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Njeri GL, Zaja JO, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2020;Volume 5(1):185-194.
Njeri KM, Meleckidzedeck K. Social Capital, Micro and Small Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation.. Addis Ababa: OSSREA; 2005.
Njeri KM. "Micro Enterprises and the Labour Market: Employees in Small Enterprises in Nairobi.". In: Negotiating Social Space: East African Micro Enterprises. Eritrea: Eritrea Africa World Press; 2001.
Njeri KM. "Government and Gender Equity in Micro and small enterprises ." IDC working Paper No. 541,Nairob IDC University of Nairobi. 2007.
Njeri KM. Women and the Informal Economy in Urban Africa. London: Zed Publishers; 2014.
Njeri KM, Ligulu, Peter, McCormick, Dorothy. "Policy and Footwear in Kenya in McCormick.". In: Clothing and Footwear in Africa industrialization. Johannesburg: Africa Institute of South Africa; 2004.
Njeri KM. "Kenya Grapples with labour Policies." African Executive Online Magazine (2009).
Njeri KM, McCormick, Dorothy, P. K. "Textiles and Clothing : Global players and Local Struggles.". In: Business in Kenya, Institutions and interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2007.
Njeri KM. "Urbanization: Detour." African Executive (2011).
Njeru NK, Muthomi JW, Mutegi CK, Wagacha JM. "Effect of cropping systems on accumulation of Fusarium head blight of wheat inocula in crop residues and soils." Journal of Plant Sciences . 2016;11:12-21.
Njeru EHN. "Affective Neutrality as a Missing Factor in African Kinship and Gender Dynamics.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

This paper is an anthropological presentation of the social structure, inequalities, kinship and gender dynamics incorporating the contextualisation of the five pattern variables as envisaged by Talcott Parsons. The background focuses generally on the African social exchange and property ownership relations. Attempts are made to establish a gendered relationship in which women are constantly on the receiving end, hence their predominance at the bottom of social ladder positions. In all cases, the application of the rules on the ground is seen to be dominated by cultural ethnocentrism. Particularistic considerations, or affectiveness, are lacking in the more universalistic, merit oriented and objective determinants, while the affective-neutrality criteria are essentially lacking in the mainstream African kinship ethos.


The critical challenge facing Kenya is to raise the rate of economic growth to levels
incorporating broad-based improvement in the standards of living and well-being of Kenyans
in order to reduce poverty which has increased rapidly in the recent past (PRSP, 2000).
Kenya's economic growth rate declined dramatically from an average of 6.6% in 1970s to
4.2% in 1980s to an average 2.1% in the 1990s. The living conditions of the vast majority
of Kenyans are deteriorating rapidly. There is a marked increase in the number of people
unable to access clean water, clothing, shelter, health services and education. Unemployment
is a problem in Kenya. Average unemployment is at 23%, and is even higher for youth that
drop out of school and for women, averaging 25% in both cases (Chune, 2003). Government
services in many cases are no longer available. Growing disparities in access to services have
further undercut the living conditions of low-income households. School enrolments, infant
mortality and life expectancy have deteriorated (UNDp, 2002).
Kenya's economic objectives of growth, poverty reduction and improved resource utilization
and access have remained essentially the same since independence. The quest for sustainable
socio-economic development has however been a challenging endeavor, influencing some
policy shifts. The strident call has basically centred on poverty reduction, inclusion of those
excluded from the enjoyment of the benefits of economic growth and the redistribution of
productive resources. What have consequently changed are the strategies to achieve the
objectives of sustainable human development focusing on improving the quality of life of the
majority poor.
Poverty reduction broadly defined requires processes that help people to improve their
capabilities and functioning, that enable them to take charge of their affairs (Gondi, 2005).
Kenya has come up with many poverty reduction policies since independence, most of which
have had little success. The previous pre-1990s povertyreduction policies erroneouslyassumed
that the benefits of rapid growth of key sectors such as industry, service and agriculture would
automatically trickle down to all sectors of society. So more effort was injected into improving
economic performance (export incentive, agricultural food processing, etc.), at the expense
of promoting societal welfare enhancing projects. For example, some policies like the rural
and informal sector development did not receive the much-needed political will and required
resource allocation, to be effective.

Njeru N, Charles Midega, Muthomi J, Wagacha J, Zeyaur Khan. "Impact of push–pull cropping system on pest management and occurrence of ear rots and mycotoxin contamination of maize in western Kenya." Plant Pathology . 2020;69(9):1644-1654.
Njeru L, Mwangi JG. "Influence of Khat (Miraa) on Primary School Dropout among Boys in Meru County, Kenya." Journal of US- CHINA Public Administrati. 2013;10(8)(ISSN):1548-6591.
Njeru L, J.G M, G J. "Influence of Youth Access to Farm Products Markets on their Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub-County. I." International Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Studies.. 2015;2(2)(ISSN):10-18.

Education is fundamental to development of human resource capacities for sustainable
economic growth and development. By imparting new skills and knowledge in people,
education expands human capabilities, increases labour productivity and enhances essential
participation and partnerships in nation building. Education is a vital tool in achieving greater
autonomy, empowerment of women and men and addressing gender gaps in the distribution
of opportunities and resources (Muganda, 2002; Muthaka & Mwangi, 2002). More equitable
distribution of opportunities and resources between men and women leads more directly to
higher economic growth and productivity (World Development Report, 2000/2001).
Debate on gender equity in education presently revolves around two universally accepted
declarations or goals, one of them being the Universal Primary Education (UPE)by 2015,
later refocused as Education for All (EFA), as articulated in Jomtien, Thailand, iii 1990 and
reaffirmed at the Dakar (Senegal) World Education Forum in April 2000. Secondly, in
September 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration
to achieve universal completion of primary schooling and achieve equity in access to primary
and secondary schooling by 2005 and at all levels by 2015.
In a number of countries, efforts have been intensified to bridge the gender education gap.
But achievement of this goal in many parts of the world, and Africa in particular, has been
rather slow. For instance, in 1996 in Amman, Jordan, girls' education was reported to have
made an 'excruciatingly slow" progress, especially in Africa. A follow up EFA assessment in
2000 revealed that in many cases little or no success had been achieved in narrowing the
gender gap in education.
Kenya, since independence, has recognized education as a key sector in the country's socioeconomic
and cultural development. As such, quality education provision and training at all
levels has remained a central policy issue, hence various commissions set up to address the
country's education and training needs. The commissions include the Ominde Commission
(1964); Gachathi Commission (1976); the Presidential Working Party on the Establishment
of the Second Public University (1981), Koech Commission (1999) (FAWE, 2002) and the
recent implementation of free and compulsory primary education policy for all school-going
age children. The Kenya government (GoK) is also signatory to various international and
regional conventions advocating for equity in education.
In Kenya, poor access to education and gender imbalances are largely blamed on prevailing
poverty, poor national economic performance, HIV1AIDS and environmental degradation,
especially in ASALs. Other issues defining the macro context of education in Kenya include
negative attitudes towards schooling, amidst dwindling opportunities, thus de-motivating
parents against sending their children to school; numerous other challenges as indicated by
reduced gross enrolment ratios, high dropout, low completion and transition rates, as well as
regional and gender disparities; in addition to the questions regarding both quality and
In addressing the foregoing problems, Kenya has developed several policies including poverty
reduction papers, National Education Master Plan (1997 - 2010). Recently, the country has
embarked on developing provincial EFA plans, for incorporation in Kenya's national EFA plan.
Beyond the policies, there have been efforts related to service provision, including bursaries,
text books, school feeding program, provision of desks and learning aids, teacher training,
campaigns for girls' education, among others.
This paper discusses the status, interpretation and opportunities for gender equity in the
Kenyan educational system, starting with background information at international and
national levels; then conceptual considerations; gender representation at various levels;
opportunities and roles of various stakeholders; some of the constraints and challenges
facing the attainment of gender parity; conclusions and way forward.

Njeru MK, Blystad A, Shayo EH, Nyamongo IK, Fylkesnes K. "Practicing provider-initiated HIV testing in high prevalence settings: consent concerns and missed preventive opportunities." BMC Health Services Research. 2011;11:87. Abstractnyamongo_practicing_provider_initiated_hiv-testing_-opt_out_paper.pdf

Background: Counselling is considered a prerequisite for the proper handling of testing and for ensuring effective HIV preventive efforts. HIV testing services have recently been scaled up substantially with a particular focus on provider-initiated models. Increasing HIV test rates have been attributed to the rapid scale-up of the providerinitiated testing model, but there is limited documentation of experiences with this new service model. The aim of this study was to determine the use of different types of HIV testing services and to investigate perceptions and experiences of these services with a particular emphasis on the provider initiated testing in three selected districts in Kenya, Tanzania, and, Zambia.

Methods: A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was applied using quantitative and qualitative approaches. A population-based survey was conducted among adults in the three study districts, and qualitative data were obtained from 34 focus group discussions and 18 in-depth interviews. The data originates from the ongoing EU funded research project “REsponse to ACountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems” (REACT) implemented in the three countries which has a research component linked to HIV and testing, and from an additional study focusing on HIV testing, counselling perceptions and experiences in Kenya.

Results: Proportions of the population formerly tested for HIV differed sharply between the study districts and particularly among women (54% Malindi, 34% Kapiri Mposhi and 27% Mbarali) (p < 0.001). Women were much more likely to be tested than men in the districts that had scaled-up programmes for preventing mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Only minor gender differences appeared for voluntary counselling and testing. In places where, the provider-initiated model in PMTCT programmes had been rolled out extensively testing was accompanied by very limited pre- and post-test counselling and by a related neglect of preventative measures. Informants expressed frustration related to their experienced inability to ‘opt-out’ or decline from the providerinitiated HIV testing services.

Conclusion: Counselling emerged as a highly valued process during HIV testing. However, counselling efforts were limited in the implementation of the provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing model. The approach was moreover not perceived as voluntary. This raises serious ethical concerns and implies missed preventive opportunities inherent in the counselling concept. Moreover, implementation of the new testing approach seem to add a burden to
pregnant women as disproportionate numbers of women get to know their HIV status, reveal their HIV status to their spouse and recruit their spouses to go for a test. We argue that there is an urgent need to reconsider the manner in which the provider initiated HIV testing model is implemented in order to protect the client’s autonomy and to maximise access to HIV prevention.

Njeru L, J.G M. "Influence of Gender Differences on Youth Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub County, Kenya." International Journal of Development and Sustainability. 2017;6(8)(ISSN):851-861.
Njeru G. "Local Level Politics: The 2007 Parliamentary Elections in Kenya.". In: Tensions and Reversals in Democratic Transitions: The Kenya 2007 General Elections. Nairobi: Society for International Development; 2010.
Njeru E, Njoka J. "Street Children and Employment Opportunities.". In: Environment and Development in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya National Academy of Sciences; 1999. Abstract

Although there is a general realization that there are "people" in the streets, we often take the phenomenon for granted probably because we wake up and go home only to come to the streets the following morning and still find the people. This situation is, however, changing with the emergence of the "birth" and increase of street children as we begin to take into consideration the category of people to be routinely found on the. streets. The phrases "street children" refer to the children below the statutory adult age living on or found on the streets. These children derive their livelihood from the streets. We often distinguish between children on streets and children a/the streets. While the children on the streets may have a "home" to go to, the latter are an integral part of the street having nowhere to retire to at the
end of the day.
The street children have actually been there for as long as the urban centres existed probably due to the social and physical characteristics of the urban centres in which the duality of outcome is apredominant feature (Gichuru, 1993). Thus the modem urban centre has always been aplace ofpoverty and riches, chaos and order, squalor and splendour, development and underdevelopment. Street children have, however, not been viewed so much as a problem until recently following the unprecedented urban growth. Although the street children phenomenon is not unique to urban areas of the LDCs, the phenomenon has become so widespread in some urban centres that there has been a mushrooming of organizations whose activities are mainly centred around rehabilitation ofthe street children. Many studies indicate that the street children phenomenon is not only increasing but is also becoming widespread and affecting millions ofchildren (Grant et. aI., 1989; Gichuru, 1993; ICIHI, 1986 and Suda, 1994).
The number ofstreet children increased from 15 in 1969 to nearly 500,000 in 1994 (Gichohi, 199~). This number is expected to rise to 7 million by the year 2000, if we were to base our calculation on the rate of 10 % increase per annum. In addition, many street children are becoming children a/the streets and we are now increasingly talking of street families and street gangs. Most of the street children are in the urban areas. This chapter argues that the street children phenomenon is born out of consequences of the unprecedented rate of urbanization process which leads to unemployment, poverty and cultural loss. This culminates in the devaluation of the child who has, therefore, to fend for him/herself from the streets.

Njeru DG, Mwanda WO, Kitonyi GW, Njagi EC. "Prevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies in blood donors at the national blood transfusion centre, nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in susceptible patients is associated with serious morbidity and a high mortality. Transmission of cytomegalovirus infection through blood transfusion is markedly reduced by transfusion of CMV seronegative blood products, or by transfusion of leucodepleted blood products : There is a very high prevalence of cytomegalovirus antibodies among blood donors at the NBTS, with virtually all blood donors having been exposed to the virus. Since the CMV remains latent within leucocytes after infection inspite of the prescence of antibodies in seropositive individuals, leucoreduction of blood products is recommended before transfusion to seronegative susceptible patients. In Kenya, susceptible groups of patients include very low birthweight babies, patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to human immunodeficiency virus infections (HIV) patients, patients on myelosuppressive cancer therapy and recipients of kidney transplants. Further studies are recomended to determine the prevalence of CMV antibodies in these patients in order to establish the magnitude of the demand for CMV safe blood

Njeru NK, Midega CAO, Muthomi JW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Khan ZR, Khan ZR. "Influence of socio‐economic and agronomic factors on aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in western Kenya." Food Science and Nutrition. 2019;00:1-11.
Njeru G. "Livelihood Diversification and Agricultural Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of Production and Marketing Innovations in Smallholder Farming in a Rural Kenyan District, Mbeere." An Analysis of Production and Marketing Innovations in Smallholder Farming in a Rural Kenyan District, Mbeere. 2001;(539).
Njeru G. "Child Labour in Small and Medium Enterprises.". In: New and Enduring Forms from an African Development Policy Perspective. Nairobi: ILO/IPEC; 2009.
Njeru G, Owiti MOD, Mute L, Geoffrey; Wanyande P. Civic Education for Marginalised Communities.; 2001.
Njeru K, NA K, IJMwaniki. "Forecasting future customer call volumes: A case study." International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science & Communication Engineering. 2018;4 (6):12-16. AbstractWebsite

Forecasting future volumes of customer calls in call centers has proved to be a tedious and challenging task. This study, using time series analysis proposes two adequate ARIMA (p, d, q) models that are suitable to forecast two volumes of customer calls, IVR Hits Volumes and Offered Call volumes. 1472 times series data points from date 01/01/2014 to 11/01/2018 were obtained from a call center based in Kenya on the two variables of interest (IVR Hits Volumes and Offered Call volumes). The appropriate orders of the two models are picked based on the examination of the results of the ACF and PACF plots. The AIC criterion is used to select the best model for the data. The best ARIMA model for log IVR Hits volumes is ARIMA (5, 1, 3) with and the best ARIMA model for log Offered Call Volumes is ARIMA (6, 1, 3) with. The two models are recommended to model and forecast the daily arrival volumes of customer call data. The obtained forecast will be used in providing insights for appropriate workforce management

Njeru FM, Kithuka JM, Maingi N, Ombui JN. "Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered at Dagoretti slaughterhouse in Kenya.". 2004. Abstract

A cross sectional survey was carried out in Nairobi\'s Dagoretti slaughter house, where routine postmortem meat inspection was done. All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in Dagoretti were F. gigantica. A total of 1584 cattle, 989sheep and 954 goats originating from five out of the 8 provinces of Kenya were slaughtered at Dagoretti slaughter house, over the study period. 147 (9.3%) cattle, 8 (0.8%) sheep, 4 (0.4%) goats were shown to harbor liver fluke infection. It was concluded that fascioliasis is prevalent in cattle, sheep and goats of Kenya. This may be a cause of great economic losses at slaughter as a result of condemnation of infected livers

Njeru EHN. "Understanding Female Circumcision from the Circumcisers' Perspective .". 2006. AbstractWebsite

The resistance of circumcisers can be a substantial obstacle to the eradication of female genital mutilation (FGM). As part of a broader study on FGM conducted in Kenya's Machakos, Nyeri, and Embu districts, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 circumcisers. 18 were female. FGM is not a full-time activity, so circumcisers were also engaged in farming and small-scale businesses; 5 were traditional birth attendants (TBAs). With the exception of the TBAs, respondents had no formal clinic- or hospital-based training to prepare them for their practice. Although circumcisers identified excessive bleeding and infection as potential sequelae of FGM, they attributed these complications to curses, bad omens, or broken taboos. The main advantage of FGM cited by respondents was the reduction of sexual desire, which is believed to reduce prostitution and promote moral standards. Uncircumcised girls were viewed with contempt. Most circumcisions are performed when girls are 3-11 years of age, contradicting the claim that the practice is performed to prepare young women for marriage. Although fees varied widely, all respondents viewed FGM as an important income source. They felt their work conferred high status within their communities and an opportunity to promote moral standards. Although many circumcisers are unlikely to stop their practice because of the social prestige it confers and their belief they are destined to perform this function, others could be persuaded to take up alternate means of generating an income if provided with start-up capital. Also important would be involvement of circumcisers in the development of alternative coming-of-age rituals.

Njeru L, Gichimu B, Lopokoiyit M, J.G M. "Influence of Kenyan Youth’s Perception towards Agriculture and Necessary Interventions; a Review." Asian journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2015;5(1)(ISSN): 40-45.
Njeru E. Research Findings on City/Street Crimes In Nairobi: Some Lessons for UN Volunteers. Nairobi: UNDP; 2001. Abstract

Development planners in both the public and private sectors, especially those
interested in urban planning and development have now established a
consensus that different social structural processes could constitute both
driving shafts to stimulate urban development on the one hand, and also devastating
bottlenecks on the other. Peace and security are integral ingredients in establishing
an environment that is conducive to successful efforts in development project planning
and implementation. In this context, crime and street families are also viewed as
critical social structural features that require informed understanding, in order to
enhance security in Nairobi and its environs. This, in effect, contributes to creation
of a user-friendly information base for reference by urban-based development
The stu.dy on which this paper is based, focused mainly on crir.e and street families
in the Eastlands area of Nairobi City, and in particular, the socio-demographic aspects
relating to crime. Beyond personal characteristics, efforts were made to establish the
residents' perception of crime, as well as causes of crime, characteristics of criminals,
commonest victims of crime, tolerance and management of crime. Other key variables
included the role and social credibility of those involved in controlling crime, and
other socio-economic activities undertaken by people on the streets.

Njeru S, Otieno S, Karimurio J. "Prevalence and pattern of significant refractive errors in high school students in Meru municipality.". 2009. Abstract

Uncorrected refractive errors are an important cause of visual impairment in many. Visually disabling refractive error affects a significant proportion of both genders of the global population. Lack of practitioners is the main reason for high rates of visual problem due to uncorrected refractive errors. In developing countries, it is difficult to provide refractive services mainly due to lack of sufficient data on these errors. The proportion of school children who are visually impaired due to refractive errors can be used to assess the level at which the development of refractive services for schools can be established in a country or region. The main objective of this study was to investigate prevalence, pattern and some of the factors for continued presence of uncorrected significant refractive errors (SRE) among high school students in Meru Municipality, Meru Central District of Eastern Province, Kenya. This was a crosssectional study that was conducted in two selected secondary schools. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the study population. Data was collected through structured questionnaires and physical examination of the study subjects who met the eligibility criteria. Chi square test of independence was used to determine the relationship between variables such as prevalence, pattern, refractive status, health seeking behaviour and their association with the sex of the study subjects. The number of students who participated in the study was 164 with boys and girls having equal representation. The participants were between 13 to 18 years old, with a mean of 15.4 years. The study showed that the overall prevalence of SRE was 8.5% (n=164). Sex specific prevalence indicated no significant difference between the two sexes c2 = 1. 24, d.f =1 p> 0.05). The pattern of SRE revealed that myopia was the leading cause of decreased visual acuity, contributing 6.7% of all the students who underwent the screening process. All boys with SIZE were myopic, compared to 66.6% for girls. However, there was no significant difference between them (c2 =2.05, d.f =1 p>0.005). Astigmatism was second with 1.1% prevalence and lastly, hypermetropia with 0.6%. The study has shown poor health seeking behaviour by students, with 78.6 % (n=14) having not sought correction of their visual problem. About 7.1% of students with SIZE had spectacle correction with correct power of lenses while 14.2% (n=14) had spectacles with wrong lens power. The main reason for students with SRE not wearing glasses was inaccessibility to refractive services, with 52.6% of them having never been examined for their refractive state. SRE among students was also associated with family history of wearing spectacles. In conclusion, SRE among high school students in Meru Municipality require attention, with myopia being the main problem. Screening programmes for refractive services through primary health care can offer a reasonable solution to the problem and is therefore highly recommended. Multisectoral approach between stakeholders in the ministries of Health and Education can yield meaningful output in alleviating the situation.

Njeru L. "An Assessment of Vulnerability and Risks of Climate Change and Possible Solutions to Enhance Resilience to Adapt to the Change in Meru County, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences . 2017;4(7)( e-ISSN 2348–1854):267-272.
Njeru CM, Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, Kinyamario JI, Kiboi S, Maeda EE. "Assessing stock and thresholds detection of soil organic carbon and nitrogen along an altitude gradient in an east Africa mountain ecosystem." Geoderma Regional. 2017;10:29-38.
and Njeru UKEMHN. "Discussion Paper 047, IPAR - Funding the- Fight Against HIV/AIDS: Budgetary Analysis of Kenya's HIV/AIDS Activity Prioritization and Financing."; 2004. Abstract

The Abuja Declaration, adopted at the Africa Union special summit on AIDS in
2001, called upon African governments to allocate 15% of their national budgets to
health spending, with more emphasis on HIV/AIDS programmes. This commitment
echoes the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on illVIAIDS
(UNGASS), which calls for an increase in spending on HIVIAIDS programmes to
US$ 7-10 billion by 2005. The declaration of commitment by the Africa Union calls
for minimum spending that provides coverage of essential prevention, care, and
mitigation services in an effort to reduce the spread of the epidemic. In Kenya,
despite the government's commitment to fight the pandemic, very little information
is available on the actual expenditures on HIV/AIDS activities. The objective
of this study was to track HIV/AIDS expenditure and analyse the budget from an
HIV/AIDS perspective. Understanding how the financial and other national resources
are used towards realization of the national objectives as outlined in the
HIV/AIDS related strategic goals in each country, will help the planners to choose
pertinent, useful and attainable interventions.

Njeru GR, Njoka JM. Political Ideology in Kenya.; 2007.Website
Njeru G. Political Patronage, Access to Entitlements and Poverty in Kenya. . Nairobi: Kenya Episcopal Conference- Catholic Justice and Peace Commission and Dan Church Aid. ; 2007.
Njeru G. Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Trainer’s Manual for Civic Education. . Nairobi: Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Trainer’s Manual for Civic Education. ; 2001.
Njeru NK, Midega CAO, Muthomi JW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Khan ZR. "In vitro antifungal activity of Desmodium intortum and D. uncinatum root extracts against growth of toxigenic Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus." Australian Journal of Crop Science . 2020;14(12):1942-1948.
Njeru G. "Co-author of Making Informed Choices A Curriculum for Civic Education. Nairobi: CE." CEDMAC, CRE-CO, ECEP, and the Gender Consortium.. 2001.
Njeru G. The Constituency Development Fund: An Examination of Legal, Structural, Management and Corruption Issues in Kenya. . Nairobi : National Anti-Corruption Campaign Steering Committee; 2008.
Njeru E. "La mancanza di coordinamento e armonizzazione negli interventi dei donatori per la risposta all'HIV e AIDS in Kenya: descrizione del problema." Chi fa da se: non fa per tre. 2005. Abstract

Le ONG che operano sotto I'ombrello dell'Osservatorio Italiano per l'Azione Globale contro I'AIDS notano
con preoccupazione la mancanza di coordinamento tra i diversi progetti per la lotta all'HIV e AIDS
finanziati dai donatori. La maggior parte di questi interventi viene realizzata in modo indipendente e
scollegato dalle iniziative coordinate a livello globale 0 dalle istituzioni nazionali competenti nei Paesi
che beneficiano dei finanziamenti. Raccogliendo queste preoccupazioni, AMREF Italia e ActionAid
International hanno commissionato uno studio per valutare I'adeguatezza e il grado di coordinamento
dei differenti donatori in Kenya.
II problema del coordinamento ha assunto recentemente una rilevanza internazionale attraverso la
strategia dei "Three Ones" accettata dai maggiori donatori. I"Three Ones" costituiscono i tre principi
strategici di riferimento per gli interventi nazionali e dei donatori e consistono in: 1) un unico piano
nazionale per la lotta alia pand~mia; 2) un'unica autorita nazionale di coordinamento; 3) un unico sistema
di monitoraggio e valutazione.

Njeru GW, Maina SM, Munene M. "Mainstreaming “Adaptive Standards for Multi-Purpose Interior Design In Low-Cost Housing Projects: A Case Study of the Kibera Soweto East Housing Project in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal Of Innovative Research & Development . 2019;8(DOI No.: 10.24940/ijird/2019/v8/i10/OCT19076).
Njeru A, Ombati V, Ngesu L. "Causes and effects of drugs and substance abuse among secondary school students in Dagoreti division, Nairobi West district." Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Deduction, . 2014;6(1):1992-2744.
and Njeru ENBE. "Primary education in Kenya: Access and policy implications, 1989 – 2002.". In: Discussion Paper No. DP064/2005. IPAR Discussion Paper Series; 2005. Abstractp.e_in_kenya_access_and_policy_implication0001.pdf

The study provides a critical analysis of primary education in Kenya between 1989 and 2002, focusing on participation, internal efficiency and equity. Key findings indicated that the major challenges facing primary school education in Kenya include unsatisfactory levels of access and participation, regional disparities, declining quality and relevance, rising educational costs, poverty incidence, and declining government financing (prior to FPE), internal inefficiencies and school wastage. Over-age enrollments, increasing dropout rates, high repetition rates, low completion rates, declining transition rates from primary education level to higher education levels, and declining survival rates denote internal inefficiencies and primary school wastage that characterized trends in access to primary education between 1989 and 2002. Most of the resources are spent on recurrent expenditure items dominated by teachers remuneration, while development allocation constitutes less 5 per cent (in 2001 the proportion was 2 per cent). Other challenges include lack of clear policy guidelines on cost sharing, inadequate mechanisms in the identification of needy students within the school system, inefficiencies in resource mobilization, utilization and accountability, poor management of some learning institutions, over reliance of donor funding in development projects/programmes, unsustainability of programmes/projects, child labour, and increasing numbers of destitute/street children. FPE initiative aims at addressing the challenges relating to access. However, close monitoring and evaluation are important in ensuring programme sustainability.

Njeru L, Gichimu B. "Influence of Access to Land and Finances on Kenyan Youth Participation in Agriculture; a Review." International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability. 2014;2(3)(ISSN):1-8.
Njeru EHN. Women, Culture and Education. Nairobi: UNESCO; 2002. Abstract

In this preparatory phase of the establishment and regularization process regarding the
UNESCO Chair on "Women, basic education, community health and sustainable
development" to be housed in the Department of Sociology, it was deemed necessary to
hold a multi-disciplinary Strategic Planning Workshop to deliberate on the modalities of
expediency in the management of the Chair. These brief notes are a response to this need,
tailored specifically to addressing the theme 'Women, Culture and Education ", as an
integral component of the basic issues around which the activities of the Chair would
revolve and· evolve. This paper examines in broad outline, the role of culture and
education against the opportunities and involvement of women in health-seeking
behaviour and community health promotion within an overall context of sustainable

Njeru E. "Occasional Paper Number 66 - INFORMATION-BASED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT SE'RVICES IN KENYA.". In: Research, Monitoring and Evaluation (REME) Project. Institute for Development Studies University ofNairobi. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

This document is a benchmark survey report ofthe DFID-BASE funded project~
that focus on MSEs in Kenya. DIFD-BASE has been supporting financial ane
business development services projects inKenya as well as the deregulation uni
ofthe Ministry ofPlanning and National Development (MPND). Our focus is or
the Business Development Services-Information Based Projects, whose focus i~
on training, counselling, information documentation and dissemination, sigr
posting and linkages, and marketing and financial management services.
The survey, on which this report is based, was undertaken between late 1997 am
early 1998 following an understanding betweenDFID-BASE and IDS-Universi~
ofNairobi's REME Project. The purpose of the survey was to compile profile:
ofthe recipient projects as well as those of their beneficiaries. This data woule
be useful in future for assessing the impact ofthe projects in question in relatior
to the overall goal ofDFID support to the MSE sector in Kenya, i.e. increasin!
income and employment for rural households through supporting off-fam
activities, especially among women.
Interview guides, questionnaires, observations and checklists were used to collec
the relevant data. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentage:
were used to analyse and interpret the data collected.
It was found that information based interventions were being implemented b;
differing organisations, some of which had well established structures an<
systems, while others were still nascent. The foci ofthese organisations lay in thl
area of BDS for MSE sector and they were at! quite selective in the socio
demographic, economic and entrepreneurial features oftheir target. The gende
balancing principle appears to be a significant driving force behind project desigr
and implementation. This was in recognition of the DFID-BASE emphasis 01
poverty alleviation, especially among women.
Generally, the organisations/projects studied targeted both individuals and
institutions. The targeted beneficiaries were mainly middle-aged, fairly educated
and vocationally trained entrepreneurs earning low incomes and only beginning to
move out ofon-farm activities. Some ofthe individuals did not have enterprises,
but they were management staff of key institutions serving the MSE sector.
Indeed there was still strong attachment to land and livestock ownership. Most of
the beneficiaries had receivecJ. more than one BDS-information service for the 12
year period during which they were members and were pleased with the
services as implied in their recommendations for intensified assistance. Indeed
few beneficiaries had other sources of assistance.
In terms ofthe usefulnt;:ss ofthe data for future impact assessment, it is clear that
the beneficiary activities and interaction with the respective projects will be bound
to affect them as individuals (personal growth), their enterprises (assets, income),
their households (general welfare) and the wider communities in which they
operate. We thus recommend that the data on impact assessment focus on these
four levels and that the key variables ofincome, employment and assets as well
as the qualitative aspects ofwellbeing be clearly investigated during the impact

Njeru S, Otieno S, Karimurio J. "Prevalence of significant refractive errors in high school students in Meru Municipality in Kenya." East Afr. J Ophthalmol. 2009;15(2):39-40.
Njeru MK, Blystad A, IK N, K. F. "A critical assessment of the WHO responsiveness tool: lessons from voluntary counselling and testing services in Kenya." BMC Health Services Research .. 2009;9:243. Abstractnyamongo_a_critical_assessment_of_the_who_responsiveness_tool.pdf

BACKGROUND: Health, fair financing and responsiveness to the user's needs and expectations are seen as the essential objectives of health systems. Efforts have been made to conceptualise and measure responsiveness as a basis for evaluating the non-health aspects of health systems performance. This study assesses the applicability of the responsiveness tool developed by WHO when applied in the context of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services (VCT) at a district level in Kenya.

METHODS: A mixed method study was conducted employing a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods concurrently. The questionnaire proposed by WHO was administered to 328 VCT users and 36 VCT counsellors (health providers). In addition to the questionnaire, qualitative interviews were carried out among a total of 300 participants. Observational field notes were also written.

RESULTS: A majority of the health providers and users indicated that the responsiveness elements were very important, e.g. confidentiality and autonomy were regarded by most users and health providers as very important and were also reported as being highly observed in the VCT room. However, the qualitative findings revealed other important aspects related to confidentiality, autonomy and other responsiveness elements that were not captured by the WHO tool. Striking examples were inappropriate location of the VCT centre, limited information provided, language problems, and concern about the quality of counselling.

CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the WHO developed responsiveness elements are relevant and important in measuring the performance of voluntary HIV counselling and testing. However, the tool needs substantial revision in order to capture other important dimensions or perspectives. The findings also confirm the importance of careful assessment and recognition of locally specific aspects when conducting comparative studies on responsiveness of HIV testing services.

Njeruh FM, Kithuka JM, Maingi N, Ombui JN. "Relative occurrence of Fasciola Species in cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered in Dagoretti slaughterhouse in Kenya." Kenya Veterinarian. 2004;27:124-128.
Njery G. "Political Institutions and Processes in Chronic Poverty." IDS Occasional Paper. 2009;73.
Njihia JM, Ogweno S, Mbeche IM. "Monitoring and evaluation.". 2006.Website
Njihia JM. "Growing a Business: Adaptive Evolutionary Entreprenuership - A Case Study in Emergent Strategy and Complex adaptive Systems.". In: 6th International Conference on African Entterprenuership and Small Business Development: Entreprenuership Research and Development in Africa: Achievements, Challenges and Future Prospects. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2002. Abstract
Njihia JM. "Critical realism and its prospects for African development research and policy." Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya (PAK). 2011;3:61-85. AbstractWebsite
Njihia JM. "Innovations in business research: An overview of Q-methodology and its applications in social science research with special reference to Africa.". In: Proceedings of the African International Business and Management (AIBUMA) Conference. Nairobi : University of Nairobi; 2010:. Abstract
Njihia JM. "Policy and Socio-Economic Contexts for IT Based Public Sector Reform in Postcolonial Developing Countries: The Contrived vs. the Actual." In: Papadopoulos T, Kanellis P, eds. Public Sector Reform Using Information Technologies: Transforming Policy into Practice . IGI Global; 2011:. Abstract
Njihia JM, Mbeche IM. "“Soft" Systems Analysis: Road Construction and Maintenance: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: All Africa Engineers Conference. Kenyatta Conference Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; 1994. Abstract
Njiraine D. "Financial Incentive as a Yardstick for Employee Performance: the Case of University of Nairobi." European Journal of Business and Management. 2019;8(9):78-87.
Njiraine D. "The Influence of Internal Promotion and Training Incentives on Employee Performance at University of Nairobi. ." European Journal of Business and Management. 2019;11(14):63-79.
Njiraine D. "Enabling Knowledge Sharing Practices for Academic and Research in Higher Education Institutions." Information and Knowledge Management. 2019;9(3):82-89.
Njiro M;, Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Njiru, E N; Kironchi MNG; JP;, Kironchi G;, Mbuvi JP;, Nguluu S. "Analysis of climate data and the associated risks to maize production in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya."; 2010.
Njiru FM, Siriba DN. "Site Selection for an Earth Dam in Mbeere North, Embu County—Kenya." Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2018;6(7):113-133.
Njiru B, Ikamari L, Gachigua J. "‘Climate Change, Resource Competition and Conflict Among Pastoral Communities in Kenya’.". In: Conference on’ Social Stress, and Violent Conflicts- State of the Art and Research Needs. University of Hamburg, Germany; 2010.
Njiru FAK, Elly D. "Effect of Monetary Policy on Credit Supply in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):28-43. Abstract

