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Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "ON FINITE DIMENSIONAL HILBERT SPACE FRAMES, DUAL AND NORMALIZED FRAMES AND PSEUDO-INVERSE OF THE FRAME OPERATOR." Journal of Advance Research in Mathematics And Statistics (ISSN: 2208-2409). 2018;5(11):11-14. AbstractWebsite

In this research paper we do an introduction to Hilbert space frames. We also discuss various frames in the Hilbert space. A frame is a generalization of a basis. It is useful, for example, in signal processing. It also allows us to expand Hilbert space vectors in terms of a set of other vectors that satisfy a certain condition. This condition guarantees that any vector in the Hilbert space can be reconstructed in a numerically stable way from its frame coe? cients. Our focus will be on frames in? nite dimensional spaces.

Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Minga U, Olsen JE. "A Study on Effectiveness of Seven Disinfectants Against Possible Bacteria Contaminants of Coops and Premises Inhabited by Indigenous Chickens and Ducks.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Seven commonly used disinfectants abbreviated as A, B, C, D, E, F and G (A is, Glutaraldehyde and Coco – benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride; B is, Didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide 50% w\\v; C is, Sodium hypochlorite; D is, pine disinfectant and antiseptic; E is, chloroxylenol; F is, phenol and that for disinfectant G is, cresol and soap solution) were evaluated for their effectiveness in disinfecting coops and premises of indigenous chickens and ducks. Bacterial isolates from 14 samples (each sample comprising of a pharyngeal and a cloacal swab from one bird pooled together) from village chickens and ducks were used in this study. The isolates were taken to represent microorganisms in the birds\' environment. Results showed that effectiveness amongst the disinfectants varied markedly. Two disinfectants were very effective (sensitivity of 80% and 60% respectively), three were moderate (30% sensitivity, each) and two were ineffective. Some of them were effective only at a concentration higher than that recommended by the manufacturer. For effective disinfection occasional sensitivity testing is therefore recommended.

Njagi SN, Migosi JA, Mwania JM. "Parental involvement, parenting style, secondary school student attitude towards schooling and academic performance in Kenya." Int. J. Education Economics and Development. 2014;Vol. 5(2):152-171.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in heel prick blood on filter paper from children born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Nov;32(11):2858-60.". In: J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Nov;32(11):2858-60. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 7911092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Njagi JM, Piero MN, Ngeranwa JJN, Kibiti CM, Njue WM, Maina D, Gathumbi PK. "Assessment of Antidiabetic Potential of Ficus Sycomorus on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes mellitus is a predominant public health concern, causing substantial morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications. Many of the conventional drugs used for the management of this disease are not only expensive but also have numerous side effects. Herbal medications are cheaper and locally available. Many plants have been traditionally used to manage diabetes without authentication on their antidiabetic properties and assessment of their safety. In this study aqueous stem bark extract of Ficus sycomorus was assessed for its antidiabetic potential along with evaluation its preliminary in vivo toxicity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results show that the plant harbours remarkable antidiabetic potential. It safely lowered blood glucose level to levels below what insulin, the model drug, lowers, in a dose-dependent manner.

NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Nyambi PN, Fransen K, De Beenhouwer H, Chomba EN, Temmerman M, Ndinya-Achola JO, Piot P, van der Groen G. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in heel prick blood on filter paper from children born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers. J Clin.". In: J Clin Microbiol 1994 Nov;32(11):2858-60. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA PCR results of 94 dried blood spot (DBS) samples on filter paper and corresponding venous blood in EDTA obtained from infants born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers were compared. In addition, the results of HIV-1 DNA PCR on DBS and the HIV-1 RNA PCR from plasma of 70 paired samples were compared. A 100% specificity and a 95% sensitivity for HIV-1 DNA PCR on DBS compared with results for venous blood were observed for the 94 paired samples. The results of the DBS HIV-1 DNA PCR and HIV-1 RNA PCR of 70 corresponding plasma samples correlated perfectly (100%). The DBS HIV-1 DNA PCR method proved reliable for HIV-1 detection.
Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Michieka JN, Kibe JK, Minga UM. "Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in village indigenous chickens in varied agro-ecological zones in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

