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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Expatriates and Decision-Making in Kenya: A Comment". Conference of Canadian Association of African Studies, Carleton University, 1973.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1973. Abstract
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NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N., J. Rockstrom and C.K.K. Gachene. 2005. Hydro-economic evaluation of rainwater harvesting and management technologies: Fanners' investment options and risks in semi-arid Laikipia district of Kenya. Physics & Chemistry of the Earth, 30:772-782.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2005. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N. 2003. What is the limit of up-scaling rainwater harvesting in a river basin? Physics & Chemistry of the Earth, 28:943-956.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2003. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Decentralisation in Uganda."; Forthcoming. Abstract
n/a
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Multi Purpose District Development Centres: The Case of Baringo Development Training Centre. IDS Working Paper No. 264, April, 1976.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1976. Abstract
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NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N, H.H.G. Savenije and F.N. Gichuki. 2006. Land use changes and hydrological impacts related to up-scaling of rainwater harvesting and management in upper Ewaso Ng 'iro river basin, Kenya. Land Use Policy (in press).". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRGEORGENGUGI. "Considerations for Valuation for Rating of Small Towons: The case of Homa Bay Municipality in Real Estate Development and Management in Africa Eds. N.H. Olima (Forth coming 2006).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. Survey Review; 2006. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Njuguna IN, Ambler G, Reilly M, Ondondo B, Kanyugo M, Lohman-Payne B, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Borthwick N, Black A, Mehedi S-R, Sun J, Maleche-Obimbo E, Chohan B, John-Stewart GC, Jaoko W, Hanke T. "PedVacc 002: a phase I/II randomized clinical trial of MVA.HIVA vaccine administered to infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive mothers in Nairobi." Vaccine. 2014;32(44):5801-8. Abstract

A safe, effective vaccine for breastfeeding infants born to HIV-1-positive mothers could complement antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. To date, only a few HIV-1 vaccine candidates have been tested in infants.

NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Farmers Organisations in Kenya: Interest Groups or State Agents?" Published in African Rural and Urban Studies Col 5, No. 1 1994. Michigan State University. 1994.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Some Problems of Income Distribution in Kenya: Report of a Workshop held at IDS". IDS Working Paper No. 308, April 1977.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1977. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Volume II: Project Identification Arid and Semi Arid Lands: Kitui/Meru/Embu.Districts.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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Njuguna PN, Kahonge AM, Miriti EK. "Web Application and GPS Integration in Motor Vehicle Accident Detection – A Case of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). 2012;59(8):6-11.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Institutional Dimensions of Policy Reforms." Paper presented at an IPAR National Policy Seminar, Nairobi November 19-20, 1996.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
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NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, J.M.Z. Kamau and M.S. Badamana. Changes in Serum Levels of Vitamin B12, Feed Intake, Liveweight and Hematological parameters in Cobalt Deficient Small East African Goats. Internat. J. Vit. Nutr.Res.63 (1993), 135-139.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1993. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
Njuguna JN, Githaka N, Kinyanjui PW, Nzuki I, Heyne H, Mwaura S, Kanduma EG, Mwacharo JM, others. "Multi-locus genotyping reveals absence of genetic structure in field populations of the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) in Kenya.". 2015. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Linking Policy and Research: Towards Enhancing the Policy Advocacy Capacity of Civil Society in Kenya. An IPAR project proposal submitted to a number of Donors in 1997.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Impact of African States in the United Nations System, B.A. Thesis: Mackinac College 1970.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
n/a
NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, J.M.Z. Kamau and M.S. Badamana. Thyroid Hormones and Metabolic Rate During Induction of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Goats. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 42 (1994), 187-189.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1994. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "Effect of Dolomitic Lime and Muriate of Potash on Jelly Seed Disorder and Fruit Tissue Mineral Content in Mango (Mangifera indica L.)." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2016:1-8. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Democratisation and Governance in Africa: The Role of NGOs. A report on behalf of the United Nations Conference on NGOs, 1998.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract
n/a
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Asian Question in Uganda" The Black 1, June 1973.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1973. Abstract
n/a
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N., J.N. Thome, J. Rockstrom, F.W.T. Penning de Vries, and H.H.G. Savenije 2005. Agro-hydrological evaluation of on-farm rainwater storage systems for supplemental irrigation in Laikipia district, Kenya. Agricultural Water Management, 73(1): 21-4.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2005. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N. 2002. Review of irrigation development in Kenya. In: Blank, H.G., C.M. Mutero and H. Murray-Rust (eds.). 2002. The changing face of irrigation in Kenya: Opportunities for anticipating change in Eastern and Southern Africa. IWMI, Colombo, Sri L.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2002. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Decentralisation without Democratisation in Kenya."; Forthcoming. Abstract
n/a
Njuguna NM, Ongarora DSB, Chibale K. "Artemisinin derivatives: a patent review (2006 - present)." Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 2012;22(10):1179-1203.
Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "Incidence of jelly seed disorder in ‘Tommy Atkins’ and ‘Van Dyke’Mangoes as affected by agro-ecological conditions in Kenya." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2016:1-9. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate", A Chapter in Ng'ethe (Editor). From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Employment Situation in Kenya: Paper presented by IDS to the Presidential Commission on Unemployment: IDS Occasional Paper No. 60, 1991.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1991. Abstract
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NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N., J. Rockstrb'm and H.H.G. Savenije 2006. Assessment of rainwater retention in croplands due to conservation tillage and hydrological impacts in Ewaso Ng'iro river basin, Kenya. Physics & Chemistry of the Earth (in press).". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRGEORGENGUGI. "In Defence of the Commons: The Case of Karai Women Agro forestry Project in Kenya in Real Estate Development and Management in Africa Eds. N.H. Olima (Forth coming 2006).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. Survey Review; 2006. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Strengthening Population Related Social Science Research Capacity in Kenya. A report to the Rockefeller Foundation: 1994.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Role of Indigenous NGO's in Africa Development: Consultancy Report Prepared On Behalf of Voluntary Agents Development Assistance (VADA), Nairobi, October, 1986.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1986. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "A comment on Militarization". Paper prepared for Conference on Militarization: World Council of Churches, Geneva, November 1977.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1977. Abstract
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Njuguna E, Musibi A SWAHIA. "Gastric Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya,. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2013.
Njuguna I, Reilly M JGAM-OL-PHJ-SWCGE. "Infant Neutropenia Associated with Breastfeeding During Maternal Antiretroviral Treatment for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV." Retrovirology: Research and Treatment. 2014;32(44):5801-8.
Njung'e K, Muriuki G, Mwangi JW, Kuria KA. "Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae).". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Myrica salicifolia Hoechst (Myricaceae) root extract was found to have analgesic activity in mice. In rats there was antipyretic but no antiinflammatory activity.

Njunge LW, Wachira PM, Okoth SA. "Enhancement of Colonisation of Soybean Roots by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Using Vermicompost and Biochar." Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;5(3):71-78.
Njuru SN, Njogu PM, Mugo HN, Thoithi GN. "Is tablet splitting a potential pitfall in drug therapy? A case study of amlodipine tablets." Pharmaceut. Jour. Kenya. 2022.
Nkando I, Ndinda J, Kuria J, Naessens J, Mbithi F, Schnier C, Gicheru M, McKeever D, Wesonga H. "Efficacy of two vaccine formulations against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Kenyan indigenous cattle.". 2012. Abstract

A live, attenuated vaccine is currently the only viable option to control of CBPP in Africa. It has been suggested that simple modifications to current vaccines and protocols might improve efficacy in the field. In this report we compared the current vaccine formulation with a buffered preparation that maintains Mycoplasma viability at ambient temperature for a longer time. Groups of animals were vaccinated with the two formulations and compared with non vaccinated groups. Half of the animals in each group were challenged 3 months post vaccination, the other half after 16 months. Protection levels were measured using the pathology index, calculated from post mortem scores of lesions from animals killed during the course of clinical disease. In the challenge at 3 months post vaccination, the protection levels were 52% and 77% for the modified and current vaccine preparations, respectively. At 16 months post vaccination, the protection levels were 56% and 62% for the modified and current vaccine preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that there are no differences in protection levels between the two vaccines. Because of its longer half life after reconstitution, the modified vaccine might be preferred in field situations where the reconstituted vaccine is likely not to be administered immediately.

Nkando I, Ndinda J, Kuria J, Naessens J, Mbithi F, et al. "Efficacy of two vaccine formulations against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Kenyan indigenous cattle." Research in Veterinary Science . 2012;93:93: 568-573.
Nkonge AN, Magambo JK, Kithinji J, Mayabi AO, Taratisio N. "Management of healthcare waste in national teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya." International Journal of Environment and Waste Management. 2014;14(2):199-209. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Healthcare waste management in health facilities should include quantification of all categories to support minimisation strategies. The hazardous healthcare waste categories under study, infectious, pathological, sharps and chemical waste were weighed in the two teaching and referral institutions, Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Moi Teaching Hospital (MTRH) during the wet and dry season. The comparison for the two hospitals, during the wet season was significant for infectious waste (0.0001) but not so for pathological waste (p = 0.7393) and sharps waste (p = 0.3363). During the dry season, coefficient of variation for the two hospitals was significantly different, infectious waste (p = 0.0027) and pathological waste (p = 0.0086). Sharps waste was not significant (p = 0.3615). The studied hazardous healthcare waste generation rate was 0.61 kg/bed/day for KNH and 1.03 kg/bed/day for MTRH. The two institutions should practice healthcare waste minimisation and segregate their waste accurately.
Keywordshealthcare waste, segregation in categories, quantification, referral hospitals

Nkonge NG, Opanga SA, Guantai EM, Karimi PN. "Knowledge of Correct Use among Hormonal Contraceptive Users in a Kenyan Referral Hospital." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(4):105-111. Abstract

Background:
Contraception is the intentional use of temporary, long-term or permanent methods to prevent
pregnancy. The consistent and correct use of contraceptives ensures that unintended pregnancies and pregnancy-related health risks are prevented.

Objectives:
To assess the prevalence, types and level of knowledge on the correct use of hormonal contraceptives among women of reproductive age at Kenyatta National Hospital.