Purpose- This paper sought to establish the effect of monetary policy on credit supply in Kenya.
Methodology- This study adopted a descriptive research design. Descriptive statistics such as mean, median, minimum, maximum and standard deviation were used to describe the trend of the variables. Breusch Godfrey serial correlation LM test was used to test correlation of the study variables. Stationarity tests on time series data was conducted using augmented dickey fuller test statistic. Regression analysis was used to establish the influence of monetary policy on credit supply.
Findings- The study concluded that CRR, OMO and Inflation are significant and have a negative effect on credit supply. The model was also fit to explain the relationship as 76% (R2= 0.761160) variation of the dependent variable (Credit supply) was explained by the independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation) in the long run. Adjusted R- square which provides adjustment to the R Square was73% (Adjusted R2= 0.736664) indicating 73% variation in credit supply was explained by independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation). F- Statistic 31.07233 was significant at 1% level P=0.0000.
Implications – The study recommends that the Central Bank of Kenya should come up with monitoring and evaluation programmes of monitoring how credit supply is influenced by various monetary policy instruments and should streamline the economic environment in which banks operate by ensuring CRR, OMO and Inflation are maintained at a constant.
Value –The study narrowed in scope to commercial banks and excluded the non-banking organizations. Additionally a study should be done on the impact of monetary policy on money supply to capture both banking and non-banking institutions. The research had a presumption that the relationship of the variables was linear therefore more studies should be carried out explore nonlinear relationship on the variables of study,
Key Words: Credit Supply, Monetary policy

Njiru FM, Siriba DN, Karanja FN. "Review of GIS System Audit Parameters in an Organization.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Njiru, B.N., Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Knols, B.G.J. "Trapping of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae with odour-baited MM-X traps in semi-field conditions in western Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2006;5(1):39.
Njiru FM, Siriba DN, Karanja FN. "Review of GIS System Audit Parameters in an Organization.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Njiru EN;, Kironchi, G; Mbuvi NJP; S, Kironchi G;, Mbuvi JP;, Nguluu S. "Analysis of climate data and the associated risks to maize production in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya."; 2010.
Njiruh PN, Kanya JI, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Wanjogu RK, Kariuki SN. "Segregation distortion of anthocyanin morphological marker in F2 population of cross between basmati and environment genic male sterile rice line." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research . 2014;3:43-52.
Njiruh PN, Kanya JI, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Wanjogu RK. "Production of hybrid Basmati rice in Kenya: progress and challenges." International Journal of Innovations in Bio-Sciences. 2013;3(4):115-124.
Njogu E, Kibui AW. "Influence of mother tongue on pre-school children's performance in the English language in Gachoka Division, Embu County." International Journal of Research In Humanities, Arts and Literature. 2016;4(8):99-104.
Njogu MR;, Kiaira JK. "Inhibition of the hexokinase/hexose transporter region in the glycosomal membrane of bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei by oligomycin and digitonin.". 2004. Abstract

Glycolysis in bloodstream T. brucei is the sole source of energy and remains a favourable chemotherapeutic target. In furtherance of this, an attempt has been made to understand better the contribution of glucose, fructose, mannose and glycerol to the energy charge of these parasites incubated in the presence of oligomycin, salicyhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and digitonin. Their cellular energy charge, when catabolizing glucose was 0.860, and under inhibition by oligomycin (10 microg), SHAM (2 mM) or oligomycin plus SHAM, 0.800, 0.444 and 0.405, respectively. Oligomycin inhibited the rate of catabolism of glucose, mannose and fructose up to 80%. The inhibition could not be alleviated by uncouplers, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol or permeabilization of the membranes by digitonin. Glucose-6-phosphate and other phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates, such as fructose-6-phosphate were catabolized by the permeabilized parasites in the presence of oligomycin, implying that except hexokinase, all the other glycolytic enzymes were active. Glucose oxidation was stimulated by low concentrations of digitonin (up to 4 microg), but at higher concentrations, it was significantly inhibited (up to 90% inhibition at 10 microg). Apparently, the inhibitory effects of oligomycin and digitonin were confined to glucose uptake and hexokinase catalysis. The above observations suggest that the hexose transporter and the enzyme hexokinase might be functionally-linked in the glycosomal membrane and oligomycin inhibits the linkage, by using a mechanism not linked to the energy charge of the cell. Digitonin at concentrations higher than 4 microg disrupted the membrane, rendering the complex in-operative. A hexokinase/hexose transporter complex in the glycosomal membrane is envisaged.

and Njogu KWMW. "“Reclaiming my Dreams: Oral Narratives,” by W.M. Kabira and W. Njogu,." University of Nairobi Press (2010).
Njogu PM, Okombo J, Chibale K. "Designed Hybrid Compounds for Tropical Parasitic Diseases.". In: Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development (First Edition). London: Elsevier; 2017.
Njogu PM, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO, Kariuki ST, Yenesew A, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2011;14(3):89-94. AbstractPhytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)

Root and stem extracts of Girardinia diversifolia exhibited varying degrees of activity against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three compounds namely β-sitosterol, 7-hydroxysitosterol and 3-hydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one, were isolated from the petroleum ether root extract. The present study gives scientific credence to the traditional use of Girardinia diversifolia in the management of microbial infections.

NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Synthesis of aminoalkyl vernolamides from vernonia oil at varied conditions.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. JJournal of Kenya Chemical Society, 3 (1), 1-8.; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Abstract. The oil extracted from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp. nairobensis was reacted with 1,6-diaminohexane and 1,8-diaminooctane using a 1:3 molar ratio of vernonia oil to amine to give the corresponding vernolamides. Varied temperatures and solvents were applied. The vernolamides exhibited antibacterial activity against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and on gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The vernolamides did not show any antifungal activity.
Njogu PM, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO, Kamau FN, Kariuki ST, Yenesew A, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011;14(3):89-94.phytochemical_and_antimicrobial_investigation_of_girardinia_diversifolia_link_friis_urticaceae.pdf
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "8-Methoxyneorautenol and Radical Scavenging flavonoids from Erythrina abyssinica.". In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 23(2), 001-006. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 23(2), 001-006.; 2009. Abstract
ABSTRACT. A new pterocarpan (named 8-methoxyneorautenol) was isolated from the acetone extract of the root bark of Erythrina abyssinica. In addition, the known isoflavonoid derivatives eryvarin L, erycristagallin and shinpterocarpin were identified for the first time from the roots of this plant. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The new compound showed selective antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The acetone extract of the root bark of E. abyssinica showed radical scavengingactivity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). The pterocarpenes, 3-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3- dimethylallyl)pterocarpene and erycristagallin, were the most active constituents of the roots of this plant and showing dose-dependent activities similar to that of the standard quercetin.
Njogu REN, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Wendt OF. "Catalytic Properties of Luminescent Tris-Homoleptic Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complexes in the Oxidation of Morin in Visible Light. ." Journal of Physical Sciences. 2020;5. AbstractJournal of Physical Sciences

