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Nyaberi Z, Oyieke J, Chege M, Mwaura, F; Wamalwa J, Gitonga M. "Correlates of Undiagnosed Depression among Diabetic Patients on Follow-Up at a Regional Referral Hospital in Western Kenya." Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. 2014;Vol.3(6):24-30. Abstractcorrelates_of_undiagnosed_depression_among_diabetic_patients.pdf

Abstract
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Kenya is estimated to be 4.66%. The comorbidity of diabetes and depression is associated with poor outcomes. The study aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with depression among diabetics. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 diabetics attending clinic at a referral hospital in western Kenya. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the independent variables. Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) was used to assess depression symptoms.
Depression was observed in 19% of the participants. Female gender, being single, urban residence, low income and no family support were significantly associated with depression. Others are; longer duration of illness, difficulties adhering to treatment and alcohol consumption (p<0.05). A significant proportion of diabetic patients have comorbid depression. Integration of mental health services into diabetics care setting will lead to detection and early treatment of depression.
Keywords: Undiagnosed Depression, Diabetes Mellitus

Nyaboga EN, Ateka EM, Bulimo WD. "Serological detection of virus diseases of sweet potato in Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2008;7:222-229. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To identify virus diseases attacking sweet potato in the major production areas in Kenya.Methodology and results: A total of 220 symptomatic and 108 asymptomatic sweet potato vines were collected from farmers’ fields, established in an insect-proof screenhouse and tested for viruses by nitrocellulose membrane enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NCM-ELISA). The viruses detected were Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV). SPFMV was the most prevalent virus and the most widespread, detected in 67 and 20% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, respectively. SPCSV was the second most common and it was detected in 64 and 13% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic plant samples, respectively. SPMMV was present in 12% of the symptomatic plant samples. SPCFV was rare, being detected in only 4% of the plant samples. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Sweet potato latent virus (SwPLV), Sweet potato caulimo-like virus (SPCaLV), Sweet potato mild speckling virus (SPMSV) and C-6 virus were not detected in any of the samples assayed. SPFMV and SPCSV were detected in all the 15 districts that were surveyed, whereas SPMMV and SPCFV were detected in 9 and 4 districts, respectively. Five different virus complexes were detected in the samples assayed. Dual infection with SPFMV and SPCSV was the most common multiple infection and was detected in 52 and 12% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, respectively.Conclusion and application of findings: This study has provided a quantitative assessment of co-occurrence of viruses in sweet potato plants in Kenya, and highlights the importance of developing resistance specifically targeting SPCSV in either conventional or non-conventional breeding programs as a means of virus disease management.

Nyaboga EN, Ateka EM, Gichuki ST, Bulimo WD. "Reaction of transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) lines to virus challenge in the glasshouse." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2008;9:362-371. AbstractWebsite

Objective: Sweet potato virus disease (SPVD) is highly devastating and diseased plants produce little or no yield. Efficient methods to control the disease are not available and conventional breeding forresistance has had limited success. Breeding for resistance through genetic engineering offers an alternative solution for the control of SPVD. The objective of this study was to select transformed sweet potato lines and evaluate their reaction to virus inoculation under controlled conditions. Methodology and results: Seven hundred and eight sweet potato lines that were putatively transformed with the coat protein (CP), replicase and inverted repeat of the CP genes of sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) were characterized. Leaves of 597 (84.3%) were unbleached following treatment with 1% (w/v) kanamycin solution whereas those of 111 (15.7%) lines turned yellow. Kanamycin-resistant lines were graft-inoculated with sweet potato scions infected with SPVD and of the 597 lines, only 20 did not display symptoms. In PCR, amplified DNA fragments of 450 bp were realised in 7 out of the 20 transgenic lines tested using specific primers to the CP, replicase and inverted repeat of the CP genes. The confirmed transgenic lines were evaluated after inoculation with SPFMV, sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and a combination of the two under screen house conditions. Ten transgenic sweet potato lines remained symptomless and were virus-free when serologically tested by nitro-cellulose membrane (NCM) -ELISA. Results from triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA demonstrated that virus accumulation was suppressed in 7 transgenic lines as compared to the non-transgenic control plants two months after inoculation, indicating that the plants were relatively protected.Conclusion and application of findings: This study indicates some form of protection exists against SPVD in plants that were transformed with SPFMV-derived genes. Further experimentation in the field is needed to fully determine the efficacy of the transgenes in conferring resistance to SPVD.

Nyaboga EN, Ateka EM, Gichuki ST, Bulimo WD. "Reaction of transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) lines to virus challenge in the glasshouse." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2008;9:362-371. Abstract
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NYABOKE DROBAEMOSOTIROSE. "Rose Mosoti-Obae, Achieving full enrolment in Kenya. A projection by Dr. Gravinir and R. Mosoti Obae.: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1.". In: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1. Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
Most economically developing countries, after having implemented the democratization of primary education, are now setting their sights on the goal of achieving full enrolment in countries a gradual approach of increasing enrolment annually into secondary schools is perhaps the only realistic option available. This study attempts to project, given this gradual approach, in how many years full enrolment will be achieved not only in each of the 6 provinces in Kenya but also in Kenya as a whole. The results obtained show two distinct categories of provinces: the educationally advantaged provinces which are likely to achieve full enrolment about twenty years before the group of educationally disadvantaged provinces do so.
NYABOKE DRMASESELINNET, WANGUI DRGITAURUTH, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "A prospective study of risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1-seronegative African women. McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Graham SM, Masese LN, Gitau R, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Baeten JM, Ndinya-Achola JO.Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-2.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-23. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common and has been associated with increased HIV-1 susceptibility. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for BV in African women at high risk for acquiring HIV-1. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 151 HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan female sex workers. Nonpregnant women were eligible if they did not have symptoms of abnormal vaginal itching or discharge at the time of enrollment. At monthly follow-up, a vaginal examination and laboratory testing for genital tract infections were performed. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards analysis was used to identify correlates of BV. RESULTS: Participants completed a median of 378 (interquartile range 350-412) days of follow-up. Compared with women reporting no vaginal washing, those who reported vaginal washing 1 to 14 [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.89], 15 to 28 (aHR 1.60, 95% CI 0.98-2.61), and >28 times/wk (aHR 2.39, 95% CI 1.35-4.23) were at increased risk of BV. Higher BV incidence was also associated with the use of cloth for intravaginal cleansing (aHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.08) and with recent unprotected intercourse (aHR 1.75, 95% CI 1.47-2.08). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception were at lower risk for BV (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal washing and unprotected intercourse were associated with increased risk of BV. These findings could help to inform the development of novel vaginal health approaches for HIV-1 risk reduction in women.
NYABOKE DRMASESELINNET, WANGUI DRGITAURUTH, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "A prospective study of risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1-seronegative African women. McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Graham SM, Masese LN, Gitau R, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Baeten JM, Ndinya-Achola JO.Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-2.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common and has been associated with increased HIV-1 susceptibility. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for BV in African women at high risk for acquiring HIV-1. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 151 HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan female sex workers. Nonpregnant women were eligible if they did not have symptoms of abnormal vaginal itching or discharge at the time of enrollment. At monthly follow-up, a vaginal examination and laboratory testing for genital tract infections were performed. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards analysis was used to identify correlates of BV. RESULTS: Participants completed a median of 378 (interquartile range 350-412) days of follow-up. Compared with women reporting no vaginal washing, those who reported vaginal washing 1 to 14 [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.89], 15 to 28 (aHR 1.60, 95% CI 0.98-2.61), and >28 times/wk (aHR 2.39, 95% CI 1.35-4.23) were at increased risk of BV. Higher BV incidence was also associated with the use of cloth for intravaginal cleansing (aHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.08) and with recent unprotected intercourse (aHR 1.75, 95% CI 1.47-2.08). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception were at lower risk for BV (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal washing and unprotected intercourse were associated with increased risk of BV. These findings could help to inform the development of novel vaginal health approaches for HIV-1 risk reduction in women.
Nyaboke HO, Moraa M, Omosa LK, Mbaveng AT, Vaderament-Alexe N-N, Masila V, Okemwa E, Heydenreich M, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Cytotoxicity of Lupeol from the Stem Bark of Zanthoxylum gilletii against Multi-factorial Drug Resistant Cancer Cell Lines ." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology . 2018;1(1):10.
Nyabongo L, Kanduma EG, Bishop RP, Machuka E, Njeri A, Bimenyimana AV, Nkundwanayo C, Odongo DO, Pelle R. "Prevalence of tick-transmitted pathogens in cattle reveals that Theileria parva, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale are endemic in Burundi." Parasit Vectors. 2021;14(1):6. Abstract

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) constitute a major constraint for livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa, with East Coast fever (ECF) being the most devastating TBD of cattle. However, in Burundi, detailed information is lacking on the current prevalence of TBDs and on the associated economic losses from mortality and morbidity in cattle as well as the costs associated with TBD control and treatment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle across the major agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Burundi.

