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Nzou C, Kambarami RA, Onyango FE, Ndhlovu CE, Chikwasha V. "Clinical predictors of low CD4 count among HIV infected pulmonary tuberculosis clients: a health facility-based survey." S. Afr. Med. J.. 2010;100(9):602-5. Abstract

The study aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory predictors of a low CD4+ cell count (<200 cells/microl) in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).

Nzuki H, Karimurio J, Masinde S. "Significant refractive errors in standard eight pupils attending public schools in Kibera Division of Nairobi city." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2006;12:13-14. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of significant refractive errors in standard 8 pupils attending public school.
Design: Cross sectional community based study
Setting: Langata Location of Kibera Division, Nairobi Province
Subjects: All (1,253) year 2003 standard 8 pupils in school during the study
Results: The prevalence of significant refractive errors 10.2%, myopia 9.4%, hypermetropia 0.3% and astigmatism 0.5%. Of these, only 11.7 % (15/128) students had spectacles with the correct power.
Conclusions: About 10.2% of class 8 pupils attending public primary schools in Langata need spectacles but only a few have them.
Recommendation: There is need for a school screening programme offering low cost spectacles so that children who may be having learning difficulties due to lack of spectacles can be identified and assisted promptly.

Nzuma MJ, Kirui P. "Transmission of Global Wheat Prices to Domestic Markets in Kenya: A Cointegration Approach." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2021;16(1):80-93.
Nzuma JM. "Producer funding of agricultural research the case of Kenya’s tea industry."; 2011. Abstract

This study provides an assessment of the performance of producer financing in Kenya’s tea industry. It is based on a comprehensive literature review, in combination with analysis of data derived from the Tea Board of Kenya (TBK) and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya (TRFK). The secondary data analysis is complemented by expert opinions from representative of the Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA), the Kenya Tea Growers Association (KTGA), TBK, TRFK, and the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), particularly the State Corporations Department. Currently, the tea industry operates under the Tea Act (CAP 343) and Agricultural Act (CAP 318) of the laws of Kenya. While the Tea Act is vested with regulatory services, the Agricultural Act focuses on oversight of the whole production process, as a technical arm. In addition, the Tea Act mandates that TBK undertake tea research through its technical arm, TRFK, per the State Corporations Act (CAP 446), which is also incorporated as a company limited by guarantee under the Companies Act (CAP 486) of the laws of Kenya. TBK is both a producer body that promotes and represents the tea industry, and a parastatal body appointed by government to regulate the industry. TBK is charged with facilitating research into all aspects of tea growing, manufacturing, and pest and disease control. To finance its (regulatory, promotional, and research), activities and programs the Board levies a manufacturing cess based on processed tea deliveries by all registered tea factories. The cess is statutory, and is currently the main source of revenue for the Board. The Tea Act provides a review by the Minister for Agriculture after consultation with the Board. Currently, the rate of the cess is at KSh. 46 cents per kg of processed tea. Today, the manufactured tea cess revenue collected is shared between TBK and TRFK on a 50/50 basis and used to finance both institutions. In addition, TBK is mandated to collect an Agricultural Produce Cess on green leaf production for the local authorities where tea is produced, disbursing it to the District Tea Road Committees for road infrastructure maintenance. The major challenges facing TRFK are increasing the adoption of improved technologies to close the gap between research and actual farm yields. The Foundation’s efforts to enhance branding, product diversification and value addition are limited by the following challenges: lack of an adaptive tea research factory and other relevant equipment; qualified and experienced personnel in the fields of food science, biochemistry and process engineering; and inadequate exchange of market information. Inadequate processing capacities in Kenyan factories and lack of operational policies and guidelines for intellectual property rights are still a challenge.

Nzuma JM, Waithaka M, Mulwa MR, Kyotalimye M, Nelson G. Strategies for Adapting to Climate change in Rural sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: IFPRI; 2010.
Nzuma JM. The Political Economy Of Food Price Policy: The Case Of Kenya.; 2013. Abstract

This paper evaluates Kenyas food price crisis over 2002.11 using a political economy approach. Kenya.s food prices have been high and volatile relative to world food prices. Moreover, domestic food markets are highly integrated while about 30 per cent of...........