It was hypothesized that the agro-ecological zone in which village indigenous chickens were farmed influenced the level of diseases occurrence. One hundred and forty four apparently healthy chickens (71 from lower highland 1, a cold zone and 73 from lower midland 5, a hot zone) were randomly sampled. Oro–pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and processed for virus isolation in 10-12 day old embryonated chicken eggs. In addition, blood, without anticoagulant was obtained from each bird through wing venipuncture. Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera samples. Prevalence of Newcastle disease (NDV) virus was significantly higher (17.8%) in the dry hot zone (lower midland 5) compared to the cool wet zone (lower highland 1) at 9.9% showing evidence for climate as a risk factor in the occurrence of NDV in village chicken. Female birds had higher mean Newcastle disease viral titers than their male counterparts. All Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered were from healthy appearing birds and were all velogenic. Sero-prevalence was significantly highest (p<0.05) in adult birds (10%) while growers had 5.1% and chicks 2.9%. Apparently healthyappearing birds were reported to be reservoirs of velogenic Newcastle disease virus strains that could initiate endemicity NDV cycles in the village setting.

Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Mwenda E. "Subdegrees and suborbital graphs of symmetric groups Sn (n=3,4,5) acting on unordered pairs." Global Educational Research Journal. 2015;3(7):333-345.
Njagi NA, Oloo MA, Kithinji J, Kithinji MJ. "Knowledge, attitude and practice of health-care waste management and associated health risks in the two teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya." Journal of community health. 2012;37(6):1172-1177. AbstractJournal of community health

Description
Hazardous health-care waste poses a great danger to public health and the environment if it is not properly managed. There is need for health-care workers involved in its management to understand the integral link between human health and environmental health. This study was done to identify gaps in knowledge, attitude and practice among the healthcare workers involved in its management hence endangering public health and polluting the environment. A self administered questionnaire was used in both Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret to clinicians, nurses, laboratory technologists and hospital attendants to identify the gaps with a focus on their knowledge, attitude and practice. It was found that health and safety in health-care waste management, was not included in most of the curricula for training the three healthcare professionals. Most of them …

NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Fudyk TC, Maclean IW, Simonsen JN, Njagi E, Kimani J, Brunham RC, Plummer FA. Genetic diversity and mosaicism at the por locus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Bacteriol 1999 Sep;181(18):5591-9.". In: J Bacteriol 1999 Sep;181(18):5591-9. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Among 446 sera from prostitutes in Nairobi, the prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rose from 4% in 1981 to 61% in 1985. None of 118 men with chancroid seen in 1980 had antibody to HIV compared with 15% of 107 such men in 1985. Among pregnant women, 2.0% were seropositive in 1985 versus none of 111 in 1981. Seropositive prostitutes and women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) tended to have more sex partners and had a higher prevalence of gonorrhoea, and in women with STDs, significantly more seropositive women practiced prostitution. Pregnant women and men with STDs who were born in the most-western region of Kenya were more likely to have antibody to HIV than were such groups from other geographic areas. Our results indicate that the AIDS virus was recently introduced into Kenya, that HIV can rapidly disseminate in a high-risk group of heterosexuals, and that prostitutes may have significantly contributed to the spread of the virus.
Njagi LW;, Mbuthia PG;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Michieka JN;, Minga UM. "Localisation Of Newcastle Disease Viral Nucleoprotein In The Tissues Of Carrier Ducks.".; 2008. Abstract

Localisation of Newcastle disease viral nucleo protein in the tissues of carrier ducks was evaluated in 45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ducks. Ten chickens were used as positive control bir ds. The ducks were sacrificed serially on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 – post - inoculation. Six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, cecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) were collected from each bird, preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 hours, and then transferred to 70% ethanol. Indirect alkaline phosphatase – antialkaline phosphatase immunoperoxidase staining was performed to detect viral nucleoprotein. The ducks (28.9 %) had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in their tissues. The viral nucleoprotein s were found in l arge mononuclear cells of cecal tonsils and tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys of infected ducks. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the respective cells. Liver, lungs, spleen and brain of all infected ducks did not have detectable viral antigens. The number of ducks with viral antigen increased with duration of infection from 22.2%, 16.7%, 33.3% and 41.7% on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 post - inoculation , respectively (p<0.05).Viral antigen intensity in cecal tonsil tissue section s was 4, 5, and > 5 cells in 15.4%, 53.8% and 30.8%, respectively, of the infected ducks. In the kidneys, more than 5 positive cells were recorded. Thus, in Newcastle disease virus carrier ducks, the kidneys and cecal tonsils need to be sampled for virus i solation besides other tissues

NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Dong T, Yang HB, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, MacDonald KS, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA. Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV-specific CD8+ responses. J Clin Invest 20.". In: J Clin Invest 2001 Feb;107. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Among 446 sera from prostitutes in Nairobi, the prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rose from 4% in 1981 to 61% in 1985. None of 118 men with chancroid seen in 1980 had antibody to HIV compared with 15% of 107 such men in 1985. Among pregnant women, 2.0% were seropositive in 1985 versus none of 111 in 1981. Seropositive prostitutes and women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) tended to have more sex partners and had a higher prevalence of gonorrhoea, and in women with STDs, significantly more seropositive women practiced prostitution. Pregnant women and men with STDs who were born in the most-western region of Kenya were more likely to have antibody to HIV than were such groups from other geographic areas. Our results indicate that the AIDS virus was recently introduced into Kenya, that HIV can rapidly disseminate in a high-risk group of heterosexuals, and that prostitutes may have significantly contributed to the spread of the virus.
Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Mugera GM;, Minga U;, Olsen JE. "Ease of transmitting P.multocida between indigenous chickens and ducks through contact transmission."; 2004.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "ON ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OPERATORS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SYNTHESIS MATRIX OF A FRAME IN TERMS OF FRAME OPERATOR." Journal of Advance Research in Mathematics And Statistics (ISSN: 2208-2409). 2018;5(12):01-10. AbstractWebsite

In this research paper we introduce the operators associated with a frame. That is the Analysis and the Synthesis Operators and their basic properties. The structure of matrix representation of the Synthesis operator is also analysed. This matrix is what most frame constructions in fact focus on. The frame operator which is just the joining together of the analysis and synthesis operators is fundamental for the reconstruction of signals form frame coefficients. We also give a complete characterization of the synthesis matrix in terms of the frame operator.

Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Minga U, Olsen JE. "A Study on Effectiveness of Seven Disinfectants Against Possible Bacteria Contaminants of Coops and Premises Inhabited by Indigenous Chickens and Ducks.". 2005. Abstractabstract3.pdfWebsite

Seven commonly used disinfectants abbreviated as A, B, C, D, E, F and G (A is, Glutaraldehyde and Coco – benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride; B is, Didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide 50% w\\v; C is, Sodium hypochlorite; D is, pine disinfectant and antiseptic; E is, chloroxylenol; F is, phenol and that for disinfectant G is, cresol and soap solution) were evaluated for their effectiveness in disinfecting coops and premises of indigenous chickens and ducks. Bacterial isolates from 14 samples (each sample comprising of a pharyngeal and a cloacal swab from one bird pooled together) from village chickens and ducks were used in this study. The isolates were taken to represent microorganisms in the birds\' environment. Results showed that effectiveness amongst the disinfectants varied markedly. Two disinfectants were very effective (sensitivity of 80% and 60% respectively), three were moderate (30% sensitivity, each) and two were ineffective. Some of them were effective only at a concentration higher than that recommended by the manufacturer. For effective disinfection occasional sensitivity testing is therefore recommended.

NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA, Coppens M, Piot P. Maternal human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection and pregnancy outcome.Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr;83(4):495-501.". In: Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr;83(4):495-501. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Between January 1989 and December 1991, 406 HIV-1-seropositive and 407 HIV-1-seronegative age- and parity-matched pregnant women from Nairobi, Kenya, all at less than 28 weeks' gestation, were recruited into a prospective study of HIV-1 infection in pregnant women and their offspring. Both groups were followed until 6 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Three hundred fifteen HIV-1-seropositive women and 311 HIV-1-seronegative controls were followed until delivery. Seropositive women were younger at sexual debut and reported more lifetime partners and more sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) than the seronegative controls. The seropositive women had higher rates of genital ulcer disease (4.7 versus 2.0%; P = .08), genital warts (4.9 versus 2.0%; P = .03), and positive syphilis serology (7.9 versus 3.2%; P < .001), but there were no differences between the groups in isolation rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (6.8 versus 7.1%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (11.5 versus 9.0%). Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with significantly lower birth weight (2913 versus 3072 g; P = .0003) and with prematurity (21.1 versus 9.4%; P < .0001), but not with small for gestational age size (4.2 versus 3.2%; P = .7). The stillbirth rate was higher in seropositive women, yet not statistically significant (3.8 versus 1.9%; P = .2). Women with a CD4 count lower than 30% had a higher risk of preterm delivery (26.3 versus 10.1%; P < .001). Postpartum endometritis was more common in HIV-1-infected women than in seronegative controls (10.3 versus 4.2%; P = .01) and was inversely correlated with the CD4 percentage. No histopathologic placental abnormalities attributable to HIV-1 were detected. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with prematurity and postpartum endometritis, but not with fetal growth retardation. There was a trend toward a higher stillbirth rate in HIV-1-seropositive mothers.

Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "On analysis and synthesis operators and characterization of the synthesis matrix of a frame in terms of the frame operator." Advance Research in Mathematics and Statistics. 2018;5(12):1-10.
Njagi SN, Migosi JA, Mwania JM. "Parental involvement, parenting style, secondary school student attitude towards schooling and academic performance in Kenya." Int. J. Education Economics and Development. 2014;5(2):152-171.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Piot P.HIV-1 and reproductive health in Africa. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1994 Feb;44(2):107-12.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1994 Feb;44(2):107-12. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 7911092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Njagi NA, Oloo MA, Kithinji J, Kithinji MJ. "Health-care waste incineration and related dangers to public health: case study of the two teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya." Journal of community health. 2012;37(6):1168-1171. Abstract

Description
There are practically no low cost, environmentally friendly options in practice whether incineration, autoclaving, chemical treatment or microwaving (World Health Organisation in Health-care waste management training at national level, [2006] for treatment of health-care waste. In Kenya, incineration is the most popular treatment option for hazardous health-care waste from health-care facilities. It is the choice practiced at both Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret. A study was done on the possible public health risks posed by incineration of the segregated hazardous health-care waste in one of the incinerators in each of the two hospitals. Gaseous emissions were sampled and analyzed for specific gases the equipment was designed and the incinerators Combustion efficiency (CE) established. Combustion temperatures were also recorded. A flue gas analyzer …

Njagi JW. The Kikuyu Determiner Phrase.; 1997.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Njagi E, Nagelkerke N, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA, Meheus A. Mass antimicrobial treatment in pregnancy. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in a population with high rates of sexually transmitted diseases. J Reprod Med 1995 Mar;40(3):176-.". In: J Reprod Med 1995 Mar;40. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Among 446 sera from prostitutes in Nairobi, the prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rose from 4% in 1981 to 61% in 1985. None of 118 men with chancroid seen in 1980 had antibody to HIV compared with 15% of 107 such men in 1985. Among pregnant women, 2.0% were seropositive in 1985 versus none of 111 in 1981. Seropositive prostitutes and women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) tended to have more sex partners and had a higher prevalence of gonorrhoea, and in women with STDs, significantly more seropositive women practiced prostitution. Pregnant women and men with STDs who were born in the most-western region of Kenya were more likely to have antibody to HIV than were such groups from other geographic areas. Our results indicate that the AIDS virus was recently introduced into Kenya, that HIV can rapidly disseminate in a high-risk group of heterosexuals, and that prostitutes may have significantly contributed to the spread of the virus.
Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC. "Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status." ISRN Veterinary Science. 2012. Abstract

International Scholarly Research Network
ISRN Veterinary Science
Volume 2012, Article ID 253809, 6 pages
doi:10.5402/2012/253809
Research Article
Effect of Immunosuppression on Newcastle Disease Virus Persistence in Ducks with Different Immune Status
LucyW. Njagi,1 Phillip N. Nyaga,1 Lilly C. Bebora,1 Paul G. Mbuthia,1 and UswegeM.Minga2
1Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Kenya
2Department of Life Sciences, FSTES, African Council for Distance Education—Technical Committee on Collaboration (ACDE-TCC),
Open University of Tanzania, P.O. Box 23409, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Correspondence should be addressed to LucyW. Njagi, njagiluc@uonbi.ac.ke
Received 30 November 2011; Accepted 4 January 2012
Academic Editors: A. Mankertz and I. Nsahlai
Copyright © 2012 LucyW. Njagi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic NDvirus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks fromall groups had their antibody titresmonitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher
than their unchallenged counterparts (P < 0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.

NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "MacDonald KS, Fowke KR, Kimani J, Dunand VA, Nagelkerke NJ, Ball TB, Oyugi J, Njagi E, Gaur LK, Brunham RC, Wade J, Luscher MA, Krausa P, Rowland-Jones S, Ngugi E, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA. Influence of HLA supertypes on susceptibility and resistance to human.". In: J Infect Dis 2000 May;181(5):1581-9. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Among 446 sera from prostitutes in Nairobi, the prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rose from 4% in 1981 to 61% in 1985. None of 118 men with chancroid seen in 1980 had antibody to HIV compared with 15% of 107 such men in 1985. Among pregnant women, 2.0% were seropositive in 1985 versus none of 111 in 1981. Seropositive prostitutes and women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) tended to have more sex partners and had a higher prevalence of gonorrhoea, and in women with STDs, significantly more seropositive women practiced prostitution. Pregnant women and men with STDs who were born in the most-western region of Kenya were more likely to have antibody to HIV than were such groups from other geographic areas. Our results indicate that the AIDS virus was recently introduced into Kenya, that HIV can rapidly disseminate in a high-risk group of heterosexuals, and that prostitutes may have significantly contributed to the spread of the virus.
Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Mbuthia PG;, Michieka JN;, Bebora LC;, Minga UM;, Olsen JE. "Factors Associated With Newcastle Disease Occurrence In Indigenous Free-range Chickens In Embu And Mbeere Districts."; 2006. Abstract

A study of factors associated with outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) in indigenous free - range chickens was carried out in five agro - ecological zones in t wo districts of Eastern province of Kenya. Seventy five households keeping chickens were randomly selected. Data on management practices, incidence of diseases and factors associated with ND outbreaks were collected using interviewer - administered questionn aire. The prevalence rate of Newcastle disease was highest (93.8%) in the dry zone (Low midland 5) and lowest (50%) in cool wet zone (Lower highland 1). The ND outbreaks were significantly associated with stress inducing factors, namely: confinement of bir ds, lack of supplementation of feed and seasons. It was found to be more prevalent in wet seasons than dry seasons in all agro - ecological zones, except the Lower midland 5, where it occurred during the hot season. Other important factors for the outbreaks were: mode of disposal of infected birds, carcasses and fecal matter, windy conditions and the restocking of farms with chickens from the markets. Mixing of chickens with other poultry, green vegetation on the farm, dust storms, gift birds to farms, short intermittent temperature changes and flowering of the crops had minimal association with these outbreaks. The study also revealed that only 17.3% of the farmers were controlling ND through vaccination. It was concluded that besides using vaccination as a c ontrol measure for ND in rural free - range poultry, the flock owners should be educated on the modes of transmission of ND virus, in addition to being discouraged from purchasing restocking chickens from the market

Njagi L. "Integrating HIV and AIDS Programme in the School Curriculum: The Dawn of New Realities." LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. 2011;(ISBN 9 78-3-8464-9368-4 ).
Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Mugera GM;, Minga, U; Olsen. JE. "Ease of transmitting P.multocida between indigenous chickens and ducks through contact transmission."; 2004.
Njagi LW, Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Shah DN, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Seroprevalence of Avian Leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2017;29.
Njagi JM, Ngugi MP, Kibiti CW, Njue W, Gathumbi P, Njagi E. "Hypoglycemic effect of Helichrysum odoratissimum in alloxan induced diabetic mice." Phytopharmacology. 2015;4(1):30-33.joan_-hypoglycemic_effect_of_helichrysum_odrt-_2015.pdf
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "On Pseudo-inverses and Duality of Frames in Hilbert Spaces." International Journal of Mathematics and its Applications (IJMAA). 2019;7(2):75-88. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we show how to find dual frames using the notion of singular value decomposition and pseudo-inverses of an operator in a Hilbert space. We will also show how properties of dual frames are linked to the spectral properties of the dual frame operator and the Grammian

Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "On finite dimensional Hilbert space frames, dual and normalized frames and pseudo-inverse of the frame operator." Advance Research in Mathematics and Statistics. 2018;5(11):1-14.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "HIV-1 and reproductive health in Africa. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1994 Feb;44(2):107-12.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1994 Feb;44(2):107-12. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract

In many African countries where HIV infection is mainly heterosexually transmitted a substantial proportion of women of childbearing age are now infected with the virus. This paper will review the consequences of HIV-1 infection on the reproductive health of seropositive women. The adverse effect of HIV-1 infection on children will be outlined, and strategies for preventing HIV-1 transmission in women of childbearing age and their young children will be discussed

Njagi L W, Nyaga P N, UM M. "A retrospective study of factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks in village indigenous chickens.". 2010. Abstract

Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., (2010), 58, 22-33.

A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEWCASTLE
DISEASE OUTBREAKS IN VILLAGE INDIGENOUS CHICKENS

L.W. Njagi1*, P.N. Nyaga1, P.G. Mbuthia1, L.C. Bebora1, J.N. Michieka1, and U.M. Minga2

1University of Nairobi,
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
P.O. Box 29053 – 00625, Kangemi, Kenya.
2Open, University of Tanzania, P.O. Box 23409, Dar es salaam, Tanzania
ÉTUDE RÉTROSPECTIVE DES FACTEURS ASSOCIÉS À LA DÉCLARATION DE
LA MALADIE DE NEWCASTLE CHEZ LA POULE DE RACE LOCALE
Résumé
Bien que l'épidémiologie de la maladie de Newcastle soit bien documentée dans les systèmes
aviaires commerciaux, les informations relatives à l’écologie de la maladie chez la poule de race locale, en particulier sous les tropiques, sont par contre peu disponible. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs de risque associés à la maladie de Newcastle chez la poule de race locale. L'étude a été menée dans cinq zones agro-écologiques et a concernées
soixante quinze ménages élevant des poules de race locale. Les éleveurs ont été sélectionnés de manière aléatoire et évalués sur leurs connaissances de la maladie, et les signes cliniques
manifestés par les oiseaux infectés. Les données sur les pratiques de gestion, l’incidence des
maladies et les facteurs de risque associés à la déclaration de la maladie de Newcastle ont été
recueillies à l'aide d'un questionnaire et analysées à l'aide d’un logiciel de statistiques. Le taux de fréquence de la maladie de Newcastle était élevé (93,8%) dans la zone sèche et faible (50%) dans la zone fraîche et humide (dans les régions basses de montagnes). Les déclaration de la maladie de Newcastle étaient significativement associées aux différents facteurs suivant cloisonnement des oiseaux dans toutes les zones écologiques, sauf celle située dans le Bas-
Midland où pour la plus part des cas signalés, les oiseaux n’étaient pas enfermés; le mode
d’évacuation des oiseaux infectés ; les carcasses des volailles et les matières fécales; les saisons sèches dans les zones sèches juste avant les pluies ; les conditions de ventilation ; les changements irréguliers de température et l’approvisionnement en volaille sur les marchés (P <0,05). Par contre, la poussière n'était pas significative (P> 0,05) associée aux déclarations de la maladie de Newcastle. Les réponses variaient selon les saisons et entre les zones agro - écologiques. En guise de conclusion, l'étude a montré que plusieurs facteurs à savoir: cloisonner les oiseaux, les températures froides ou très chaudes, la ventilation, l'achat d’oiseaux sur les marchés, l'élimination de la matière fécale et les oiseaux infectés sont des facteurs majeurs de risque pour la survenue de la maladie de Newcastle chez les poules de race locale. Il est recommandé que les éleveurs de volaille soient informés sur la transmission de la maladie de Newcastle et sa prévention.

Mots clés: facteurs de risque, zones agro-écologiques, cloisonnement, saisons chaudes et
fraîches.

Summary
Although the epidemiology of Newcastle disease in commercial poultry systems is well
documented, its ecology in indigenous birds, especially in tropics, is not adequately reported.
The objective of this study, therefore, was to determine the risk factors associated with occurrence of Newcastle disease in village indigenous chickens. The study was carried out in
five agro –ecological zones and seventy five households keeping indigenous chickens. Farmers were randomly selected and assessed on whether they understood Newcastle disease including knowing its local name and clinical signs manifested by the affected birds. Those who did not fit into the above category were excluded from further interviews. Data on management practices, incidence of diseases and risk factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks were collected using a questionnaire and analysed using statistical package. The prevalence rate of Newcastle disease was highest (93.8%) in the dry zone (Low midland 5) and lowest (50%) in cool wet zone (Lower Highland 1). Newcastle disease outbreaks were significantly associated with the following factors namely: confinement of birds in all ecological zones except in lower midland 5 where most cases were reported without confinement; mode of disposal of infected birds, carcasses and poultry faecal matter; dry seasons in the dry zones just before the rains; wind conditions; short intermittent temperature changes and the restocking of farms with chickens from the markets (P<0.05). Dust storm was not significantly (P>0.05) associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks. The responses varied across the seasons and between the agro – ecological zones.
In conclusion, the study has shown that several factors namely: confinement; cold or very hot
temperatures; winds; introduction of market birds and disposal of manure and sick birds are
major risk factors to occurrence of Newcastle disease in indigenous chickens. It is recommended that flock owners be educated on Newcastle disease transmission and prevention.

Key – words: risk factors, agro–ecological zones, confinement, hot and cold seasons.

Njagi L W, Nyaga P N. "The risk factors associated with Newcastle disease occurrence in indigenous free – range chickens in Embu and Mbeere districts, Kenya. .". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2006.2006-risk_factors_of_nd-copy.pdf
Njagi L W, Mbuthia P G, Nyaga P N, C BL. "Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissues of carrier ducks.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-location_of_nd_viral_nucleoprotein_in_ducks.pdf
Njagi L W, UM M. "Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in village indigenous chickens in varied agro-ecological zones in Kenya.". 2010;22(5). Abstract

Abstract
It was hypothesized that the agro-ecological zone in which village indigenous chickens were farmed influenced the level of diseases occurrence. One hundred and forty four apparently healthy chickens (71 from lower highland 1, a cold zone and 73 from lower midland 5, a hot zone) were randomly sampled. Oro–pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and processed for virus isolation in 10-12 day old embryonated chicken eggs. In addition, blood, without anticoagulant was obtained from each bird through wing venipuncture. Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera samples.

Prevalence of Newcastle disease (NDV) virus was significantly higher (17.8%) in the dry hot zone (lower midland 5) compared to the cool wet zone (lower highland 1) at 9.9% showing evidence for climate as a risk factor in the occurrence of NDV in village chicken. Female birds had higher mean Newcastle disease viral titers than their male counterparts. All Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered were from healthy appearing birds and were all velogenic. Sero-prevalence was significantly highest (p<0.05) in adult birds (10%) while growers had 5.1% and chicks 2.9%. Apparently healthy-appearing birds were reported to be reservoirs of velogenic Newcastle disease virus strains that could initiate endemicity NDV cycles in the village setting.
Key words: cool and dry zones, healthy-appearing chickens, reservoirs, velogenic Newcastle disease virus

Njagi L.W., Nyaga P.N. BMPGand MLCUM. "Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status." International Scholarly Research Network in Veterinary Science. 2012;(253809).
Njagi. LW, L.C. B, P.G. M, Minga. "Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status. ." International Scholarly Research Network in Veterinary Science (ISRN). 2013;Volume 2012:6 pages.
Njagi. L. W., Nyaga. P. N. MPG, Micheka. J. N., Kibe. J. K. MUM. "Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in village indigenous chickens in varied agro-ecological zones." Livestock Research for Rural development.. 2010;22(5).
Njai DM;, Ajusi JD. "Idiopathic peripheral gangrene: a case report and literature review.". 1989. Abstract

An 11-month old male infant presented with dry idiopathic peripheral gangrene (IPG) of both feet. Subsequently spontaneous autoamputation occurred and the stump healed. Including this patient, 8 cases of IPG under 12 years of age seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 1978 and 1986 were analysed. 5 were males and 3 were females. All the 8 children except one had an illness preceding IPG. The literature is reviewed and the management is discussed

Njama J, Opinya GN, Cathece LW, Ngatia E. "Evaluation of dietary habits and caries experience among children with and without hearing disability." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93:506-511. Abstract
n/a
Njambere EN, Mwang’ombe AW, Kimani PM, Siboe GM. "Screening for resistance to floury leaf spot of beans.". 1997.
NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Presented A Scientific Paper titled .". In: Commun Statist. Theor. Meth. