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Njogu PM, Hendricks DT, Chibale K. "Hybrids of (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine and anticancer pharmacophores: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.". In: 12th Frank Warren Conference 2012. Bloemfontein, South Africa; 2012.
Njogu PM, Thoithi GN MJWKFNKIOKSTYMHNMJMA. "Njogu PM, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO, Kariuki ST, Yenesew A, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. ." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2011;14(3):89-94.
Njoka JM, Njeru GR. Political Ideology in Kenya.; 2007.Website
and Njoka ENJMHN. "Poverty and Human Security in Kenya." Regional Development Dialogue. 2003;24(2):179-192. Abstract

Kenya attained its independence in 1963 after six decades of British colonial rule. The
colonial legacy has been instrumental in shaping the policy regime in the country, in
addition to influencing sectoral operations and reforms. The latter affect the various ways
in which citizens have been able to access vital services, opportunities, and choices.
Soon after independence, the country's new administration under the late President
lomo Kenyatta articulated its commitment to fighting the three enemies of development,
viz., ignorance, illiteracy, and disease. Poverty and human security were, therefore, at the
top of the agenda of the new post-colonial government. Successive development policies
and initiatives indicate that this commitment, at least at the level of blueprints, has more or
less remained the same, with perhaps some adjustments with regard to specific planning
targets and the strategies used.
Poverty in Kenya has been analysed and variously understood by its many proponents.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),!' for example,
presents poverty in its various dimensions, encompassing deprivations that relate to human
capabilities including consumption and food security, health, education, human rights,
speech, security, dignity, and decent work, noting that poverty should be reduced in the
context of environmental sustainability and reduced gender inequality. The latter is seen
as integral to all dimensions of poverty. Accordingly, the OECD places emphasis on sound
government policies coherently applied to development, focusing on key policy areas with
strong poverty reduction impacts. The areas in question are seen to include debt relief,
trade, investment, agriculture, environment, migration, health research, security, and arms
sales.Y Although there is no agreement on what poverty means, it is widely accepted that
the poverty incidence for Kenya increased from 44.8 per cent in 1992 to 45.0 per cent in
1994 and to 52.3 in 1997:3/ The poor have been unable to access such services as basic
education and health - both critical aspects of human security.
The relationship between poverty and human security has been articulated in the
Global Human Development Report of 1994. As a way of protecting human beings from
abuse of their freedoms, human security has become a crucial component in explaining and
analysing different aspects of vulnerabilities and other dimensions of poverty across time
and space. It is argued that people without socioeconomic and politico-civil freedoms
cannot access the requisite opportunities and choices enabling them to escape the poverty

Njoka E, Riechi A, Obero C, Kemunto W, Muraya D. "Towards Inclusive and Equitable Basic Education System: Kenya’s experience." ADEA Working Document. 2011. Abstract
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Njokah JMM. Review Of Omphaloceles (Exomphalos) In Kenyatta National Hospital 1976-1985.; 1985. Abstract

A retrospective study of the omphlocele has been done. The study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital which is the referral hospital for the Republic of Kenya and the teaching hospital for the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Nairobi.

This study covers a ten year period from 1976 ~ 194.

A total of 34 cases have been studied. The yearly incidence has 'heen static notwithstanding our high populati~n growth.

Among the 34 cases there were 18 males and 16

females. Of the 34 cases there were 19 survivals arid15 deaths.

12 deaths (80%) among the 15 followed early surgery.

Only 3 patients ha.dsurgery among 19 survivals. Tne 'major cause of death (6 out of 12) among the surgical cases was respiratory complications. Surgery had been performed within
1-3 days of birth.

Surgical management consisted of excision and repair of the o,mphalocele. Non-surgical regime entailed painting
i'
the omphalocele with mercurochrome (1 patient) or simply

daily clensing with antiseptics followed by sofratule
",
dressing (18 patients).

5

Complication of the ~mphaloceles occured in ~ cases only (Table 4). Malformations co-existing with omphalocele occured in 12 cases of which 7 died. In our series non-surgical regime produced more survival (84.2%) 16 out of 19

NJOKI DRGITONGAPAULINE. "Gitonga, N.P., Kitaa, J.M.A. and Mbuthia, P.G. Systemic mastocytosis associated with liver failure in a ten year-old German shepherd dog.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference 2004. Taylor & Francis; 2004.
Njoki LM, Okoth SA, Wachira PM. "Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)." International Journal of Microbiology. 2017:Pages 9 doi:10.1155/2017/5273893.
NJOKI DRGITONGAPAULINE. "Njenga, M.J., Wabacha, J.K., Abuom, T.O., Ndurumo, S.M., Gitonga, P.N. and Kirui, G. Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 4th Biennial Scientific conference2004. Taylor & Francis; 2004.
NJOMO MRKARUKUGEORGE, N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karuku, G.N. and B.O. Mochoge (1990). Organic nitrogen fractions in three Kenya soils (Andosols, Luvisols and Ferralsols). Paper presented at the 10th AM of SSEA, Arusha, Tanzania, Dec., 1990.". In: Proceeding of the Africa Regional Symposia in biotechnology for Rapid Development. (ed. Amadou Tidiane B9) pp. 224-228. Nairobi, Kenya 17-21 February, 1992. African Biosciences Network (ABN), 1994. ISBN: 92-9091-012-7.; 1990. Abstract
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Njomo D, Karimurio J, Odhiambo G, Mukiri M, Barasa E, Rono H, et al. "Knowledge, practices and perceptions of trachoma and its control among communities of Narok County, Kenya." Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2016;2(13):3-10.
NJOMO MRKARUKUGEORGE, N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karuku, G.N., J.J. Odhiambo and B.O. Mochoge (1998). Nitrogen Mineralization potential ((No), mineralization rate constant (K) and time taken for half of the mineralizable nitrogen to be mineralized in four Kenya soils (Luvisols, Andosols, Ferralsols and .". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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Njomo N, Waryo T, Masikini M, Ikpo CO, Mailu S, Tovide O, Ross N, Williams A, Matinise N, Sunday CE, Mayedwa N, Baker PGL, Ozoemena KI, Iwuoha EI. "Graphenated tantalum (IV) oxide and poly (4-styrene sulphonic acid)-doped polyaniline nanocomposite as cathode material in an electrochemical capacitor." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:226-237. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
Nanostructured poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid) and tantalum (IV) oxide-doped polyaniline nanocomposite were synthesised and their electro-conductive properties were determined. The oxide was synthesized using a modified sol-gel method and then dispersed in acidic media through sonication and entrapped in-situ into the polymeric matrix during the oxidative chemical polymerization of aniline doped with poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid). The oxides and novel polymeric nanocomposite were characterised with TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR, UV-visible to ascertain elemental and phase composition, successful polymerization, doping, morphology and entrapment of the metal oxide nanoparticles. The electro-conductivity of the nanomaterial was interrogated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The material was then anchored on activated graphitic carbon and used in the …

