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Nyang’anga MH:, Mande JD. Artificial Intelligent System for Diagnosis and Management of Maize Pest in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Nairobi, KE Doctoral Thesis University of Nairobi; 2015. Abstract
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Nyang’anga HT, Okelo WO, Mugivane FI, Demesi MJ, Opande GT. "Farmers’ Requirements in an Artificial Intelligent System for Diagnosis of Maize Diseases in Kenya." IOSR- Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences (IOSR-JAVS). 2015;8:20-31. Abstract
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Nyang’au TN, Misati L. "The Link between Rural Poverty and HIV/AIDS.". In: Working With Rural Communities. Second Edition. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2011.
Nyang’au TN, J.M. M’I. "Qualitative Research Methods.". In: A Teaching Module for Postgraduate Fellows at University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases (UNITID).; 2009.
Nyang’au TN, Ng’ethe, N. and Omosa M(eds.). Changing Social Structure. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi.; 2009.
Nyankanga RO, Onwonga RN, Wekesa FS, Nakimbugwe D, Masinde D, Mugisha J. "Effect of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on the Performance and Profitability of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) in Western Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Science." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2012;4(1):223-232.
Nyankanga RO, Wein HC, Olanya OM. "Relationship Between Incidence of Late Blight Tuber Rot, Foliage Blight Control and the Effect of Weather and Soil Variables.". 2008. Abstract

The relationship of late blight disease, tuber blight and the effects of weather and soil variables were determined at 2 distinct environments of New York and Kenya during 1999 to 2001. In well replicated field experiments at the two sites where A2 (US8 clone) and A1 (US1 clone) respectively are dominant, foliar and tuber blight development, climatic and soil variables were quantified during three cropping seasons. Variation in tuber blight in New York and Kenya was detected. Stepwise multiple regression and correlation analysis identified combinations of variables associated with tuber blight such as cultivar characteristics, soil temperature and precipitation events. The research results can provide insight into the dynamics of tuber blight infection processes and be useful for tuber blight management strategies.

Nyankanga RO. "Development of Tuber Blight.". 2008;(5)(43):1501-1508.abstract_2.pdf
Nyaory GM, Konditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Designing Cavity–Backed Slot Antenna Array: A Numerical Implementation Using ADI-FDTD Method.". In: 6th JKUAT Scientific and Technological Conference. AICAD, Juja, Nairobi ; 2011. Abstract

ABSTRACT Slotted antenna arrays used with waveguides also known as Cavity-backed slot antenna arrays (CBSAA) are a popular set of antenna in navigation, radar and other microwave-frequency systems. For such antenna analysis and design in the sub-wavelength domain, there are currently three well established methods: The method of moments (MoM), the finite-element method (FEM) and the finite difference time-domain method (FDTD).
In this paper, a new finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is proposed in order to eliminate the Courant–Friedrich–Levy (CFL) condition restraint. We therefore present the conventional alternating direction implicit - finite difference time-domain method (ADI-FDTD) method.
The proposed ADI-FDTD method is applied by solving Maxwell’s equations in time domain. We model and simulate waveguide structures with a case study of T10 mode on rectangular CBSAA consisting of 8 slot elements backed by a single cavity and simple feed network. The characteristics covering the microwave frequencies are analyzed, for instance; input impedance, return loss, bandwidth, VSWR, and far field radiation patterns. Moreover, several numerical results are presented, along with measured data, which demonstrate the validity, efficiency, and capability of the technique. Index Terms - Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Arrays (CBSAA), Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD), Courant–Friedrich–Levy (CFL), and Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI)

Nyaory GM, K’Onditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Distribution of Electromagnetic Field Radiation from a Rectangular Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna, ADI-FDTD Perspective.". In: KSEEE-JSAEM 2012 International Engineering Conference.; 2012.
Nyaory GM, K’Onditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Radiation from a Rectangular Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Using ADI-FDTD Method." Journal Of Information Engineering and Applications . 2012;2(No. 8):1-8. Abstract

In this paper, a rectangular Cavity Backed Slot Antenna (CBSA) Model excited by a probe is investigated.
The analysis is carried out using the Alternating Direction Implicit - Finite Difference Time Domain (ADIFDTD)
Method which is applied to investigate its characteristics in terms of radiation patterns and power.
This is because the method is capable of providing a more accurate definition of the electromagnetic fields
within the rectangular apertures, while eliminating the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) stability condition
which is present in the regular Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. A cavity-backed slot
antenna structure with dimensions of 14cm×22cm×30cm is analyzed with the slot and aperture
measurements done at 3GHz. Results showing current distribution on the material surrounding the
apertures are presented and a discussion on the physical aspects of the aperture radiation phenomenon is
also presented.

**This research was sponsored by The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)**

Nyapela MA. "The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic." The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic . 2020.
Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;4(11):149-154.
Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;4(11). Abstract

A study of structural and properties of pure (undoped) Zinc oxide (ZnO) and phosphorous (P) and Antimony (Sb) doped Zinc Oxide films has been carried out. The films were deposited by an automated spray pyrolysis equipment on both microscope glass at various elevated temperatures (270 oC - 420 oC) and on fluorine doped tin Oxide (FTO) substrates at 420 oC. Structural characterization using Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of the main peak for ZnO at 437 cm-1for all the films. Antimony doped films showed other peaks associated with the doping but phosphorous doping did not show extra peaks. Optical characterization using a UV-VIS-NIR Shimadzu (Model DUV 3700) double beam spectrophotometer provided both reflectance and transmittance data and Scout software was used to compute the band gap. At a wavelength of 600 nm, the average transmittance of the pure ZnO films was ~62 % while it was transmittance was ~85 % and ~80 % for Sb and P doped films respectively, an increase of ~23 % and ~18 % respectively. For the undoped ZnO films, high deposition temperatures led to band gap narrowing from 3.25eV to 3.10eVwhile doping resulted in band gap widening from 3.10 eV to 3.30 eV (for P-doped) and 3.10 eV to 3.33 eV (for Sb-doped),an observation confirmed by the increased transmittance on doping. The band gap narrowing for ZnO films makes the film become a better materials for visible light absorption which is good for photovoltaic applications. The wide gap broadening on doping makes the film more transparent to solar radiation making it suitable for transparent conducting oxide applications.

Nyariki DM, Kitalyi A, Wasonga VO, Isae IM, Kyagaba E, Lugenja M. "Indigenous techniques for assessing and monitoring range resources in East Africa.". 2005. Abstract
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Nyariki DM;, Kironchi G, Ogara WO;. Food Security In Rural Development.; 2001.Website
Nyariki BN, S.M O, S. N. "Aspects African History Nairobi:." Catholic University Press. 2008.
Nyariki D, Oliver Wasonga, Otieno C, Ogadho E, Ikutwa C. "The Economic Contribution of Copyright-Based Industries in Kenya." World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva. 2009. Abstract
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Nyariki TM, Gathumbi PK, Bebora LC, Muchemi GM, Ngatia TA. "Hematologic Values of Healthy and Sick Free-Ranging Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya." Journal of Wildlife Diseases.. 2019;55(1):123-128.
Nyariki DM. "Price response of herd off-take under market liberalization in a developing cattle sector: panel analysis applied to Kenya's ranching.". 2009. Abstract

The influence of price, in view of macro-economic policy change and a set of other factors, on herd off-take rates from ranches in Kenya over a period of 17 years was assessed. An AR(1) equation, based on Nerlove's classical dynamic supply model, was derived and fitted to panel data using the Cochrane–Orcutt procedure. Pooling of data was done to circumvent data insufficiency, thereby improving the statistical power of the analysis. Results indicate that price change has had a significant effect on ranch herd off-take, and climatic factors also account for long-run off-take levels.