Nzuma, Jonathan M; Sarker R. Who Are The Real Gainers Of Trade Liberalization In Kenya’s Maize Sector?.; 2010. Abstract

In Kenya, trade policy reforms in the cereals sector were initiated as a key component of the economy-wide structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) during the mid 1980s. The SAPs were later strengthened and made irreversible by Kenya’s commitments at the multilateral trade negotiations. However, the welfare effects of these trade policy reforms remain controversial. This paper to quantifies the market and welfare impacts of trade liberalization in Kenya’s maize sector using a partial equilibrium model with market interrelationships at the farm, wholesale and retail levels. The model is calibrated to simulate a 24 percent reduction in maize import tariffs and a complete abolition of tariffs. The simulations results suggest that tariff reductions yield price decreases across the three market levels. The declining prices increase maize consumption but reduce domestic production. Consequently, consumer surplus increases while producer surplus decreases. However, the gain in consumer surplus is not sufficient to compensate the loss in producer surplus. Thus, the implementation of the multilateral agricultural trade agreement is likely to leave Kenya’s maize sector worse off and cannot be considered as a viable policy based on the compensation principle.

Nzuma MJ. An Economic Evaluation of the Impacts of Trade Liberalization on Kenya’s Maize Secto. Düsseldorf, Germany: VDM Verlag Publishers; 2008.
Nzuma, M.J. "The Political Economy of Food Price Policy in Kenya.". In: Food Price Policy in an Era of Market Instability. New York: Oxford University Press; 2015.
Nzuma. M.J., Sarker., R. "An Error Corrected Almost Ideal Demand System for Major Cereals In Kenya." Agricultural Economics . 2010;4(2010):43-50.
Nzunza R, Wurapa E, Kariuki N, Chek J, Ongus J, Bulimo W. "Epidemiological and clinical description of human metapneumovirus infectious diseases in Mbagathi District Hospital, Kenya, in 2008.". In: Options for the Control of Influenza VIII. Cape Town, South Africa; 2013:. Abstract

Background: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a recently identified respiratory virus, is a leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection in children, the elderly, and immune-compromised persons. Studies have been done in a hospitalized pediatric population in coastal Kenya. However, there is limited information about the prevalence, epidemiology, and clinical presentation of hMPV infections in the general population. The aim of this study was to outline the epidemiologic and clinical description of human metapneumovirus infectious disease in patients attending the outpatient department of Mbagathi District Hospital, Kenya, in 2008. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from 2008 in patients ≥ 2 months of age presenting at the outpatient department of Mbagathi District Hospital for acute respiratory infection. Nasopharyngeal swabs were systematically tested for several respiratory viruses. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of hMPV-infected children were compared with those of patients with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and other viral infections. Results: A total of 498 patients were enrolled in this study. Viral investigations detected a total of 271 viruses. Of these, 77 (15.5%) were hMPV infections, 78 (15.7%) seasonal flu A, 60 (12%) seasonal flu B, 13 (2.6%) panenterovirus, 36 (7.2%) parainfluenza viruses, and 6 (1.2%) RSV infections. Human metapneumovirus infections were higher in males (43, 55%) than in females (34, 45%), and predominantly in children ≤ 5 years (97%), only 2 (3%) were aged between 6 and 9 years. The hMPV infection had peaked in January-February, and was uncommon after March. Most of the patients infected with hMPV were < 1 year of age, and cough (100%) and difficulty in breathing (75%) were the predominant diagnosis in these patients with clinical symptoms of a lower respiratory tract infection. The severity of the disease was similar to those of RSV patients. Conclusions: These results highlight that hMPV plays an important role in seasonal acute respiratory tract infections, especially in children, with a severity similar to RSV infections. This work is ongoing to cover the wider Kenyan population.