NJOMO MRKARUKUGEORGE, N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karuku, G.N., (1998). Preparation and planning of excursion and study tours for science students. Paper presented to teachers of Nairobi Province Science Congress Committee, Aga Khan High School, 1998.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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NJOMO MRKARUKUGEORGE, N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Kinyali, S.M., G.N. Karuku and S.K. Tirop, (1996). Impact of siltation problems on fish production in Lake Baringo, Baringo District, Kenya. EAAFRO Journal.". In: First Crop Science Conference Proceedings 3, 323-330. ISBN: 1023-70x.; 1996. Abstract
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NJOMO MRKARUKUGEORGE, N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karuku, G.N. and B.O. Mochoge (1991). Comparison of treatment effects (lime, nitrogen and phosphorus salts) on nitrogen mineralization in three Kenya soils (Luvisols, Andosols and Ferralsols). Paper presented at the 11th AGM of the SSSEA, Kampala, Uganda,.". In: Proceeding of the Africa Regional Symposia in biotechnology for Rapid Development. (ed. Amadou Tidiane B9) pp. 224-228. Nairobi, Kenya 17-21 February, 1992. African Biosciences Network (ABN), 1994. ISBN: 92-9091-012-7.; 1991. Abstract
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NJOMO MRKARUKUGEORGE. "Nitrogen Mineralization potential ((No), mineralization rate constant (K) and time taken for half of the mineralizable nitrogen to be mineralized in four Kenya soils (Luvisols, Andosols, Ferralsols and.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract

This study uses CROPWAT model to predict water use in rainfed agriculture and simulate irrigation requirement for tomato production in Kabete Field Station. The model predicted increased irrigation requirement for tomato crop of 33.1, 28.1 and 36.6 mm water, in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd 10-day periods of development stage, respectively. The crop evapotranspiration (ETc) requirements by tomato crop were predicted at 456.5 mm for the short rainy season while actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was 232.1 mm for the short rains giving a yield response factor of 0.49. The model suggested an addition of 253.7 mm of irrigation water in order to realize optimal tomato yields as the crop experienced an irrigation deficiency of 48.8%. The moisture deficit at harvest was 63.6 mm of water which resulted in total yield reduction of 51.3%. In relation to actual yields calculated, the mean potential optimal tomato yields in the study area were 23.3 Mg/ha with proper soil management and adequate water supply. The suggested supply system was at 10 days irrigation interval/stage where the soils were irrigated just below or above field capacity. Rainfall losses and irrigation requirements would be reduced to 41.9 and 267.7 mm, with minimum water deficit at harvest of 15.5 mm and an irrigation efficiency of 100%. At this point, ETa would equal ETm and optimal tomato yield would be obtained with yield losses predicted at 0.1%. Yield gap analysis revealed that radiation, sunshine and temperature are favourable for crop production, but the heavy dependence on rainfall makes the area very vulnerable to drought.

NJOMO MRKARUKUGEORGE, N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karuku, G.N. (1994). Effects of mycorrhiza inoculation on growth response, mineral nutrition and nodulation of some legumes. Paper presented at the Institute of Soil and Water, Volcani Centre, Bet Dagan, Israel, 23rd Nov 1994. Agricultural Resource Organi.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd Research Co-ordination meeting of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated Research Programme, held at CIRAD, Montpellier, France 24 - 29 April 1995.; 1994. Abstract
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Njonjo MW, Muthomi JW, Mwang’ombe AW. "Production Practices, Postharvest Handling, and Quality of Cowpea Seed Used by Farmers in Makueni and Taita Taveta Counties in Kenya." International Journal of Agronomy. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1607535.
Njoora D, Olubusoye OE. "Cross-Country Spillovers in East Africa: A Global Vector Autoregressive Analysis." American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. 2015;4(3):125-137. Abstract

The recent financial crisis raises important issues about transmission of financial shocks across borders. This paper uses the global vector autoregressive model as developed in Dees, di Mauro, Pesaran and Smith (2007) to study cross- country interlinkages among East African countries. The paper uses trade weights to capture the importance of the foreign variables. Results reveal that there is no evidence of strong international linkages across countries in East Africa. Results also reveal that the variable in which a shock is simulated is the main channel through which-in the shortrun-shocks are transmitted, while the contribution of other variables becomes more important over longer horizons.

Njoroge J, Oyoo GO, Kitonyi G, Barasa A, Odhiambo AO. "Haematological parameters in systemic lupus erythematosus patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2016;4(2):57-62. Abstracthaematological parameters SLEWebsite

ABSTRACT

Background
Systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE) is a multisystem, autoimmune and often severe disease. Its aetiology is still poorly understood. Factors such as genetic, environmental, hormonal and immunological have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Patients with SLE are subject to myriad symptoms, complaints, and inflammatory involvement that can affect virtually every organ including the hemopoietic system.
Hematological abnormalities are common among patients with SLE. The most frequent hematological abnormalities include anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. These abnormalities are markers of disease activity and have been found to be independent determinants of mortality therefore understanding their prevalence is important in patient evaluation.

While these abnormalities have been widely studied in other parts of the world, no study has been conducted on Kenyan patients afflicted by SLE thus there exist a gap regarding hematological parameters in SLE patients and hence the need for this study. We performed this study to understand hematological parameters in a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.