Nyariki, D.M. WVO, Mworia JK. "Ecological, socio-economic and livelihood differentiation of Kenya.". In: Trends and Scope of Human Ecology. Vol. 5. Kamla-RaJ Enterprises, India; 2010:. Abstract
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NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Molecular Epidemiology of Bacillus cereus food poisoning.". In: journal. FARA; 2001. Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the potential use of DNA techniques in epidemiological diagnosis of Bacillus cereus food poisoning. Subjects: Fifty six B. cereus isolates from milk were studied. Design: The 56 B. cereus isolates were characterized into enterotoxin positive(27 islates) and enterotoxin negative(29 isolates) using reverse passive latex agglutination technique. Setting: Plasmid and genomic DNA were isolated from all the B. cereus isolates. The plasmid DNA was analysed by gel electrophoresis, while genomic DNA was used for restriction endonuclease and toxin gene analyses. Main outcome measures: Plasmid profile analysis, restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA, and test for bceT and hblA genes by polymerase chain reaction and gene probing. Results: Seventy two per cent of the isolates contained one to five plasmids of molecular sizes between 0.1 to 60 Mda. Restriction analysis of genomic DNA gave different restriction patterns among enterotoxin positive and enterotoxin negative isolates.  Polymerase chain reaction assay detected bceT gene in 41.1% of the isolates, 16% of which tested positive for enterotoxin with B. cereus enterotoxin reverse passive latex agglutination(BCET-RPLA) kit, while hblA gene was detected in all the enterotoxin positive isolates. BceT and hblA gene probes detected the respective genes in all the isolates that also tested positive for toxin genes by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion: DNA techniques provide an alternative approach to the diagnosis of enterotoxigenic B. cereus.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Beef and dressed chickens as sources of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Nairobi.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from beef carcasses, minced beef and dressed chicken were assayed for production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D using reverse passive latex agglutination technique. The highest isolation rate was from chickens followed by minced beef. Chickens yielded the highest percentage of enterotoxigenic strains. Staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) was the most frequently produced enterotoxin type from all the three sources. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) ranked second and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) third. The data show that chickens and minced beef are potential sources of food poisoning staphylococci in Kenya, and that increased handling of the products increases contamination suggesting that man is the major source.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "The role of Dairy Cooperative Societies in providing services to small holder dairy farmers in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
The role of dairy cooperative societies in providing services to small-holder dairy farmers in Kiambu District, Central Kenya was studied. Staff from 15 cooperative societies were interviewed during October to December 1992. In addition, 80 randomly sampled farmers from 6 randomly selected societies were questioned as to the current and potential services their cooperative society could provide. The primary objective of each society was to market milk for small-holder farmers. The price paid to farmers varied form ksh. 5.00 to ksh. 7.00 (US$ 0.15 to US$ 0.20) per litre and was influenced most by the proportion of milk the cooperative society was able to sell locally. A secondary objective for dairy societies was to provide inputs, such as credit and technical services to their members. Their ability to provide input and services increased with the number of members and the amount of cooperative levy charged on milk sales. The farmers sampled ranked the need for higher and more prompt payment for milk as their major concerns and the provision of veterinary services as a secondary concern. Farmers felt that dairy cooperative societies should assume more milk marketing and service responsibilities. Both the recent deregulation of milk marketing and the withdrawal of many government technical services should influence dairy cooperative societies to assume a greater role in these areas.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Food-borne diseases in Kenya.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Food-borne diseases in Kenya.". In: journal. FARA; 2001. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Coliform counts and E. coli in raw commercial milk from dairy farmers in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
The rate of contamination with coliforms and incidence of Escherichia coli(E.coli) in raw milk supplied by farmers to dairy cooperative societies for marketing was investigated. About forty two percent(42.2%) of milk samples from farmers cans and 10.3 % of samples from cooperative cans were found to be free of coliforms, while 89.5% of the samples from farmers cans and 50% samples from cooperative cans could be considered to be of good quality with no more 500,000 coliforms/ml of milk. Forty-two E.coli strains were isolated from the milk samples, five of which were found to be enteropathogenic. None of the isolates was found to be of serogroup 0157. The results indicated that a good number of farmers draw milk under satisfactory conditions, but awareness campaigns on clean milking, milk handling and storage practices should be stepped up in order to reach farmers who may not be informed. Again the study showed that raw milk can get contaminated with enteropathogenic E. coli that can pose a potential risk to humans, thus calls for extra care when preparing millk and milk products that are to be consumed by humans beings.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Toxin production and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli river water isolates.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To establish the types of E. coli isolates that are found in river water around Nairobi and assess the potential risk of use of this water to human health. Design: Multiple stratified sampling was carried out. Surface sampling was used in the entire study. Setting: The study was carried out on river waters surrounding Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Forty Escherichia coli strains isolated from river water. Main outcome measures: Serotyping, toxin gene tests and susceptibility to tetracyclines, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin were analysed. Results: None of the isolates could be specifically serotyped using the available antisera. Toxin gene detection tests using the colony hybridization technique revealed that nine (22.5%) of the strains were positive for heat stable (ST) toxin gene, seven(17.5%) to the heat labile(LT) toxin gene and two (5%) to both genes. Using the agar disk diffusion technique, eighty percent of the strains were susceptible to all four antibiotics, while twenty percent of the strains showed multiple resistance. None of the strains was resistant to all four antibiotics while no strain showed resistance to kanamycin. Conclusion: None of the E. coli isolates was serotypable and it was therefore not possible to determine whether serologically identical strains of ETEC were haboured by man or animals. Toxin gene tests results showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhea causing ETEC to man and animals. Toxin gene tests showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhea causing ETEC to man and animals if they consume this water untreated and there is evidence to show resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, hence appropriate health measures should be adhered to.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Bacillus cereus may produce two or more diarrhoeal enterotoxins.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Antibiotic resistance in milk received by Dairy Cooperative Societies in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
A survey of antibiotic inhibitors in milk received by dairy cooperative societies in Kiambu District was done qualitatively using microbiological assay method.  No antimicrobial inhibitors were detected in all the samples tested. Informal discussions indicated a high level of awareness of withdrawal requirements of veterinary drugs after animal treatment in both farmers and the management staff of dairy cooperative societies. The results show that milk from this area is free of antibiotic residues and farmers could be adhering to the withdrawal requirements of veterinary drugs. Such milk therefore does not pose a risk to the public and dairy industry.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Quality of raw milk collected and Marketed by dairy cooperative societies in Kiambu District.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
The quality of milk collected by dairy cooperative societies in Kiambu District from farmers for marketing was determined. Analysis was done for specific gravity, total viable bacteria counts, coliform counts, resazurin test, alcohol test and test. Approximately 5.2% of farmers and 9.7% of cooperative samples had a specific gravity less that 1.026 indicating adulteration by addition of water. Forty four percent(44.3%) of farmers and 86.2% of cooperative  can samples had total viable counts more  than 105 cfu/ml milk, while 10,5% of farmers and 50% of cooperative can samples had more than 50,000 counts/ml of milk respectively. Seven percent of milk samples from farmers cans and 36% of milk samples from cooperative cans were considered of poor quality by use of a ten minutes resazurin test. Again 7.0% of farmers and 11.0% of cooperative can milk samples tested positive with the alcohol test, while no samples clotted on boiling in both cases. The study found that most farmers in the district supply to dairy cooperative societies relatively good quality milk, but the quality of the milk deteriorates while in the hands of the management of dairy cooperative societies which could be attributed to long milk collection rounds coupled with high ambient temperatures and inadequate cleaning of cans after use due to enough portable water. The ten minutes resazurin test was thought to be the most appropriate test for use in screening for poor quality milk at the cooperative level, while alcohol te
Nyarwath O. Traditional Logic: An Introduction, 2nd edition. Nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy; 2010.
Nyarwath O. "Odera Oruka: A Biographical Sketch." Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya (PAK). 2012;4(2):iii-v.
Nyarwath O. Philosophy and rationality in taboos with special reference to the Kenyan Luo culture. Oruka POH, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
Nyarwath O. "Sagacity and Freedom.". In: Sagacious Reasoning: Henry Odera Oruka in memoriam. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang; 1997.
Nyarwath O. "Ethnicity and ethnicism: what is wrong?" Horizons: A Journal of Philosophy. 2010;1(1):53-64.
Nyarwath O. "Understanding Social Freedom and Humanism in Odera Oruka's Philosophy." Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya (PAK). 2012;4(2):75-96.
Nyarwath O. An exposition and critique of H. Odera Oruka's philosophy. Odhiambo PJA, Ogutu PGEM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2009.
Nyarwath O. "Moral Ignorance and Corruption.". In: Thought and Practice in African Philosophy. Nairobi: Konrad Adenaeur Foundation; 2002.
Nyarwath O. "History and status of African philosophy at the University of Nairobi." Horizons: A Journal of Philosophy. 2009;1(1):13-21.
Nyarwath O. "The Luo Care for Widows (Lako) and Contemporary Challenges." Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. 2012;4(1):91-110.
Nyarwath O. "The Role of Philosophy in Social Development." Hekima: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2005;III(1):53-65.
Nyarwath O, Omosa M, Njeru GR, Ontita E. Theory and Practice of Governance in Kenya: Towards Civic Engagement. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2006.
Nyarwath O, Omosa M, Njeru G, Ontita E. Theory and Practice of Governance in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2006.
Nyasani PJ, Owuor MA. Latin Maxims, Expressions, Phrases and Idioms in Legal and Philosophical Use. Nairobi: BR Professional Education; 2013.
Nyasani PJ. "The Ontological Significance of "I" and "We" in African Philosophy." I, We and Body. 1989;3(3):13-26.
Nyasani PJ. Guide to Philosophy Series 6 - Legal Philosophy Jurispudence.. Nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy Press; 2010.
Nyasani PJ. "Why is the Pace of Development so Slow.". In: Rethinking Intergral Development in Africa. nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy Press; 2011.
Nyasani PJ. Guide to Philosophy Series 18 - Cosmology: The Philosophy of Nature. Nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy Press; 2012.
Nyasani PJ. "The Impact of different Cultures on the Image of Man within a cultural milieu.". In: The Quest for Man: The Topicality of Philosophical Anthropology. Netherlands: Van Gorcum & Comp; 1991.
Nyasani PJ. An Introduction to Traditional Logic. Frankfurt: Peter Lang; 1982.
Nyasani PJ. "The Meaning and Implication of Ethnicity.". In: Ethnicity Conflict and The Future of African States. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa; 2009.
Nyasani PJ. A General Guide to English Pronounciation for Learners and Teachers in African Schools. Nairobi: The Nairobi Academic Book Publishers; 2002.
Nyasani PJ. The Value of Life in African Culture. Nairobi: CUEA; 2007.
Nyasani JO, Kimenju JW, Olubayo FM. "Potential of using entomopathogenic nematodes in the management of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera:Plutellidae) in KENYA.". 2007. Abstract