Nyabongo L, Odongo DO, Milton G, Machuka E, Vudriko P, Pelle R, Kanduma EG. "Molecular survey of cattle ticks in Burundi: First report on the presence of the invasive Rhipicephalus microplus tick." PLoS One. 2021;16(12):e0261218. Abstract

A recent research study on prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Burundi reported high prevalence and endemicity of Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina infections in cattle. Detailed information about tick species infesting animals, their distribution and genetic diversity in Burundi is outdated and limited. This study therefore assessed the prevalence and genetic diversity of tick species infesting cattle across agroecological zones (AEZs) in Burundi. A cross-sectional study on the occurrence of tick species was conducted in 24 districts of Burundi between October and December 2017. Differential identification and characterization of ticks collected was conducted using tick morphological keys and molecular tools (cox1 and 12S rRNA gene). Chi-square test was used to test for association between agroecological zones and the prevalence of tick species. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using bayesian and maximum likelihood algorithms. A total of 483 ticks were collected from the five AEZs sampled. Six tick species comprising of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. sanguineus, R. evertsi evertsi, R. microplus, R. decoloratus and Amblyomma variegatum were observed. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus were the most prevalent ticks (~45%). A total of 138 specimens (28%) were found to be Rhipicephalus microplus, suggesting an emerging threat for cattle farmers. Twelve R. appendiculatus cox1 haplotypes were obtained from 106 specimens that were sequenced. Two cox1 haplotypes of R. microplus which clustered into previously reported Clade A were observed. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. evertsi evertsi ticks, the vectors of numerous zoonotic pathogens, were collected from cattle, which constitute a high risk for public health. These findings reveal an overlapping distribution of tick vectors in Burundi. The design of ticks and tick-borne diseases control strategies should consider the distribution of different vectors across the AEZs particularly the presence of the highly invasive R. microplus tick in Burundi and the potential risk of introducing the pathogenic Babesia bovis.

Nyabongo L, Kanduma EG, Bishop RP, Machuka E, Njeri A, Bimenyimana AV, Nkundwanayo C, Odongo DO, Pelle R. "Prevalence of tick-transmitted pathogens in cattle reveals that Theileria parva, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale are endemic in Burundi." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;14:1-15. Abstract
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Nyabongo L, Odongo DO, Milton G, Machuka E, Vudriko P, Pelle R, Kanduma EG. "Molecular survey of cattle ticks in Burundi: First report on the presence of the invasive Rhipicephalus microplus tick." Plos one. 2021;16:e0261218. Abstract
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Nyabuga, Kiai W. "“Media Veterans in Kenya." Media Veterans in Kenya,School of Journalism and Mass Communication Press, University of Nairobi. 2012.
Nyabuga G. "Media Corporatism: Whither Journalistic Ethics?". In: Minding the Gap”: Reflections on Media Practice and Theory. Oxford, U.K.; 2007.
Nyabuga G. "The Role of Media in Ethnic Splits and Violent Conflict in East Africa.". In: Society for International Development Identities, Resources, Politics and Violent Conflict round table meeting. Nairobi, Kenya; 2009.
Nyabuga G. "Enhancing Equity in the East African Regional Integration Process: Role of the Media." Nairobi:Society for International Development; 2011. Abstract
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Nyabuga G. "Media: Leaders of followers?". In: Media and Political Alliances in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Nyabuga G. "Politics of East Africa.". New York: Oxford University Press; 2011. Abstract
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Nyabuga G. "The Sociological Impact of New Media.". In: 21st Century Media: New Frontiers, New Barriers. Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Nyabuga G. "Media ownership, editorial independence and accountability.". In: Media and Development Forum. Freetown, Sierra Leone; 2012.
Nyabuga G. "Being sceptical: Deconstructing media freedom and responsibility." African Communication Research; 2012.
Nyabuga G. "New Media and Participatory Politics in East Africa.". In: Media, Communication and Cultural Studies Association with the Association of Media Practice Educators (MeCSA with AMPE). Coventry University, U.K.; 2007.
Nyabuga G. "Demystifying virtual-learning environments: Equalising or reinforcing opportunities.". In: A reformed optimist’s view’ at the ‘e-Learning: Increased Access to Education, Diversity in Applications and Management Strategies’. Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
Nyabuga G. "Media and Politics .". In: Somali Broadcast Journalists Association. Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Nyabuga G. "Kenya: Gains since the Windhoek Declaration." New York: Oxford University Press; 2011. Abstract
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Nyabuga G. "Media Freedom, Ethics and Journalists’ Responsibilities.". In: Commonwealth Rwanda Media Forum on Media and Economic Development in a Globalising World. Serena Hotel, Kigali Rwanda, Kenya; 2011.
Nyabuga G. "Ties unbound: Deconstructing the new fantastic realities.". In: Beyond Normative Approaches: Everyday Media Culture in Africa. Witwatersrand University, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2012.
Nyabuga G. "Things Fall Apart: Hip Hop and Moral Panics in Kenya." New York: Routledge; 2012.
Nyabuga G. "Hip Hop Music, and its Causation of Moral Panic in Kenya.". In: Popular Cultures in Africa. University of Texas at Austin; 2007.
Nyabuga G, Kiai W. "Media Development and Uses in Colonial Kenya." The Media in Kenya: Evolution, Effects and Challenges, University of Nairobi Press. 2011.
Nyabuga G. "Click on democracy: An Assessment of Internet use in Kenya’s 2007 General Election.". In: Politics: Web 2.0. London, U.K.; 2008.
Nyabuga G. "Media’s role in democratic governance.". In: The role of the Media in Democratic Governance and Citizen Participation on Devolved Funds. Eldoret, Kenya; 2010.
Nyabuga G. "The Media in Kenya: Evolutions, Effects and Challenges. Nairobi." University of Nairobi.; 2011. Abstract
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Nyabuga G. "Being sceptical: Deconstructing media freedom and responsibility." African Communication Research; 2012. Abstract
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Nyabuga G. "Demystifying the alternative in alternative media.". In: Beyond Mainstream Conversations on Alternative Media . Nyeri, Kenya; 2011.
Nyabuga G, Booker N. "Mapping Digital Media: Kenya." London: Open Society; 2013.
Nyabul PO. Critique of Aristotle's Conception of Eudaimonia. Nyasani PJ, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2001.
Nyabul P, Owakah F, Muyila JW. Elements Philosophy.; Submitted.
Nyabul PO. Faith and Reason. Nyasani PJ, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
NYAGA PROFGATUMUHANIEL. "July 2012 .". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2012.
Nyaga PN. Kenya poultry sector review.; 2007.
Nyaga PN. "Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Eastern Africa.". 2009. Abstract

Although Uganda has many wetlands and lies on the migratory flyway for birds flying from Siberia through the Middle East and moving along the great Rift Valley to Southern Africa, it has not yet experienced avian influenza infection. However, the risks of exposure are extremely high given the fact that outbreaks have occurred and continue to occur in Egypt which lies directly along this flyway. It is therefore appropriate to assess the possible bio-security flaws that may arise in all the poultry sectors placing special emphasis on the more vulnerable poultry production systems of sectors 3 and 4. In this regard FAO has commissioned a biosecurity study of all the poultry production sectors in Uganda to identify the potential bio-security risks in order to lay a basis for developing effective control measures and provide guidelines for appropriate bio-security interventions. Bio-security principles are to be incorporated at the conceptual stage of each component of the poultry value chain and then during the actual implementation of the structures to carry out the business. Once these are in place, operational biosecurity principles are designed for the day to day simple procedures and practices which when applied prevent entry into or spread within a farm of disease agents, or the exit of the disease agent from infected premises. The operational protocols are summed up into three principles, namely: Isolation which involves procedures, practices, and manouvres to ensure that clean flocks remain free from disease agents and that disease agents remain confined in infected flocks and do not spread to other premises; Traffic control which includes signage to warn visitors that biosecurity protocols are being observed; controlling movement of stock, persons, goods, equipment and products into the clean farm and out of infected premises; and finally Sanitation, which involves methods that enable farmers to maintain farm houses, vehicles, implements and equipment, remain in a state of sustained cleanliness, and are disinfected. Thus, the flaws and strengths in any of these biosecurity issues were investigated throughout the poultry value chain in Uganda. The exposure to biosecurity risks was found to differ for the respective poultry sectors, as follows:

Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Bebora LC;, Mbuthia PG. "Productivity of local scavenging ducks under village conditions in Kenya."; 2002.
Nyaga JN;, Muthomi JW;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH. "Seed potato production and occurrence of Transmitted viruses in Nyandarua District."; 2007.
Nyaga JN, Ogollah K. "Challenges Facing Penetration of New Mobile Money Transfer Services In Nairobi ." Journal of Economics and Finance. 2015;6(3):26-32.
Nyaga PN, Kasiti J, Kilelu ES, Nyamwange JB, Nyamwange S. "Prevalence of foot and mouth disease in Kitale District.". 1999.
Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Bebora LC;, Mbuthia PG. "Productivity of local scavenging ducks under village conditions in Kenya."; 2002.
Nyaga JN;, Muthomi JW;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH. "Seed potato production and occurrence of Transmitted viruses in Nyandarua District."; 2007.
Nyaga JM. External and internal root morphology of the first Permanent molars in a Kenyan population.; 2010. Abstract

