is an urgent need for research correlating oral health to upstream social and environmental determinants and promoting the common risk factor approach for prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Population-wide preventive measures for oral health care are more effective than purely curative approaches, especially for vulnerable groups who have limited access to information and appropriate health care. This article identifies priorities and proposes strategies for researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers for the initiation and sustenance of appropriate oral health care research. The proposed interventions are intended to promote collaboration, capacity building, and health advocacy. Local ownership in multinational research projects in low- and middle-income countries, complemented by skills transfer from high-income countries, is encouraged to ensure that regional health needs are addressed. Emphasis is placed on a shift toward translational research that has a direct impact on oral health care systems.

Naidu SI, McCalla MR. "Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck in adults: a case report and review of the literature." Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2004;113:218-222. AbstractWebsite
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Nair, R; Nyamweya GM-MHN; S; L. "Influence of various drugs on the glass transition temperature of poly (vinylpyrrolidone): a thermodynamic and spectroscopic investigation.". 2001. Abstract

Purpose: To determine the influence of hydrogen bonding and solubility parameter on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of various drug–poly(vinylpyrrolidone) blends. Methods: The Tg of PVP films containing either acetaminophen, naproxen, salicylamide, carbamazepine, griseofulvin or propranolol hydrochloride were measured using differential scanning calorimetry. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the specific interactions between the drug–PVP blends and the physical state of the films, respectively. The total solubility parameter and its individual components were calculated using the method of Van Krevelen. Results: Salicylamide displayed the greatest plasticizing effect, depressing the Tg to the minimum. This was consistent with the FTIR data, which indicated the presence of hydrogen bonding with PVP. Griseofulvin showed the least plasticizing effect due to lack of interaction with PVP. All the drugs except griseofulvin were amorphous within the film up to 30% (w/w) drug composition. The correlation between the various components of the solubility parameters and the plasticizing effect of drugs was very poor. Conclusions: Spectroscopic investigation for the presence of interaction between the drugs and PVP proved to be extremely predictive of the plasticizing effect of various drugs. In contrast, solubility parameters appeared to be far less sensitive indicators of drug–PVP miscibility.

of Nairobi KD; SAPI(SAPI) U&. Situating Rural Communities in Nairobi Metropolitan Region.; 2011.
of of Nairobi KDTCT-KU; &. Spatial Planning for Tala-Kangundo Town Council.; 2012.
Naiziriwo BB, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Abongo DA. "Physicochemical parameters and magnetic speciation of Iron in Nakivubo Channel and Lake Victoria waters." Lakes and Reservoirs. 2009;14:127-137. Abstract

Magnetic speciation technique was used for the determination of iron species in Nakivubo Channel and Lake Victoria waters. The method consisted of a column of supported Dowex 1-X18, 20–50 US mesh (Cl) surrounded by movable permanent magnets. Dowex was supported by a porous material to permit adequate passage of the eluent through the column. In the presence of an external magnetic field, enhanced capacity for adsorption of iron III was observed. The enhanced capacity is primarily due to the magnetic field produced and ion exchange sorption mechanism. The results show that, most of the Iron in Nakivubo Channel waters is in reduced ferrous form while, in the Lake Victoria waters, it exists in the oxidized ferric form. Physicochemical parameters for the field samples are discussed in this study. Turbidity levels in catchments with substantial vegetation were significantly lower than those without. pH values up to 13 was observed for some of the point source. The physicochemical parameters along Nakivubo Channel waters were relatively higher than the Lake Victoria waters indicating slow increasing pollution load along the Nakivubo Channel.