Laboratory studies were conducted on diamondback moth (DBM) larvae, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using five different entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNS) isolates obtaine d from National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kenya. The DBM larvae were obtained from field collections at Kabete Campus Field Station . The exposure time fifty ( ET 50 ) of the entomopathogenic nematode isolates to DBM larvae was determined by leaf dis c bioassay method. All the entomopathogenic nematode isolates tested caused mortality to the DMB larvae . The ET 50 of Steinernema karii was significantly higher than that of Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema waiseri ( 95% fiducial limits at 1% level ). Th e ET 50 of the entomopathogenic nematodes tested ranged from 20.27 to 38.12 hours . The effect of time on the percentage mortality was significant ( d . f = 2,214 ; F = < 0.001 ). Average penetration rate for Heterorhabditis sp. , Steinernema sp., Steinernema kari i, Heterorhabditis indica, and Steinernema waiseri was 19.17% 31.67% 27.17% 46.41% and 75% respectively This study revealed that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have a great potential that should be exploited in diamondback moth management

Nyasani PJ. NB Examinations Techniques and Guides. Nairobi: Nairobi Bookmen; 1987.
Nyasani PJ. The Metaphysics of the Cosmos and Related Recurrent Issues of Metaphysics. Nairobi: School of Journalism; 1996.
Nyasani PJ. The African Psyche. Nairobi: Theological Printing Press; 1997.
Nyasembe VO, Teal PEA MWRTJHTB. "Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends." Parasites & Vectors. 2012;5(234):doi:10.1186/1756-3305-234.
Nyasembe VO, Teal PEA, WR M, Tumlinson JH, Torto B. "Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends." Parasites & Vectors. 2012;5:234.
Nyasetia OTACHIBARNABAS. "The Influence of Entreprenuarial Personality, Human Capital and Entry Barriers on Performance of Entreprenuers in The Informal Transport Business In Nairobi, Kenya." Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, school of business, University of Nairobi). 2013. Abstract

Entrepreneurship is believed to be the driving force behind economic and social development of nations. In today‘s capitalistic system, entrepreneurs make an accelerated contribution to the economic growth and development of countries through the creation of small enterprises. In major world economies, these enterprises are associated to their overall economic growth and employment, hence the reason why research on this area is very critical. In carrying out the above study, the researcher was guided by five theories of entrepreneurship; the resourced-based, the social cultural, the psychological approach, the ecological and the institutional theory. Due to the nature and requirement of the study, the researcher was biased towards the use of two of the five theories mentioned above; the resourced-based and the psychological approach theory. The study was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya and the target was the Matatu entrepreneurs, operating the fourteen sitter public vehicles. Since its inception in Nairobi, the Matatu business has grown both in size and volume. This is assumed to indicate good business performance. However, despite the growth, it is only a few entrepreneurs who have succeeded. This is the problem this study attempted to investigate. The overall objective of this study was to determine the factors influencing performance of Matatu business in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a cross-sectional study and stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Based on the routes and regions, a sample of 364 registered Matatu owners was picked and questionnaires given out giving a response rate of 95%. Results from respondents were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics which indicated that performance in Matatu business was a function of but not limited to, personality traits, human capital, government policies, entry barriers and the management of registered Matatu welfare bodies. The findings from the study revealed that vital information touching on this business were missing in government records. One of the major findings of the study was the positive contribution of the registered industry welfare bodies towards the success of the Matatu business. Another major finding from the study touched on the human capital. That though education is important, the same was not a major performance factor in Matatu business.