Background: A thorough knowledge of dental anatomy and its variability is
critical in clinical dentistry. It is important for the clinician to be familiar with
variations in root morphology for such variations in the roots and canals have
significancein endodontic treatment and restoration of the treated teeth.
Objective: To determine the external and internal root morphology in first
permanentmolars in a Kenyan population.
Study design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study
Study area: The study involved collection of extracted teeth from patients whom
after dental evaluation, a tooth was recommended for extraction in five dental
clinics within Nairobi;- K.N.H.-Dental clinic, U.O.N.-School of Dental Sciences, St
Mary's Hospital Dental clinic, Mbagathi District Hospital Dental clinic and Social
ServicesLeague Dental clinic.
Materials and methods: Maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars were
co~ectedfrom male and female patients aged between 10 and 40 years. The
teeth were collected from individuals who met the inclusion criteria. The teeth
were separated at the collection site based on gender and whether they were
maxillary or mandibular first molars by the researcher and trained research
assistants.After collection, the teeth were further sorted out using the inclusion
criteria.A total of 187 maxillary molars and 189 mandibular molars were studied.
Observationswere done to determine the number of roots, root fusion and the
direction of root curvature. Measurements, using an electronic vernier caliper,
were done to determine the root length in millimetres. A standard clearing
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technique was applied to determine the number of canals and the canal
configurations with reference to Vertucci's classification (1984). A data collection
form was used to record the findings for each tooth after examination
Data analysis and presentation: The data collected was entered into a
computer and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)
12.1. Computation was done to determine pattern of root fusion, frequency of
root curvature in a certain direction, calculate the mean root length, number of
canals per root, frequency of various canal configurations and gender variations
in the findings. The data was presented in form of frequency tables, pie charts
and bar graphs.
Results: All the maxillary first molars had three roots while mandibular first
molars had two roots. Root fusion was observed in 3.9% of the maxillary first
molars. Root fusion between distobuccal and palatal root was more frequent
(2.8%) than the mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots (1.1%) and gender variation
in root fusion was not statistically significant. Majority of the mesiobuccal roots
63.6% were curved and of the curved, 95% curved distally. In the distobuccal
root, 49.7% of the roots were curved and majority 77.4% curved mesial. Majority
of the palatal roots were straight (65.3%). Of the curved palatal roots, 92.5%
curved in a buccal direction. In the mandibular first molars, 16.3% of the mesial
roots were straight while the rest were curved distally in both genders. Majority of
distal roots were straight. The gender variations in root curvature in both
maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars were not statistically significant.
The mean root length in palatal, mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots was
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23.28mm, 20.22mm and 19.67mm respectively. While in the mandibular molars,
the mean root length was 21.97mm and 21.38mm in mesial and distal roots
respectively. Males had longer mean root length compared to females in the first
permanent molars. The gender variation in root lengths was statistically
significant (p=0.001).
Majority of the first permanent molars had 3 canals, 70.1% in maxillary and
56.0% in mandibular first molars. The mesial root of mandibular first molars had
two canals in 96.3% of the teeth in both male and females and type IV canal
configuration was most prevalent in the mandibular mesial root among males and
females. The distal root of mandibular first molar had one canal in 57.7% of the
teeth in males and females. There were significant gender variations in the
number of canals and canal configurations in the distal root. Two canals were
more prevalent in females (53.6%) compared to males (30.4%) and a single
canal was more frequent in males (69.6%) compared to females (46.4%)
(P=0.001). Canal types I, " and IV were the most frequent in mandibular distal
root. The gender variation the frequency of canal types I, " and IV in the distal
root was statistically significant (P=0.001). Most of the palatal (98.9%) and all the
distobuccal roots had one canal Vertucci type I configuration. The mesiobuccal
root had 2 canals in 29.4% of the roots in both males and females. Canal
configurations in mesiobuccal root varied widely. Canal types I, II, IV, V, VI and
VII had frequencies of 65.2%, 12.8%, 14.4%,4.3%,2.7% and 0.5% respectively
in both gender.
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Conclusions: The maxillary first molars had three roots while the mandibular
ones had two roots. Root fusion occurred in 3.9% of maxillary first molars.
Palatal and distal root in maxillary and mandibular first molars respectively had
the lowest frequency of curved roots.
In the maxillary first molars, the mean palatal root length was 23.28mm,
mesiobuccal 20.22mm and distobuccal 19.67mm while in mandibular first
permanent molars, mesial root was 21.97 mm and distal 21.38mm.
The mean root lengths were higher in males as compared to females
Most of maxillary first molars 70.1% had three canals while 29.4% had four
canals. Vertucci type I canals configuration was the most prevalent in all roots.
Most of mandibular first molars had three canals 56% while 41% had four canals.
Two canals were more frequent among females 53.6% compared to males
30.4% and Canal types I, II and IV configurations were the most frequent in
mandibular distal root.
Recommendations;
• The palatal root of maxillary and distal root of mandibular first permanent molars
are the most suitable for post placement.
• Three dimensional diagnostic techniques are essential in identification of
anatomical features
• Long and short files should be included in the endodontic armamentarium
• More attention should be directed towards searching for and locating the second
canal in the mesiobuccal and distal roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars
respectively.

Nyaga JN;, J.H.; N, Olubayo F;, Kabira. "Incidence of aphids and aphid-transmitted viruses in farmer-based seed potato production ." Journal of Ecology . 2008;46(1): 79-84.
Nyaga PN;, Kasiiti JL;, Macharia MJ;, Shihmanter E;, Lipkind M. "Isolation and identification of avian paramyxoviruses from avian reservoirs in Kenya."; 1995.
Nyaga SN, Mathiu PM, Onyango CM, Areba GO. "Antidiabetic properties of Solanum villosum and Solanum nigrum var.sarrachoides in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice model." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2019;8(11):2396-2402.
Nyaga PN;, Kasiiti J;, Macharia, J M;, Shimanter E;, Panshim, A;, Lipkin M. "Antigenic characterisation of Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) Isolated in Kenya."; 1996.
Nyaga R, Kimani D, Mwabu G. "HIV /AIDS in Kenya: A Review of Research and Policy Issues." KIPPRA . 2003.
Nyaga, P. N., Jefwa, J., Muthuri, C, Okoth, S.A, Matiru, V, Wachira P. "Influence of soil fertility amendment practices on ex-situ utilisation of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and performance of maize and common bean in Kenyan highlands." Tropical and Subtropical Agro ecosystems . 2014;17:129-141.
Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Bebora LC;, Mbuthia PG. "Productivity of local scavenging ducks under village conditions in Kenya."; 2002.
Nyaga JN;, Muthomi JW;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH. "Seed potato production and occurrence of Transmitted viruses in Nyandarua District."; 2007.
Nyaga LW, Gach. "Distance Learning Approach to Train Health Sciences Students at the University of Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(February 2017):101-105.
Nyaga JN, J.W. M, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, and Kiretai SM, Aura JA. "Seed potato production and occurrence of Transmitted viruses in Nyandarua District. 7th Workshop on sustainable horticultural production in the tropics. Universit." World J. Agric. Sci. . 2009;6 (3):731-734.
and Nyaga JM, Maina SW OGJL. "Internal Root morphology in maxillary first molars in a Kenya population." East Afr. Med. J., . 2011;88(3):86-92.
Nyaga P N, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Mlozi MRS. "Productivity of local scavenging ducks under village management conditions in Kenya.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2002.
Nyagah DG, DNP Mburu. "Effects of gender role portrayal in textbooks in Kenyan primary schools, on pupils academic aspirations." Problems of Education in the 21st Century 47 journal. 2012.
NYAGAH DGRACE. "Innovation of Education in Emergencies Programme between University of Nairobi and an NGO International Rescue Committee (IRC).". In: Comparative and International Society Conference (CIES). CHIKAGO (USA); 2010.
NYAGAH DGRACE. "The Status of Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Programmes in Kenya: A case Study of Asumbi Treatment Centre." The Fountain - Journal of Educational Research. 2010;4(2):129-142.
Nyagah PG, Onyambu CK, Kimani NM, Wambugu M, Aywak AA. "Utility of chest radiographs in management of patients in the intensive care unit at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(9):718-734.
NYAGAH GRACE, Opondo PFA, Wamahiu S. "Educational situation of the Kenyan girl child.". 1992.
Nyagah DG, Opondo FA, SP Wamahiu. Educational situation of the Kenyan girl child.; 1992.
Nyagah DG, DAW K, DL N, MB M, DR K. ""Health Policies in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030. International Journal of Educational Science and Research."." International Journal of scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;Vol:2 (No.1):pgs127-134 .
NYAGAH DGRACE. "THE STATUS OF DRUG ADDICTION REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF ASUMBI TREATMENT CENTRE." THE FOUNTAIN - Journal of Educational Research. 2010;iv(1):129-142.
Nyagah, G., Akala, H.M., Kalai JM. "Introduction to research methods in education. ." : Centre of Open and Distance Learning. 2014.
NYAGAH GRACE, MBURU DAVIDNP. "EFFECTS OF GENDER ROLE PORTRAYAL IN TEXT BOOKS IN KENYAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS, ON PUPILS ACADEMIC ASPIRATIONS. ." PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY. 2012;47,2012(ISSN 1822-7864):100.
NYAGAH DRGRACE, Imonje DR, MUTORO JULIANA. "CURRICULUM DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT."; 2011.
Nyagari E, Onyango CM, Onwong’a RN. "EFFECTS OF INTERCROPPING ARRANGEMENTS AND FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF AFRICAN NIGHTSHADE (Solanum nigrum L.) IN KISII COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research. 2016;2(5):1069-1083.
Nyagetuba M, Saidi H, Githaiga JW. "Surveillance of injuries among Kenya rugby Union (KRU) players – season 2010." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9(2):88-92. Abstract