Nzunza. R, Achilla. R, Schnabel. D, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Osuna. F, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Wurapa. EK, Bulimo. WD. "Viral Etiologies of Influenza-Like-Illnesses in Kneya; January 2007 to December 2010.". In: ASTMH 60th Annual Meeting. Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.; 2011. Abstract
NZUVE SNM. Organizational Behaviour with a 60 minutes cassette. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1990.
NZUVE SNM, Ayub BL. "The Extent of Compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Regulations at Registered Workplaces in Nairobi." International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology . 2012. Abstractthe_extent_of_compliance_with_occupational_safety_and_health_regulatins_at_registered_workplaces_in_nairobi.pdf

The objective of the study was to determine the extent of implementation of the occupational safety and health regulations at workplaces. The study also determined the measures instituted by organizations to comply with the said regulations at workplaces. To meet this objective, the study collected primary data using questionnaires. A sample of 112 was picked out of 2,169 registered workplaces in Nairobi. Data was analyzed using descriptive, factor and regression analysis. The elements used to determine the extent of compliance with occupational safety and health regulations at workplaces were categorized into five factors (independent variables) namely: safety, hygiene, and emergency fire protection and health regulations. All the independent variables were linearly related with the dependent variable using a model of five predictor variables to rate compliance with occupational safety and health regulations at workplaces. The study found out that 90% of the respondents were generally aware of the existence of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act, 2007. Over 80% of the respondents were of the view that administration and enforcement of the OSH Act, 2007 was adequate and also provided for the safety and health of employees at the workplace. However, inspection and examination of workplaces by occupational safety and health officers was at 52.2%, which is low and could perhaps be one of the factors responsible for lack of full compliance with the OSH Act, 2007. Overall, the extent of compliance with the Act at workplace stood at 64.49%. Organizations still have an abysmal 35.5% level of non-compliance that should be addressed to minimize the dire consequences of non-compliance.

NZUVE SNM. Introduction to Manpower Management. New Dheli: Veena Publishers India; 1992.
Nzuve F. "Genetic Variability and Correlation Studies of Grain Yield and Related." Journal of Agricultural Science;. 2014;6 (9):166-176.
NZUVE SNM. Management of Human Resources: A Kenyan Perspective, Revised Edition. Nairobi: Basic Modern Management Consultants; 2010.
NZUVE SNM, Musyoka A. "Human Capital Management Practices Adopted By The National Social Security Fund.". 2012. Abstracthuman__capital_management_practices_adopted_by_the_nssf.pdf

The objective of the study was to determine the extent to which the Kenyan National Social Security Fund (NSSF) had adopted the Human Capital Management (HCM) practices. The HCM practices that were explored include: resourcing, retention and flexibility strategies, talent management, learning and development, management succession planning, performance and reward management strategies.
The study used the case study design that was based on a target population of 98 management
staff in the human resource and administration department. A sample of forty eight (48) officers
was selected. The sample included eight senior officers who were selected on the basis of their
status and position in the said department, while the rest were selected through the stratified
sampling technique. Data collection instruments used by the study were an interview guide and a
questionnaire. However, a substantial amount of data was collected through documentary
analysis. A response rate of 82.5% was achieved by the questionnaire technique, while six of the
eight senior officers sampled were interviewed. Both content and quantitative analysis were used
to analyze data which was then presented in frequency tables, bar graphs, percentages, rank
ordering, and mean scores and standard deviation.
Overall, the findings of the study indicate that the organization has implemented HCM practices,
but to a negligible extent. Some of the HCM practices adopted by the organization include:
enhancing the organization’s capacity through staff training and development; setting of clear
performance standards; explaining its mission, vision, and values to employees; outsourcing of
non- core activities; and flexibility of staff mortgage and car loan schemes. However, the rest of
the practices have either not been adopted or are adopted to a negligible extent.
The study suggests that there is need for further research particularly in the area of human capital
measurement owing to the fact that, there is hardly any literature available on it.
Key Words- Human capital management, competitive advantage, digital technology, digital
economy, human capital advantage, intangible assets and human capital planning.