Nyataya J, Waitumbi J, Mobegi VA, Noreddin A, El Zowalaty ME. "Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 gene deletions and their implications in malaria control." Diseases. 2020;8:15. Abstract

Malaria remains the biggest threat to public health, especially among pregnant women and young children in sub-Saharan Africa. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is critical for effective case management and detection of drug resistance. Conventionally, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the tools of choice for malaria diagnosis. RDTs are simple to use and have been extensively used in the diagnosis of malaria among travelers to malaria-endemic regions, routine case management, and surveillance studies. Most RDTs target the histidine-rich protein (PfHRP) which is exclusively found in Plasmodium falciparum and a metabolic enzyme Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) which is common among all Plasmodium species. Other RDTs incorporate the enzyme aldolase that is produced by all Plasmodium species. Recently, studies have reported false-negative RDTs primarily due to the deletion of the histidine-rich protein (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) genes in field isolates of P. falciparum. Herein, we review published literature to establish pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions, the extent of these deletions in different geographical regions, and the implication in malaria control. We searched for publications on pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions and retrieved all publications that reported on this subject. Overall, 20 publications reported on pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions, and most of these studies were done in Central and South America, with very few in Asia and Africa. The few studies in Africa that reported on the occurrence of pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions rarely evaluated deletions on the flanking genes. More studies are required to evaluate the existence and extent of these gene deletions, whose presence may lead to delayed or missed treatment. This information will guide appropriate diagnostic approaches in the respective areas.

Nyatebe JO, Njenga GK, Wandiga SO, Orata F, Oduor FDO, Onyari JM. "A survey of heavy metal pollution from automotive emmissions in Kenya's urban Environment.". 2011.Full text link
Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "The moderating influence of employees attitude on the relationship between Occupation Health and Safety Training and Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya.". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Transportation Integration: Ports, Railways, Roads; Other Types of Mega-projects and their Impacts Contiguous Societies and their Resources. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT); 2020.
Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "Perceived effectiveness of Occupational Health and Safety Ergonomics on Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya. .". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Infrastructure and Property Development on Sites and in Contexts of Scarcity. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, JKUAT; 2020.
Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "Effectiveness of Health and Safety Policy and Audit on Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya.". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Learning for Resource Efficiency and Resourcefulness. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, JKUAT; 2020.
Nyavanga EJ, Chebet IM, Barasa M, Ndetei DM. "Effectiveness of Psychoeducation on Improving Opinions About Mental Illness Among Primary School Teacher Trainees in Kenya." Science Journal of Public Health . 2016;4(6):422-429. AbstractWebsite

Opinions about mental illness have been found to be negative among college students and the general population. Studies have indicated that improving literacy levels would improve opinions and lead to individuals to seek help and family to provide the needed support. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of psycho-education on the opinions about mental illness among public primary teacher trainees in Kenya. Convenience sampling was used to identify four public teacher colleges out of the twenty. Self-administered demographic questionnaire and opinions about mental illness scale were presented to the participants to collect data in four evaluations for the experimental group and three for the control group. The ethical protocol was followed from getting authority to informed consent from the participants. Out of the 2925 questionnaires presented, 2775 were returned fully filled, a return rate of 94.34%. Summative scores improved among the experimental group in the second, and third assessments, but this reduced to almost the original measure in the fourth assessment. This study found that psycho-education of mental illness is effective in improving negative opinions about mental illness among these participants and this study recommended mental health studies is included in the teachers’ curriculum.

Nyawade SO, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Yield and evapotranspiration characteristics of potato-legume intercropping simulated using a dual coefficient approach in a tropical highland." Field Crops Research . 2021;274 :108327.
Nyawade SO, Gachene CKK, Karanja NN, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Controlling soil erosion in smallholder potato farming systems using legume intercrops.". 2019.
Nyawade SO, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker M. "Optimizing soil nitrogen balance in a potato cropping system through legume intercropping.". 2020.
Nyawade SO, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Short-term dynamics of soil organic matter fractions and microbial activity in smallholder potato-legume intercropping systems.". 2019.
Nyawade S, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Sharma K, Parker ML. "Enhancing Climate Resilience of Rain-Fed Potato Through Legume Intercropping and Silicon Application.". 2020.
Nyawade SO, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Intercropping Optimizes Soil Temperature and Increases Crop Water Productivity and Radiation Use Efficiency of Rainfed Potato.". 2019.
NYAWIRA DRRITHOCECILIA. "Review of Natural Resource Management Policy Studies in the East African Highlands Department of Agricultural Economics and ICRAF .". In: BOOK TITLE, Small Enterprises Management and Development. European Psychiatric Journal; 2004.
Nyawira M, Muchai G, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Atieno J, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga PT, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):33-39. Abstract

All persons living with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have a lifetime risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a
potentially blinding microvascular complication of DM. The risk increases with the duration of diabetes. The
onset and progression of DR can be delayed through optimization of control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. The risk of blindness from DR can be reduced through cost-effective interventions such as screening for DR and treatment of sight-threatening DR with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF medications.
Several factors make it important to provide guidance to clinicians who provide services for diabetes and
diabetic retinopathy in Kenya. First, the magnitude of both DM and DR is expected to increase over the next
decade. Secondly, as the retina is easily accessible for examination, the early signs of retinopathy may provide clinicians with the best evidence of microvascular damage from diabetes. This information can be used to guide subsequent management of both DM and DR. Thirdly, there are notable gaps in service delivery for the detection,treatment and follow-up of patients with DR, and the services are inequitable. Strengthening of service delivery will require close collaboration between diabetes services and eye care services.
Following a systematic and collaborative process of guideline development, the first published national
guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to
highlight the recommendations in the guidelines, and to facilitate their adoption and implementation.