Nakadate K, Imamura K, Watanabe Y. "Effects of monocular deprivation on the spatial pattern of visually induced expression of c-{Fos} protein." Neuroscience. 2012;202:17-28. Abstract

We studied the pattern of expression of a protein product (c-Fos) of immediate-early gene (IEG) in the visual cortex of rats and mice. The basal expression of c-Fos was very low and visual exposure revealed a large number of c-Fos immunopositive cells in the visual cortex. We found that monocular deprivation during the sensitive period of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity significantly changed both the amount and pattern of c-Fos expression upon monocular stimulation of either eye. The number of immunopositive cells in layer IV of binocular subfields of the primary visual cortex (Oc1B) ipsilateral to the stimulated eye was found to be the most sensitive index of the effects of monocular deprivation during the sensitive period, that is, opened eye stimulation induced significantly larger numbers of c-Fos immunopositive cells, whereas closed eye stimulation induced significantly smaller numbers compared with those induced by monocular stimulation in control animals. In the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus, the pattern of expression of c-Fos following monocular stimulation was not affected by preceding monocular deprivation. Monocular deprivation imposed after the sensitive period did not affect the pattern of induction of c-Fos. Notably, in age-matched old animals that had been raised in total darkness and then experienced monocular deprivation, the distribution and numbers of c-Fos-expressing cells in visual cortex exhibited the same alterations as found in young animals during the sensitive period. These findings suggest that the present activity mapping method using c-Fos as a molecular marker is useful for examining the activity-dependent regulation of cortical plasticity, and provides an alternative method to conventional electrophysiological recording. This method is particularly powerful when applied to knockout or transgenic mice in which sampling biases in electrophysiological recording have been considered inevitable. Furthermore, these findings suggest that c-Fos is involved in OD plasticity as an IEG that transfers neuronal activity to late gene expression.

Nakagami Y, Watakabe A, Yamamori T. "Monocular inhibition reveals temporal and spatial changes in gene expression in the primary visual cortex of marmoset." Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite

We investigated the time course of the expression of several activity-dependent genes evoked by visual inputs in the primary visual cortex (V1) in adult marmosets. In order to examine the rapid time course of activity-dependent gene expression, marmosets were first monocularly inactivated by tetrodotoxin (TTX), kept in darkness for two days, and then exposed to various length of light stimulation. Activity-dependent genes including HTR1B, HTR2A, whose activity-dependency were previously reported by us, and well-known immediate early genes (IEGs), c-FOS, ZIF268, and ARC, were examined by in situ hybridization. Using this system, first, we demonstrated the ocular dominance type of gene expression pattern in V1 under this condition. IEGs were expressed in columnar patterns throughout layers II–VI of all the tested monocular marmosets. Second, we showed the regulation of HTR1B and HTR2A expressions by retinal spontaneous activity, because HTR1B and HTR2A mRNA expressions sustained a certain level regardless of visual stimulation and were inhibited by a blockade of the retinal activity with TTX. Third, IEGs dynamically changed its laminar distribution from half an hour to several hours upon a stimulus onset with the unique time course for each gene. The expression patterns of these genes were different in neurons of each layer as well. These results suggest that the regulation of each neuron in the primary visual cortex of marmosets is subjected to different regulation upon the change of activities from retina. It should be related to a highly differentiated laminar structure of marmoset visual systems, reflecting the functions of the activity-dependent gene expression in marmoset V1.

Nakagohri T, Kinoshita T, Konishi M, Takahashi S, Gotohda N. "Surgical outcome of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas." Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Surgery. 2008;15:318-321. AbstractWebsite
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Nakami WN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN’eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Kemp S. "Comparative Efficiency for in vitro Transfection of Goat Undifferentiated Spermatogonia Using Lipofectamine Reagents and Electroporation." Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2022;15:11-20.
Nakami WN, Tsuma VT, Milkey K, Dickerson M, Wong M, Mutembei HM, Muthee JK, Odipo O, Ngetich W. "Lateral flow immunoassay for whole blood progesterone detection as a tool for assessment of reproductive status in cattle.". 2017. Abstract
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Nakami WN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN’eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Stephen K. "Comparative Efficiency for in vitro Transfection of Goat Undifferentiated Spermatogonia Using Lipofectamine Reagents and Electroporation." Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2022;15:11. Abstract