Methodology:
A cross-sectional study was carried out targeting 400 women in their reproductive age at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed
using SPSS version 20 into descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results:
The prevalence of contraceptive use was 42.8%. Contraceptive use was associated with number of children [OR 1.7 (1.3-2.1)] p<0.001. 56.1% of contraceptive users were on hormonal contraceptives. Injectable contraceptives were the most preferred followed by implants and pills. The choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age [OR 2.003 (1.330-3.017)] p=0.001 and level of education [OR 1.697 (1.135-2.539)] p=0.010. The level of knowledge on the correct use of hormonal contraceptive use was limited and was associated with the level of education [OR 1.389 (1.144-2.051)] p=0.000.

Conclusion:
Contraceptive use is low compared to knowledge of contraceptives. Injectable contraceptives are the most preferred hormonal contraceptives. The level of knowledge on the correct use of hormonal contraceptive is low.

Key words: contraceptive use, hormonal contraceptives, knowledge, correct use

Nkonya, E; Jawoo K; MLP; R. Land under pressure..; 2011. Abstract

This chapter presents and discusses the causes of land degradation, and ways of sustainable land development and agricultural productivity. The evidence presented here suggests several avenues for achieving a world without land degradation. First, efforts to promote sustainable land management need to improve locally and nationally. Second, instead of focusing solely on fertilizer subsidies, countries should use broader and more cost-effective incentives to encourage farmers to adopt integrated soil fertility management.

Nkonya E, Xiong W, Deustua J, Kato E. "Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from tak.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from taking advantage of yield and income enhancing agricultural practices. In this study we examine the relative merits of using a carbon payment scheme compared to a subsidy policy to help reduce the cost of specific land management practices with productivity and ecosystem benefits such as carbon sequestration. Using a 30-year crop simulation model, we examine the impacts of different soil fertility management treatments (SFTs) on yields and soil carbon and proceed to compute discounted incremental revenue streams over the same period. We find that the SFTs simulated are on average profitable given the conditions assumed in our DSSAT simulations. When carbon was priced at $8 or $12/t CO2e, the increase in incremental incomes generated from a carbon payment were invariably higher than those imputed from a 50% fertilizer subsidy. When carbon was priced at $4/Co2e, the increase was almost similar and sometimes higher than that from the imputed income transfer from a 50% subsidy. If these indications hold in further research, it could imply that using fertilizer subsidies as the sole mechanism for stimulating adoption of improved soil fertility management practices may unnecessarily forgo other complementary and possibly superior alternatives. Depending on the specific economic equity considerations, we conclude that either of these instruments can be used to help farmers break through resource barriers that prevent them from adopting productivity-enhancing and environmentally beneficial agricultural practices. However, given the fiscal burden on public finances and possible opportunity costs of any substantial subsidy program, it is possible that a carbon payment system can be a reasonable alternative assuming the range of carbon prices used in this study and especially if accompanied by measures to ameliorate the costs of fertilizer to farmers.

Nkunu Z, M GP, J.G. K. "Electrocatalytic reduction and characterization of Tetrachlorvinphos in acetonitrile-water (1:1) media in presence of cyanocobalamin." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2020;4:xxxx. Abstractabstract.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Abstract

This work investigates a possible electrocatalytic degradation of tetrachlorvinphos pesticide in acetonitrile-water media using cyanocobalamin as the catalyst. The catalyst and its derivatives are employed in some organic synthesis due to their ability to form and selectively cleave Co-C bonds. There is inadequate data from previous related works. This study explores possible electrocatalytic route for degradation of tetrachlorvinphos using the catalyst at temperature of 24 ± 1° by cyclic voltammetry method. Tetrachlorvinphos exhibited two consecutive reduction peaks at ~-0.710 ± 0.004 V and ~ -1.096 ± 0.029 V Versus Ag/AgCl. The second reduction peak registered a diffusion coefficient value of 3.68 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and current density of be 5.83 x 10-5 A/cm2. The reduction potential for tetrachlorvinphos in presence of cyanocobalamin was observed to be -0.923 ± 0.03 V versus Ag/AgCl. The diffusion coefficient and current density value was reported at 3.37 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and 2.56 X 10-5 A/cm2 respectively for an electro-reduction process. This implies that, catalytic reduction of the pesticide occurred at a significantly lower potential compared to direct reduction. The over potential saving of about 0.168 V is an indication of the catalyst efficiency on the pesticide degradation.

Nkunu ZN, Guto PM, Kithure JG. "Electrocatalytic Reduction and Characterization of Tetrachlorvinphos in Acetonitrile-Water (1:1) Media in Presence of Cyanocobalamin." African Journal of Physical Sciences (AJPS). 2020;4:60-67.
NM K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, M GS, EA K. "Pathological Lesions Associated with Cordylobia anthropophaga infestations of Dogs in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Journal of Veterinary Medicine International.. 2022.
NM M, GO O. "Fibromyalgia: Reviewing the epidemiology and gender-based differences in Africa." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2021;7(1):3-7. Abstractfibromyalgia.pdf

Abstract
Objectives: Fibromyalgia is a
complex disorder which presents with
chronic widespread musculoskeletal
pain, together with other symptoms
like fatigue, sleep disturbances and
cognitive disturbance. The cause remains
unclear but it is postulated that there
are abnormalities in neurohormonal
profile and central sensitization to pain
as the main mechanism. It is known to
occur more commonly in females than
males. This study set out to look at these
differences in terms of epidemiology and
gender differences.
Data source: We conducted online and
public library searches using the English
language.
Data extraction: We reviewed several
papers and research work focusing on
epidemiology and differences in gender
presentation. The period of the search was
between the years 1990 up to 2020.
Conclusion: Fibromyalgia is a commonly
occurring rheumatologic condition.
Gender differences exist with regard to
epidemiology, clinical presentation and
health seeking behaviors. Population
based studies would be of use to establish
the prevalence in Africa. More studies
would be necessary to explain the gender
differences noted in the many aspects
of the disease including response to
treatment.
Key words: Fibromyalgia, Fibromyalgia
in women, Gender differences and impact

NM K, JM M, DM A, CK O. "Spontaneous Infected Biloma: A Case Report." EAMJ. 2016;93(10):561-564. AbstractAJOL

Biloma is defined as any collection of bile outside the biliary tree. It mainly results from surgical complications and abdominal trauma. Spontaneous biloma is extremely rare and is occasionally associated with choledocholithiasis. This report describes a case of spontaneous biloma diagnosed radiologically and confirmed at laparotomy. An intraperitonial biloma and a large common bile duct calculus were observed. The biloma was drained and the patient progressed well and was discharged in good condition.

NM K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, M GS, EA K. "Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors Associated with Occurrence of Canine Cutaneous Myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2022;2022(5699060):9 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/5699060.
NM M, GO O. "Fibromyalgia: Reviewing the epidemiology and gender-based differences in Africa." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2021;7(1):3-7. Abstractfibromyalgia.pdf

Objectives: Fibromyalgia is a
complex disorder which presents with
chronic widespread musculoskeletal
pain, together with other symptoms
like fatigue, sleep disturbances and
cognitive disturbance. The cause remains
unclear but it is postulated that there
are abnormalities in neurohormonal
profile and central sensitization to pain
as the main mechanism. It is known to
occur more commonly in females than
males. This study set out to look at these
differences in terms of epidemiology and
gender differences.
Data source: We conducted online and
public library searches using the English
language.
Data extraction: We reviewed several
papers and research work focusing on
epidemiology and differences in gender
presentation. The period of the search was
between the years 1990 up to 2020.
Conclusion: Fibromyalgia is a commonly
occurring rheumatologic condition.
Gender differences exist with regard to
epidemiology, clinical presentation and
health seeking behaviors. Population
based studies would be of use to establish
the prevalence in Africa. More studies
would be necessary to explain the gender
differences noted in the many aspects
of the disease including response to
treatment.
Key words: Fibromyalgia, Fibromyalgia
in women, Gender differences and impact
of fibromyalgia

NO O. "On the lmer function for nested animal breeding data." CSBIGS. 2009;4(1):44-58.
NO O. "Optimal Vaccination Strategies in periodic settings and Threshold conditions: A Survey." . International Journal of Biomathematics and Biostatistics . 2010;1(2):193-201.
NO A. "A combined sensitivity factor based GA-IPSO approach for system loss reduction and voltage profile enhancement." International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering and Science. 2013;12(2):2319-5665. Abstractabungupaper.pdfWebsite

Though several algorithms for optimizing DG location and size in a network with the aim of reducing system power losses and enhancing better voltage profile have already been proposed, they still suffer from several drawbacks. As a result much can be done in coming up with new algorithms or improving the already existing ones so as to address this important issue more efficiently and effectively. Majority of the proposed algorithms have emphasized on real power losses only in their formulations. They have ignored the reactive power losses which is key in the operation of power systems. In modern practical power systems reactive power injection plays a critical role in voltage stability control, thus the reactive power losses need to be incorporated in
optimizing DG allocation for voltage profile improvement. The results of the few works which have considered reactive power losses in their optimization can be improved by using more recent and accurate algorithms. This research work aimed at solving this problem by proposing a hybrid of GA and IPSO to optimize DG location and size while considering both real and reactive power losses. Both real and reactive power flow and power loss sensitivity factors were utilized in identifying the candidate buses for DG allocation. This reduced the search space for the algorithm and increasing its rate of convergence. This research considers a multi-type DG; type 1 DG (DG generating real power only), type 2 DG (DG generating both real and active
power) and type 3 DG (DG generating real power and absorbing reactive power)."

Noor LM;, Wahome RG;, Wakhungu JW;, Wanyoike MM. "Assessment of Pastoral Camel Production System in Moyale District, Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

Data was collected in a survey to assess the Somali and Borana camel production system in Moyale district. The survey focussed on calf, health, nutritional, reproductive and breeding management aspects. The respective percentages of respondents allowing calves access to initial colostrum, attend calvings, splitting herds (home/nomadic), camels manifesting bone eating (an indication of poor minerai nutrition) and owners allowing inbreeding were: 25, 96,57,98 and 69. The home-based camels were more frequently watered. Serving bulls were kept in the herd for an averageof between 4.5 and 7 years. Age at first calving and calving interval reported in the questionnaire were 57.4 ± 12.8 (n=296) and 27.5 ±9.1 (n=528) months respectively. In conclusion, camel production can be greatly improved by use of simple and basic technologies in calf management, camel health care. mineral supplementation and breeding management.