NZUVE SNM. Reviewed Organization Theory, Study manual for Bachelor of Commerce distance learning. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2008.
Nzuve FM, Tusiime G, Bhavani S, Njau PN, Wanyera R. "Studies of the genetics of inheritance of stem rust." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013;12(21):3153-3159.
Nzuve SNM, C NE. "Perceived Effects of HIV/Aids on Performance in the Tea Factories of Bomet County-Kenya." International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology. 2014;4(4):45-50.
Nzuve F, Githiri S, Mukunya DM, Gethi J. "Combining abilities of maize inbred lines for grey leaf." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 2013;5(3):41-47.
NZUVE SNM. Addition, Alcohol and Drug Use - A Management problems. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1987.
NZUVE SNM. Managing Employee Resistance to Technology Change. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1987.
NZUVE SNM, LM.KIILU. "Causes Of Industrial Dispute: A Case Of The Garment Factories At The Athi-River Export Processing Zones In Kenya." Problems of Management in the 21st Century. 2013;6:48-59. AbstractWebsite

An industrial dispute may be defined as a conflict or difference of opinion between management and Workers on the terms of employment (Kornhauser, Dubin and Ross, 1954). In today`s business world, competition is the order of the day. Production, quality, profits and corporate social responsibility are critical areas where companies can improve competitive edge. To attain competitive edge, companies must first ensure cooperation and harmonious relationship between all stakeholders.
The general aim of the study was to investigate the causes of industrial disputes in the garment factories in the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) Athi-River, Kenya. The study employed a descriptive research design to determine what caused the disputes and what the possible solutions were. The study population consisted of the shop stewards and human resource managers working at the four garment factories that were in operation at the time of the study. The research instrument used was a questionnaire administered to the respondents.
It was established that working conditions, pay rates, terms of employment and employee relations were the main causes of the disputes. Weak trade union movement, inefficient and inadequate social security, lack of employment benefits, opportunities for training, promotion, trained personnel at the health service, short contract and low pay are the main problems encountered by those working at the EPZ.
The study recommended that employee’s welfare and working conditions are important factors to be considered by any employer. Both supervisors and workers should work on their relationship and change attitude towards each other. The terms of employment should be looked into as many employees are unhappy with the terms of employment especially the short contracts and majority feel they are not recognized or awarded for their contribution to the organization.
On the other hand, employees need to understand clearly the company policies, rules, regulations and procedures in place. This can be initiated by management providing employee with manuals or handbooks. There should also be clear channels of communication in the organization to enhance smooth operation, understanding and enhance healthy industrial relationships.

Keywords:export processing zone, industrial disputes, industrial relations

NZUVE SNM. Business Policy and Strategic Management. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1992.
NZUVE SNM, Mwarey CD. "Human Resource Planning In faith Based Hospitals in Kenya." Social Science Research Network. 2013.ssrn-id2144691.pdf
NZUVE SNM. Elements of Organizational Behaviour; Revised edition. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2007.
NZUVE SNM, Bundi EG. "Human Capital Management Practices And Firms Performance: A Survey Of Commercial Banks In Kenya.". 2012. Abstracthuman__capital_management_practices_and_firms_performance__a_survey_of_commercial_banks_in_kenya.pdf

The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between human capital management (HCM) practices and performance of commercial banks in Kenya. It was carried out using a cross sectional survey design as well as a correlation research. The study population and sample was 45 commercial banks. A total of 23 banks took part in the final survey. The primary data was generated through questionnaires whose respondents were head of human resource departments in banks while secondary data was sought from the financial statements of banks by means of content analysis. In order to test for the relationship between HCM practices and firm performance, the ordinary least squares (OLS) method was used to perform a regression analysis.
The investigation established that the most used human capital management practices were in
recruitment excellence, collegial and flexible work place and rewards and accountability. The least used practice was communications integrity. The study also noted that with the exception of communication, other human capital management practices had a positive influence on turnover growth. It is concluded that most commercial banks adopt human capital management practices to an average degree. The study further concludes that human capital management practices generally have a positive influence on performance as measured by both turnover growth and return on assets. The study recommends that there is need for commercial banks in Kenya to enhance the human capital management practices.
Key Words- Human capital management, competitive advantage, technological change, human
capital advantage, intangible assets, organizational performance and human capital

Nzuve FM, Bhavani S, Tusiime G, Njau P. Field screening of bread wheat for partial sources of resistance to stem rust. Entebbe, Uganda: RUFORUM ; 2013.
NZUVE SNM. Recruitment - Organization and Individuals Attracting and Rettaining Each Other. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1985.
NZUVE SNM, Omolo E. "A Study Of The Practice Of The Learning Organization And Its Relationship To Performance Among Kenyan Commercial Banks.". In: Problems of Management in the 21st Century. Scientific Methodical Center (SMC), Scientia Educologica, Lithuania, 2012; 2012.
NZUVE SNM. Job Satisfication: Should Managers Worry About How Satisfied Their Stfaff Are?. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1987.
Nzuve FM, Bhavani S, Tusiime G, Singh D, Njau PN, Wanyera R. "Sources of resistance to stem rust among selected wheat germplasm.". 2011. Abstract