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Nakami WN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN’eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Stephen K. "Comparative Efficiency for in vitro Transfection of Goat Undifferentiated Spermatogonia Using Lipofectamine Reagents and Electroporation." Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications. 2022;15:11.
Nakanwagi-Mukwaya A, Reid AJ, Fujiwara PI, Mugabe F, Kosgei RJ, Tayler-Smith K. "Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis retreatment cases in three regional hospitals, Uganda." Public Health Action . 2013;3(2):149-155.characteristics_and_treatment_outcomes_of_tuberculosis_3_regions_uganda.pdf
Nalule, A S; Mbaria KOJM; JW;. Ascaricidal activity of Rhoicissus tridentata root-tuber ethanolic and water extracts.; 2012. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine in vitro ascaricidal activity of ethanolic and water extract of root tuber Rhoicissus tridentata against adult nematodes. Adult worm motility inhibition assay was conducted using Ascaris suum model. Ethanolic and water root tuber Rhoicissus tridentata extracts were used in serial dilutions including 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64mg/ml and; 8,16, 32, 64 and 128mg/ml respectively, parallel to Albendazole and Goodwins’ controls in three replicates. Ten adult Ascaris suum were added to each concentration and controls and incubated at 370C for 48hours. Standard phytochemical analysis methods were used to determine the secondary plant metabolites in the extracts. A significant motility inhibition in all dose levels that was dose-dependent was observed (F (5, 53) = 4.14, p =0.005; R2 = 0.90). There was however, no significant interaction between methods of extraction and the dose effect on motility inhibition in R. tridentata (F (10, 53) =1.02, p =0.450). The ethanolic and water extracts maximum response did not significantly differ (p=0.082) although their median effective doses were 12.3 and 23.5mg/ml respectively. R. tridentata extracts have immense in vitro ascaricidal potential supporting its use in ethno-veterinary medicine although anthelmintic potency of plant extracts depend on solvent used for extraction. There is however, need to determine in vivo ascaricidal activity and safety for sustainable utilization of this medicinal plant.

NALYANYA KM, Ronald ROPK, ONYUKA A, Birech Z, SASIA A. "Effect of crusting operations on the mechanical properties of leather." Revista de Pielarie Incaltaminte. 2018;18:283. Abstract
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Nalyanya KM, Rop RK, Onyuka AS, Birech Z. "A Review of Natural Plants as Sources of Substances for Cleaner Leather Tanning Technologies. ." Textile & Leather Review. 2021;4(3):137-148.
Nalyanya KM, Rop RK,, Onyuka AS, Birech Z. "Recent use of selected phytochemistry to mitigate environmental challenges facing leather tanning industry: a review." Phytochemistry Reviews. 2019;18(5):1361-1373.
Nalyanya KM, Rop RK, Onyuka AS, Birech Z, Okonda JJ. "Variation of elemental concentration in leather during post-tanning operation using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: principal component analysis approach." International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020:1-13.
Nalyanya C, Ndemo B G& JM. "The significance of Faith Based Enterprises in the Dual Roles of Social Good and Economic Development in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015:143-155.
Namai HW, Odegi-Awuondo C. Mutomo: a market in the periphery.; 1994.Website
Namai HW, Odegi-Awuondo C. Human needs and environmental over-exploitation.; 1994.Website
NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "M.". In: Infertility Management in AFRO and EMRO Regions: held in Nairobi,2002.; 2002. Abstract
Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.
NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "M.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, East and Central Africa: Vol. 8 (2) 83-86.; 1989. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "M.". In: International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics: 34: 55-59.; 1990. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Co-editor. (With Dr. Joseph G. Karanja): 1996: Curricula in Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, for Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynecology.". In: University of Nairobi, for Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996.; 1996. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Giuseppe Raviola, M.". In: Medicine and Psychiatry 26: 55-86.; 2002. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "M.". In: M. Med. Thesis, University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "M.". In: University of Nairobi, for Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996.; 1996. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Mary-jo Delvecchio Good, Esther Mwaikambo, M.". In: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.; 1999. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "M.". In: M. Med. Thesis, University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "M.". In: Volume XIII Nemero 6 Giugno.; 1991. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Co-editor. (With Dr. Joseph G. Karanja): 1996: Curricula in Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, for Third and Fifth year Undergraduate Medical Students.". In: University of Nairobi,Third and Fifth year Undergraduate Medical Students.1996.; 1996. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