Objective: To determine the incidence and characteristics of injury amongst Kenya rugby union players and associated factors.
Design: A whole population prospective cohort study.
Methods: 364 registered Kenya rugby union (KRU) players were studied
throughout the 2010 season. Data on their demographics, injury incidence, pattern and severity were gathered. The study tool used was the Rugby International Consensus Group (RICG) Statement.
Results: There were 173 backs and 191 forwards. One hundred and two
1 injuries for 60 league games (2400match player hours) were recorded. The incidence of injuries was 42.5/1000 match player hours (mph), (44.2 for forwards and 40.8 for backs). Lower limb injuries were the most common (41.2%). Players were most prone to injuries in the in tackle scenario (63.7%), at the beginning of the season (47.1%), and in
the last quarter (50%) of a game.
Conclusion: The injury incidence recorded contrast the earlier Kenyan
data but is comparable to international amateur level incidence, uniqueness of the Kenyan environment notwithstanding. The higher
rates associated with the tackle/tackled scenario, earlier part of the season and later part of the game, suggest interventions can target player conditioning, and use of protective gear.

Nyagetuba KM, Kimilu RK, Aganda A. "Hydropower Potential in a water supply system.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018 (AEC 2018). Narobi, Kenya; 2018.
Nyagetuba KM, Kimilu RK, Aganda A. "Hydropower Potential in a water supply system.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018 (AEC 2018). Narobi, Kenya; 2018.
Nyagetuba MJK, Saidi H, Githaiga J. "The association between pitch conditions and incidence of injury in rugby." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2015;12(2):73-76.
Nyagol J, Nyong'o A, BYAKIKA B, Muchiri L, Cocco M, de Santi MM, Spina, D; Bellan C, Lazzi S, Kostopoulos I, Luzi P, Leoncini L. "Routine assessment of hormonal receptor and her-2/neu status underscores the need for more therapeutic targets in Kenyan women with breast cancer.". 2006. Abstract

To report the expression of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her-2/neu) in 158 Kenyan women with breast cancer and correlation with other prognostic indicators in this high-risk group. This study stressed the importance of routine assessment of the steroid receptors and Her-2/neu as a mode of therapeutic selection of patients for antihormonal or targeting monoclonal antibody (Herceptin) therapy, directed at the juxtamembrane domain of Her-2/neu protein in the developing countries such as Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of 158 female patients with histologically confirmed breast carcinoma seen at the pathology department of The Nairobi Hospital. An immunohistochemical (IHC) study of ER, PR and Her-2/neu was conducted, followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) validation for Her-2/neu gene amplification in cases initially scored as positive 2+ with IHC. Mastectomy samples registered at the pathology department of The Nairobi Hospital were used for this study. The study was approved by the institution's ethical review committee and informed consent obtainedfrom the concerned patients. RESULTS: In the studied cohort, positivity for both hormonal receptors and Her-2/neu was noted in 10 (6.33%) cases and negativity in 44 (27.85%) cases. Conversely, Her-2/neu negativity was noted in 32 (20.25%) cases with both steroid receptors positive and Her-2/neu positivity with both steroid receptors negative in 20 (12.66%) cases. Overall, no predictive factor was found in the Her-2/neu amplified 31/153 (20.26%) cases completely assessed with IHC and FISH. Grade III invasive ductal carcinomas, however, had a high prevalence of Her-2/neu overexpression. Association of both menopausal status (p = 0.044) and progesterone receptor status (p = 0.004) with high grade tumors were found to be statistically significant at 95% CI (p < 0.5). Consistent with other studies, Her-2/neu overexpression in this cohort was 20.26%. CONCLUSION: Her-2/neu positivity may activate ER expression through signaling kinases, and the combined target of mitogenic estrogen plus the monoclonal antibody therapy against Her-2/neu-overexpressing tumors expand chances of survival for patients in developing countries such as Kenya. The cost factor for these tests, selection for appropriate combined therapies and lack of awareness were noted as limiting factors for access to basic health care service and resulted in advanced tumor grade at time of patient presentation.

Nyagol J, Leucci E, Onnis A, De Falco G, Tigli C, Sanseverino F, Torriccelli M, Palummo N, Pacenti L, Santopietro R, Spina D, Gichangi P, Muchiri L, Lazzi S, Petraglia F, Leoncini L, Giordano A. "The effects of HIV-1 Tat protein on cell cycle during cervical carcinogenesis." Cancer Biol. Ther.. 2006;5(6):684-90. Abstract

The role of HPV in the carcinogenesis of intraepithelial and invasive anogenital lesions is currently well established. E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV genotypes are known to inactivate p53 and pRb pathways. Several studies have described an increased prevalence and recurrence of both cervical HPV infection and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-1 positive women compared to HIV-1 negative cases. For these reasons, cervical cancer is considered an AIDS-defining neoplasm. Unlike other AIDS-associated neoplasms, the occurrence of cervical cancer is independent of immune suppression. HIV-1 infection in patients with high grade precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancers results in a therapy refractory and more aggressive disease phenotype, which is not yet well understood at the molecular level. An upregulation of HPV E6 and E7 gene expressions by HIV-1 proteins such as Tat has been documented by some authors. However, the role of HIV-1 in cervical carcinomas is still unclear. It is already known that HIV-1 Tat protein is able to influence cell cycle progression. Altogether, these facts led us to investigate the effects of Tat on the expression of cell cycle regulator genes. After transfection of HeLa cells with Tat, we analyzed the expression of cell cycle regulators from these cells by IHC and Real-time PCR. A significant reduction in the expression of cell cycle inhibitors of transcription and an increase in the levels of proliferation markers were observed. These results suggest that HIV-1 may enhance cervical carcinogenesis by promoting cell cycle progression. We also found that this HIV-1 Tat-induced cell proliferation was not dependent on the E2F family of transcription factors, and therefore postulate that Sp factors may be involved.

Nyagol J, Kisato V, Ochuk W, Wakio M. "Assessment of hormonal receptors and Her-2/neu status in breast cancer using cell block: a case study. ." J. Afr. Cancer.. 2013;5:180-184.
Nyagol J, Leucci E ODFTSTAGCF, Palummo N, Pacenti L SSGMLPLGRDPL. "The effects of HIV-1 Tat protein on cell cycle during cervical carcinogenesis." Cancer Biol Ther. . 2006;5(6):684-90.
Nyaingiri S, Ogollah K. "Influence of Unrelated Diversification Strategy Components on Corporate Performance: Case of Sameer Group in Kenya ." Journal of Business and Management. 2015;17(4):2319-7668.
Nyakagwa F, Bore M, Gachago M, Kiage D. A multicenter study of the outcomes of combined cataract and trabeculectomy surgery in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Nyakoah, Martha I, Muasya, Juliet N. "MESSAGES PORTRAYED IN 'TINGA TINGA TALES' AND 'AKILI AND ME' CARTOON PROGRAMS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE MORAL BEHAVIOURS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CREATIVE RESEARCH AND STUDIES. 2018;2(1):72-80.
Nyakundi JO, Ombui JN, Wanyonyi WC. "Evaluation of Bacillus cereus Strain 1-p Protease for the Unhairing of Goatskins during Leather Production." Textile & Leather Review., https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR.2020.18 ,. 2020:1-17.
Nyakundi A, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "The Effectiveness of Communication Campaigns in Enhancing Knowledge of Mental Health in Kenya.". In: School of Human Resource Development Annual Research Conference. JKUAT Main Campus; 2013.
Nyakundi, Kalai, J.M., Nyagah, G., Munayi SP. "Influence of Head Teachers’ Support Strategies for Slow Learners on Children’s learning Outcomes at the Early Childhood Centres in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS). 2020;4(6):697-703.
Nyakundi, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Communication Campaigns in Enhancing Knowledge of Mental Health Among Secondary School students in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies,. 2014;Vol. 2,(Issue 12,):pp 96-107.
Nyakundi JO, Ombui JN, Wanyonyi WC, Mulaa FJ. " Recovery of industrially useful hair and fat from enzymatic unhairing of goatskins during leather processing." Journal of American Leather Chemists Association,. 2022;117(6):241-250.
Nyakwada William, Laban A. Ogallo ROEA. "The Atlantic-Indian Ocean Dipole and it's Influence on East African Seasonal Rainfall." Journal of Meteorology and related Sciences. 2009;3:21-35.jkms_vol3_n01_for_editing_kinguyu.pdf
Nyalwal G. " Implementing knowledge Management practices in University libraries in Kenya.". In: 1st Regional conference on Knowledge management .; Submitted.
Nyamai C, Rollion C, Feneyrol J, Martelat J-E, Omito E, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu A. "The boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from tsavorite deposits in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique metamorphic belt, with a special focus on the mining districts in Kenya.". In: 13th SGA Biennial Meeting. Nancy, France; 2015. Abstractgiulianietal.boronsga-2015.pdf