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important staple food crop contributing to food security and income generation among resource poor farmers. However, the crop is threatened by stem rust which pose a major constraint to wheat production in East Africa. This is because the Ug99 (TTKS) a virulent strain of the Puccinia graminis fsp tritici Eriks and Henns, has overcome major resistance genes; Sr31, Sr36 and Sr24 previously deployed against the stem rust. This has led to significant reduction in the wheat yields or sometimes to total crop failure under heavy epidemics. Thus, host resistance remains vital in combating the ug99 spread. A study carried out at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (Njoro) in the field aimed at identifying sources of resistance to stem rust. This study revealed some promising wheat lines; R07F4-21258 and THELIN#2/TUKURU CGSS02Y00118S-099M-099Y-099M-16Y-OB which should constitute appropriate material for breeding programs. These promising lines have already been used in intercrosses and populations are being advanced into further generations for genetic studies and mapping of the resistance genes. The recurrent selection will be used to accumulate these resistance genes into high yielding wheat background in further breeding work to help avert further wheat yield losses in East Africa which is faced with acute malnutrition, famine and drought.

NZUVE SNM. Personnel Management I, with a 60 minutes cassette. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1988.
NZUVE WAMBUABONIFACE. "Post Harvest food waster and house hold food security.". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 2003. Abstract

Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.

Nzuve F. "Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction for Grain Yield in Maize Hybrids." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;5(11):75-85.
NZUVE SNM. Industrial Relations Management. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2009.
NZUVE SNM. Management Decision - Making: The Debate About Workers Participation. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1985.
NZUVE SNM, MBUGUA SM. "A Survey of Competitiveness in the Passenger Road Transport Sector in Nairobi-Kenya." Problems of Management in the 21st Century. 2012. Abstracta_survey_of_competitiveness_in_the__passanger_road_transport_sector_in_nairobi_kenya.pdfWebsite

The purpose of the study was to identify the key competitive dimensions employed by players in the low cost, mass market commuter road transport sector in Nairobi, Kenya. The theoretical framework for this study was Michael Porter’s Industry Analysis model. This model assumes five competitive forces, which determine the attractiveness of a given industry. These forces are: the barriers of entry into the industry, threat of substitute products,
bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers and industry rivalry. The Porter’s Five Forces Industry Analysis model is a strategy tool that is used to make an analysis of the ttractiveness (value) of an industry structure.
The study used a survey design. The population of the study consisted of all public service vehicle owners operating in Nairobi and registered under the Public Service Vehicle Owners Welfare Association of Kenya; the City buses namely, Citi Hoppa, Express Connections, KBS, and other formal and informal public commuter transport providers. The sample of the study was restricted only to the motorized providers of low unit cost mass-market public passenger road transportation. These include public service vehicle owners registered under the Public Service Vehicle Owners Welfare Association of Kenya and city buses. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics.
The key finding of the study was that there was a lot of activity in the PSV sector that has influenced the industry’s competitiveness. The threat from other competing means of transportation had the lowest levels of activity and it was determined from the low mean
values on all the parameters used as proxies to the threat. The sector was also seen to be very active in employing marketing strategies to enhance competitiveness. The study recommended that the passenger transport sector increase innovative use of alternative means of transport.
Key words: Matatu, the term Matatu is derived from a local Kikuyu vernacular word mang’otore Matatu, which literally means “thirty cents’ that was the standard charge for every trip made in the 1970’s.