Objective:
The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hematological parameters abnormalities, among SLE patients on follow up at Rheumatology and Renal Outpatient clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital. Specifically, the study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia and identify patient factors associated with these abnormalities.

Methods

A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on SLE patients attending the Rheumatology and Renal outpatient clinics at KNH. Seventy one consecutive SLE patients were screened for eligibility between 5th March 2015 and 5th of June 2015, of these sixty five were recruited and enrolled into the study. Clinical and social demographic data was captured and recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire. Subsequently, four millilitres of blood was collected for measurement of a complete blood count, reticulocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and peripheral blood film examination. The tests were undertaken at the KNH Department of Human Pathology, Unit of Haematology and blood transfusion using a CELL-DYN 3700 automated blood counter. ESR interpretation was undertaken at the same laboratory by the Wintrobe method and a PBF was reported after staining with maygrunwald / giemsa stain by direct visualization on a microscope at various powers of magnification by hematologists who were supervisors for this study and the PI

Results

Sixty five eligible SLE patients were recruited into the study. The mean (SD) age was 36. 5(± 12) years. There were 3 (5%) males and 62 (95%) females. Forty nine (75%) patients had at least one abnormality. The abnormalities involved all the three cell lines. The prevalence of abnormalities were; anemia 43%, leucopenia 26% and thrombocytopenia 20%. Disease duration less than one year was significantly associated with anemia, p=0.035, OR = 3.5 (95% CI 0.9-15.1).

Conclusion

Hematological abnormalities are the second most common manifestation of the disease after arthritis and arthralgia among SLE patients on follow up at Kenyatta National Hospital Rheumatology and Renal clinic. Though majority of these abnormalities were mild to moderate and clinically asymptomatic, the proportions of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were substantially high. There was a significant association between anemia and duration of disease.

Recommendations

I. A larger longitudinal study to correlate thrombocytopenia and leucopenia with demographics and drugs. . This may require a multicenter approach to avail sufficient number of patients.
II. Routine screening for hematological abnormalities, careful long-term monitoring and prompt therapeutic intervention.
III. Multidisplinary approach in management of SLE patients and input from a hematologist.
IV. Need to review the current treatment regimens of our patients to a steroid sparing regimen.
V. Lastly a study to correlate these hematological abnormalities with disease activity in patients with SLE.

Njoroge KD. "Dynamic Analysis of Dislocation Cores in a-Fe Lattice Using the Embeded Atom Model." International Journal of Computational Engineering Research. 2012;2(3):851-859.
Njoroge P, Muchane M, Wamiti W, Kamau KD, Githiru M. "Avifauna of Ishaqbini Community Conservancy in Ijara District, NE Kenya." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2008;28:15-24. Abstract
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Njoroge N, Njenga PK, Odhiambo PO, Kaibui IM. "Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District).". 2010. Abstract

Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen. A small proportion of the respondents however, were aware of the threats facing medicnal plants. Some of the plants reported as declining include, Solanum renschii Vatke (Solanaceae), Populus ilicifolia (Engl.) Rouleau (Salicaceae), Strychnos henningsii Gilg (Loganiaceae) and Rumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer (Polygonaceae). Considering the low level of understanding of conservation concerns for these species, there is need therefore, to build capacity among the local communities in this area particularly in regard to sustainable use of natural resources, conservation methods as well as domestication processes

Njoroge K;, Wafula B;, Ransom JK. "Characterization of drought stress in the major maize production zones of Kenya."; 1997. Abstract

Maize, the most important cereal crop in Kenya, is grown from sea level to more than 2300 m elevation. With the use of geographic information system (GIS) techniques, six distinct maize agro- climatic zones have been defined for the main rainy season in Kenya. The objective of this study was to characterize each of these zones for the degree and timing of drought stress. For each of the six maize zones, two representative sites with extensive weather records were used. Long term means for rainfall for 10 d periods were compared to the potential evapotranspiration of the same period at each site. Maize phenological development was superimposed on these data. In the highland and moist transitional zones, which comprise 75 Per cent of the maize area, drought occurrences were limited. The moist midaltitude zone had the greatest variability in moisture stress between sites, and late season drought is consistently a problem. The dry midaltitude and dry transitional zones experience the most severe drought, especially during grain filling and early in the season. In the lowland tropics, significant moisture stress occurs during the first 20 d of the season and during the last 40 d of growth. These data suggest that drought tolerance is needed for germplasm being developed for four of the six zones.

Njoroge WI, Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "‘An Assessement of the Impacts of Cleaner Production in Manufacturing Industries in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017;Volume 5(Issue No. 7):pp 173-186 .
NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Gitau, A.N and Kaumbutho P.G (1997). Influence of tillage depth on draft power requirements and resultant soil micro structure , In KSAE . August 6-7, 1997.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 1997. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
Njoroge BN, Githere PG. "Removal of colouration from Textile wastewaters."; 2013.
Njoroge EM, Muthama NJ, Ouma GO, Lukorito CB. "Validation of Satellite Derived Rainfall Estimates over Kenya." Second RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference on" Building capacity for food security in Africa", Entebbe, Uganda, 20-24 September 2010. 2010:1445-1449. Abstractvalidation_of_satellite_derived_rainfall_estimates_over_kenya.pdfCAB Direct

Precipitation is one of the major components of the earth’s climate system. Many countries in the tropics depend on rainfall for the agricultural and hydrological activities which are dominant in their economies. Rainfall information is a crucial aspect not only for sustainable social-economic development of many countries but also for study of atmospheric circulations, climate analysis and global energy balance. Hence it is important to use reliable and accurate rainfall data in any planning. This study aims at validating satellite-derived rainfall estimates
retrieved from TRMM’s monthly rainfall retrieval algorithm, (3B-43 algorithm), over Kenya. The study analyzes eleven years of monthly rainfall estimates (1998-2008) produced by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)’s 3B-43 algorithm and compares them with gridded monthly rainfall totals from 26 synoptic and Agrometeorological stations in Kenya for the same period. Preliminary results suggest that satellite rainfall estimates can be modeled to represent areal rainfall in areas with inadequate ground based rainfall observations, especially over Northwestern, Northern, Northeastern and Southern Kenya.