Noor LM, Wahome RG, Wakhungu JW, Wanyoike M. "The State of Health in Somali and Borana Camel Herds ,~ in Moyale District, Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

A survey was conducted to identify the common camel diseases, drug availability, treatments applied as well as measures employed to control spread of diseases in the Somali and Borana camel herds in Moyale district. Trypanosomiasis, wry neck syndrome, swollen glands, abscessation and respiratory system infections were identified as major health problems in adult camels while diarrhoea, camel pox, contagious skin necrosis and mange were the major calf health problems. 85% of herders had difficulties accessing conventional veterinary drugs/services. 15% use only traditional treatment while 45% combine modem and traditional methods. 80% isolate sick camels from the healthy ones. Deworming is rarely done. Tick control is through hand-picking and change of pasture among other traditional methods. Some herders (15%) use acaricide. The results indicate need for research in certain conditions that afflict camels in Northern Kenya.

Noordin R, Whitbrodt M, Waris A. ": Law and Economics: A New Dimension in Market Regulation (co-authored with and )." International Business Management. 2012.
Noppeney U. "The effects of visual deprivation on functional and structural organization of the human brain." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2007;31:1169-1180. AbstractWebsite

Early onset blindness allows one to investigate how the human brain adapts to sensory experience in infancy and early childhood. Over the past decade, lesion, functional and structural imaging studies have accumulated evidence that severe perturbations to visual experience alter the functional and structural organization of the human brain. Visual deprivation can induce plastic changes not only in the visual system, but also in the remaining intact sensory–motor system, secondary to altered experience using these spared modalities. In particular, occipital, usually visual, areas are reorganized and recruited by the remaining senses and higher cognitive tasks primarily through cortico-cortical connectivity. Importantly, these plastic changes vary as a function of timing and are most pronounced in early onset blindness. Thus, sensory experience shapes functional and structural brain organization during sensitive periods in neurodevelopment.

Norbert Opiyo Akech*, Masibo{ M, Olago DO. "Mineral, Oil and Gas Resources.". In: Kenya: A Natural Outlook Geo-Environmental Resources and Hazards. Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2013.
Norbert Opiyo Akech*, Omuombo CA, Masibo{ M. "General Geology of Kenya.". In: Kenya: A Natural Outlook Geo-Environmental Resources and Hazards. Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2013. Abstract

The geology of Kenya can be divided into five major geological successions:
(1) the Archaean (Nyanzian and Kavirondian), (2) Proterozoic (Mozambique Belt and Bukoban), (3) Palaeozoic/Mesozoic sediments, (4) Tertiary/Quaternary volcanics and sediments, and (5) Pleistocene to Recent soils, alluvial beach sands, evaporites, fossil coral reefs and sandstones at the coast: alluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Rift Valley. There are also volcanic rocks of the Rift Valley from the younger volcanoes.

Nordberg E, Mwobobia I, Muniu E. "Major and minor surgery output at district level in {Kenya}: review and issues in need of further research." African journal of health sciences. 2004;9:17-25. AbstractWebsite
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Nordstrom MPC, Westercamp N, Jaoko W, Okeyo T, Bailey RC. "Medical Male Circumcision Is Associated With Improvements in Pain During Intercourse and Sexual Satisfaction in Kenya." J Sex Med. 2017;14(4):601-612. Abstract

Two cohort studies using data from randomized controlled trials in Africa offer the best evidence to date on the effects of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) on male sexual function and satisfaction, suggesting no significant impairments in sexual function or satisfaction and some improvements in sexual function after male circumcision.

Norling M, Bishop RP, Pelle R, Qi W, Henson S, Drábek EF, Tretina K, Odongo D, Mwaura S, Njoroge T, Bongcam-Rudloff E, Daubenberger CA, Silva JC. "The genomes of three stocks comprising the most widely utilized live sporozoite Theileria parva vaccine exhibit very different degrees and patterns of sequence divergence." BMC Genomics. 2015;16:729. Abstract

There are no commercially available vaccines against human protozoan parasitic diseases, despite the success of vaccination-induced long-term protection against infectious diseases. East Coast fever, caused by the protist Theileria parva, kills one million cattle each year in sub-Saharan Africa, and contributes significantly to hunger and poverty in the region. A highly effective, live, multi-isolate vaccine against T. parva exists, but its component isolates have not been characterized. Here we sequence and compare the three component T. parva stocks within this vaccine, the Muguga Cocktail, namely Muguga, Kiambu5 and Serengeti-transformed, aiming to identify genomic features that contribute to vaccine efficacy.

Norton J, Omondi E, Norton U, Ngosia DS, Odhiambo JA, Okeyo J, Okalebo JR, Oluko PS. "Conservation agriculture for smallholder farms in Eastern Uganda and Western Kenya.". 2012.
Notohara K, Hamazaki S, Tsukayama C, Nakamoto S, Kawabata K, Mizobuchi K, Sakamoto K, Okada S. "Solid-pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: immunohistochemical localization of neuroendocrine markers and {CD}10." The American journal of surgical pathology. 2000;24:1361-1371. AbstractWebsite
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Nour HA, Oyoo GO, JOSHI MD, Otsyeno FMT. "PATTERNS OF KNEE, HIP AND HAND OSTEOARTHRITIS IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL.". In: East African Orthopaedic Journal. Vol. 7.; 2013:. Abstract

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic rheumatic disorders and is associated with significant morbidity and disability. Few studies examined the spectrum of rheumatic diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Obesity is not only a risk factor for incidence of OA but also for the progression of the disease.
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the patterns of knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis as well as obesity prevalence in the patients with established disease.
Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study.
Methods: Patients with knee, hip and hand OA were studied. Of these participants, 77% had knee OA, 15% hip OA, 3% hand OA and 5% had combined knee and hip OA. Obese participants were 41% and 32% were overweight. There were 89(44.3%) participants with bilateral knee or hip disease while 112(55.7%) had unilateral disease. Obesity was more common in participants with knee than in hip OA(45.3% vs 10.3% respectively) P<0.001. The bilateral disease was higher in obese (55.2%) and overweight (44.6%) participants compared to participants with normal body mass indices (26.5%) P value <0.007.
Conclusion: Knee OA was very common and the majority of the patients were overweight and obese. Bilateral OA was was more prevalent in obese and overweight participants compared to normal weight participants. Obesity is an easily modifiable risk factor for knee OA so it can be made a valid target for preventing as well halting the progression of OA

Nour HA, Oyoo GO, JOSHI MD, Otsyeno FMT, Muriithi IM. "Patterns of knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis in Kenyatta National Hospital." EAOJ. 2014;8(2):60-63.AJOL
Nour HA, Oyoo GO, JOSHI MD, Otsyeno FMT, Muriithi IM. "PATTERNS OF KNEE, HIP AND HAND OSTEOARTHRITIS IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL ." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2015;8(2):60-63. Abstract

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic rheumatic disorders and is associated with significant morbidity and disability. Few studies examined the spectrum of rheumatic diseases in subSaharan Africa. Obesity is not only a risk factor for incidence of OA but also for the progression of the disease. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the patterns of knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis as well as obesity prevalence in the patients with established disease. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methods: we examined patients with knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis to describe the patterns of osteoarthritis in 201 patients who fulfilled the ACR diagnostic criteria. Their body mass indices were also studied to determine the prevalence of obesity in this cohort of patients. Results: A total of 201 patients with knee, hip or hand osteoarthritis were studied. Of these participants, 77% had knee OA, 15% hip OA, 3% hand OA and 5% had combined knee and hip OA. Obese participants were 41% and 32% were overweight. There were 89 (44.3%) participants with bilateral knee or hip disease while 112(55.7%) had unilateral disease. Obesity was more common in participants with knee than in hip OA (45.3% vs 10.3% respectively) P < 0.001. The bilateral disease was higher in obese (55.2%) and overweight (44.6%) participants compared to participants with normal body mass indices (26.5%) P value < 0.007. Conclusion: Knee OA was very common and the majority of the patients were overweight and obese. Bilateral OA was more prevalent in obese and overweight participants compared to normal weight participants. Obesity is an easily modifiable risk factor for knee OA so it can be made a valid target for preventing as well as halting the progression of OA.

Nowrozani FR. "Comparison of the {Abdominal} {Aorta} and {Renal} {Artery} in the {Neonate} {Male} {Dog}." Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2011;10:2278-2281. Abstract
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Nquma TY, Sanette Marx, Obiero G. Optimisation of ethanol yield from cassava. Sommerset west, South Africa; 2009.
Nsadha, Z., Saimo, M., Waiswa, C., Maingi, N., Ojok, L., Willingham III, A. L., Mutagwanja, R., Nyakarahuka L, Lubega GW. "Risk factors and lingual prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in the Lake Kyoga Basin in Uganda." African Journal of Animal and Biomedical Sciences . 2010;5(3):43-50.2010._risk_factors_and_lingual_prevalence_of_porcine_cycticercosis_in_uganda.pdf
Nsanze H, D'Costa LJ, Owili DM, Ilako F, Ndinya-Achola JO, P P. "Treatment of gonorrhea with single-dose thiamphenicol in Kenya.". 1984. Abstract

The efficacy of a single 2.5-g dose of thiamphenicol against infection with penicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) or non-penicillinase-producing strains (non-PPNG) was studied in a two-phase clinical trial in Nairobi. The first phase included men who had had a urethral discharge for less than seven days, were infected with either PPNG or non-PPNG, and had not received previous treatment. The second phase included men with PPNG infections that had not responded to treatment with penicillin. The overall cure rate (determined by follow-up examinations and cultures three and ten days after treatment) was 90.6% in the first phase of the study and 92.1% in the second phase. A second 2.5-g dose of thiamphenicol was administered to four of the six patients in the second phase whose cultures yielded gonococci after the initial dose; the infections of all four patients were cured. The results of disk diffusion tests of gonococcal isolates did not correlate well with the outcome of treatment.