The dravitic tourmalines associated with different types of rock from the tsavorite-bearing
metasedimentary Neoproterozoic sequence in Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar show two
ranges of boron isotopic compositions:(1) Tourmalines associated with tsavorite nodules
have homogenous 8113 values of-19.8 1 1.2 'llm that clearly involve continental evaporitic
material;(2) Tourrnalines from unmineralized rocks (elastic metasediments, metapegmatite,
and marble) have 8118 values between 45.9 and 40.356 “, which reflect a magmatic source
for the elastic tourmaline and probably an evaporitic one for tourmaline in marble.

Nyamai, C.M. in Feneyrol J. GOFMLGPISGDAE. "New aspects and perspectives on Tsavorite Deposits. Ore Geology Reviews 53 (2013) pp 1–25." Ore Geology Reviews . 2013;53 (2013):pp 1-25. Abstractsciencedirect

ABSTRACT

Tsavorite, the vanadian variety of green grossular, is a high value economic gemstone. It is hosted exclusively in the metasedimentary formations from the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt. The deposits are mined in Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar and other occurrences are located in Pakistan and East Antarctica.

They are located within metasomatized graphitic rocks such as graphitic gneiss and calc-silicates, intercalated with meta-evaporites. Tsavorite is found as primary deposits either in nodule (type I) or in quartz vein (type II), and in placers (type III). The primary mineralizations (types I and II) are controlled by lithostratigraphy and/or structure. For the African occurrences, the protoliths of the host-rocks were deposited at the beginning of the Neoproterozoic within a marine coastal sabkha environment, located at the margin of the Congo–Kalahari cratons in the Mozambique Ocean. During the East African–Antarctican Orogeny, the rocks underwent high amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism and the formation of tsavorite deposits occurred between 650 and 550 Ma. The nodules of tsavorite were formed during prograde metamorphism, calcium coming from sulphates and carbonates, whereas alumina, silicates, vanadium and chromium probably came from clays and chlorite. The veins were formed during the deformation of the metasedimentary platform units which experienced shearing, leading to the formation of fault-filled veins.

Metasomatism developed during retrograde metamorphism. The metasedimentary sequences are characterized by the presence of evaporitic minerals such as gypsum and anhydrite, and scapolite. Evaporites are essential as they provide calcium and permit the mobilization of all the chemical elements for tsavorite formation. The H2S–S8 metamorphic fluids characterized in primary fluid inclusions of tsavorites and the δ11B values of coeval dravite confirm the evaporitic origin of the fluids. The V2O3 and Cr2O3 contents of tsavorite range respectively from 0.05 to 7.5 wt.%, while their δ18O values are in the range of 9.5–21.1‰.

The genetic model proposed for tsavorite is metamorphic, based on chemical reactions developed between an initial assemblage composed of gypsum and anhydrite, carbonates and organic matter deposited in a sabkha-like sedimentary basin.

Nyamai DK;, Imonje R;, Mugambi M. "The implicit curriculum and teenagers’ emotional and spiritual stability amid COVID-19." ?. European Journal of Education Studies. 2020;7(11):384-497.
Nyamai, C.M., Ngecu WM, Kianji G. SGL 308: Introduction to Geological Mapping (Lecture series).; 2010.
Nyamai CM, Surapunt S, Itagaki K. "Phase relations in the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS Ternary Systems at 1473 K: Extraction of Zinc from sulfide ore using liquid copper as a reagent.". 2002. AbstractPhase relations in the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS Ternary Systems at 1473 K: Extraction of Zinc from sulfide ore using liquid

The use of liquid copper as a medium for zinc extraction has been used in the Warner Process as a method of processing zinc-lead sulphide ore. The recovery of zinc metal is based on the reaction: ZnS(s) + 2Cu(l) = Zn(g) + Cu2S(l) In this method, thermodynamic and phase equilibria investigations of the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS systems are of importance and form the basis for the liquid sulphide phase which appears as a product and is used as a solvent in the Warner Process. Phase relations in the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS ternary systems were determined experimentally at 1473°K to provide a fundamental basis for the new zinc smelting process. The results show that the solid solubility of ZnS in the two systems is very small (2 wt% to 3 wt% ZnS in FeS, 4 wt% ZnS in Cu2S for the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS system; less than 0.5 wt% ZnS in both PbS and Cu2S for the Cu2S-PbS-ZnS system). The Raoultian Activity Coefficient of ZnS in the liquid mixtures and the vapour pressure of zinc over the matte in both systems is relatively large (γ° = 7.7 - 15.8, Pzn(atm) = 0.088 - 1.026 for the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS system; γ° = 8.9 - 12.9, PZn(atm) = 0.075 - 0.214 for the Cu2S-PbS-ZnS system). On the FeS-ZnS join, the only phases detected are FeS and iron-rich sphalerite (Zn, Fe)S. The binary join mixture occurs at about 92 wt% FeS-8 wt% ZnS at 1473°K. Electron microprobe examination of the quenched samples indicate about 47 wt% to 48 wt% FeS in sphalerite and about 2 wt% to 3 wt% ZnS in the iron sulphide phase. On the Cu2S-ZnS join, microprobe analysis reveals that the maximum solubility is 4 wt% Zn in liquid Cu2S and 3.6 wt% Cu in solid ZnS. In the Cu2S-PbS-ZnS ternary system, microprobe analysis of the quenched samples indicate on average, 5 wt% ZnS in the liquid phase region. The only phases detected on the PbS- ZnS join are ZnS and PbS. The eutectic phase contains, on average, 13 wt% ZnS. The phase relationships, very low solid solubilities of zinc sulphide in the liquid mixtures of both Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS systems, coupled with the high Raoultian Activity Coefficient of ZnS as well as the high vapour pressure of zinc over matte all favour the partitioning of zinc metal into the vapour phase. This new process is cost effective and bypasses the expensive and tedious conventional technique of zinc production involving oxidation of the sulphide ore by roasting followed by a reduction process to extract the zinc. The results indicate that a new zinc smelting technology using the Warner Process would be more efficient and preferable over the traditional methods of zinc extraction.

Nyamai CM, MATHU ELIUDM, Ichang’i DW, WASWA AARONK. "Application of magnetic survey in the investigation of iron ore deposits and shear zone delineation: case study of Mutomo-Ikutha area, SE Kenya." International Journal of Geosciences,. 2015;6(7). AbstractFull Text

The main objective of this research was to use ground magnetic survey to delineate shear zone and iron ore deposit within the Neoproterozoic rocks of Mutomo-Ikutha area of south eastern Kenya. Total field magnetic data was recorded by using high resolution proton precision geometric magnetometer which recorded total components of the ground magnetic anomaly data running through sixteen traverses. The field data was qualitatively and quantitatively interpreted and the results gave values for the total component measurements of ground magnetic anomaly that varied between a minimum negative peak value of about 250 nanoTesla and a maximum of about 1000 nanoTesla. 550 nanoTesla was considered to be threshold of the iron mineralization within the area. The results indicated that the western part of Mutomo-Ikutha was sheared, faulted and contained iron ore mineralization trending in the north-south direction. Areas with high anomalous values were geochemically proven to contain magnetite.

Nyamai CM, Ngechu WM, Kianji G. SGL 308: Introduction to Geological Field Mapping. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "Competence-Based Education: New Wine in Old Wine Skins?" Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research . 2019;3(4):60-74.
Nyamai C, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu AW, Feneyrol J, Giuliani G, et al. "Age and origin of the tsavorite and tanzanite mineralizing fluids in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(4):763-786. AbstractFull Text

The genetic model previously proposed for tsavorite- (and tanzanite-) bearing mineralization hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (stretching from Kenya through Tanzania to Madagascar) is refined on the basis of new Sm-Nd age determinations and detailed Sr-O-S isotope and fluid-inclusion studies. The deposits are hosted within meta-sedimentary series composed of quartzites, graphitic gneisses, calc-silicate rocks intercalated with meta-evaporites, and marbles. Tsavorite occurs either in nodules (also called “boudins”) oriented parallel to the metamorphic foliation in all of the deposits in the metamorphic belt or in quartz veins and lenses located at the hinges of anticlinal folds (Lelatema fold belt and Ruangwa deposits, Tanzania). Gem tanzanite occurs in pockets and lenses in the Lelatema fold belt of northern Tanzania.