Namayanja A;, Tukamuhabwa P;, Opio F;, Ugen M;, Kimani PM;, Takusewanya R;, Kitinda X. "Breeding Red-Mottled Beans for East and Central Africa."; 2001. Abstract

The common bean is grown by more than 90% of small-scale farmers in Africa. Of all the seed types grown in East and Central Africa, the red-mottled types occupy the greatest area: 650,000 ha in Eastern Africa and 90,000 ha in Southern Africa. This is also the most important bean type sold and consumed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Malawi, Zambia, and Mozambique, with a market share of about 22% in Eastern Africa. The breeding programme in Uganda is aimed at developing improved, marketable, red-mottled varieties with resistance to two or more biotic and abiotic constraints, and with acceptable agronomic and culinary qualities. In order to achieve this objective, breeding activities have been implemented under five major projects: hybridisation, evaluation of segregating populations and new introductions, multilocational yield trials, on-farm testing, and maintenance breeding. Since 1995, eight varieties of bush beans and four climbing varieties have been released. Several others are in advanced stages and, currently, 10 bush and five climbing varieties are being tested on-farm. There have been high demand and adoption of these new varieties, thereby contributing to household food security, protein availability, and income. However, it has been observed that the selection criterion used by farmers is different from that used by breeders. There is now a need to involve farmers at the very early stage of selection through participatory plant breeding so as to accelerate the adoption process.

NamayiMurichoa D, JakindaOtienoa D, WillisOluoch-Kosuraa, MagnusJirströmb. "Building pastoralists’ resilience to shocks for sustainable disaster risk mitigation: Lessons from West Pokot County, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2019;Volume 34(ISSN):429-435.
Nambafu GN, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Ariga ES, Vanlauwe B, de Nowina RK. "Effect of maize variety and Nitrogen levels in the control of striga weed in western Kenya.". In: The 27th Soil Science Society of East Africa and 6th Africa Soil Science Society Conference. Hotel Cathy, Nakuru, Kenya; 2013.
Nambafu GN, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Ariga ES, Vanlauwe B, R K. "Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Used in the Control of Striga in Maize by Smallholder Farmers of Western Kenya. ." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology.. 2014;3:pp 237-248.
Nambafu GN, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Ariga ES, de Nowina RK, Vanlauwe B. "Knowledge, attitude and practices in the control of striga in maize by smallholder farmers of western Kenya.". In: ISFM conference . Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2012.
and Nambafu N. Karuku, G.N.; Onwonga ARS. "Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Used in the Control of Striga in Maize by Smallholder Farmers of Western Kenya." Agricultural Science and Technology B 4 (2014) 237-248: Earlier title: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, ISSN 1939-1250.. 2014.
Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract
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Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589871x20300267-main.pdfWebsite

The uptake of forensic DNA testing technologies in Africa has been slow despite the revolutionary technology being discovered and adopted 3 decades ago. African governments and partners have invested in construction and equipping of forensic laboratories in Africa but the benefits are yet to be realised as the laboratories are still faced with the challenge of shortage of adequately trained personnel. This paper describes an innovative multidisciplinary training approach that was developed and used to train officers from the Directorate of Criminal Investigations Kenya. We report on the structure, implementation and effectiveness of the training. It is expected that with the increased number of trained forensic DNA analysts, there will be an improvement in quality of forensic DNA evidence presented in courts and a reduction in backlog in the forensic biology laboratories in Kenya.