Nshimirimana DA, Uwurukundo JMC, Kokonya D, Biraboneye P, Were F, Baribwira C. "Pain Assessment among African Neonates." American Journal of Pediatrics. 2016;2(2). AbstractWebsite

Neonates who require treatment and venous drawing of blood samples in the newborn units are subjected to acute and painfully invasive procedures. Several tools to assess pain among newborns have been developed and are widely used in developed countries, but in Africa, there is limited experience in the assessment pain among newborns. This study assessed physiological and behavioral responses to pain among neonates during invasive procedures performed in a newborn unit in Rwanda. A total of 60 neonates born at gestational age of 28-42 weeks at the National University of Rwanda Teaching and Referral Hospital in the year 2005 were enrolled into this study. Blood pressures, heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation levels, the Neonatal Facing Coding System (NFCS) and Neonatal Acute Pain (APN) pain tools were and scores recorded before, immediately and 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after procedures were recorded. Physiological parameters were compared using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test while the NFCS and APN were compared using the McNemar Test. All (100%) neonates experienced acutely peak pain in the first 5 minutes of the invasive procedures with peak responses recorded at 2.5 minutes and no pain (resolution) after 15 minutes among 81% of the neonates and only 6% experienced pain after 20 minutes. The increases in systolic blood pressures immediately after inflicting pain, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes were statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.005 and p<0.046) respectively compared to the diastolic blood pressures whose significant increases were at 5 and 10 minutes, (p<0.001 and p<0.001) respectively. Respiratory rates were significantly high at the onset (p<0.001), 5 minutes (p<0.001) and 10 minutes later (p<0.002). Heart rates significantly increased at the onset of the procedures (p<0.000), 5 minutes (p<0.001) and after 10 minutes (p<0.033). Decrease in oxygen saturation immediately after the procedures was significant (p<0.001). Oxygen saturation immediately after the procedures significantly increased up to 5 minutes (p<0.001) and 10 minutes (p<0.001). Invasive procedures caused acute pain among neonates in the African settings but to date, neonatal practice had not been given its due consideration with the aim of reducing pain among African neonates.

Keywords: Pain, Assessment, Neonates, Physiological, APN, NFCS, Africa

Ntampaka P, Nyaga PN, Gathumbi JK, Tukei M. "Rabies serosurvey of domestic dogs in Kigali City, Rwanda." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2019;11:64-72.
Ntarangui TN'olua. A study into energy management and possibilities of energy conservation in student hostels. .; 1989. Abstract

Energy has become a very important aspect of our lives. This study has tried to examine the problems related to energy use, and has tried to outline various measures that can be effectively used to improve energy utilization in the student hostels. Energy use in buildings is discussed with emphasis laid on the need to incorporate energy as a design parameter at the design stage. Energy management for old buildings is also examined with the aim of showing that effective and efficient energy management is a key factor in reducing energy consumption in buildings. The research tries to bring out the nature of energy consumption in the student hostels. This is done with the aim of identifying energy conservation opportunities. Finally the study has outlined various conclusions and recommendations, that if applied could possibly help in reducing the high energy consumption in the student hostels

Nthakanio NP, Ireri KJ, Munji. KJ, Raphael W. Adaptability of PGMS and TGMS rice lines for hybrid rice seed production in Kenya..; 2012.
Nthambi M, Nyikal R, Mburu J. "DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLDS' CHOICE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS IN KIBERA SLUM, KENYA." Journal of International Real Estate and Construction Studies; Hauppauge . 2013;3(2):143-162. AbstractWebsite

Each of the about 44 million citizens of Kenya has a duty to cooperate with the State and other persons to protect and conserve the environment for sustainable development. Responsibilities to the environment are particularly critical with respect to waste management. At the southwest of Nairobi city is the largest slum in sub-Saharan Africa, Kibera slum. Waste build up in the slum is a common phenomena with visible waste mountains along the roads and public places. The main objective of this study is to assess the determinants of households' choice of solid waste management options. Using the quantitative research methodology, a survey of 250 households was carried out in the slum and a multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select the sample. Waste management options hyphothesized in the study included solid waste reuse, burning, recycling and disposal. Data collected was analyzed by Stata software using a multinomial logit regression model (MNL). MNL was used to assess the effect of household socioeconomic and institutional attributes on the choice of household solid waste management options. Findings revealed that institutional factors such as contractual arrangements, waste management regulations of 2006, disposal returns, distance to the main road, years of schooling, family size,ownership of a slum/sack garden,community based recycling practise, disposal returns and waste segregation explain the households' choice of solid waste management options. As a result, the study recommends strong pro-poor waste management policies, community-based waste management approaches, support for informal waste recyclers, privatisation of waste management services and development of compost manure market among urban and peri-urban areas farmers.

Keywords: waste management options, household solid waste, multinomial logit model, determinants

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary Education in Kenya. Enos H.N. Njeru & Urbanus Kioko, 32p. ISBN 9966-948-16-3.". In: Discussion Paper No.044/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

Since the first case was reported in Kenya in 1984, HIV/AIDS has been rising
steadily, with the increase being widespread between and within the ages 15-49.
Given that the population in this age bracket forms the key reproductive and
vital manpower, HIV/AIDS has therefore had serious consequences for various
sectors ofthe economy, including education. Evidence shows that the pandemic
is affecting the supply, demand and quality ofeducation, and its capacity
to respond to new and complex demands. Existing literature indicates that research
specifically addressing the actual and likely impacts of the HIV/AIDS
pandemic on primary education is largely undocumented. This creates, a need
for further understanding to faci:litate formulation ofappropriate interventions to
effectively mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on the demand and supply of primary
education in Kenya. The purpose ofthis study, therefore, is to provide data
that will contribute to critical needs in development of pertinent basic planning
tools for education and policy managers within the government, particularly focusing
on the impact of HIV/AIDS on demand, supply and quality of educational
services in primary schools.
The study entails a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the impact ofHIV/
AIDS on primary education, based mainly on secondary data sources and key
informant interviews with officers from the Ministry ofEducation, Science and
Technology, Ministry ofPlanning and National Development, Central Bureau of
Statistics, Teachers Service Commission, and National AIDS Control Programme.
Among the key findings is the glaring contrast of the status of education between
Kenya without HIVIAIDS and Kenya with HIVIAIDS. The study shows
that under Kenya without AIDS, the number of school age children would increase
to 9.27 million by 2015, as contrasted to 7.9 million under Kenya with
AIDS projections in the same period. Under Kenya without AIDS, the required
number of primary school teachers would be 266,052 in 2010 as opposed to
229,412 teachers under Kenya with AIDS. Overall teacher deaths increased
from 1,216 in 1997 to 2,133 in 2001, while teacher mortality, among primary
school teachers, rose from 191 in 1997 to 336 in 2001.
The study recommends that: (i) MoES&T should consider posting teachers to
districts most affected by HIV/AIDS and give priority for admission into teacher
training colleges and other incentives to candidates from the affected districts;
(ii) MoES&T should ensure that all teachers have access to adequate knowledge
ofthe aetiology ofHIV/AIDS and wherever possible, the infected teachers
have access to anti-retroviral therapy; (iii) MoES&T should ensure that the potential consequences of HIVIAIDS are factored into the education plan as
accurately as possible; (iv) Government should develop effective strategies to
promote primary school enrolment for the needy children among those affected
by HIVIAIDS; (v) Government should work out effective strategies to improve
enrolment for orphans; (vi) Government should facilitate sustained enrolment of
children, especially girls, and ensure that they complete schooling beyond the
primary level; (vii) MoES&T should institutionalise an effective data collection
and reporting system on teacher absenteeism and morbidity, with a view to
disaggregating the teacher work and deaths statistics by cause, gender, age, and
regional backgrounds.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Socio-economic Implications of Climate Change and Sea Level Rise for the Tourist and Hotel Industry.".". In: Nairobi: UNEP/IGBP. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Gender Aspects in HIV/AIDS Infection and Control in Kenya. Enos H.N. Njeru, Peter Mwangi & Mary N. Nguli. 42p.". In: Discussion Paper No. DP057/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. ISBN 9966-948-77-5. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

Men are expected to be physically strong, robust, and daring, the world over.
Some of these expectations translate into attitudes and behaviours that become
unhelpful or lethal with the advent of AIDS. Others, to the contrary, represent
valuable potential that could be gainfully tapped by AIDS programmes for
enhanced effectiveness. Extra challenges for HIV prevention therefore arise
from societal expectations that allow men to take risks; have frequent sexual
intercourse (often with more than one partner) and exercise authority over
women. These expectations among others encourage men to force sex on
unwilling female partners and to reject condom use among other risky behaviours
regarding HIVIAIDS infection and prevention. Changing the commonly held
attitudes and behaviours should be part and parcel of the efforts to curb the
AIDS pandemic. On the other hand, due to their lack of social and economic
power, many women and girls are unable to negotiate relationships based on
abstinence, faithfulness and use of condoms. This paper points out these
inequalities and offers policy options that could reduce vulnerability of both men
and women to HIV/AIDS.
The data used in this presentation was obtained largely through desk review,
with limited primary data collected to supplement the secondary sources. The
study confirms the continuous spread of HIV/AIDS despite the government's
efforts to combat the pandemic and attributes the trends of prevalence and
infection to, among others: increase in cases of violence against women; negative
attitudes and socio-cultural practices; and power imbalances between men and
women. The study recommends: transformation of gender roles through gender
mainstrearning; policy shift primarily targeting men as the dominant sex in sexual
relations; law on prostitution to be enforced; those found guilty of crimes of
sexual violence to face very stiff penalties; laws should be enacted to facilitate
women's ownership ofland and other property; generate comprehensive gender
disaggregated data to help design better policies for addressing the gender gap.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""The Application of Indigenous Knowledge in Pastoral Production Systems".". In: The African Pastoral Forum. Working Paper Series No.6, Jan. 1996. Nairobi: Business Line Ltd. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 10, Issue 12, 2004. Gender aspects in HIV/AIDS infection and control in Kenya. Enos Njeru, Peter Mwangi and Mary Nguli.". In: ISBN 9966-948-77-5. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Quest for Gender Equality" In Social Focus. Nairobi:.". In: AEF International. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Combating HIV/AIDS in Kenya: Priority setting and resource allocation. Christopher Onyango & Enos Njeru. 64p. ISBN 9966-948-06-6.". In: Discussion Paper No. DP059/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has emerged as one of the leading challenges to global public health and development. Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, has become the epicenter of the pandemic, with over 29.4 million people currently living with the virus and more than 2.4 million people having succumbed to the
disease. In Kenya, the agonies of the HIV/AIDS to individuals, families and societies are overwhelming. Much of the hard-won gains in economic growth, life expectancy and child survival have been wiped out. Besides, many sectors, including education, agriculture, industry and health are staggering under the
burden of the disease. These sectors lose trained professionals and have to contend with higher costs of production and delivery of services.