Key words: Agrometeorology, rainfall data, remote sensing

Njoroge CW, Mande JD, Mitema ES, Kitaa JMA, others. "Multidrug resistance of common bacterial pathogens from wounds and otitis externa in small animals during a 10 year period in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5:262-267. Abstract
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NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Gitau A.N and BJamali E.K (2000). Influence of selected tillage operations on draft power and penetration resistance of a crusting soil. In proceedings of the 15th international soil tillage research organization (ISTRO). July 2-7 2000. Fortworth, Texas, .". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2000. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
Njoroge W, Wangati CK, Karanja PK, Musembi RJ, Simiyu J, Mwabora JM. Deposition and Characterization of Thin Film Deposited by DC-RF Co-sputtering for Photovoltaic Application. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Solar cell has the potential of being the main drive to economic prosperity as it is one of the most promising sources of cheap, environmentally friendly and renewable energy. Crystalline silicon based technology currently dominate the solar energy market. However, it is generally expensive and the cell efficiency has reached 24.7% hence approaching theoretical expected maximum of 30%. In order to reduce cost of production, focus is shifting towards thin film based I-III-VI family chalcopyrite compounds where cheaper CuInxGa1-xSe2 absorber semiconductor is reported to have attained the highest efficiency of 20.3 %. This study intends to fabricate and characterize a compound of copper, aluminum, boron and selenium (CuAlxB1-x Se2 ) thin film. The compound is based on I-III-IV family of chalcopyrite which has generated a lot of interest as an absorber material for solar cells due to their high absorption coefficients. The research procedure will involve deposition of CuAlxB1-xSe2 thin film by DC and RF magnetron sputtering of CuAlB alloy and selenium targets respectively. The deposition is done using Edwards Auto 360 RF and DC magnetron vacuum system. Characterization of the resulting thin film based on structural and optoelectronic properties is done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible-IR Spectrometer, and the Hall Effect. The outcome of this research will provide fundamental practical science and engineering knowledge base on structural and optoelectronic properties of CuAlxB1-x Se2 compound as solar absorber material among other optoelectronic applications. In general the study will contribute towards achieving greater efficiency in production of “green” energy.

Njoroge BN, Ochieng B, Ngari SK. B. Ochieng, S.K. Ngari, B.N.K.Njoroge (no title provided).; 2013.
Njoroge EN, Mutembei HM, Kipyegon AN, Kimeli P, Olum MO. "Prevalence of repeat breeding syndrome in dairy cattle in selected regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):114-118.
Njoroge D, Anyango B, Dossaji SF. "Screening of Phyllanthus Species for Antimicrobial Properties, Chemical Sciences Journal." Chemical Sciences Journal. 2012;2012(CSJ-56):1-12. Abstractcsj-56_2012.pdf

The development of resistant pathogenic microorganism against conventional antibiotic drugs has risen to a point of global concern. New antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mechanisms of action are therefore needed to curb the new and re-emerging infectious diseases. This study has identified two Phyllanthus species (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus odontadenius) sampled from Nairobi and Siaya counties in Kenya. In vitro activity of extracts of these species and correlated their efficacy was compared with the commercial extracts of P. niruri that are in the Kenyan market. Disk diffusion method was employed to screen the antimicrobial activities of both the extracts and two standard antibiotics; 0.32mg mL-1 gentamycin and 0.30 mg mL-1 Nystatin. The dichloromethane(DCM):methanol (1:1) extracts of Phyllanthus odontodenius showed the strongest activity against all the organisms both at 100 mg μL and 50 mg μL-1 followed by both the hot water and
cold water methanol extracts. The solvents in comparison to antibiotics showed 80% activity for methanol, 48% for DCM:MeOH 1:1, 43% in hot water and 28% for cold water. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) showed that the compounds found in the three species were identical. This study has shown that, the two species possess significant antimicrobial activity and justifies the use
of their extracts by herbalists in the treatment of many microbial diseases. Therefore, further bioassay guided fractionation, isolation and characterization studies of compounds from these extracts are needed to confirm the active components and mechanisms of action of these two species.

Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus; Phyllanthus odontadenius; Phyllanthus niruri; antimicrobial activity; infectious diseases.

Njoroge K, M’ragwa LR, Ngure M. "Yield stability in F1 hybrid composite varieties of maize in semi-arid Kenya." Africa Crop Science Conference Proceedings. 1997;Vol.3:221-224.
Njoroge 2 K. "Earliness and yield in maize: An evaluation of some Katumani maize varieties." East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 1982;48(2):pp 40-50.
NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Gitau, A. N., Gumbe, L. O. (2004). Alleviating soil hardpan formation for conservation farming.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2004. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
Njoroge, K; Mwendwa EW. Maize in Kenya: development and production.; 1982.
Njoroge P, Yego R, Muchane M, Githiru M, Njeri T, Giani A. "A survey of the large and medium sized mammals of Arawale National Reserve, Kenya." Journal of East African Natural History. 2009;98:119-128. Abstract
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NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A Spectral Subtraction Method for Noise Reduction in Speech Signals", IEEE African Conference, May 1996 (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 1996. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. "A 24 GHz PHEMT-Based Oscillator", Proceedings of the I4th Microwave Conference, MIKON-2002, Gdansk, Poland (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2002. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB,.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Gitau, A. N., Gumbe, L. O., Biamah E. K. Influence of soil water on stress-strain behaviour of a compacting soil in semi-arid Kenya. Soil and Tillage Res. 89 (2006): 144-154 ; Elsevier B.V. The Netherlands.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2006. Abstract

21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..