NYAWIRA DRRITHOCECILIA. "On-Farm Experiments: Some Experiences". Presented at the Second Symposium on Intercropping for the Semi-arid Areas (2nd SISA), 4th - 7th August, 1980 in Morogoro, Tanzania.". In: Second Symposium on Intercropping for the Semi-arid Areas (2nd SISA), 4th - 7th August, 1980 in Morogoro, Tanzania. European Psychiatric Journal; 1980.
NYAWIRA DRRITHOCECILIA. "The Role of Women in Small-scale Farm Production in Kenya. Presented at the workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 1980.
Nyberg, Gert, Stephen M. Mureithi, Deborah N. Muricho, Ostwald M. "Enclosures as a land management tool for food security in African drylands." Journal of Land Use Science. 2019:1-12.
Nyeko-Ogiramoi P, Willems P, Mutua FM, Moges SA. "An elusive search for regional flood frequency estimates in the River Nile Basin." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 2012;16(9):3149-3163. AbstractHydrology and Earth System Sciences

Estimation of peak flow quantiles in ungauged catchments is a challenge often faced by water professionals in many parts of the world. Approaches to address such problem exist, but widely used techniques such as flood frequency regionalisation is often not subjected to performance evaluation. In this study, the jack-knifing principle is used to assess the performance of the flood frequency regionalisation in the complex and data-scarce River Nile basin by
examining the error (regionalisation error) between locally and regionally estimated peak flow quantiles for different
return periods (QT ). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering based algorithms were used to search for regions with similar hydrological characteristics. Hydrological data employed were from 180 gauged catchments and several physical characteristics in order to regionalise 365 identified catchments.
The Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, selected using L-moment based approach, was used to construct regional growth curves from which peak flow growth factors could be derived and mapped through interpolation. Inside each region, variations in at-site flood frequency distribution were modelled by regression of the mean annual maximum peak flow (MAF) versus catchment area. The results showed that the performance of the regionalisation is heavily dependent on the historical flow record length and the similarity of the hydrological characteristics inside the regions. The flood frequency regionalisation of the River Nile basin can be improved if sufficient flow data of longer record length of at least 40 yr become available.

Nyenwe EA, Kitabchi AE. "Evidence-based management of hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetes mellitus." Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2011;94:340-351. Abstract

The hyperglycemic emergencies, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are potentially fatal complications of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. The incidence of DKA and the economic burden of its treatment continue to rise, but its associated mortality rate which was uniformly high has diminished remarkably over the years. This Improvement in outcome is largely due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of hyperglycemic emergencies and the application of evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of patients. In this article, we present a critical review of the evidence behind the recommendations that have resulted in the improved prognosis of patients with hyperglycemic crises. A succinct discussion of the pathophysiology and important etiological factors in DKA and HHS are provided as a prerequisite for understanding the rationale for the effective therapeutic maneuvers employed in these acute severe metabolic conditions. The evidence for the role of preventive measures in DKA and HHS is also discussed. The unanswered questions and future research needs are also highlighted.

Nyenze E, Ilako D, Karimurio J. "KAP survey on treatment of eye diseases among traditional healers in Kitui district of Kenya East Afr J Ophthalmol." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2007;13:6-9. Abstract

Objective: To establish the prevailing eye practices among traditional healers in Kitui district and establish whether these healers are able to identify ocular emergencies and refer in good time.
Design: Community based qualitative survey
Setting: Kitui district, Eastern Kenya
Subjects: A total of 87 healers from 3 divisions of Kitui district were interviewed.
Results: Seventy six (87.4%) said that they treat at least one of the eye conditions presented to them. Instillation of plant extracts into the conjuctival sac was the most preferred treatment modality and was practiced by 46(52.9%) healers for cataracts, 48(55.2%) for ocular injuries and 21(24.1%) for allergic conjunctivitis. The most commonly performed surgical procedures included rubbing the underside of the upper lid with a specifi c leaf for allergic conjunctivitis with papillary reaction performed by 43 (49.4%) healers; piercing chalazia with a thorn or needle by 11(12.6%) healers and making small incisions and applying herbs for ocular swelling by 4(4.6%) healers. The most preferred treatment for chemical injury was breast milk from any breast feeding mother practiced by 29 (33.3%) healers. Small extra ocular foreign bodies are removed by introducing seed from a specifi c plant in to the conjunctival sac by 51(58.6%) healers. Some healers mix traditional medicine with exorcism and rituals especially for squint as practiced by 14(16%) healers and ocular tumors by 9(10.3%) healers. The conditions the healers said they would refer included ocular tumors reported by 48(55.5%) healers, cataracts by 34(52.9%) healers, ocular injury by 30(34.5%) healers and squint by 21(24.1%) healers.
Conclusion: Majority of the healers interviewed treat patients who present to them with eye diseases. Most did not refer emergencies like ocular injuries.

Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K. "OUTCOME OF DAY-CARE SURGERY FOR AGE-RELATED CATARACTS, GARISSA GENERAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012;16(1):12-17d. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: To determine the outcome of surgeries for age related cataracts at Garissa Provincial General Hospital for the last four months of the year 2008.
Design: Retrospective record review
Setting: Eye clinic, Garissa Provincial General Hospital
Methods: Records for 182 surgeries for age related cataracts were retrieved and analysed retrospectively.
Results: A total of 182 surgeries were reviewed, 81 (44.5%) were for male patients and 101 (55.5%) were for female patients. The average age for the patients undergoing the cataract surgeries was 67 years( SD 11.2). All operated eyes had a vision of 6/60 or worse before surgery. Fifty four patients (29.4%) were blind before surgery and 56 operated eyes (30.8%) had significant ocular co-morbidity. One month after surgery, 124 eyes (68%) were reviewed and 87eyes (70.2%) had a good outcome, 24(19.4%) moderate and 13(10.5%) poor outcome after refraction/pinhole. Causes of poor outcome included ocular co-morbidity (7 eyes), surgical complications (4 eyes) and post-operative complications (2 eyes). The visual recovery rate for the blind patients was 81%. The eyes with good vision one month after surgery increased from 74 (59.7%) to 87(70.2%) after refraction underscoring the need for routine biometry.
Conclusion: The outcome was below the WHO recommendation of at least 90% of operated eyes attaining good best corrected vision after surgery.
Recommendation: Patient selection, good management of surgical complications and proper biometry are needed to improve on the outcome of cataract surgery at Garissa Hospital

NYENZE DREMMANUELMUINDI. "KAP of traditional healers on treatment of eye diseases in Kitui district of Kenya.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K; 2007. Abstract
12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevailing eye practices among traditional healers in Kitui district and establish whether these healers are able to identify ocular emergencies and refer in good time. Design: Community based qualitative survey Setting: Kitui district, Eastern Kenya Subjects: A total of 87 healers from 3 divisions of Kitui district were interviewed. Results: Seventy six (87.4%) said that they treat at least one of the eye conditions presented to them. Instillation of plant extracts into the conjuctival sac was the most preferred treatment modality and was practiced by 46(52.9%) healers for cataracts, 48(55.2%) for ocular injuries and 21(24.1%) for allergic conjunctivitis. The most commonly performed surgical procedures included rubbing the underside of the upper lid with a specifi c leaf for allergic conjunctivitis with papillary reaction performed by 43 (49.4%) healers; piercing chalazia with a thorn or needle by 11(12.6%) healers and making small incisions and applying herbs for ocular swelling by 4(4.6%) healers. The most preferred treatment for chemical injury was breast milk from any breast feeding mother practiced by 29 (33.3%) healers. Small extra ocular foreign bodies are removed by introducing seed from a specifi c plant in to the conjuctival sac by 51(58.6%) healers. Some healers mix traditional medicine with exorcism and rituals especially for squint as practiced by 14(16%) healers and ocular tumors by 9(10.3%) healers. The conditions the healers said they would refer included ocular tumors reported by 48(55.5%) healers, cataracts by 34(52.9%) healers, ocular injury by 30(34.5%) healers and squint by 21(24.1%) healers. Conclusion: Majority of the healers interviewed treat patients who present to them with eye diseases. Most did not refer emergencies like ocular injuries.
Nyenze E, Ojuma M. "ORBITAL COLD ABSCESSES WITH ASSOCIATED PANSINUSITIS AND BONE INVOLVEMENT." East African Journal of Ophthalmolgy. 2012;16(1):48-49. Abstract