In Kenya, the Sessional Paper No.4 of 1997 on AIDS lays down the contemporary long-term framework for response to the pandemic. After declaring AIDS a national disaster in 1999, the government established the National AIDS Control Council (NACC) to guide implementation of the National HIVIAIDS Strategic
Plan 2000-2005, within the framework of the multi-sectoral approach. But despite these efforts, successes have been far too few and on too small a scale to reverse the pandemic. This study looked into the priorities and allocation of resources among alternative HIV-related interventions within the framework of the AIDS strategic plan. It also examined the link between the national HIV/AIDS Programme, the macroeconomic framework and the participatory role played by various actors in HIVIAIDS-related activities. Finally, the study
assessed the impacts of alternative patterns of resource allocation with regard to reduction of HIV prevalence, programme coverage and future expenditures averted.

The study entailed the use of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. HIV related demographic, behavioral and financial data, gathered by the National AIDS Control Council during the year 2002 was heavily used. In particular, we used the GOALS simulation model to assess the consequences and trade-offs
of HIVIAIDS resource allocation options. The study also investigated the policies, planning and budgetary commitments to HIV/AIDS-related priorities using secondary data sources, complemented with primary data collected mainly through in-depth interviews with key informants based in Nairobi.

The study established that the costing of the multi-sectoral HIVIAIDS strategic plan lies outside the center of the national budget allocation decisions and the Mid Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), despite the existence of a strong institutional framework and enabling policy environment. Further, our analysis showed that given available resources, there is great potential to improve the national response to HIV/AIDS by increasing expenditures on preventive measures and treatment and care services as opposed to policy development and management in the coming years. The study therefore strongly recommends,
among others, the need to fully integrate the HIV/AIDS strategic plan into the national framework of the poverty reduction and economic recovery strategies in order to achieve a more comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. An effective way of mainstreaming HIV/AIDS and supporting an
effective multi-sectoral response to illY/AIDS will be through ensuring that HIV/AIDS is adequately addressed as part of the poverty reduction agenda and economic recovery strategies, the objective being to get HIV/AIDS routinely mainstreamed into government planning, programming and budgeting processes
(ERS and MTEF). This will ultimately result in HIV/AIDS being mainstreamed into sector strategies.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Analysis and Evaluation of Poverty in Kenya." CH. 1 pp. 1-36. Co-authored with Bahemuka et al. In Bahemuka J. et al. Poverty Revisited: Analysis and Strategies Towards Poverty Eradication in Kenya. Nairobi:.". In: Ruaraka Printing Press Ltd. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH, NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 9, Issue 6, 2003. .". In: ISBN 9966-948-27-9. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Land Adjudication and its Implications for the Social Organization of the Mbeere".". In: In African Journal of Sociology, Vol. 1 No. 1 & 2. University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1981. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "The Sociology of Private Tuition. Indeje Wanyama & Enos H.N. Njeru, 41p. ISBN 9966-948-87-2.". In: Discussion Paper No.037/2003. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Access and Participation in Secondary School Education: Emerging Issues and Policy Implications. Enos H.N. Njeru & John Orodho. 55p. ISBN 9966-948-27-9.". In: Discussion Paper No.037/2003. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

On attainment of political independence in 1963, the Government of Kenya (GoK), households and the private sector collectively endeavoured to enhance the development of education in the country. The rapid development of education and training in Kenya was an aftermath of the Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 on African Socialism and its Application to Planning in Kenya, which emphasized combating ignorance, disease and poverty. It was based on two long-standing concerns that: (i) every Kenyan child, irrespective of gender, religion and ethnicity, has the inalienable right to access basic welfare provision, including education; and (ii) the GoK has an obligation to provide opportunity to all citizens to fully participate in socio-economic and political development of the country and also to empower the people to improve their welfare. Development of education since independence has been marked by various changes and challenges. For nearly four decades therefore, the sector has undergone several reviews by special commissions and working parties appointed by the government, with the aim of improving efficiency and effectiveness of the education provision.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""The Psychosocial Aspects of Epilepsy". In Medicus:.". In: Magazine of the Kenya Medical association. April 1992. Volume 11 No. 4. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 10, Issue 7, 2004. Funding the fight against HIV/AIDS: Budgetary analysis of Kenya.". In: ISBN 9966-948-50-x. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

The Abuja Declaration, adopted at the Africa Union special summit on AIDS in 2001, called upon African governments to allocate 15% of their national budgets to health spending, with more emphasis on HIV/AIDS programmes. This commitment echoes the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS
(UNGASS), which calls for an increase in spending on HIV/AIDS programmes to US$ 7-10 billion by 2005. The declaration of commitment by the Africa Union calls for minimum spending that provides coverage of essential prevention, care, and mitigation services in an effort to reduce the spread of the epidemic. In Kenya,
despite the government's commitment to fight the pandemic, very little information is available on the actual expenditures on HIV/IDS activities. The objective of this study was to track HIV/AIDS expenditure and analyse the budget from an HIV/AIDS perspective. Understanding how the financial and other national resources
are used towards realization of the national objectives as outlined in the HIV/AIDS related strategic goals in each country, will help the planners to choose pertinent, useful and attainable interventions.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Socio-Cultural Analysis of Childhood Malnutrition in Embu District". In Social Behaviour and Health Monograph No. 2, March,1996. Co-authored with Dr. W.M. Macharia. .". In: University of Nairobi: IFCP. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Funding the Fight. Budgeting for HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries. Edited by Teresa Guthrie and Alison Hickey. BOOK CHAPTER Pp 13-52, by Urbanus Kioko & Enos H.N. Njeru.". In: Cape Town: AIDS Budget Unit, IDASA. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Women-Headed Households: A Critical Factor in Urban Development." Co-authored with J.M. Mbula Bahemuka. In Obudho and Aldershot (Eds.) Nairobi and its Environs:.". In: A Geographical Study of Capital City in African, Vol. 1 & 2. Ashgate Publishing Co. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 10, Issue 13, 2004. Combating HIV/AIDS in Kenya: Priority setting and resource allocation. Christopher Onyango and Enos Njeru. ISBN 9966-948-06-6.". In: Discussion Paper No. DP059/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Urbanization, Urban Violence and Its implications for Urban Planning".". In: In African Urban Quarterly (AUQ) Vol. 12 No. 4 of November 1997. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Social Health Insurance Scheme for all Kenyans: Opportunities and sustainability potential. Enos Njeru, Robert Arasa & Mary N. Nguli. 49p. ISBN 9966-948-18-x. (ttp://www.ipar.or.ke/dp60dp.pdf).". In: Discussion Paper No. DP060/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Street Children In Kenya: Voices of Children in search of a Childhood. With Kilbride, P. & Suda, Collette. Westport: Bergin & Garvey.". In: Gpg (Greenwood Publishers Group). African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

Street Children in Kenya provides an in-depth examination of the experiences of street children in Nairobi, Kenya. Drawing from participant observations, individual and focus group interviews, the authors, Kilbride, Suda, and Njeru allow readers to confront the harsh realities, suffering, and survival skills of nearly 400 of the over 40,000 homeless children in Nairobi. These children are part of the over 110,000 children described by UNICEF as "in need of special protection" (GOK/UNICEF, 1998). Reflecting the anthropological and sociological backgrounds of the scholars, the book's initial chapters introduce the methodology and background for the study, including a description of the study's setting, Nairobi, and relevant information on the communities studied. The text also provides information on social and cultural issues affecting families (e.g., the weakening of family structures due to poverty, the impact of AIDS, and government sanctioned ethnic conflicts), which have contributed to the rapid rise in the number of children living and working on the street. Even though only one chapter is solely devoted to the narratives of the children, most chapters are infused with humanizing accounts and perspectives on the children's lives. A unique contribution of the study is its methodology, which involved giving older street children cameras to document their daily life, thus greatly personalizing the book, since the children were allowed to tell their own stories. A more traditional scholarly analysis is presented in the final chapter, which addresses policy implications, particularly with regards to long-term, culturally framed solutions to this complex and growing problem.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Land Adjudication and Its Implications for the Social Organization of the Mbeere.".". In: Research Paper No. 73, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1978. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Guest Editor for Africa, Regional Development Dialogue (RDD), Vol. 24, No. 2, Autumn 2003.". In: On the Theme: . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH, NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "The Role of Higher Education Loans Board in pro-poor management approaches to enhancing access to University Education in Kenya. Enos H.N. Njeru & Paul Odundo. 46p.". In: Discussion Paper No.036/2003. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. ISBN 9966-948-15-5. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The Republic of Kenya, through the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
(MoES&T) has, since independence in 1963, been committed to providing
quality and relevant education to its citizens at all levels. With increasing
population, adverse macroeconomic performance, and increasing cost of education
against increasing demand, the government introduced cost-sharing in
education at all levels. As such, payment of fees by those pursuing degree programmes
was introduced as part of the efforts by government to transfer the
cost of financing university education to the beneficiaries. To cushion the income-
poor against adverse financial difficulties, and to ensure that no eligible
students dropped out ofuniversity due to inability to finance their education, the
loan and bursary schemes were introduced to benefit all university students who
could not fully finance their education. In essence, the government established
the Higher Education Loans Board (HELB) in July 1995 to improve both loans'
disbursement and recovery.
The financial arrangements and processes in question have given rise to a number
ofkey questions and issues, including the need for efficiency in the management
of the scheme; extent to which the loan and bursary schemes effectively cushion
the vulnerable against dropping out ofuniversity; eligibility criteria; alternative
sources of financing university education; other factors against participation;
pertinent information handling; quality of governance in the disbursement
of loans; loan recovery and loan beneficiary tracer efforts; commitment to loan
repaying on the part ofthe beneficiaries; legal empowerment to enable the board
to deliver on its mandates through legislative status with regard to both loan
recovery and alternative sourcing of funds to supplement its regular budgetary
allocations; nature and levels ofnetworking with employers ofuniversity graduates
and other institutions; quality ofinformation content in loan application forms
to control cheating; parallel bursary schemes managed by HELB and MoES&T,
and equity issues as some needy students fail to benefit while some less needy
do benefit; nature and levels of funding co-ordination between HELB and other
bursary/scholarship/grant awarding and sponsor organizations. Other important
issues concern the high default rates, low visibility of HELB's activities, and
underdeveloped loans repayment monitoring structures.
Recommendations include revitalizing HELB into a revolving fund with minimal
budgetary allocation; strengthening and reforming attendant administrative and
efficiency monitoring structures where these exist, and creation of the same
where they do not exist.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Approaches to Family Planning in East Africa". Co-authored with J. Mbula Bahemuka and Speciosa Kabwegyere. ROMA: FEDEREZIONI ORGANISMI CRISTIANI SERVIZIO INTERNAZIONALE VOLONTARIO (FOCSIV) CENTRO STUDIE RESERCHE AFRICA. Collana CONTRIBUTI 15. NOVEMBRE 19.". In: Magazine of the Kenya Medical association. April 1992. Volume 11 No. 4. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Funding the Fight. Budgeting for HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries Edited by Teresa Guthrie and Alison Hickey. KENYA CHAPTER: pp 13-52. Co-authored by Urbanus Kioko & Enos H.N. Njeru. Cape Town: AIDS Budget Unit, IDASA.". In: ISBN 1-919798-71-4. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Socio-economic Implications of Climate Change and Sea Level Rise for the Tourist and Hotel Industry.".". In: Nairobi: UNEP/IGBP. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 10, Issue 8, 2004, The Sociology of Private Tuition. Indeje Wanyama and Enos H.N. Njeru.". In: ISBN 9966-948-87-2. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