Njoroge A, Augusto O, Page ST, Kigondu C, Oluka M, Puttkammer N, Farquhar C. "Increased risk of prediabetes among virally suppressed adults with HIV in Central Kenya detected using glycated haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose." Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2021;4:00292.njoroge_et_al_2021.pdf
NJOROGE MRGACHIESTEVE. "Close-Up.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB,.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Gitau, A. N., Gumbe, L. O., Biamah E. K. (2006). Influence of soil water on stress-strain behaviour of a compacting soil in semi-arid Kenya. Soil and Tillage Res. 89 (2006): 144-154 ; Elsevier B.V. The Netherlands.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2006. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Njoroge K. "Seedling vigour as a selection criterion in breeding maize under stress.". In: Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference . Harare, Zimbabwe; 1994.
Njoroge K, Welch W, Habgood RM. "Heritability and selection for grain nitrogen yield and its components in F2 populations of spring barley." Journal of Plant Breeding. (Z. Pflanzensunchtg). 1982;90:305-315.
Njoroge K, Kinyanjui M. "Agricultural Development and Globalisation in Kenya." In: Gender in International Agricultural Trade Agreements: A Kenya synopsis. Heinrich Boll Foundation, East and Horn of Africa Region. 2007:1-6.
Njoroge DNB. "Dr Ngaruiya Boniface Njoroge.". 2005.
Njoroge HG. : “Mwingilianomatini katika Fasihi ya Kiswahili: Tata za Asumini Na Rosa Mistika. E.M. DM, Olali DT, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007.
NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Gitau, A.N (1998). Tillage practices and power requirement for optional soil moisture conservation of a hand setting soil in KSAE. Oct. 7-9, 1998.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 1997. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Gitau, A.N, Kaumbutho, P.G and Biamah E.K (1998). Influence of tillage practices on draft power requirements and resultant soil micro-structure. Soj and tillage research.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 1998. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
Njoroge CW, John D. Mande SME, KITAA JAFREDMA. "Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from surgical patients and normal dogs." Bioteknologi Biotechnological Studies. 2018;15:13-25. Abstract
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Njoroge NC. "Cloning of a T-DNA-linked phosphatase gene that mediates salt tolerance in a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana." Kenya Journal for Science and Technology. 2006;Vol. 13 .
Njoroge JW, Oyoo GO, Kitonyi G, Barasa A, ODHIAMBO A. "Haematological parameters in systemic lupus erythematous patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol. 2016;4(2):57-62.
Njoroge PK. Assessment of parental sex education to own adolescents among parents in a Peri urban community.; Submitted. Abstract

This was a Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of sex education to their own adolescents. The study was conducted between January and March in three divisions of Kiambaa Division of Kiambu District, Central Province of Kenya. This study area is located about 20 km from the city of Nairobi. The study population were parents with at least one child in adolescence. Depending on availability either one or both parents were included in the study. The study instrument was structured, mainly pre-coded questionnaire. The data was obtained through personal interviews conducted from house La ho u sc . The sample population was made up of 729 parents, 70.4% of whom were females. The survey found that 46.3% of parents gave sex education to their own adolescents, majority of them giving it to those of their sex only. Parents gave their adolescents sex education from a mean age (of the adolescent) of 10.33 years (SD=3.51) and the practice was associated with Parents Social, Economic and Demographic factors. 'Of these factors, knowledge that own adolescents received sex education from sources other than the parent had highest odds ratio 10R=4.l8). Age of the parent was the only other factor with odds for the practice (OR=.l.03 ). The level of sex education given to adolescents was higher for girls than for boys. The level of practice to boys was associated with age and socio-economic status (SES) inde~ of the parent. Knowledge of sex education among parents was high and associated with a parents' sex and SES index. Males scored signi ficantly higher than females and parents of Jow SES scored significantly higher than those of high SES index. The attitude to sex education was positive, with nearly all parents feeling that sex education for adolescents was appropriate and that it should be given by own parents, starting from a mean age of 10.61 years (SD=2. 84) and that it should include contraceptive education. The study recommended further studies on parents to understand why the level of practice is unmatched with the high levels of knowledge and attitude and to determine why those parents who know that their adolescents receive sex education from other sources are more likely to give sex education to their adolescents than those who did not. 'Other recommendations were: a study to assess the feasibility of using PTA' s to impart sex education to adolescents in schools, beginning Family Life education in primary schools at standard four (corresponding to age .10-11 years),and establishing of community based centres for sex education counselling for parents with adolescents and adolescents out of school.

Njoroge K, Omanga P, Mwangi W, Bett C, Muhammad L. "Meeting challenges of quality seed supply.". In: Maize Production Technology for the Future: Challenges and Opportunities. Proceedings of the 6th E & S Africa Regional Maize Conference. CIMMYT, Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia; 1999.
Njoroge EN, Mutembei HM, Kipyegon AN, Kimeli P, Olum2 MO. "Prevalence of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Dairy Cattle in Selected Regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;10(2):144-118.
NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Gitau A.N and Biamah E.K (2001). Draft power requirements and resultant surface roughness under different tillage methods. In JEAE-, 5. Gitau A.N (2001). Seedling emergence and crop field for maize under different tillage practices in a hard selling soil.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2001. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A New simplified and Reliable HEMT Modelling Approach Using Pinched Cold FET S-Paramcters", IEEE International Microwave Symposium, Boston, June 2000 (main author).". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2000. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

Njoroge EM;, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM;, Wachira TM;, Magambo, J.K.; Zeyhle E. "Use of ultrasound in diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in domestic intermediate hosts in Kenya."; 2001.
NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Gitau, A.N., Gumbe, L.O., Mwea S.K. (2006). Transition from Brittle Failure to Ductile Flow of a luvisol Soil. European Journal of Soil Science. In press.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2006. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. "A 24 GHz PHEMT-Based Oscillator", Proceedings of the I4th Microwave Conference, MIKON-2002, Gdansk, Poland (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2002. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