Orbital involvement in tuberculosis is rare even in areas where TB is endemic.1 Orbital TB is classified into five forms; classical periostitis, orbital soft tissue tuberculoma or cold abscess with no bone destruction, orbital TB with bone destruction, orbital TB spread from para-nasal sinuses and tuberculous dacryoadenitis2,3,4,5. We present a 17 year old patient who presented with a third recurrence of orbital and forehead abscesses. On orbital CT-scan, the patient had pan-sinusitis, right orbital and frontal abscesses, bilateral proptosis and frontal bone destruction. Initially the diagnosis of orbital TB was based on a good response to antituberculosis medications and it was later confirmed by histology showing caseating TB granulomas.

Nyenze E, Muchai M IBDM. "A CASE OF RETROBULBAR HAEMORRHAGE IN A NEWLY DIAGNOSED CASE OF HAEMOPHILIA." Journal of ophthalmology. 2013;17(2):77-80. Abstract

Abstract.
Haemophilia is a congenital disorder of coagulation. It presents with numerous and varied systemic manifestations depending on the severity of coagulation factor deficiency. There are also ocular manifestations ranging from simple subconjunctival haemorrhage to more debilitating complications like retinal, vitreous and retrobulbar haemorrhage which are potentially blinding.
We present this case due to the unique presentation of haemophilia for the first time to a medical institution with ocular manifestations that progressed to complicate with eventual loss of vision in the affected eye.

Nyerere YFAGOJ, J. MO, D. Fuh N, Sulemana, Mutisya E, Fadairo O, Ameyaw J, Oluoko-Odingo AA. "The Role of Higher Education in Building a Sustainable African Society." African journal of Sustainable Development.. 2014;Vol. 4 (3), (Special).
Nyikal RA, Olouch-Kosura W. "“Risk Preference and Optimal Crop Combinations in Kahuro Division of Murang’a District, Kenya” ." Agricultural Economics . 2005;32(2):131-140 . AbstractWebsite

Financing smallholder farming has been one of the major concerns of Kenya's agricultural development efforts. Many credit programs have evolved over the years but with dismal performance. In a study that sought to find the best way to finance smallholder agriculture, it became necessary to analyze and document, in the first place, the farmers' preferred enterprise patterns. Any financial innovations would hence address the preferred patterns. Of particular interest was the effect of risk preference on such patterns, which had been ignored in many previous farm management studies. Murang'a district was chosen as a typical smallholder district. Sample farmers, obtained through cluster sampling, were visited and structured questionnaires administered to cover farm events and physical resources of short rains 1995 to long rains 1996. This formed a basis for formulating the farm patterns. A quadratic programming model was used to analyze observed farm plans. The model incorporates farmers' risk preferences, revenue fluctuations, and resource and subsistence restrictions. The results showed that: (1) changes in risk preference do affect the optimal crop combinations; (2) the typical cropping pattern is rational as the farmer meets both food and cash under modest variability of income; (3) insisting on producing most subsistence food requirements by the farmers reduces efficiency and limits the feasible plans.

Nyirahakizimana H, Mwamburi L, Wakhisi J, Mutegi CK, Christie ME, Wagacha JM. "Occurrence of Aspergillus Species and Aflatoxin Contamination in Raw and Roasted Peanuts from Formal and Informal Markets in Eldoret and Kericho Towns, Kenya ." Advances in Microbiology. 2013. Abstract

Abstract:
The population and diversity of fungal species and levels of aflatoxin contamination were investigated in 228 marketed peanut samples; 140 from formal and 88 from informal markets, in Kericho and Eldoret towns of Kenya. Ground peanut samples were cultured on Modified Dichloran Rose Bengal (MDRB) agar while aflatoxin level was quantified based on indirect competitive ELISA. Correlation between the incidence of major aflatoxin-producing fungal species and aflatoxin levels was also established. Fungal species commonly isolated from the peanut samples included Aspergillus flavus L strain, A. flavus S strain, A. parasiticus, A. tamarii, A. caelatus, A. alliaceus (all of Aspergillus section Flavi) and A. niger. Fungi isolated in low frequency included Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Mucor spp. and Rhizopus spp. Aflatoxin levels in peanut products ranged from 0 to 2345 μg/kg in raw peanuts, 0 to 382 μg/kg in roasted coated peanuts, and 0 to 201 μg/kg in roasted de-coated peanuts. Overall, levels of total aflatoxin were higher in samples from informal (mean = 97.1 μg/kg) than formal (mean = 55.5 μg/kg) market outlets. There was a positive and significant correlation (R2 = 0.63; p ≤ 0.05) between aflatoxin levels and the major aflatoxin producing fungi in raw peanuts from formal markets in Eldoret town. Additionally, total aflatoxin in raw peanut samples from informal markets in Kericho was positively and significantly correlated (R2 = 0.81; p ≤ 0.05) to the population of A. flavus (L and S strains). In roasted coated peanuts sampled from formal market outlets in Eldoret, aflatoxin levels correlated positively and significantly (R2 = 0.37; p ≤ 0.05) with A. flavus S strain. There is need to create awareness among peanut traders and consumers on proper handling of peanuts and health risks associated with consumption of unsafe peanut products.

Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Kariuki L, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2017;19(3). AbstractWebsite

Background: Effective control of malaria requires knowledge of vector species, their feeding and resting behaviour as well as breeding habitats. The objective of this study was to determine malaria vector species abundance and identify their larval habitats in Huye district, southern Rwanda.

Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors using light trap and pyrethrum spray catch techniques, and outdoors using light traps. Female Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characteristics. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to screen for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein and host blood meal sources. Anopheles larvae were sampled using dippers and raised into adult mosquitoes which were identified morphologically.

Results: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised of 70% of the 567 Anopheles collected. Other Anopheles species identified were An. funestus 4%, An. squamosus 16.5%, An. maculipalpis 6.5%, An. ziemanni 1.7%, An. pharoensis 1.2 % and An. coustani 0.1%. The majority, 63.5% of the collected mosquitoes were from indoors collections. The overall human blood index was 0.509. The P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein was found in 11 mosquitos including 8 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 3 secondary vectors out of the 567 tested. The overall sporozoite rate was 1.9%. A total of 661 Anopheline larvae from 22 larval habitats were collected. They comprised of An. gambiae s.l. (89%) and An. ziemanni (11%). The absolute breeding index was 86.4%. The most common larval habitats were in full sunlight with still water like rice paddies and pools of stagnant water.