This paper discusses the issue of private tuition mainly at primary educational
level within various contexts, including governance. The paper notes that even
though the practice ofprivate tuition has been in existence for quite some time,
very little, if any, research has been undertaken to explain its nature, extent and
implications for the education system. Besides, nothing is known about its overall
socio-economic setups at the international as well as the national levels.
Technically, private tuition is not allowed in Kenya. However, there is ample
evidence to show that the practice is taking place on a very large scale. The
most affected is the mainstream system, with some of its teachers engaging in
the practice. The emphasis on examination as a basis for staff recruitment and
promotion has further aggravated this problem. Indeed, even some Ministry of
Education, Science and Technology (MoES&T) officials - who are supposed to
articulate Government Policy on Education - take their children to private tuition
classes. This is because they too, have to equally compete for the limited places
at higher levels oflearning and this can only be achieved through good performance
in National Examinations. This paper focuses on the genesis of private
tuition and schooling in comparison to public education, as well as the factors
that sustain the behind-the-scenes private tuition system, leading to consumers
of education (pupils and parents) demanding for private tuition services, and
those that lead to producers (tutors, including teachers and other entrepreneurs)
producing and supplying the commodity - private tuition.
This study was limited to a desk review ofpertinent literature and selected key
informant interviews. The study's key findings indicate that socio-economic inequalities
continue to be pervasively manifest in the practice ofprivate tuition;
quality service is not guaranteed as long as private tuition continues to get no
official recognition; and while private tuition constitutes a serious financial burden
to the low income households, strong support for it comes from both parents
and students.
The study recommends urgent recognition ofthe integral role played by private
tuition in the management and delivery ofeducation services, hence strong evidence
that banning private tuition is unlikely to achieve the intended levels of
compliance, especially on the part ofthe producers and consumers. Such recognition
should therefore pave way for stakeholder dialogue between parents and
education managers, while incorporating the expertise and views of education
scholars, to improve equity in education financing without compromising quality.
It is further recommended that a study of a larger primary data-based scale be
carried out to facilitate an authoritative authentication of the findings, and, in
effect, be used to guide the way forward in terms of formulating an effective
policy on private tuition and related planning and implementation issues.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Understanding Female Circumcision from the Circumcisers' Perspective.". In: In Program and Abstracts for the Third Annual Meeting of AFRICLEN and PHSWOW at Hotel Equatoria, Kampala. In East African Medical Journal. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 10, Issue 9, 2004. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary Education in Kenya. Enos Njeru & Urbanus Kioko.". In: ISBN 9966-948-16-3. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""City Slum Single Motherhood and Its Socio-economic Implications for Child Welfare".". In: In African Urban Quarterly (AUQ) Vol. 13 Nos. 1 and 2 of February and May 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Social Health Insurance Scheme for all Kenyans: Opportunities and sustainability potential. Enos Njeru Robert Arasa & Mary Nguli. ISBN 9966-948-18-x.". In: Discussion Paper No. DP060/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Impact Assessment of Micro-Enterprise Projects. IDS Discussion Paper No. 298.". In: Reme Project Series. Institute for Development Studies, University Of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

The Department for International Development (DFID) and
the British Aid for Small Enterprises (BASE) are supporting
micro-finance projects in Kenya. The goal of the projects as
set out in the logical framework is to provide additional
employment and self-employment opportunities, especially for
poorer people and increase their incomes through improvement
in the production capacity oftheir micro-enterprises. For this
goal to be attained, the capacity ofprivate sector intermediary
micro-finance institutions to promote micro and small
enterprises (MSEs) on a sustainable basis is being developed.
Indicators that help to measure progress toward attainment of
the goal such as number of jobs created by the MSEs and
growth ofcapacity ofmicro-finance institutions have been spelt
out. However, to know how far this goal is being attained,
impact assessment needs to be carried out.
This paper examines key issues that need to be borne in mind
by those carrying out impact assessment. It considers the
conceptual framework that guides assessment, research design,
methods and techniques, gender relations and the problems of
attribution and fungibility.
Noponen (1997:3) holds that most organisations establish
monitoring and evaluation systems to help them learn from
their experience and use the experiences to improve their
performance, expand their operations or adapt some of their
operations to local situations.
Evaluation has been defined by Scriven (1967), Glass (1969)
and Stufflebeam (1974) as the assessment ofmerit or worth of
a programme. The Joint Committee on Standards of Evaluation (1981) defined evaluation as the systematic investigation of
the worth or merit of some object. Suchman (1967:7) saw
evaluation as referring to the processes of assessment or
appraisal of value. According to Linchfield et al. (1974:4),
appraisal refers to the process of analysing a number of plans
or projects with a view to searching out their comparative pros
and coris and the act of setting down the findings of such
analysis in a logical framework.
These definitions show that the concepts "evaluation",
"assessment" and "appraisal" are synonymous and are used
interchangeably.
The concept "impact assessment", which is widely used in the
literature on micro-enterprise refers to a type of evaluation or
assessment that focuses on outcomes or effect ofa programme
(Oakley, 1987:31). Goldmark and Rosengard (1981: 10) see
impact evaluation as referring to the assessment of a smallscale
enterprise's effect on its intended population. The
assessment entails an analysis ofthe enterprise's viability and
its interaction with and influence on the community as an
outcome of an external programme ofassistance. Goldmark
and Rosengard caution that impact evaluations should not only
describe financial or managerial changes occurring within the .
micro-enterprise and how far the changes are meeting.
developmentobjectives, but also observe the changes that have
taken place in the community.
Impact evaluation studies have become popular with donors·
and, as a corollary, have become a.significant component of
donor funding and, consequently, of recipient institutions
(Hulme, 1997).· Their objectives are:
to figure out the effects ofintervention in changing the
conditions facing the target population (Oketch et aI.,
1991);
b) to objectively justify continuing support to MSEs and
also validate their choice of given modes of
intervention; and
c) as a stage in the project planning process, evaluation
seeks to provide information pertaining to important
implications of the planning process, i.e., it helps to
establish what happened where particular options were
taken up, whether anticipated effects occurred, who
gained or lost, when the effects occurred and the
efficiency of the investment in relation to resources
used and benefits derived (Linchfield, et ai. 1974).
To achieve these objectives, donors seek more information
about programme effectiveness rhan is readily available from
routine impact and monitoring systems ofrecipient institutions.
Besides measuring the efficacy of programmes, donors often
emphasise impact evaluations to meet the accountability
demand oftheir home governments and thus justify continued
support. To this extent, impact evaluations tend to be donordriven
(Hulme, 1997). Donor institutions such as DFID have
legitimate interest in measuring programme impacts as in the
case of the REME project.
Impact evaluation also exposes internal problems and
constraints~ and provides benchmark information for
comparing, ranking and selecting sets ofappropriate methods
(REME Project Proposal, 1997).
These objectives place high demands on the quality and
accuracy of data. However, given" the context of developing countries (limited numbers of professional researchers, few
written records, illiteracy, communication problems, lack of
respondent motivation and limited budgets), such evaluations
might not generate accurate measurements of impacts, and
caution has to be exercised when they are performed.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Some Consequences of Land Adjudication in Mbeere Division, Embu". Co-authored with David Brokensha.". In: Working Paper No. 320, IDS (Institute for Development Studies), University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1977. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume Volume 9, Issue 5, 2003. The Role of Higher Education Loans Board in pro-poor management approaches to enhancing access to University Education in Kenya. By Njeru and Odundo.". In: ISBN 9966-948-15-5. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH, NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Education Financing in Kenya: Secondary School Bursary Scheme Implementation and Challenges. Enos H.N. Njeru & John Orodho. 59p. ISBN 9966-948-98-8.". In: Discussion Paper No.035/2003. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

Having accepted the rationality of cost-sharing, the Ministry of Education, Science
and Technology (MoES&T) bursary scheme was introduced as one of the
safety-nets to cushion the poor and the vulnerable groups against the consequent
adverse effects. The bursary scheme, however, remains inefficient and
ineffective. Other characteristics that contribute to bottlenecks in its implementation
at the secondary school education level include limited access and participation
due to poor quality of service, bad governance and management weaknesses.
It is, therefore, arguable that against the background of more than half
of Kenya's population living below the poverty line, and the rising cost of education,
majority of households, especially among the poor and vulnerable groups,
are unable to invest in the development it of quality secondary education.
The objectives of this study included documentation of the patterns and trends in
financing secondary education in the public sector in Kenya; analysis of implementation
of the bursary scheme at the secondary school level in Kenya, with
special focus on disbursement procedures, equity considerations according to
socio-economic groups; and the overall impact on access to secondary school
education with regard to the income-poor and other vulnerable groups.
The study adopted an exploratory approach using a descriptive design. Four
provinces were randomly sampled and one district purposively selected from
each province. Three target populations considered were MoES&T staff; school-based
education staff and opinion leaders. Questionnaires, semi-structured interview
schedules, and focus group discussions were used in data gathering.
Data analysis was carried out using SPSS.
Study results indicated that the patterns and trends of education financing in
Kenya incorporated a partnership between the state, households, and communities
long before the introduction of the cost-sharing policy. The financing of
secondary education has, however, become problematic, ~s parents have to
,houlder an increasingly large proportion of the cost.
The government's financing of secondary education has largely been directed
towards Tecurrent expenditure, mainly to meet teachers' salaries and allowances,
at the expense of development expenditures, which would be essential to
provide and improve the physical and instructional facilities. This has resulted in
poot quality education as O1ost schools are inadequately provided with basic
learning resources.
.Tbe cost-sharing strategy has hada negative impact on the poor and vulnerable
households. The latter either do not enroll their children in secondary schools, or
fail to sustain a continuous participation of those enrolled due to inability to meet
cost requirements. This results in inadequate provision of learning facilities to
the enrolled, poor quality education, and high dropout rates.
The operatrion of the MoES&T bursary scheme is handicapped by inadequate
guidelines with regard to the amounts to be allocated per student; poor criteria
for selection of genuinely needy; inadequate awareness creation about the
scheme's existence and operations; limited funds hence limited coverage; poor
co-ordination and delays in funds' disbursement; and lack of monitoring mechanisms
by the MoES&T at the school and higher levels. This has resulted in lack
of transparency and accountability, nepotism, among other aspects of mismanagement.
A critical issue that requires redress is awarding of the bursaries to
less deserving, and sometimes completely undeserving, but well-connected applicants,
at the expense of the poor and vulnerable groups.
Policy options - the MoES&T should:
• Either abolish fee levies charged to parents or ensure foolproof enforcement
ofthe fee guidelines in order to eradicate loopholes in financial management
practices in schools.
• Consider increasing the current bursary funding from Ksh. 210 million
to Ksh. 1.5 billion. This will enable be~eficiariesto meaningfully meet at least
60% oftheir outstanding fees.
• Put in place clear guidance regarding eligibility and the socio-economic
categories to benefit from the bursary scheme; the amount to be allocated per
student; and a monitoring mechanism to ensure transparency and accountability
in the disbursement ofthe bursary funds. .
• In consultation with other stakeholders in the secondary education subsector,
work out ways to allow individual schools to evolve a 'fees waiver mechanism'
and income generating activities at the school level to raise funds for
various purposes to benefit learning resources, quality improvement, school
projects, and, where possible, supplement student fees requirements. .