Njoroge, R.W. NGRO & CM. "Adoption of Biogas Technology Projects among Rural Household of Lanet Location- Nakuru County." African Journal of Project Planning and Management - UON (In press). 2013.
Njoroge EN, Mutembei HM, Kipyegon AN, Kimeli P, Olum MO. "Prevalence of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Dairy Cattle in Selected Regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):114-118.
Njoroge K, Kanampiu NN, Otsyula RM, Muthamia ZK, Gathuri CG, Chivatsi WS. "The High-Altitude maize programme." Review of National Maize Research Programme. KARI/ISNAR. 1992:20-31.
NJOROGE MRGACHIESTEVE. "Joint Aspects.". In: Department of Design, UON Nairobi. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Joint exhibition of Art and Design by academics of the University of  Kentucky and University of Nairobi.
Njoroge 4 K. "Katumani maize Breeding: The First Twenty Five Years." East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 1984;40:287.
Njoroge(5) KD, Rading GO, Kihiu JM, Witcomb MJ, Cornish LA. ") The Impact of Interstitial Carbon on Dislocation Motion in the Alpha-Fe Lattice." , Int J Computational Engineering Research, 4 (12), . 2014:5-9.
Njoroge K, Kinyanjui M. "Kenya Agricultural Development and Globalisation: where do we stand?" Gender in International Agricultural Trade Agreements: A Kenya synopsis. Heinrich Boll Foundation, East and Horn of Africa Region. 2007:103-111.
Njoroge N, Kemoli AM. "The prevalence of ECC among 3 to 5 year-olds in Kiambaa division, Kenya." E Afr Med J. 2010;87(3):134-137. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of early childhood caries among three to five year-olds.
Design: This was a descriptive, cross-section study.
Subjects: A total of 336 children ages 3-5 years.
Setting: Pre-schoos in Kiambaa division, Kiambu district, Kenya.
Results: Slighjtly over a half, 201 (59.5%9 had dental caries. The mean decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) was 2.46±3.3 with the greatest component (95%) being decayed teeth. The mandibular deciduous molars and the maxillary incisors were the most frequently carious teeth.
Conclusions: The prevalence of early childhood caries in Kiambaa was 59.5%. The mandibular deciduous molars and maxillary incisors had the highest caries frequency.

Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.
NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Biamah E.K,Chcrogony R.K.K and Gitau, A.N (1998). Temporal hydrologic response of unstable crusting soils in Semi- arid areas of Kenya. In KSAE, Ocl 7-9, 1998. In press.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 1998. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
Njoroge KD, Mutuli SM, Kihiu JM. "An Intrinsic Dislocation Density – Finite Element Formulation Of Metal Plasticity.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

A computational model was developed to simulate elastic and plastic behavior in Body Centered Cubic (BCC) metals and alloys. The model provided for simultaneous simulation of the micro and macro length scales and used periodicity to link the two length scales. The model was implemented in a 3dimensional framework giving rise to a finite element technique incorporating intrinsic dislocation information in the simulation of the material’s behavior. The technique was validated by simulating loading over the elastic range and the immediate region beyond yield, of thin steel strips, and comparing the results to those obtained by conventional analysis. Stress-strain curves and slip plane percentage contribution factors were generated. Specifically the stress-strain curves generated upheld Hooke’s law and demonstrated a definite yield plateau followed by material recovery after yielding.

Njoroge BNK, N. GA, O. OJP. "Effects of Water Application Levels on Growth Characteristics and Soil Water Balance of Tomatoes in Greenhouse." International Journal of Engineering Innovation & Research . 2014;Volume 3(Issue3):ISSN: 2277-5668.
NJOROGE CECILIA, MANDE JOHNDEMESI, MITEMA SIMONERIC, KITAA JAFREDMA. "Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from surgical patients and normal dogs." Bioteknologi Biotechnological Studies. 2018;15(1):13-25.
NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Gitau, A.N (2000). Conservation tillage implements and operations for soil and water management in Eastern and Southern Africa. In KSAE, Nov. 30-Dec 1,2000. In press,.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2001. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A Spectral Subtraction Method for Noise Reduction in Speech Signals", IEEE African Conference, May 1996 (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 1996. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

Njoroge EM;, Mbithi PMF;, Gathuma JM;, Wachira TM;, Magambo JK;, Zeyhle E. "Use of ultrasound in diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in domestic intermediate hosts in Kenya."; 2001.
Njoroge BN, Ochieng B, Ngari SK. B. Ochieng, S.K. Ngari, B.N.K.Njoroge (no title provided).; 2013. Abstract

Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.

Njoroge K, Wafula B, Ransom JK. "Characterisation of drought in the major maize production zones in Kenya." Symposium on developing drought and low nitrogen tolerant maize, El-Batan, Mexico. CIMMYT. 1996:35-38.
NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Gitau, A. N., Gumbe, L. O. , Mwea S. K. (2005). Triaxial testing of a Cemented Agricultural Soil under Varying Soil Water Levels. Transactions of the ASAE. In press.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2005. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A New simplified and Reliable HEMT Modelling Approach Using Pinched Cold FET S-Paramcters", IEEE International Microwave Symposium, Boston, June 2000 (main author).". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2000. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

Njoroge SN. Factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the internal Audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in public Universities in Kenya: (a case study of the university of Nairobi). Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to establish the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the
internal audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in public universities in Kenya. The
study set to provide an understanding and appreciation of the factors that are necessary for the
Internal Audit Function to be effective, and how best the function could be made to contribute to
the promotion of Good Corporate Governance in public institutions in Kenyan. A case study
design was adopted, and the UON was chosen for the study. To address this purpose, the study
sought to answer the following research question: what is the perception of the internal auditors
at the UON on the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the internal audit function. The
target population for the study was all the Internal Audit staff in the internal audit department of
the UON. A total of 40 respondents were targeted.
The dependent variable was the Effectiveness of the Internal Audit Function, while the
independent variables were: Professional Proficiency of Internal Auditors, Quality of Audit
Work, Organizational Independence, Career and Advancement, and Top Management Support.
The researcher analyzed the collected data using descriptive statistics and presented the
presented the data in terms of percentages, frequency distribution and charts.
The findings from the study were that various factors contribute to the effectiveness of the
internal audit function as a corporate governance mechanism in public universities. These factors
range from professional proficiency of internal auditors, quality of audit work, organizational
independence, career and advancement and top management support. The study findings were
similar with those in existing literature reviewed; hence the conclusion that an effective internal
audit function contributes to corporate governance to a great extent. The research findings
indicated that there was a positive relationship between the variables, and that the effectiveness
in internal audit function in public universities can be explained by the identified factors.
The study recommended that there was need to invest in the internal audit function of
organizations, as this was bound to contribute to the enhancement of the corporate governance
structures. The study suggested that future research should focus on all public universities in
Kenya, and that a broad based study on role of Internal Audit on organizational performance in
both private and public organizations should also be carried out in future.