Conclusion: These findings show that Anopheles gambiae s.l. is the dominant malaria vector in the area with other vectors playing a secondary role in malaria transmission. Malaria interventions need to be strengthened to reduce even further the malaria transmission in the area.

Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among under-five children in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2018;20(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Enhanced malaria control has resulted in its reduction in some areas of Sub Saharan Africa including Rwanda. However, asymptomatic hosts serve as a reservoir for the malaria parasite for communities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and risk factors associated with malaria infection among children underfive years in Huye district, Rwanda.

Methods: This community-based cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2016 among underfive years children. Asymptomatic children underfive years of age were randomly selected from 13 villages. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared from each child for malaria parasite diagnosis. Interviews with parents or guardians were conducted to collect data on malaria associated risk factors. Observations were made of the presence of mosquito breeding sites near and around the homestead.

Results: A total of 222 children were included in the study. Nearly a third (28.8%) of the children were within the age of 25-36 months. The majority (54%) of the children were females. Most of the parents/guardians were married (95.9%), nearly all (99.5%) had attended primary school and most (97.3%) were peasants. The overall Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in children was 12.2%. Children aged 1 to 12 months were 3.5 times more likely to have malaria parasites than children aged 13 to 59 months [AOR=3.56; 95%CI=1.18-10.71; p=0.024]. Children who were not sleeping under insecticide treated nets were 15 times more likely to be infected with malaria parasites compared to those who were sleeping under nets [AOR=15.27; 95%CI=4.42-52.82; p<0.001].

Conclusion: Malaria parasite prevalence in under-five year children in Huye District, Rwanda is moderate. The asymptomatic infections in the community forms a reservoir for transmission in the area. Young age of the child and not sleeping under mosquito net were associated with malaria parasite infection. The continuing use of mosquito nets needs to be emphasized.

Nyiranzeyimana G, Mutua JM, Mose BR, MBUYA TO. "Optimization of process parameters in fused deposition modelling of thermoplastics: A review." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(6):682-694. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/mawe.202000193

Among the several techniques for additive manufacturing (AM), fused deposition modelling (FDM) is widely used. Fused deposition modelling process uses a thermoplastic material, which is melted and then extruded layer by layer through a nozzle, in order to create a three-dimensional object. As a result of the default setting of process parameters provided by the manufacturers, produced parts normally have a poor surface finish, low mechanical properties, low dimensional accuracy, and increased residual stresses compared to the parts produced using conventional manufacturing processes like molding (casting). Qualities of fused deposition modelled (FDMed) parts are generally affected by process parameters including the layer thickness, extrusion temperature, build orientation, printing speed, raster angle, infill density, raster width, nozzle diameter, and air gap. Increasing infill density, printing temperature, and decreasing print speed and layer thickness lead to increase mechanical strength and improve the surface finish of the printed parts. The optimal process parameters are preferred to achieve superior properties of the parts. This paper reviews the optimal fused deposition modelling process parameters on part qualities for making the stability of used deposition modelled parts for use. Various process parameters are identified in order to obtain desirable qualities in the manufactured parts. Areas for future research are proposed.

Nyongesa AW, Oduma JA, Nakajima M, Odongo HO, Adoyo A, al'Absi M. "Acute and sub-chronic effects of purified cathinone from khat (Catha edulis) on behavioural profiles in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)." Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014;29(2):441-449.abstract_behavior_paper.pdf
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Kituyi, E. Adaptation to Impacts of Climate Change in Africa: Towards Innovative Institutional Frameworks.". In: Tiempo, No.61, pp.16-19. BEP Electronic Press; 2006. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "The Effect of Quartz and Mullite Pahses on Strength of Triaxial Porcelain." East African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2004;1(5):11-24. Abstract

The effect of quartz and mullite crystalline phases on the strength of triaxial porcelain in the system
quartz-feldspar-kaolin composed of 20%wt silica and feldspar/kaolin ratio of 5:8 has been
investigated. It was found that secondary mullite crystals enhanced both the compressive strength and
elastic properties of porcelain by the interlocking mechanism. Excess glass formation decreased the
fracture strength of porcelain as a result of the combined effect of circumferential cracks around
quartz grains and the microcracks within the quartz grains. The circumferencial cracks due to the
difference in the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the glassy and the quartz phases,
whereas the microcracks were due to a- to b- quartz phase inversions.

Nyongesa AW, Onyango DW. "Khat (Catha edulis Forsk): A boon or bane to humanity.". In: Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Texas: Studium Press, LLC; 2010.khat_chapter.pdf
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Thermal Shock Resistance of a Kyanite-Based (Aluminosilicate) Ceramic.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Society of Experimental Mechanics; 2010. Abstract

This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.

NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Kituyi, E. Harnessing Biotechnology for Food Security in Kenya,.". In: Discussion Paper No.6 Paper presented at the knowledge network meeting of the World Commission on the Social Dimensions of Globalisation. 7-8 November, Geneva. BEP Electronic Press; 2002. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Ogacho A. "Comparison Of The Effectiveness Of Various Designs Of Ceramic Filter Membranes In Domestic Water Purification." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2019;6(Issue 1):70-73. Abstract

n/a

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "The Role of Aspect Ratio in the Elastic Modulus-Porosity Relationship of a Triaxial Porcelain." Journal of British Ceramic Transactions. 2000;99(5):206-211.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "An Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Clay Refractories." African Journal of Science and Technology AJST. 1995;7 Series B(2):53-57.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "AEO-1 Chapter 2, Atmosphere, Eastern Africa [E. Kituyi, theme author].". In: Africa Environment Outlook, UNEP. BEP Electronic Press; 2002. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Ogacho AA. "Thermal Conductivity of a Kaolinite Refractory; Effects of an Orgarnic Binder." Journal of Material Science. 2003;38(11):2293-2297. AbstractWebsite

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Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. 
Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
 
The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively.
The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.
 KEY WORDS
Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Soboyejo WO, Obwoya SK, Rahbar N, Zimba J. "An Investigation of Thermal Shock in Porous Clay Ceramics." ISRN Mechanical Engineering. 2011;DOI 10.5402/2011/816853(816853).thermal_shock_in_porous_clay_ceramics_2011.pdf
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Kituyi, E. Charcoal Production and Consumption in East Africa.". In: Presented in Workshop on Population, Consumption and Environment Dynamics: Theory and Method. Montreal, Canada, 19 October. Population-Environment Research Network (PERN). Web edition at: http://www.populationenvironmentresearch.org/papers/PCE_Works. BEP Electronic Press; 2003. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Nyongesa FW, Nyaga WG, Aduda BO. "Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) for Photocatalytic Applications.". In: 6TH EDWARD BOUCHET-ABDUS SALAM INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. iThemba LABS, Cape Town, South Africa; 2007. Abstract

In this study, the critical deposition parameters of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of materials are reviewed and its potential use in the production of thin films for photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds are analyzed. In a case study, EPD was used to obtain titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings on glass substrates using colloidal suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles in ethanol with addition of iodine. The deposit parameters were optimized to obtain homogeneous and strongly adhered TiO2 thin films. The factors that determine the efficiency of TiO2 in the decomposition of organic contaminants are also presented.

NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Occurrence of chlorfenvinphos residues in cow's milk at a range of sites in Western Kenya.". In: Bull.Environ. Contam. Toxicol.58, 969-975. BEP Electronic Press; 1997. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Material Properties of Kenyan Industrial Clay Ceramics. Kampala, Uganda: Makere University; 1999.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Influence of Diet Patterns on Fuelwood Consumption inKenyan Boarding Schools and Implications for Data and Energy Policies.". In: Energy Conversion and Management 44, 1099-1109. BEP Electronic Press; 2003. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "FRACTURE STRENGTH OF POROUS CERAMICS: STRESS CONCENTRATION VS MINIMUM SOLID AREA MODELS." African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science and Engineering Series. 2004;5(2). Abstract

In this study, we have reviewed recently published strength-porosity data of porous
ceramics, and compared these data with those computed from both the minimum contact solid area
(MCA) and the pore stress concentration effect (SCE) models. We observed that the theoretical data
(MCA model) matched better the experimental results of ceramics in the low volume fraction porosity
range (P < 0.25) range, whereas in the volume fraction porosity range (P > 0.25), the SCE model better
predicts the experimental results.

NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "B. Ochieng and E. Kituyi (eds) Adapting to Climate Change: Challenges and Options for Africa.". In: Innovation Vol.7 No.2, November 2000. 36p. African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi. BEP Electronic Press; 2000. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Kituyi, E. The Potential Role of Life Cycle Approaches in Sustainable Development. In Environment and Sustainable Development: A Guide for Tertiary Education in Kenya, Vol.1. F. Waswa, S. Otor and D. Mugendi (eds.". In: Downtown Publishing Works, Nairobi. 174p. BEP Electronic Press; 2006. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "E. Kituyi and S. Eriksen (eds) Climate Change: Africa and COP 6bis.". In: Innovation Vol.8 No.1, May 2001. 36p. African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi. BEP Electronic Press; 2001. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Nyongesa AW, Patel NB, Onyango DW, Wango EO, Odongo HO. "In vitro study of the effects of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) extract on isolated mouse interstitial cells." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;110:401-405.
Nyongesa FW. Practical Physics I. Nairobi: University of Nairobi-CODL; 2013.
Nyongesa FW, Awour JB. "DISTANCE LEARNNG STUDY MODULE.". 2015. Abstract
n/a
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Effect of Silica Additions on Strength and Elastic Modulus of Kenyan Industrial Clay Ceramics." African Journal of Science. 2000;2(2):77-89.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Ultrasonic Attenuation in Kenyan Clay Refractories." British Ceramic Transactions. 1999;98(6):266-270.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Kituyi, E. Energy and the Road To Johannesburg: Issues and Concerns for sub-Saharan African Households.". In: http://crest.org/discussiongroups/resources/stoves/#Evans_Kituyi. BEP Electronic Press; 2002. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Nyaga WG. "Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) of Materials and its Applications.". In: 6TH EDWARD BOUCHET-ABDUS SALAM INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE. iThemba LABS, Cape Town, South Africa: iThemba LABS, Cape Town; 2007. Abstract

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Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. 
Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
 
The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively.
The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.
 KEY WORDS
Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "The Effect of Quartz and Mullite Phases on Strength of Triaxial Porcelain." East African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2004;5(1):11-24.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Kenya Case Study on Civil Society and Sustainable Development. In Civic Entrepreneurship: A Civil Society Perspective on Sustainable Development.". In: T. Banuri, A. Najam and N. Odeh, Eds) Vol.II (Africa). Stockholm Environment Institute, Boston. pp.55-100. Launched at WSSD 2002 Civil Society forum, Johannesburg.AEO (2002) Contributing author to the African Environment Outlook 2002 (AEO) and Global. BEP Electronic Press; 2002. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Nyongesa FW, Nyaga WG, Aduda BO. "Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) of Materials and Its Applications.". In: WAYS-RAO CONFERENCE. Pretoria, South Africa.; 2007. Abstract

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) in the production of oxidation and corrosion protective ceramic coatings. In this study, we address the kinetics and dynamics of submonolayer formation during EPD. The effect of constant current and constant voltage deposition conditions on deposition rate are analyzed and experimental data compared to theoretical models.

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Njogu SM. "Effect of Plant Derived Organic Binders on The Mechanical Properties of Kaolin - Based Refractories." Journal of Material Science., 43, 4107 - 4111.. 2008;43:4107-4111. AbstractWebsite

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Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. 
Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
 
The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively.
The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.
 KEY WORDS
Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. Ultrasonic Characterization of Kenyan Clay Refractories. Nairobi, Kenya: NDT Society of Kenya; 1994.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Kituyi, E. (2003) Harnessing International Agreements for Energy Security in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Energy Demand, CDM, NEPAD and the Millennium Development Goals in East Africa.". In: 22-23 November 2003, Nairobi. pp. 14-17. Climate Network Africa. Web edition http://www.sarpn.org.za/documents/d0000726/P803_Energy-CDM-NEPAD.pdf. BEP Electronic Press; 2003. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Agacho AA. "Organic Binders to Enhance Efficiency of Charcoal Stoves (Jikos) & Water Filters.". In: 8th International Conference of the Africa Materials Resecrah Society (A-MRS). Accrea, Ghana; 2015. Abstract

Porous clay ceramics are used as thermal insulators in high temperature applications such as kins and chacoal stoves (Jikos).

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Nyaga WG. "Electrophoretic Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water." Tanzania Journal of Science. 2018;44(4):65-76. AbstractJournal Article Website

In this study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was used to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO 2) thin films on conducting glass substrates for application in photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water. Phenol was used as a model pollutant. The EPD suspension related parameters and deposition conditions were first optimized for good quality film deposits. The suspension stability and deposition conditions that result in good adherence of TiO 2 particles to the substrate with homogeneous film coatings are ethanol, a TiO 2 solid loading of 4 wt%, a 0.2 wt% iodine concentration in the solvent and a deposition voltage of 20 V in a time of 3.5 minutes. The photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 thin films decreased exponentially with the ultraviolet light (UV) illumination time and it was also dependent on film thickness, and sintering temperature of the TiO 2 thin films. Highest rate of photocatalytic activity was observed at an optimal film thickness of 95±2 µm sintered at 300 C. The implications of these results are discussed for design of inexpensive wastewater purification systems for light industries as well for semi urban small communities

NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Kituyi, E and Wakhungu, J. Harnessing Life Cycle Approaches for Africa.". In: EcoPolicy No.12, ACTS Press, Nairobi. 20p. BEP Electronic Press; 2004. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Kituyi, E. Investment by Micro and Small Enterprises in Electricity Generation: Opportunities and Challenges.". In: In Proceedings of workshop on Micro and Small enterprises and Natural Resource Use (D.L. M. Nightingale, Ed.) 21-22 February, 2001, Nairobi. MESP/UNEP-ROA pp. 98-106. BEP Electronic Press; 2001. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Nyongesa AW, Patel NB, Onyango DW, Odongo HO, Wango EO. "Khat (Catha edulis) lowers plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone secretion, but increases cortisol levels in male rabbits." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008;116:245-250.

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