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""The Perceived Role of Anthropological Research and Teaching in Social Change in Kenya".". In: In The Teaching and Research of Sociology/Anthropologyin the East African Universities. New Delhi: Ossrea Book Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Nthiwa DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi S, Gichimu BM. "Trypanosoma Infection Rates in Glossina Species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya." J Parasitol Res. 2015;2015:607432. Abstract

African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) is a major obstacle to livestock production in the tropical parts of Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the infection rates of trypanosomes in Glossina species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya. Tsetse fly species, G. longipennis and G. pallidipes, were trapped and DNA was isolated from their dissected internal organs (proboscis, salivary glands, and midguts). The DNA was then subjected to a nested PCR assay using internal transcribed spacer primers and individual trypanosome species were identified following agarose gel electrophoresis. Out of the 117 flies trapped in the area 39 (33.3%) were teneral while 78 (67%) were nonteneral. G. pallidipes constituted the largest percentage of 58% while G. longipennis were 42%. The overall trypanosomes infection rate in all nonteneral Glossina spp. was 11.53% with G. longipennis recording the highest infection rate of 23.08% while G. pallidipes had an infection rate of 5.77%. T. vivax was the most infectious (10.26%) compared to T. congolense (1.28%). Mean apparent densities were strongly positively correlated with infection rates (r = 0.95) confirming the importance of this parameter as an indicator of AAT transmission risk.

Nthiwa D, Alonso S, Odongo D, Kenya E, Bett B. "Zoonotic Pathogen Seroprevalence in Cattle in a Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Kenya." Ecohealth. 2019;16(4):712-725. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. and risk factors of exposure in cattle in three zones with varying land use types and wildlife-livestock interactions. Five villages were selected purposively; two in areas with intensive livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 1), another two in areas with moderate livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 2) and one in areas where wildlife-livestock interactions are rarer (zone 3). Sera samples were collected from 1170 cattle belonging to 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against Brucella abortus and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo using ELISA kits. Data on putative risk factors for seropositivity of these pathogens in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level seroprevalence of brucellosis and leptospirosis was, respectively, 36.9% (95% CI 34.1-39.8) and 23.5% (95% CI 21.1-26.0). Brucella spp. seroprevalence was higher in zone 1 than in zones 2 and 3 (χ = 25.1, df = 2, P < 0.001). Zones 1 and 2 had significantly higher Leptospira spp. seroprevalence than zone 3 (χ = 7.0, df = 2, P = 0.029). Results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (female) and zones (high interface area) as significant predictors (P < 0.05) of animal-level seropositivity of Brucella spp. For Leptospira spp., important predictors of animal-level seropositivity were animal sex (female), zones (moderate interface area) and herds utilizing a communal grazing reserve. The seroprevalences of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in cattle were higher in areas with moderate to high wildlife-livestock interactions than those with rare interactions.

Nthiwa DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi S, Gichimu BM. "Journal of Parasitology Research." Journal of Parasitology Research. 2015. Abstract

African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly (Glossina
spp.) is a major obstacle to livestock production in the tropical parts of Africa. The objective
of this study was to determine the infection rates of trypanosomes in Glossina species in
Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya. Tsetse fly species, G. longipennis and G.
pallidipes, were trapped and DNA was isolated from their dissected internal organs
(proboscis, salivary glands, and midguts). The DNA was then subjected to a nested PCR ..

Nthiwa D, Bett B, Odongo D, Kenya E, Wainaina M, Grazioli S, Foglia E, Brocchi E, Alonso S. "Seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds raised in Maasai Mara ecosystem in Kenya." Prev Vet Med. 2020;176:104929. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) seroprevalence and identify risk factors of exposure among cattle herds raised in three zones with different types of land use and progressively distant from the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) boundary. We selected five villages purposively; two in zone 1 (area < 20 km from the MMNR), another two in zone 2 (area between 20-40 km away from the MMNR) and one in zone 3 (area >40 km away from the MMNR). A total of 1170 cattle sera were collected from 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus (FMDV) using two 3ABC-based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA kits. All sera samples were also screened for serotype-specific antibodies using Solid Phase Competitive ELISA (SPCE) kits (IZSLER, Italy). We targeted FMDV serotypes A, O, South African Territory [SAT] 1 and SAT 2, known to be endemic in East Africa including Kenya. Data on putative risk factors for FMD seropositivity in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level FMD seroprevalence based on the parallel comparison of the two anti-NSPs ELISA kits was 83.8 % (95 % CI; 81.8-85.9), and differed significantly across zones. Zone 1 had a higher seroprevalence than zones 2 and 3 (χ = 116.1, df = 2, p < 0.001). In decreasing order, the overall seroprevalences of FMDV serotypes A, SAT 2, O and SAT 1 were 26.3 % (95 % CI; 23.5-29.2), 21.4 % (95 % CI; 18.8-24.0), 21.2 % (95 % CI; 18.7-23.9) and 13.1 % (95 % CI; 11.1-15.3), respectively. The distribution of these serotypes differed significantly between zones (p < 0.05) except for SAT 2 serotype (χ = 0.90, df = 2, p = 0.639). Both serotypes A and O were more prevalent in zones 1 and 2 than zone 3 while serotype SAT 1, was higher in zone 3 compared to other zones. The results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (i.e., female), raising of cattle in zones 1 and 2 (areas < 40 km away from the MMNR); mixing of cattle from multiple herds at watering points, and pastoral husbandry practices, as significant predictors of animal-level FMD seropositivity. This study established that FMD seroprevalence declined with distance from the MMNR.

Nthiw’a DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi SA, Gichimu BM. "Trypanasoma infection rates in Glossina species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Parasitology Research . 2015; (607432):1-8.
Nthumba PM, OLIECH JS. "Outcome of moderate and severe thermal injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital." East and Central African Journal of Surgery, . 2005;10(2):37-42. Abstract

Background: Thermal injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Though a lot is known about burns, the morbidity patterns and mortality rates of burns in this country have not been established. This study was designed with the general objective of investigating the outcome of moderate and severe burns managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). It was also the aim of the authors to try to validate an existing simple clinical burn injury score, based on the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI) score.
Methods: This was a retrospective study of burn patients treated at KNH between January 1999 and December 2000. The main parameters studied included the age, sex, and depth of burn injury, inhalation injury and percentage total burn surface area (%TBSA). Other parameters recorded were the type of burn, pre-morbid or co-morbid illnesses, specimen culture and sensitivity and the length of hospital stay. Single variable analyses (χ2-test) were used to determine the value and influence of single variables on burn mortality. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed on all the variables used in the ABSI score, as well as on hospital stay and type of burn (scald or flame), to determine their influence on burn mortality.
Results: Out of the 1205 patient records retrieved, 1157 satisfied the inclusion criteria for the study. The findings confirmed the role of percentage total burn surface area, associated inhalation injury and depth of burn as the strongest prognostic variables (multivariate analysis); while age and sex have prognostic significance on single variable analysis. This data was then used to validate the ABSI score, which performed very accurately as a prognostic score.
Conclusion: It is recommended that the ABSI score be adopted into clinical practice in this country, as an objective and accurate predictive clinical score.

Ntiba MJ, Oluoch AO, Mavuti KM. Impacts of human activities on coastal fisheries in Kenya..; 1995.
Ntiba MJ, Oluoch AO, Mavuti KM. Impacts of human activities on coastal fisheries in Kenya..; 1995.
Ntihabose L, Patel JP, Maina DM, Angeyo HK. "NORM and Associated Gamma Radiation Field in the Coltan Mining Areas of Rwanda.". In: 3rd African IRPA Congress . Laico Hotel, Rwanda; 2010.
Ntwiga DB;, Ogutu C;, Kirumbu MK. "Inclusion of peer group and individual low-income earners in M-Shwari micro-credit lending: a hidden Markov model approach." International Journal of Electronic Finance . 2018;9(2). AbstractWebsite

The M-Shwari micro-credit lending system has excluded the low income earners as they lack good financial options due to volatile and fluctuating income. This paper proposes a decision support system for credit scoring and lending of the low income earners who are customers of M-Shwari using the hidden Markov model. The model emits the credit scores of the customers, both for the peer groups and the individual customers. The learning and training of the model utilises the customers' socio-demographics, telecommunication characteristics and account activities. The peer groups have higher credit scores and are more attractive to offer credit facilities using M-Shwari when compared to the individual borrowers.