The Sm-Nd isotopic data for tsavorites and tanzanites hosted in quartz veins and lenses from Merelani demonstrate that they formed at 600 Ma, during the retrograde metamorphic episode associated with the East African Orogeny. The tsavorites hosted in nodules do not provide reliable ages: their sedimentary protoliths had heterogeneous compositions and their Sm-Nd system was not completely rehomogenized, even at the local scale, by the fluid-absent metamorphic recrystallization.

The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of calcite from marble and tanzanites from Merelani fit with the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates. Seawater sediment deposition in the Mozambique Ocean took place around 720 Ma.

The quartz-zoisite O-isotopic thermometer indicates a temperature of formation for zoisite between 385 and 448 °C.

The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (between –7.8 and –1.3‰ V-CDT) associated with tsavorite in the Lelatema fold belt deposits suggests the contribution of reduced marine sulfate. The sulfur in pyrite in the marbles was likely derived from bacterial sulfate reduction which produced H2S. Fluid inclusion data from tsavorite and tanzanite samples from the Merelani mine indicate the presence of a dominant H2S-S8±(CH4)±(N2)±(H2O)-bearing fluid. In the deposits in Kenya and Madagascar, the replacement of sulfate by tsavorite in the nodules and the boron isotopic composition of tourmaline associated with tsavorite are strong arguments in favor of the participation of evaporites in garnet formation.

Nyamai CM, Njenga FG. "Post-traumatic stress disorder: Case report.". 2000. AbstractPost-traumatic stress disorder: Case report

Following exposure to a major traumatic event like the August seventh 1998 Nairobi bomb blast various reactions occur, some of which result in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We have described one such case, and used it to illustrate the salient features of posttraumatic stress disorder. We have outlined the diagnostic categories of the post-traumatic disorders and discussed the different treatment modalities applicable

Nyamai CM, Mathu EM, Ngecu WM. A review of the geology of the Mozambique Belt in Kenya. In: Peters, J.W., Kesse, G.O. and Acquah, P.C., (Eds.). Accra, Ghana: Geological Society of Africa; 1993.
Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "The Little Foxes‘that Upset Students‘Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology Journal . 2019;128.
Nyamai C, Wamunyu A, Daniel Ichang'i, Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, et al. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull Text

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430°C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

and Nyamasyo WOGNH. "Pest status of bean stem maggot (Ophiomyia sp.) and Black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) in Taita District, Kenya." Tropical & Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. 2011;Vol. 13 (1):pp. 91 to 97.
and Nyamasyo D, Nderitu JH. "Nyamasyo, D. and Nderitu, J. H. (2004 ). Lecture notes on invertebrate animals.". In: Triennial Symposium for International Society for Tropical Root and Tuber crops- Africa Branch. Nairobi; 2008.
Nyambane R, Ndeti N. "The influence of Television on the Sexual Behaviour of Young Women in Mlolongo Township." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;Vol. 19(Issue 3, March 2014):pp. 85-92.
NYAMBANE MN, GATARI MJ, Githiri JG,... "Energy and Exergy Analysis Concepts: Modelling of Olkaria II Geothermal Power Plant in Kenya." promitheasnet.kepa.uoa.gr. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Condensers of geothermal power plants need to operate at low pressures to ensure optimal use of energy resources. To optimize the steam condensation process cooling water temperature is varied to determine the value that gives a higher condenser efficiency …

Nyambedha, Erick Otieno; Aagaard-Hansen J. "hanging patterns of orphan care due to the HIV epidemic in western Kenya .". 2003.Website
Nyambok IO. "Petrology and geochemistry of the alkaline intrusion, Jombo Hill, Kenya.". 2009. AbstractPetrology and geochemistry of the alkaline intrusion, Jombo Hill, Kenya

The field occurrence and the known immiscibility between silicate and carbonate melts suggest the Jombo alkaline intrusion and Mrima carbonatite intrusion have come from the same magmatic source. However, only the ijolite series apparently originated from a magma body at Jombo hill intrusion, while the feldspathoidal syenite series appears to have resulted from metasomatic alteration of the country rock-sandstone. The K/Rb ratios seem to indicate a mantle origin for the ijolites and a crustal one for the feldspathoidal syenites. The feldspathoidal syenite series were presumably formed by alkali metasomatism, resulting from magmatic fluid infiltration through intergranular movement. It is suggested that the partitioning of K and Na components in the metasomatizing fluid and solid feldspar phases at different temperatures, was the cause of two rock types – albite nepheline syenite and orthoclase nepheline syenite.

Nyambok IO, Mathu EM, Opiyo-Aketch N, Barongo JO, Legge PL. "Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". 1996.Website
Nyambok IO, Konoti HW, Nzioki NM. "Center For Urban Research Print Series Presents.". 1991.Website
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Nordberg E, Kimani V, Diwan V. Household Survey of Injuries in a Kenyan district:East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):240-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):240-4. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and burden of injuries, their causes and action taken in a rural and urban community in Kenya. DESIGN: Household interview survey and focus group discussions. SETTING: Four rural villages and five urban clusters in Kiambu District, Kenya. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,980 members of 200 rural and 230 urban households. RESULTS: The number of reported injuries was 495, corresponding to 300,000 injuries per 100,000 people per year. Most common were cut or piercing (38.4%), followed by fall (16.2%), burn or scald (14.3%), animal bite or kick (10.1%), hit by moving object (5.9%) and road traffic accident (3.6%). Poisoning, sub-mersion/drowning and explosion were uncommon, each below three per cent. Of all reported injuries, 149 (30.1%) sought care from traditional healers, 91 (18.4%) were subject to self-care, 76 (15.4%) obtained service from drug shops, 22 (4.4%) were brought to a health facility for attention and 17 (3.4%) took no action at all. Additional information was obtained through focus group discussions with students, teachers and members of women groups. These generated detailed information about cases of sexual assault within and outside households which had not been captured during the previous household interviews. CONCLUSION: Injuries are very common but most of them are mild, prompting only home care or no action at all. Only one out of 25 injuries were brought to a health facility for attention. Some types of injury, such as domestic violence and sexual assault, are more likely to be captured through focus group discussions than during household interviews. A combination of methods is likely to best reflect the pattern of injury at community level.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET, MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE. "OLENJA J.M & KIMANI V.N 2002: Poverty, Street Life and Prostitution: The Dynamics of child prostitution in Kisumu, Kenya. Chapter... in the book titled: Poverty, AIDS and Street Children in East Africa. (Studies in Africa Health and Medicine) Edited by Lu.". In: Chapter... in the book titled: Poverty, AIDS and Street Children in East Africa. (Studies in Africa Health and Medicine.Edited by Lugalla, J and Kibassa, G. Edwin Mellen Press Publishers; pp 47-68, 2002. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2002. Abstract
SETTING: A rural district, Machakos, in Kenya, facing decreasing national resources for health and an increasing tuberculosis (TB) caseload fuelled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on district TB programme performance of decentralising TB treatment by providing ambulatory care in the hospital and peripheral health units and in the community. METHODS: A comparative study of district TB programme performance before and after the decentralisation of TB services at the end of 1997. To facilitate ambulatory care, ethambutol replaced streptomycin in the new treatment regimen. FINDINGS: The number of patients registered in the control period (1996) was 1141, of whom almost 100% were admitted during the intensive phase of TB treatment, and in the intervention period (1998 and 1999), it was 3244, of whom only 153 (4.7%) required admission in the intensive phase. Of 3244 TB patients (all forms) registered in the intervention period, the number (%) choosing the different options for directly observed treatment (DOT) supervision were: hospital clinic 1618 (49.9%), peripheral health unit 904 (27.9%), community volunteer 569 (17.5%) and hospitalisation 153 (4.7%). The options were found to be acceptable to patients, their families and health staff. The treatment outcomes among new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients were similar in the intervention and control cohorts, with treatment success rates of 88% vs. 85% and death rates of 4% vs. 6%, respectively. Treatment completion was significantly higher among new sputum smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB patients in the intervention than in the control cohort (79% vs. 48%, respectively). CONCLUSION: The decentralisation of the intensive phase of TB treatment resulted in maintenance of good TB programme performance, while Machakos hospital closed its TB wards. A separate paper describes the cost-effectiveness of this approach. The National Tuberculosis Control Programme plans to adopt this approach as national policy.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Urban traditional medicine: a Nairobi case-study. Good CM, Kimani VN. East Afr Med J. 1980 May;57(5):301-17.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 May;57(5):301-17. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1980. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "A transdisciplinary perspective on the links between malaria and agroecosystems in Kenya. Mutero CM, Kabutha C, Kimani V, Kabuage L, Gitau G, Ssennyonga J, Githure J, Muthami L, Kaida A, Musyoka L, Kiarie E, Oganda M. Acta Trop. 2004 Jan;89(2):171-86.". In: Acta Trop. 2004 Jan;89(2):171-86. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2004. Abstract