NJOROGE DRGITAUAYUB. "Gitau, J. M., Riechi A.R.O. ,Gitau, A.N. (2007). Effects of Students.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2007. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
NJOROGE MRGACHIESTEVE. "Reflections of our Past.". In: French Cultural and Co-operation Centre, Nairobi. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Exhibition of best Photographers in Kenya
Njoroge M, Njuguna NM, Mutai P, Ongarora DSB, Smith PW, Chibale K. "Recent Approaches to Chemical Discovery and Development Against Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases Human African Trypanosomiasis and Schistosomiasis." Chem. Rev.. 2014;114(22):11138-11163.
Njoroge K, Ngure M. "Breeding maize in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. Chapter 18." Food Grain production in semi-arid Africa. 1987:245-254.
Njoroge(4) KD, Rading GO, Kihiu JM, Witcomb MJ, Cornish LA. "The Dislocation Core Misfit Potential." Comput. Mater. Sci. 100. 2015:195-202.
Njoroge BNK, Gitau AN, Gakungu NK, Kimani MW. "Solid Waste Management in Kenya: A case study of Public Technical Institution." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;Vol. 5( No. 3 (2012) ):127-138.gakungu_paper.pdf
Njoroge W, Ndavi PM KJGMJKG:. "The incidence Of CervicalEctropion Among women on contraceptive Methods In Two Peri Urban Areas inNairobi:." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr.. 2003;16(1):48-50.
Njororai WWS, Gitonga ER, N.K. B, Mwisukha A. "Assessment of injuries in PE lessons in Kenya Science Teachers College, Kenya." West African Journal of Physical and Health Education. 2004;8:152-159.
Njubi DM, Wakhungu J, Badamana MS. "Milk yield prediction in Kenyan Holstein- Friesian cattle using computer neural networks system.". 2009. Abstract

An essential aspect of understanding any natural system is the ability to acquire knowledge through experience and to adapt to new situations. This study, investigates the use of back-propagation Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) (an artificial intelligence technique) approach to model and predict the performance of daughter first lactation milk yield in recorded dairy cattle herds in Kenya. Such prediction is a prerequisite to selection which ultimately leads to optimal breeding strategies and increased annual genetic progress. Data consisting of 6095 lactation records made by the Kenyan Holstein-Friesian cows from 76 officially milk recorded herds of 445 sires, 1956 dams and 2267 daughters and collected over the period 1988 -2005 were used to predict the first lactation performance of the female offspring based on recorded genetic traits of their parents using computer Neural Networks (NN). Weka and MATLAB softwares were used for NN analyses while SAS (2003) and Derivative free Restricted maximum likelihood (DFREML) (Meyer 1989) computer packages were used for statistical analyses. Different ANN were modeled and the best performing number of hidden layers and neurons and training algorithms retained. The performance of the ANN model in simulating daughter performance was compared with the industry default technique linear regression (LR) model. The best NN model had one hidden layer with 8 hidden nodes and tangent sigmoid transfer function for hidden layer. The correlation coefficients between the observed and the estimated daughter milk yield for the two estimation methods was generally high (>0.80). Including sire information resulted to more accurate predictions by a neural network as shown by reduced root mean square error. Generally more accurate prediction was obtained by a neural network approach than by linear regression. This suggests a non-linear relationship exists among the feature variables in the data and that these are learned by the hidden layer of the NN. Thus, prediction tests show that the ANN models used in this study

Njubi DM, Wakhungu J, Badamana MS. "Mating decision support system using computer neural network model in Kenyan Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.". 2009. Abstract

Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) should provide not only accurate predictions but also comprehensible rules. In this paper, we demonstrate that the machine learning approach of rule extraction from a computer trained neural network system can successfully be applied to milk production analyses in dairy cattle. Such extracted knowledge should be useful in interpretation and understanding how the neural network (NN) model makes its decision. Data consisting of 6095 lactation records made by cows from 76 officially milk recorded Holstein Friesian herds in the period 1988-2005 were used to extract rules using neural network. Two different methods of attribute categorization; auto-class and the domain expert were used. For automated knowledge acquisition, rule induction used Weka software while SAS was used in domain expert. The neural nets were first trained to identify outputs for different inputs. The trained networks were then used for rule extraction. The study showed that the decision trees generated from the trained network had higher accuracy than decision trees created directly from the data. The study also indicated a need for a process to determine important inputs before using a neural net and showed that reduced input sets may produce more accurate neural nets and more compact decision trees. The “black-box” nature of neural networks was explained by extracting rules with both the domain expert and autoclass for both the continuous and the discrete valued inputs with rule sets performing better on the ‘low’ and ‘high’ levels. It follows from these analyses that performance at the two extremes was more important than average performance. It implied that the end user was particularly concerned with identifying mating with good potential and avoid mating with poor potential animals. The decision tree showed that when the herd performance was low then the foremost limiting factor was the dam performance whereas for medium and high herd performance sire level performance was the limiting factor. Through sensitivity analysis the most important and sensible factors with respect to productivity were sire breeding value and herd performance. It was, therefore, concluded that neural network rule extraction and decision tables were powerful management tools that allow the building of advanced and user-friendly decision-support systems for mating strategy designs and their evaluation.