Ntwiga DB. "Can FinTech Shape the Dynamics ofConsumer Credit Usage among theUn(der)banked?". In: Kenya Bankers Association Working Paper Series.; 2019. Abstract

We use the 2016 FinAccess Household survey data of 2015 from 8665 households and desktop reviews to examine how perceptions, behaviour, financial literacy and socio-economic characteristics of un(der) banked consumers can shape their dynamics towards credit usage. The challenges and opportunities for the market players are examined using desktop reviews and their role towards an increase in financial inclusion and credit usage through FinTech. The disruptive innovations have provided new possibilities, challenges and opportunities to boost financial and credit usage in the market. Consumer perceptions on cost, trust, source of financial advice, financial literacy and socio-economic characteristics influences credit usage. The business models being developed by the FinTech providers are taunted to change the landscape of lending to the un(der) banked

Ntwiga DB. "Technical Efficiency in the Kenyan Banking Sector: Influence of Fintech and Banks Collaboration." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020;8(1):13-20. AbstractWebsite

Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the financial landscape in Kenya, banks will leverage on Fintech to enhance efficiency. This study investigates if Fintech and bank collaboration has an influence on efficiency in the banking sector. A two step data envelopment analysis is applied with input-orientation based on three intermediation dimension models. Efficiency scores are decomposed into technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies. Financial statement data from 2009-2018 for five banks with Fintech collaborations form the analysis. The study period is segmented into Pre-Fintech, 2009-2014 and Post Fintech, 2015-2018. Descriptive statistics summarize the data with Panel regression model testing the selected financial variables influence on efficiency of banks in the Pre-Post Fintech period. In the ten year period, technical inefficiency based on the three models for the Pre-Post Fintech period is failure to operate at the most productive scale, poor input utilization and managerial inefficiencies. For the Panel regression, loan intensity in model M1, return on asset in model M2, and cost of intermediation in model M3 had a significant and positive influence on technical efficiency. Fintech and banks collaboration has had a positive influence on efficiency in the Kenyan banking sector.

Ntwiga DB. "Credit usage among the un (der) banked: consumer socio-economic characteristics and influence of financial technology." International Journal of Financial Services Management. 2020;10(1):38-54. AbstractWebsite

We use the 2016 FinAccess Household survey data of 2015 from 8665 households to analyse how the socio-economic characteristics and financial literacy of un(der) banked consumers can shape their dynamics towards credit usage. A qualitative analysis is presented on the influence of financial technology on consumer credit usage. The access to financial services is influenced by the socio-economic characteristics and financial literacy of the consumers. Gender, financial literacy, age, income, marital status, education level and geographical cluster are statistically significant in influencing credit usage, both current and past usage relative to never had credit. As financial technology continues to expand and offer credit, there is need to understand the user experience to match their social and economic status as a means to increase credit usage in Kenya.

Ntwiga DB, Ogutu C, Kirumbi M, Weke P. "A Hidden Markov Model of Risk Classification among the Low Income Earners,." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2018;6(6):242-249.
Ntwiga DB, Weke P, Manene M, Maniki I. "Trust and Distrust: A Reputation Ratings Approach." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2016;3(2):111-114. AbstractWebsite

Agents’ reputation ratings in a social network form a real-valued matrix which is discounted with singular
value decomposition (SVD) to estimate the trust and distrust levels of agents. SVD eliminates noise as future expected
trust and distrust are based on current reputation ratings. A discounting of 20 percent is optimal, further discounting
does not improve error reduction. Reputation and trust are closely related. Distrust is different from trust and
reputation. Distrust is similar to trust negation, and trust is similar to distrust negation

Ntwiga DB. "Fintech and Banks Collaboration: Does it Influence Efficiency inthe Banking Sector?". In: Kenya Bankers Association 8th Banking Research Conference. Radisson Blu Hotel Nairobi Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The efficiency of the banking sector in Sub-Saharan Africa is low compared to rest of the world and Fintech is taunted to alter this scenario. Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the landscape in the banking sector, banks in Kenya are forming collaborations that are envisioned to shape the evolution of credit allocation and delivery of services. The study investigates the influence of Fintech on a bank’s efficiency in credit allocation using thedata envelopment model with input-orientation based on the intermediationdimension. Efficiency scores are decomposed as technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency.Secondary data for the period 2009-2018 is extracted from thirteen banks sampled from the top fifteen banks in Kenya based on their market share. The banks are either locally owned or listed in Nairobi Securities Exchange, of which five have Fintech collaborationswith a Pre-Fintech and Post Fintechperiod. Panel regression model tested the effect of financial ratios on technical efficiency of the banks. Fintech collaborating banks are more technically efficient based on models M1, M2 and M3 in Pre-Fintech. In Post Fintech, the Fintech banks are more efficient based on models M2, M3 and M4 but with decreasing returns to scale which is due to the banks being overly large, thus non-optimal in their operations. The positive effect on technical efficiency is observed from the ratios, liquidity, loan intensity, return on assets and cost of income. Cost of intermediation and credit risk had a negative effect on technical efficiency. Therefore, Fintech and banks collaborations did not significantly influence efficiency in the banking sector.

Ntwiga DB, Wanyonyi AW. "Consumer Perceptions and Behaviour toward Credit Usage in Kenya." Open Access Library Journal. 2020;7(6):1-16. AbstractWebsite

Consumer behaviour and perceptions evolve over time and affect credit usage from the financial service providers. We use the 2016 FinAccess Household survey data of 2015 from 8665 households to examine how perceptions and behaviour of un(der) banked consumers can shape their dynamics towards credit usage. The perceptions and behaviour are based on source of financial advice, trust of the institutions, characteristics of the financial instrument and cost of credit. The multinomial logistic regression model predicts the odds of credit usage based on perceptions and behaviour of the consumers. The categories for the credit usage are: have credit, used to have credit and never had credit. Consumer perceptions and behaviour based on cost of credit and trust increase credit usage, while source of financial advice had minimal influence on credit usage. The characteristics of the financial instrument are catering to emergencies and being safe to use increased credit usage. The Savings and Credit Cooperative Organizations and microfinance are the most trusted financial institutions by the consumers, while shylock has the highest cost of credit. Radio as a source of financial advice reduced credit usage. The dynamics of credit usage are shaped by the perceptions and behaviour of the consumers.

Ntwiga DB, Ogut C. "Interaction Dynamics in a Social Network Using Hidden Markov Model." Social Networking. 2018;2018(7):147-155.
Ntwiga, Pweke, MManene, IJMwaniki. "MODELING TRUST IN SOCIAL NETWORK." International Journal of mathematical archive. 2016;7(2):64-68. AbstractWebsite

We rely on trust in our day to day interactions and activities with each other. It is not easy to estimate it but we offer a
simple and powerful method for estimating trust levels of agents in a social network using data from the agents’
reputation matrix. The reputation resultant method (RRM) is based on the mean values of the reputation rating matrix
and the reputation resultant matrix. Reputation ratings are derived from the agents’ peer to peer ratings and the
resultant reputation data is the relative reputation ratings by the agents. A comparison is made between the results of
Singular value decomposition (SVD) and our new method, the RRM. The two methods offer results that are highly
comparative with the RRM being simple, powerful and easy to understand and implement.

Nungo RA, Okoth MW, Mbugua SK. "Nutrition Status of Children Under-Five Years in Cassava Consuming Communities in Nambale, Busia of Western Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

A study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of under-five child population within cassava consuming community in Nambale of western Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio economic data, 24-hour food re-call and anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used while Pearson’s Chi Square and correlation coefficient (R) were used to test for statistical associations. A total of 320 households with 232 children participated. The findings showed nutrition status of children to be poor (<−2 SD), 26.6% were stunted, 13.9% underweight, and 10.1% were wasting. Malnutrition had reached its peak during the third year affecting boys more than girls despite a high mean score (9.2) for household dietary diversity. The findings established cassava utilization to be high (94.3%) and mainly as “porridge, boiled roots and ugali”. Eight staples including cassava were used for weaning and 66.4% of the children were fed three times daily. Cassava utilization was not a determinant of child nutrition status. Age of child and education level of head of household had strong but negative influence on child nutrition status, (Pearson’s R = −0.207:−0.174) indicating >50% changes in stunting could not be attributed to age of child or education level of the head of household. Farm ownership was a strong positive determinant of nutrition status, Pearson’s R = 0.233. This study has established that cassava cushions hunger and there is need to improve nutrient content.

Nungo RA, Michael WO, Mbugua SK. "Scientific Research.". 2012. Abstract

A study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of under-five child population within cassava consuming community in Nambale of western Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio economic data, 24-hour food re-call and anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used while Pearson’s Chi Square and correlation coefficient (R) were used to test for statistical associations. A total of 320 households with 232 children participated. The findings showed nutrition status of children to be poor (<-2 SD), 26.6% were stunted, 13.9% underweight, and 10.1% were wasting. Malnutrition had reached its peak during the third year affecting boys more than girls despite a high mean score (9.2) for household dietary diversity. The findings established cassava utilization to be high (94.3%) and mainly as “porridge, boiled roots and ugali”. Eight staples including cassava were used for weaning and 66.4% of the children were fed three times daily. Cassava utilization was not a determinant of child nutrition status. Age of child and education level of head of household had strong but negative influence on child nutrition status, (Pearson’s R = -0.207: -0.174) indicating >50% changes in stunting could not be attributed to age of child or education level of the head of household. Farm ownership was a strong positive determinant of nutrition status, Pearson’s R = 0.233. This study has established that cassava cushions hunger and there is need to improve nutrient content.

Nunow A, Nzioka JM, Kinama JM. "Analysis of gender parity in climate change adaptation actions within Kajiado and Kiambu counties, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;1(2).
Nunow A, Wanja M, Obiero L. "Agribusiness in Horticulture: Empowerment & Gender Dynamic." World Journal of Innovative Research (WJIR). 2018;4(6):5-8.
Nuoro IBJ, Nyamwange SB, Kiptoon JC. "Presence of Ehrlichia-like bodies in monocytes of an adult lioness.". 1994.
Nuwasiima A, et al. "Predictors of HIV prevention knowledge and sexual behaviors among students at Makerere University Kampala, Uganda." al Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health. 2017;14(4).
NW G, AW N. ""ICT Infrastructure - A Key Prerequisite for Adoption of Open and Distance Learning in Public Universities in Kenya.". 2014." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2014;2(3):46-53.
NW M. Causes of increased drop out in primary school in Nyandarua District, Kenya’.. F A, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
NW N, J N-M, AN K, M O, C M, T C, MJ O, JM O, S K. " Culture of Kenyan Goat (Capra hircus) Undifferentiated Spermatogonia in Feeder-Free Conditions." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022;9.

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