An ecosystem approach was applied to study the links between malaria and agriculture in Mwea Division, Kenya. The study was organized into five phases. Phase I had two components including a stakeholder workshop conducted with community representatives and other key stakeholders, and the collation of data on common diseases from outpatient service records at the local hospital. Phase I aimed at an a priori needs-assessment in order to focus the research agenda. Workshop participants directly contributed to the selection of two villages with rice irrigation and two non-irrigated villages for detailed health studies. In Phase II, various Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools were used to gather more detailed qualitative information from the study villages. The qualitative results indicated that Mwea residents considered malaria and lack of clean drinking water to be their most important health problems, and this was corroborated by local hospital records. Phase III consisted of a comprehensive household survey developed with inputs from Phases I and II. Phase IV involved a comparative evaluation of entomological and parasitological aspects of malaria in the villages with and without rice irrigation. The malaria parasitological survey found an average Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate of 23.5% among children up to 9 years of age. Results of the entomological evaluation showed a 30-300-fold increase in the number of the local malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, in villages with rice irrigation compared to those without irrigation yet malaria prevalence was significantly lower in these villages (0-9% versus 17-54%). The most likely explanation of this 'paddies paradox' in Mwea appeared to be the tendency for A. arabiensis in irrigated villages to feed overwhelmingly on cattle. The results suggested that zooprophylaxis was potentially a practical option for long-term malaria control in the rice irrigated areas, in spite of the large number of A. arabiensis. Phase V consisted of end-of-project workshops for the dissemination of research results and participatory decision-making regarding follow-up actions. Owing to the utilization of a transdisciplinary and participatory approach to research, it was possible to identify opportunities for maintaining zooprophylaxis for malaria in Mwea, through the integration of agroecosystem practices aimed at sustaining livestock systems within a broader strategy for rural development.

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Why patients go to the traditional healers. Katz SH, Kimani VN.East Afr Med J. 1982 Mar;59(3):170-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Mar;59(3):170-4. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1982. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "KIMANI V.N 2004: Human Sexuality: Meaning and Purpose in Selected Communities in Contemporary Kenya. The Ecumenical Review. (WCC): 4; pp. 404-421, 2004.". In: The Ecumenical Review. (WCC): 4; pp. 404-421, 2004. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of dairy and non-dairy farming households in Dagoretti in regard to the risk posed by bovine brucellosis and determine the prevalence of the disease in urban dairy cattle. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Urban and Peri-urban dairy farming and non dairy farming households in Dagoretti division, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred ninety nine dairy farming and 149 non dairy farming households. INTERVENTION: Segregated focus group discussions, administration of a household questionnaire and collection of unboiled milk from dairy and non dairy farming households were the instruments used to gather data on the practices, attitudes, perceptions and prevalence of bovine brucellosis. RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety three milk samples were collected and analysed for the presence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in an indirect ELISA. The apparent prevalence of bovine brucellosis from milk was estimated at 1% for the samples collected while in dairy farming households the prevalence was 1.1% [0.2, 3.4%] and 0.7% [0.4%] in non dairy farming households.. Thirty percent (90/296) of dairy respondents and 22% (32/147) of non-dairy respondents knew of the existence of brucellosis. Risk of contracting brucellosis was very low considering that milk is boiled together with other ingredients used in making tea and porridge. However, 31% (93/296) and 22% (31/143) of dairy and non dairy farming households respectively made traditionally fermented milk without first boiling the milk. This practice may predispose this group to brucellosis. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of bovine brucellosis requires constant surveillance in case the prevalence rates do change. Education of dairy farming households who are more at risk of contracting brucellosis on the transmission pathways and risk factors is required in order to lower further the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in Dagoretti.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET, MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE. "OLENJA J.M & KIMANI V.N 2002: Poverty, Street Life and Prostitution: The Dynamics of child prostitution in Kisumu, Kenya. Chapter... in the book titled: Poverty, AIDS and Street Children in East Africa. (Studies in Africa Health and Medicine) Edited by Lu.". In: Chapter... in the book titled: Poverty, AIDS and Street Children in East Africa. (Studies in Africa Health and Medicine.Edited by Lugalla, J and Kibassa, G. Edwin Mellen Press Publishers; pp 47-68, 2002. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Agrochemicals exposure and health implications in Githunguri location, Kenya. Kimani VN, Mwanthi MA. East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):531-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):531-5. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1995. Abstract
A study conducted in a rural agricultural community (Githunguri location) in Kenya between 1987 and 1990 investigated the extent of use of agrochemicals, especially pesticides, by the farmers; their level of awareness of the dangers posed by these chemicals and their attitudes towards agricultural chemicals in general. The findings showed that more than 95% of the farmers used pesticides extensively. More women than men were found to be at risk of agrochemicals exposure, while babies and children were at more risk of agrochemicals exposure than the women. In this community, knowledge and awareness regarding safety in handling and storage of agrochemicals was to some extent limited. For instance, many had no knowledge of an antidote in case of accidental poisoning. Additionally, suicidal attempts by ingestion of agrochemicals was prevalent. Improper handling of the agrochemicals by the community members was implicated to have adverse health effects. These health effects were reported in form of complaints. They ranged from acute to chronic conditions. Consequently, an intervention programme was launched with the women as the key players. It is envisaged that community participation in the on going intervention programme is saving babies, children, women and the community at large from agrochemicals hazards.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factors for human infection with bovine tuberculosis among dairy and non-dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya. Kang'ethe EK, Ekuttan CE, Kimani VN. East Af.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Nov;84(11 Suppl):S92-5. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in urban dairy cattle and examine possible risk factors for human infection with bovine tuberculosis (BTB). DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Urban and peri-urban dairy and non-dairy farming neighbour households. SUBJECTS: One hundred forty three dairy cattle and 299 and 149 dairy and non-dairy neighbour households respectively. RESULTS: Ten percent of the animals (15/143) were found to be reactors to the tuberculin test. The majority of the respondents 57% (168/295) and 72% (106/147) in dairy farming and non-farming households respectively, had limited knowledge of the disease in cattle thus making them unable to adopt any precautionary measures to protect themselves from contracting bovine tuberculosis. Distance from the main house and cattle shed, the time spent attending to the cattle, (on average 4.8 hours), and making of traditionally fermented milk were considered to be the major risk factors. CONCLUSION: Due to the presumed high background prevalence of human tuberculosis, the specificity of the test employed was unknown. Therefore no definite estimate of the prevalence of BTB was made. It is therefore necessary for further investigation involving culture, isolation and molecular typing from reactors to establish the prevalence of M. bovis in this setting.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Abortion: behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya. Mutungi AK, Wango EO, Rogo KO, Kimani VN, Karanja JG. East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996. SETTING: Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks.