The photo-oxidation of Morin, 2′,3,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone by six luminescent homoleptic tris-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes was investigated with the aim of evaluating the catalytic properties of the complexes. The Iridium complexes were synthesized using 2-(1-naphthyl)-pyridine (npy) ligand and its derivatives such as npy-OMe, npy-CF3 and npy-Me to form Tris-homoleptic cyclometalated complexes; Ir(npy)3, Ir(npy-OMe)3, Ir(npy-CF3)3, Ir(npy-Me)3, Ir(Me-npy-Me)3, and Ir(Me-npy)3 with substitution at para position relative to nitrogen. The ligand substitution positions were found to influence the excited state lifetimes, where the complexes exhibited long lifetimes, τ, 1.4 – 3.6 μs, ensuring time for substrates to react before relaxation to ground state. All the six complexes displayed reversible or pseudo reversible redox processes with ground state oxidation potential range of 0.57 to 0.93V compared to Standard Calomel Electrode in CH2Cl2. The complexes degraded morin with rate constants kobs between 0.023-0.036 s -1 within a timescale of 12 minutes. The Ir(npy-Me)3 complex was found to have a high degradation with a rate constant of kobs = 0.036 s -1. Degradation reactions using all the six Iridium (III) complexes photoredox catalysts were found to follow first order kinetics and ca. 10-fold faster compared to similar oxidative reaction

NJOGU DRKIBICHODANSON. "Kibico, D. N (1993)Cognitive construct complexity as a function of age, Sex, learning culture and mental state. Perspective in Psychological reserchers Vol. 1.". In: Perspective in Psychological reserchers Vol. 1. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1993. Abstract
Njogu RM, Nyindo M. "Presence of a peculiar pathway of glucose metabolism in infective forms of Trypanosoma brucei cultured from salivary glands of tsetse flies.". 1981. Abstract

We have studied metabolism of glucose by infective forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei isolated from tsetse fly salivary glands and grown in continuous culture for more than 700 days. The end products of glucose metabolism under aerobic conditions were found to be pyruvate and glycerol in the ratio 3:1. this changed to equimolar formation of pyruvate and glycerol when glucose was metabolized under aerobic conditions in the presence of 1.5 mM salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), a situation analogous to anaerobiosis. The respiration of the parasites was insensitive to cyanide inhibition but SHAM inhibited it completely. In the presence of SHAM, formation of pyruvate and glycerol from glucose metabolism was inhibited by 60% and 45% respectively. These findings indicate that the infective trypanosomes grown in vitro for about 2 yr have a peculiar glycolytic pathway which can be exploited to elucidate the mechanism of energy production of bloodstream form trypanosomes during anaerobic glycolysis

Njogu M, Muindi E, Muthomi J, Nyankanga R, Muchiri P. "Phytophthora infestans responses to stinging nettle nextract, phosphoric acid and fungicides combination, in Kenya." Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science (DRJAFS) . 2014;2(9):128-134.
Njogu RNE, Kariuki DK, D.M. K, F.N. W. "Effects of Foliar Fertilizer (NPK) Uptake in Tea Camellia sinensis on Tea Quality and Nutrient Residue Levels in Kenyan Highlands." American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2014;5(18):2707-2715.
Njogu REN, Fodran P, Tia Y, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Scheblykin I, Wendt OF, Wallentin C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl) pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene." Synlett. 2019;30(07):792-798. AbstractSynlett

A systematic study of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of triscyclometalated homoleptic iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (npy) ligands is presented. A systematic investigation of ligand substitution patterns showed an influence on the lifetime of the excited state, with slight changes in the absorption and emission spectral features. Specifically, the emission lifetime of a complex of an npy ligand substituted with a strongly electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group was longer than that of the corresponding complex with the electronically nonperturbed ligand (3.7 μs versus 1.5 μs). Electronically complementary ligands and complexes with orthogonal configurations showed slightly shorter excited state lifetimes compared with unsubstituted npy (1.4–3.0 μs). All complexes displayed reversible or quasireversible redox-couple processes, with the complex of the trifluoromethylated …

Njogu MS, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Fracture Toughness and Fatigue of Kaolin - Based Refractories: Effect of Plant Derived Organic Binders.". In: 4th Africa Materials Research Society (AMRS) International Conference. Dar es salaam, Tanzania; 2007. Abstract

The fracture characteristics of a kaolin – based refractories prepared using a plant derived binder (from okra) have been investigated. Plasticization with the binder improved the MOR of fired samples by 79.4%, while the fracture toughness increased by 44.3%. Both the Weibull modulus m and the slow crack growth propagation parameter n, also improved in comparison to those plasticized with plain water (no binder). Thus the use of organic binders enhances the reliability and service life of kaolin refractories used in thermally fluctuating environments.

Njogu PM, Chibale K. "Recent Developments in Rationally Designed Multitarget Antiprotozoan Agents." Curr. Med. Chem. 2013;20(13):1715-1742. Abstract

Protozoan infections are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among parasitic infections of humans, accounting for approximately 800 thousand mortalities and a loss of more than 30 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The major protozoan infections of humans, namely malaria, Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, are primarily centered in the tropics, with a reach into some subtropical regions of the world. Though globally massive in their impact, these diseases mostly afflict the least economically endowed and geographically marginalized populations in low-income countries. As such, there is no sufficient market incentive for industrial business-driven antiprotozoal drug discovery due to poor marketing prospects and low returns on investment. Consequently, the pharmacopoeia for majority of these diseases, composed mainly of agents with poor efficacy and unsatisfactory safety profiles, has essentially remained unchanged for decades, creating a compelling need for more efficacious and better tolerated medicines. The policy makers and the scientific community are seeking effective ways to meet this need. So far, two approaches have emerged promising in this regard: combination chemotherapy and drug repositioning. Molecular hybridization has been cited as a potential third approach that could be used to deliver new antiprotozoal chemical entities. In this review article, recent applications of this novel strategy in antimalarial, antichagasic, antitrypanosomal, and antileishmanial drug discovery research and development over the last five years will be presented and discussed.

NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Extraction of vernonia oil from Vernonia galamensis seeds and it.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; Submitted.
Njogu PM, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. "Design, synthesis and antiplasmodial activity of hybrid compounds based on (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine." ACS Med. Chem. Lett.. 2013;4(7):637-641. Abstract

A series of hybrid compounds based on (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine, artemisinin and quinoline moieties was synthesized and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against erythrocytic stages of K1 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Two hybrid compounds incorporating (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine and artemisinin scaffolds were three- to four-fold more active than dihydroartemisinin, with nanomolar IC50 values against Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain.

Njogu S, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Effect of plant-derived organic binders on fracture toughness and fatigue of kaolin-based refractories”,." Journal of Materials Science. 2008;43:107-4111. Abstract

The fracture properties of kaolin – based refractories prepared using plant derived binders from okra and
“mrenda” have been investigated. It was observed that okra binder improved the MOR of fired samples from 194.0± 0.1 MPa to 384 ± 0.1 MPa, while the fracture toughness increased from 3.9 ± 0.1 MPa (for binder free samples) to 5.6 ± 0.1 MPa and 5.7 ± 0.1 MPa for okra and ‘mrenda’ plasticized samples respectively. It is concluded that the use of organic binders enhances the reliability and service life of kaolin refractories used in thermally fluctuating environments.

NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Conversion of Vernonia galamensis oil to pyridinyl-vernolamides and their biological activities,.". In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 21(1), 103-110. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 21(1), 103-110.; 2007. Abstract
ABSTRACT. Vernonia oil extracted by Soxhlet extraction from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp. nairobensis was reacted with 2-aminopyridine, 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine and 2- (aminoethyl)pyridine using a 1:3 mole ratio of vernonia oil to amine at varied temperatures to give the corresponding vernolamides. The expected vernolamide from the reaction of 2-aminopyridine and the oil was not formed. N-(2-pyridinylmethyl)vernolamide and N-(2-pyridinylethyl)vernolamide exhibited antibacterial activity that was shown to be higher against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) than gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The vernolamides did not show any antifungal activity.
Njogu PM, Guantai EM, Pavadai E, Chibale K. "Computer-Aided Drug Discovery Approaches against the Tropical Infectious Diseases Malaria, Tuberculosis, Trypanosomiasis, and Leishmaniasis." ACS Infectious Diseases. 2016;2:8-31. Abstract

Despite the tremendous improvement in overall global health heralded by the adoption of the Millennium Declaration in the year 2000, tropical infections remain a major health problem in the developing world. Recent estimates indicate that the major tropical infectious diseases, namely, malaria, tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, account for more than 2.2 million deaths and a loss of approximately 85 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The crucial role of chemotherapy in curtailing the deleterious health and economic impacts of these infections has invigorated the search for new drugs against tropical infectious diseases. The research efforts have involved increased application of computational technologies in mainstream drug discovery programs at the hit identification, hit-to-lead, and lead optimization stages. This review highlights various computer-aided drug discovery approaches that have been utilized in efforts to identify novel antimalarial, antitubercular, antitrypanosomal, and antileishmanial agents. The focus is largely on developments over the past 5 years (2010−2014).

Njogu SW, King’ori J, Obimbo MM, Ogeng’o JA. "OUTCOME OF DIABETES RELATED AMPUTATION IN RURAL KENYAN HOSPITALS." The Journal of Diabetic Foot Complications. 2011;3(1):17-21. Abstract

Objective: To compare the outcome of diabetes related amputation with that of non-diabetic
cases in rural Kenyan Hospitals.
Research Design and Method: This was a retrospective study at Kikuyu and Tenwek hospitals in
rural Kenya involving 291 patients (228 males, 63 females) who underwent amputation between
January 2001 and December 2008. The cases were divided into those related to diabetes mellitus
and those due to other causes. Each category was examined for length of hospital stay, change
of amputation site, revision and infection.
Results: The majority (69.7%) of patients who underwent non diabetes related amputation had
a successful outcome compared to 41.7% of those related to diabetes mellitus. In diabetes
related amputation, hospital stay was longer, change of amputation site and infection were more
frequent compared to those due to other causes (p<0.05). n. Data were analyzed using statistical
package for social sciences (SPSS) for Windows version 11.50.

Njogu RNE, Kariuki DK, Kamau DM, Wachira FN. "Economic Evaluation of Foliar NPK Fertilizer on Tea Yields in Kenya." Journal of Plant Studies. 2015;4(1):35-43.
Njogu REN, Fodran P, Tian Y, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Scheblykin I, Wendt OF, Wallentin C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl) pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene." Synlett. 2019;3007:792-798. AbstractJournal Publication

A systematic study of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of triscyclometalated homoleptic iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (npy) ligands is presented. A systematic investigation of ligand substitution patterns showed an influence on the lifetime of the excited state, with slight changes in the absorption and emission spectral features. Specifically, the emission lifetime of a complex of an npy ligand substituted with a strongly electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group was longer than that of the corresponding complex with the electronically nonperturbed ligand (3.7 μs versus 1.5 μs). Electronically complementary ligands and complexes with orthogonal configurations showed slightly shorter excited state lifetimes compared with unsubstituted npy (1.4–3.0 μs). All complexes displayed reversible or quasireversible redox-couple processes, with the complex of the trifluoromethylated …

Njogu PM, Thoithi, G.N., J.W. M, et al. "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14 (3):89-94.
NJOGU DRKIBICHODANSON. "Kibico D.N. (1993)Stress Affecting Foreign Students and coping styles the students use. Perspective in Psychology Researchers.". In: Psychology Researchers Vol. 16.No 1 & 2. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1993. Abstract
Njogu RM, Kiaira JK. "Trypanosoma brucei brucei: the catabolism of glycolytic intermediates by digitonin-permeabilized bloodstream trypomastigotes and some aspects of regulation of anaerobic glycolysis.". 1988. Abstract

The production of pyruvate, glycerol and glycerol-3-phosphate by intact and digitonin-permeabilized Trypanosoma brucei brucei has been studied with glucose or the glycolytic intermediates as substrates. 2. Under aerobic conditions hexosephosphates gave maximal glycolysis in the presence of 40-60 micrograms digitonin/10(8) trypanosomes while the triosephosphates gave it at 20-30 micrograms digitonin/10(8) trypanosomes. 3. In the presence of salicylhydroxamic acid, and the glycolytic intermediates, permeabilized trypanosomes produced equimolar amounts of pyruvate and glycerol-3-phosphate and no glycerol. Under the same conditions, glucose catabolism produced glycerol in addition to pyruvated and glycerol-3-phosphate. 4. In the presence of salicylhydroxamic acid and ATP or ADP intact trypanosomes produced equimolar amounts of pyruvate and (glycerol plus glycerol-3-phosphate) with glucose as substrate. 5. A carrier for ATP and ADP at the glycosomal membrane is implicated. 6. It is apparent that glycerol formation is regulated by the ATP/ADP ratio and that it needs intact glycosomal membrane and the presence of glucose.

Njogu M, Muindi E, Muthomi J, Nyankanga R, Muchiri P. "Studies on the effects of stinging nettle extract, phosphoric acid and conventional fungicide combinations on the management of potato late blight and tuber yield in the Highlands of Kenya." Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science (DRJAFS) . 2014;2(8):119-127.
Njogu RNE &, Kariuki DK, D.M. K, F.N. W. "Relationship between Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaf Uptake of Major Nutrients, Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) and Leaf Anatomy of Different Varieties Grown in the Kenyan Highlands." BEST: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicines and Sciencies (BEST: IJHAMS). 2014;2(8):95-102.
Njogu PM, Hendricks DT, Chibale K. "Hybrids of (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine and anticancer pharmacophores: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.". In: 12th Frank Warren Conference 2012. Bloemfontein, South Africa; 2012.
Njogu RN, Kariuki DK, Kamau D, Wachira FN. "Economic Evaluation of Foliar NPK Fertilizer on Tea Yields in Kenya.". 2015.
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Synthesis and binding studies of ring constrained glucagon analogues.". In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 21(1), 103-110. Ph.D thesis, University of Nairobi.; 2007.
Njogu RNE, Njenga LW, Wendt OF, Kariuki DK, Amir OY. "Synthesis and characterization of Tris-cyclometalated Iridium (III) and Ruthenium (II) complexes.". In: 3rd Nordic meeting on Organometallic Chemistry. Lund, Sweden; 2015.
Njogu M, Muindi E, Muthomi J, Nyankanga R, Muchiri P. "Phytophthora infestans responses to stinging nettle extract, phosphoric acid and fungicides combination, in Kenya." Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science . 2014;2(9):128-134, .phytophthora_infestans_responses_to_stinging_nettle.pdf
Njogu A, Owiti GO, Persson E, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Wachira TM, Maxson AD, Zeyhle EE. "Ultrasound in Livestock. A contribution to epidemiology of hydatidosis.". 1999.Website
Njogu PM, Chibale K. "Current and Future Strategies for Improving Drug Discovery Efficiency.". In: Attrition in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Reasons, Implications and Pathways Forward. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.

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