Nambati EA, Kiarie WC, Kimani F, Kimotho JH, Otinga MS, Too E, Kaniaru S, Limson J, Bulimo W. "Unclear association between levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and blood parasitaemia: diagnostic implications?" Malaria Journal. 2018;17:9. Abstractnambati_et_al_2018.pdfnambati_et_al_2018.pdfWebsite

The use of saliva in diagnosis of infectious diseases is an attractive alternative to procedures that involve blood drawing. It promises to reduce risks associated with accidental needle pricks and improve patient compliance particularly in malaria survey and drug efficacy studies. Quantification of parasitaemia is useful in establishing severity of disease and in assessing individual patient response to treatment. In current practice, microscopy is the recommended technique, despite its limitations. This study measured the levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and investigated the relationship with blood parasitaemia.

Namoi NL, Onwonga RN, Onyango CM, Karuku GN, Kathumo VN. "Assessment of Soil Nutrient Balances in Organic Based Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cropping Systems of Yatta Sub-county, Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture . 2014;4(12):1557-1578.
Namoi NL, Onwonga RN, Onyango CM, Karuku GN, Kathumo VM. "Assessment of Soil Nutrient Balances in Organic Based Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cropping Systems of Yatta Subcounty, Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture . 2014;4(12 ):1557-1578.
Namu FN, Githaiga JM, Kioko EN, Ndegwa PN, Häuser CL, Kühn L. "The butterfly, Hypolimnas salmacis magnifica.". 2008.Website
Namugaya J, Charles WM. "Modelling Volatility of Stock Returns: Is GARCH (1,1) Enough?" International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2014;16(2):216-223. Abstract

In this paper, we apply the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model of different lag order to model volatility of stock returns on Uganda Securities Exchange (USE). We use the Quasi Maximum Likelihood Estimation (QMLE) method to estimate the models. Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) are used to select the best GARCH(p,q) model. From the empirical results, it has been found that USE returns are non-normal, positively skewed and stationary. Overall, GARCH(1,1) outperformed the other GARCH(p,q) models in modeling volatility of USE returns.

Namugaya J, Charles WM. "Modelling Stock Returns Volatility on Uganda Securities Exchange." Applied Mathematical Sciences. 2014;8(104):5173-5184. Abstract

Stock returns volatility of daily closing prices of the Uganda Se- curities Exchange(USE) all share index over a period of 04/01/2005 to 18/12/2013 is Modelled. We employ different univariate Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic(GARCH) models; both sym- metric and asymmetric. The models include; GARCH(1,1), GARCH-M, EGARCH(1,1) and TGARCH(1,1). Quasi Maximum Likelihood(QML) method was used to estimate the models and then the best performing model obtained using two model selection criteria; Akaike Information criterion(AIC) and Bayesian Information criterion(BIC). Overall, the GARCH(1,1) model outperformed the other competing models. This result is analogous with other studies, that GARCH(1, 1) is best.

Namungu L, Mburu C, Were FH. "Evaluation of Occupational Lead Exposure in Informal Work Environment in Kenya." Chemical Science International Journal, . 2021;30(11):45-54.
Namutebi, A; Akundabweni LSM. Conserve and screen premium value indigenous plant biodiversity and products on women smallholder farming systems of East Africa.; 2010. Abstract

Various interventions for promoting the premium value of indigenous plants (IPs) are being adopted to enhance their status in the food sub sector. The project aims to enhance women smallholder farmers’ capacity in target Lake Victoria Basin sites of Kenya and Uganda, to conserve and promote premium indigenous plant biodiversity for value added processes, and provide a basis for policy formulation on promoting IPs with a potential market value. The project involves mapping IPs in relation to land-use types, and characterization of physicochemical and nutraceutical attributes of screened IPs. The study involves a survey; rural participatory appraisal; focused group discussions; laboratory methods viz.: Near Infrared Reflectance spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, as rapid techniques for screening the IP germplasm and soil samples; and high performance liquid chromatography and UV spectroscopy reserved for establishing the nutraceutical value of the screened IPs.

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