Njue L, Kanja LW, Ombui JN, Nduhiu JG, Obiero D. "Efficacy of antimicrobial activity of garlic extract on bacterial pathogens commonly found to contaminate meat." East African Medical Journal. 2014;91(12):442.abstract.pdf
Njue C, Nzioka C, Maina-Ahlberg, Pertet A. "If you do not abstain, you will die of AIDS” AIDS Education in Kenya Public Schools." AIDS Education and Prevention . 2009;21 (2):156-167.
Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW, Gathumbi JK, Midiwo JO. "Identification of antimicrobial compounds in garlic grown in Laikipia county." Journal of Agricultural research and review,. 2017;5(5):636-643.
Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LK, Gathumbi JK. "Assessment of effectiveness of garlic extract from Laikipia County on shelf life of meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Njue L, LW K, N OJ, JG N, D O. "Efficacy of antimicrobial activity of garlic extracts on bacterial pathogens commonly found to contaminate meat." East African Medical Journa. 2014;91(12):442.
Njuguini SK, Muchane MN, Wachira P, Okoth S, Muchane M, Saado H. ". Effect of land use on the diversity of macrofungi in Kereita forest Kikuyu escarpment, Kenya." Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology. 2018;Volume 8 (2 ):254-281.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Voluntary Agencies Development Assistance (VADA): An evaluation: On Behalf of the Ford Foundation. Nairobi, April 1987.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1987. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Volume I: Sectoral Inventory: Arid and Semi-Arid Lands: Kitui/Meru /Embu. Districts.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, M.S. Badamana. and J.M.Z. Kamau. Faecal and Urinary Losses of Nitrogen in Cobalt-Deficient Small East African Goats. Indian Journal of Animal Science 64 (1994), 1264-1267.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1994. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
Njuguna IN, Ambler G, Reilly M, Ondondo B, Kanyugo M, Lohman-Payne B, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Borthwick N, Black A, Mehedi S-R, Sun J, Maleche-Obimbo E, Chohan B, John-Stewart GC, Jaoko W, Hanke T. "PedVacc 002: a phase I/II randomized clinical trial of MVA.HIVA vaccine administered to infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-positive mothers in Nairobi." Vaccine. 2014;32(44):5801-8. Abstract

A safe, effective vaccine for breastfeeding infants born to HIV-1-positive mothers could complement antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. To date, only a few HIV-1 vaccine candidates have been tested in infants.

NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Penetrating National Policy Discourse. IPAR SR 401/1997.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Public Opinion and Press Coverage of US-Canadian Relations" Paper presented at the Inter-University Seminar on International Relations. Ottawa 1972.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1972. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Expatriates and Decision-Making in Kenya: A Comment". Conference of Canadian Association of African Studies, Carleton University, 1973.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1973. Abstract
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NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N. 2003. What is the limit of up-scaling rainwater harvesting in a river basin? Physics & Chemistry of the Earth, 28:943-956.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2003. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Njuguna JN, Githaka N, Kinyanjui PW, Nzuki I, Heyne H, Mwaura S, Kanduma EG, Mwacharo JM, others. "Multi-locus genotyping reveals absence of genetic structure in field populations of the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) in Kenya.". 2015. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Decentralisation in Uganda."; Forthcoming. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Multi Purpose District Development Centres: The Case of Baringo Development Training Centre. IDS Working Paper No. 264, April, 1976.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1976. Abstract
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NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N., J. Rockstrom and C.K.K. Gachene. 2005. Hydro-economic evaluation of rainwater harvesting and management technologies: Fanners' investment options and risks in semi-arid Laikipia district of Kenya. Physics & Chemistry of the Earth, 30:772-782.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2005. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRGEORGENGUGI. "Considerations for Valuation for Rating of Small Towons: The case of Homa Bay Municipality in Real Estate Development and Management in Africa Eds. N.H. Olima (Forth coming 2006).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. Survey Review; 2006. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "Effect of Dolomitic Lime and Muriate of Potash on Jelly Seed Disorder and Fruit Tissue Mineral Content in Mango (Mangifera indica L.)." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2016:1-8. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Farmers Organisations in Kenya: Interest Groups or State Agents?" Published in African Rural and Urban Studies Col 5, No. 1 1994. Michigan State University. 1994.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Some Problems of Income Distribution in Kenya: Report of a Workshop held at IDS". IDS Working Paper No. 308, April 1977.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1977. Abstract
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NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N, H.H.G. Savenije and F.N. Gichuki. 2006. Land use changes and hydrological impacts related to up-scaling of rainwater harvesting and management in upper Ewaso Ng 'iro river basin, Kenya. Land Use Policy (in press).". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Njuguna PN, Kahonge AM, Miriti EK. "Web Application and GPS Integration in Motor Vehicle Accident Detection – A Case of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). 2012;59(8):6-11.
Njuguna NM, Ongarora DSB, Chibale K. "Artemisinin derivatives: a patent review (2006 - present)." Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 2012;22(10):1179-1203.
Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "Incidence of jelly seed disorder in ‘Tommy Atkins’ and ‘Van Dyke’Mangoes as affected by agro-ecological conditions in Kenya." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2016:1-9. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Institutional Dimensions of Policy Reforms." Paper presented at an IPAR National Policy Seminar, Nairobi November 19-20, 1996.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Volume II: Project Identification Arid and Semi Arid Lands: Kitui/Meru/Embu.Districts.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, J.M.Z. Kamau and M.S. Badamana. Changes in Serum Levels of Vitamin B12, Feed Intake, Liveweight and Hematological parameters in Cobalt Deficient Small East African Goats. Internat. J. Vit. Nutr.Res.63 (1993), 135-139.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1993. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Linking Policy and Research: Towards Enhancing the Policy Advocacy Capacity of Civil Society in Kenya. An IPAR project proposal submitted to a number of Donors in 1997.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Impact of African States in the United Nations System, B.A. Thesis: Mackinac College 1970.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Democratisation and Governance in Africa: The Role of NGOs. A report on behalf of the United Nations Conference on NGOs, 1998.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Asian Question in Uganda" The Black 1, June 1973.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1973. Abstract
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NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, J.M.Z. Kamau and M.S. Badamana. Thyroid Hormones and Metabolic Rate During Induction of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Goats. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 42 (1994), 187-189.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1994. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N., J.N. Thome, J. Rockstrom, F.W.T. Penning de Vries, and H.H.G. Savenije 2005. Agro-hydrological evaluation of on-farm rainwater storage systems for supplemental irrigation in Laikipia district, Kenya. Agricultural Water Management, 73(1): 21-4.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2005. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N. 2002. Review of irrigation development in Kenya. In: Blank, H.G., C.M. Mutero and H. Murray-Rust (eds.). 2002. The changing face of irrigation in Kenya: Opportunities for anticipating change in Eastern and Southern Africa. IWMI, Colombo, Sri L.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2002. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Decentralisation without Democratisation in Kenya."; Forthcoming. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate", A Chapter in Ng'ethe (Editor). From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract
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