NYAMBURA DRKARIUKI. "Characterisation of community acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella from bacteraemia and diarrhoeal infections in children admitted to hospital in Nairobi, Kenya Samuel Kariuki, Gunturu Revathi, Nyambura Kariuki, John Kiiru, Joyce Mwituria, and Charles A Hart.". In: BMC Microbiol. 2006 Dec 15;6:101. Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. skariuki@kemri.org BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa community-acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major cause of high morbidity and death among children under 5 years of age especially from resource poor settings. The emergence of multidrug resistance is a major challenge in treatment of life threatening invasive NTS infections in these settings. RESULTS: Overall 170 (51.2%) of children presented with bacteraemia alone, 28 (8.4%) with gastroenteritis and bacteraemia and 134 (40.4%) with gastroenteritis alone. NTS serotypes obtained from all the cases included S. Typhimurium (196; 59%), S. Enteritidis (94; 28.3%) and other serotypes in smaller numbers (42; 12.7%); distribution of these serotypes among cases with bacteremia or gastroenteritis was not significantly different. A significantly higher proportion of younger children (< 3 years of age) and those from the slums presented with invasive NTS compared to older children and those from upper socio-economic groups (p < 0.001). One hundred and forty-seven (44.3%) NTS were resistant to 3 or more antibiotics, and out of these 59% were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in antibiotic resistance between the two serotypes, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were the only antibiotics tested to which all the NTS were fully susceptible. Using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) there were 3 main patterns of S. Typhimurium and 2 main patterns of S. Enteritidis among cases of bacteraemia and gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION: Serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility and PFGE patterns of NTS causing bacteraemia and gastroenteritis did not differ significantly. The high prevalence of NTS strains resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobials is of major public health concern.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Household survey of injuries in a Kenyan district. Nordberg E, Kimani V, Diwan V. East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):240-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):240-4. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and burden of injuries, their causes and action taken in a rural and urban community in Kenya. DESIGN: Household interview survey and focus group discussions. SETTING: Four rural villages and five urban clusters in Kiambu District, Kenya. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,980 members of 200 rural and 230 urban households. RESULTS: The number of reported injuries was 495, corresponding to 300,000 injuries per 100,000 people per year. Most common were cut or piercing (38.4%), followed by fall (16.2%), burn or scald (14.3%), animal bite or kick (10.1%), hit by moving object (5.9%) and road traffic accident (3.6%). Poisoning, sub-mersion/drowning and explosion were uncommon, each below three per cent. Of all reported injuries, 149 (30.1%) sought care from traditional healers, 91 (18.4%) were subject to self-care, 76 (15.4%) obtained service from drug shops, 22 (4.4%) were brought to a health facility for attention and 17 (3.4%) took no action at all. Additional information was obtained through focus group discussions with students, teachers and members of women groups. These generated detailed information about cases of sexual assault within and outside households which had not been captured during the previous household interviews. CONCLUSION: Injuries are very common but most of them are mild, prompting only home care or no action at all. Only one out of 25 injuries were brought to a health facility for attention. Some types of injury, such as domestic violence and sexual assault, are more likely to be captured through focus group discussions than during household interviews. A combination of methods is likely to best reflect the pattern of injury at community level.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET, MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE. "ELIZABETH NGUGI, VIOLET KIMANI, MUTUKU MWANTHI & JOYCE OLENJA 2002: Community-Based Care in Resource Limited Settings: A Framework for Action WHO, Geneva, Book Publications.". In: Community-Based Care in Resource Limited Settings: A Framework for Action WHO, Geneva, Book Publications. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2002. Abstract
SETTING: A rural district, Machakos, in Kenya, facing decreasing national resources for health and an increasing tuberculosis (TB) caseload fuelled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on district TB programme performance of decentralising TB treatment by providing ambulatory care in the hospital and peripheral health units and in the community. METHODS: A comparative study of district TB programme performance before and after the decentralisation of TB services at the end of 1997. To facilitate ambulatory care, ethambutol replaced streptomycin in the new treatment regimen. FINDINGS: The number of patients registered in the control period (1996) was 1141, of whom almost 100% were admitted during the intensive phase of TB treatment, and in the intervention period (1998 and 1999), it was 3244, of whom only 153 (4.7%) required admission in the intensive phase. Of 3244 TB patients (all forms) registered in the intervention period, the number (%) choosing the different options for directly observed treatment (DOT) supervision were: hospital clinic 1618 (49.9%), peripheral health unit 904 (27.9%), community volunteer 569 (17.5%) and hospitalisation 153 (4.7%). The options were found to be acceptable to patients, their families and health staff. The treatment outcomes among new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients were similar in the intervention and control cohorts, with treatment success rates of 88% vs. 85% and death rates of 4% vs. 6%, respectively. Treatment completion was significantly higher among new sputum smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB patients in the intervention than in the control cohort (79% vs. 48%, respectively). CONCLUSION: The decentralisation of the intensive phase of TB treatment resulted in maintenance of good TB programme performance, while Machakos hospital closed its TB wards. A separate paper describes the cost-effectiveness of this approach. The National Tuberculosis Control Programme plans to adopt this approach as national policy.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Perception of infertility in two communities in Kenya. Sekadde-Kigondu C, Kimani VN, Kirumbi LW, Ruminjo JK, Olenja J. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2004;57(1):58-9.". In: Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2004;57(1):58-9. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2004. Abstract

An ecosystem approach was applied to study the links between malaria and agriculture in Mwea Division, Kenya. The study was organized into five phases. Phase I had two components including a stakeholder workshop conducted with community representatives and other key stakeholders, and the collation of data on common diseases from outpatient service records at the local hospital. Phase I aimed at an a priori needs-assessment in order to focus the research agenda. Workshop participants directly contributed to the selection of two villages with rice irrigation and two non-irrigated villages for detailed health studies. In Phase II, various Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools were used to gather more detailed qualitative information from the study villages. The qualitative results indicated that Mwea residents considered malaria and lack of clean drinking water to be their most important health problems, and this was corroborated by local hospital records. Phase III consisted of a comprehensive household survey developed with inputs from Phases I and II. Phase IV involved a comparative evaluation of entomological and parasitological aspects of malaria in the villages with and without rice irrigation. The malaria parasitological survey found an average Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate of 23.5% among children up to 9 years of age. Results of the entomological evaluation showed a 30-300-fold increase in the number of the local malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, in villages with rice irrigation compared to those without irrigation yet malaria prevalence was significantly lower in these villages (0-9% versus 17-54%). The most likely explanation of this 'paddies paradox' in Mwea appeared to be the tendency for A. arabiensis in irrigated villages to feed overwhelmingly on cattle. The results suggested that zooprophylaxis was potentially a practical option for long-term malaria control in the rice irrigated areas, in spite of the large number of A. arabiensis. Phase V consisted of end-of-project workshops for the dissemination of research results and participatory decision-making regarding follow-up actions. Owing to the utilization of a transdisciplinary and participatory approach to research, it was possible to identify opportunities for maintaining zooprophylaxis for malaria in Mwea, through the integration of agroecosystem practices aimed at sustaining livestock systems within a broader strategy for rural development.

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "The unsystematic alternative: towards plural health care among the Kikuyu of central Kenya. Kimani VN. Soc Sci Med [B]. 1981 Jul;15(3):333-40.". In: Soc Sci Med [B]. 1981 Jul;15(3):333-40. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1981. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

Nyambura J, Achilla R, Mitei K, Mukunzi S, Njiri J, Coldren R, Bulimo W. Co-circulation of Human Parainfluenza viruses in Kenya, Jan 2013-Sep 2013. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) belong to the paramyxoviridae family. HPIV is the major cause of croup in which type 1 is most frequent cause, followed by type 3 and type 2 respectively. Surveillance has shown that Human Parainfluenza viruse are a major cause of respiratory infections in Kenya. In January 2013 through an existing influenza surveillance network at the Kenyan National Influenza center, we screened for parainfluenza and other non-influenza respiratory viruses. This was done within the designated Influenza network made up of eight sentinel sites. Objective: The objective of this study was to monitor and document circulation of Human parainfluenza viruses in Kenya in the period January–September 2013. Materials and Methods: Specimens were collected from the nasopharynx using a flocked swab from consenting patients meeting the WHO influenza-like-illness (ILI) case definition. Specimens were transported to the NIC while observing the cold chain and inoculated into LLCMK2 cell line. After incubation and observation for cytopathic effect, all samples were screened by direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using the Respiratory Panel I Viral Screening and Identification kit (Chemicon International, Inc).Results and Discussion: A total of 972 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected between January – September 2013. HPIVs were detected in 108 (11%) cases. Out of these, there were 36 co-infections of the parainfluenza viruses. In general, Their seasonality patterns shows two peaks; one severe one occurring in April with 40.6% and the second milder peak occurring in June with 23.1% of all the cases. There was co-circulation of HPIV sub-types throughout the year. The three subtypes circulated between January to May with a peak in April with type 1 dominating in the month of April. They formed a second peak in June with type three dominating and type three lagging behind and appearing a month later. From our analysis we found that the conditions that trigger their occurrence are the same since their peaks are synchronized.Conclusion: This study shows that parainfluenza viruses are the major contributor of influenza in Kenya.

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Kimani V.N 2004: Ngecha Today: Chapter 9 of the book: NGECHA: A Kenyan Village in a time of Social Change; edited by Carolyn Pope Edwards & Beatrice Blyth Whiting, University of Nebraska Press and London. Pp. 245-264, 2004.". In: Ngecha Today:Chapter 9 of the book: NGECHA: A Kenyan Village in a time of Social Change;Pp. 245-264. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of dairy and non-dairy farming households in Dagoretti in regard to the risk posed by bovine brucellosis and determine the prevalence of the disease in urban dairy cattle. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Urban and Peri-urban dairy farming and non dairy farming households in Dagoretti division, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred ninety nine dairy farming and 149 non dairy farming households. INTERVENTION: Segregated focus group discussions, administration of a household questionnaire and collection of unboiled milk from dairy and non dairy farming households were the instruments used to gather data on the practices, attitudes, perceptions and prevalence of bovine brucellosis. RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety three milk samples were collected and analysed for the presence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in an indirect ELISA. The apparent prevalence of bovine brucellosis from milk was estimated at 1% for the samples collected while in dairy farming households the prevalence was 1.1% [0.2, 3.4%] and 0.7% [0.4%] in non dairy farming households.. Thirty percent (90/296) of dairy respondents and 22% (32/147) of non-dairy respondents knew of the existence of brucellosis. Risk of contracting brucellosis was very low considering that milk is boiled together with other ingredients used in making tea and porridge. However, 31% (93/296) and 22% (31/143) of dairy and non dairy farming households respectively made traditionally fermented milk without first boiling the milk. This practice may predispose this group to brucellosis. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of bovine brucellosis requires constant surveillance in case the prevalence rates do change. Education of dairy farming households who are more at risk of contracting brucellosis on the transmission pathways and risk factors is required in order to lower further the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in Dagoretti.

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