Nzuve SNM, K. SC. "Attitudes of Shop Floor Employees Toward Women Managers In Fuel Depots: A Case Of The Fuel Depots In Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic Of The Congo." Problems of Management in the 21st Century [PMC]. . 2014;9(3):206-212. Abstract

The International Labour Organization and all organizations of human rights advocate against any form of negative attitude in employment based on gender, its terms, promotion and relations. Shop floor employees play a very important role in the daily advancement and profitability of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to establish the attitude of shop floor employees toward women managers in fuel depots in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the population consisting of one hundred and ninety three (193) shop floor employees. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total one hundred and twenty one (121) shop floor employees responded yielding a response rate of sixty three percent (63%). The findings of this study indicate that a negative attitude toward woman managers is prevalent in the Fuel Depots of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the fuel depots, the number of women working was less than a third of the males. In spite of this, women managers are rated higher in management qualities and are considered to be more honest, diligent, compassionate, creative and intelligent when compared to their male counterparts. The study recommends a culture change among employees in fuel depots in Lubumbashi in order to enable them perceive women as equal partners at the work place.

NZUVE SNM. The Supervisory Function in Transition and its Dilemmas. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1987.
NZUVE SNM. "The impact of the Enactment of the Sarbanes Oxley Act in the United States, 2002 on the Improvement of Corporate Finance and Good Governance Behavior.". 2012. Abstractthe_impact_of_the_enactment_of_the_sarbanes_oxley_act_in_the_united_states.pdf

The massive corporate failure in the United States of America (U.S.) in the 1990s and early 2000s as epitomized by the fall of Enron, Worldcom among others resulted in myriad lawsuits and erosion of shareholders wealth. The governance of public companies was brought to question. The politicians were under pressure to provide leadership to the mess that is corporate failure. The house and U.S. senate passed into law new legislation that set the pace for corporate governance in the U.S. The Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002 (Pub.L. 107-204, 116 Stat. 745, enacted July 30, 2002), also known as the 'Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act' (in the Senate) and 'Corporate and Auditing Accountability and
Responsibility Act' (in the House), or by ‘SOX’ generally, established new requirements for public company corporate boards, officers, and auditors. This Act included criminal penalties and directed the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to oversee its implementation. John Nugent (n.d) observes: “Subsequent to the enactment of SOX, we have witnessed the financial implosion of the 2007 to 2010 period where firms such as Lehman Brothers, Bear Sterns, AIG and others have been involved in one way or another in the collapse of the mortgage markets through acts deemed improper and/or imprudent. So the mere passage of a statute does not appear to serve as a remedy for bad human behavior.”
This observation brings to fore an important question: Did the enactment of the Sarbanes Oxley
Act in the Unites States in 2002 improve corporate finance or good governance behavior? In an
attempt to answer this question, the paper reviews literature and empirical evidence on this
subject matter.
A section of the literature faults the enactment of SOX for not improving good governance behavior. We have witnessed in the post SOX era, the collapse of financial institutions such as Lehman Brothers and others through acts that are considered improper. Romano (2004) criticizes the process of enacting SOX. She believes it was done in haste without backing of empirical research. She also questions the requirement by SOX calling for a completely independent audit committee; she reckons that this should optional since it is sub-optimal. Cohen et al. believe that because of the liability requirements associated with Section 304 of SOX, executives now bear risk formerly born by investors. This may impact negatively on the value of the company since the executives will act risk averse and as such unable to invest.
On the other hand, there was some evidence supporting SOX in its quest to improve governance
behavior. Agrawal and Chadha (2005) findings support one of the principal requirements of
SOX, which is the inclusion of an independent financial expert on public company audit
committees. Increasingly, companies are taking congnisance of the governance rating and are
striving to achieve high scores. Uzen et al. (2004) find that enhanced corporate governance,
increased board independence, and independent financial expertise on the board increases the
effectiveness of board monitoring as reflected by fewer shocks; accounting restatements and
instances of fraud. The evidence from literature is inconclusive and therefore further research
should be done in order to gain sufficient evidence to answer the question whether SOX has led

NZUVE SNM. Labour Relations, with a 60 minutes cassete. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1990.
NZUVE DRWAMBUABONIFACE, NZUVE WAMBUABONIFACE. "Problems of sustainable development of agricultural production in the semi.". In: International association of hydrological sciences ( IAHS) publication 2000 No 259. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1999. Abstract

Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.

NzuveWambua DB. "Problems facing the natural Parks and their solution in Kenya." Research assistant on the small scale industries in Nairobi region.. 1998.

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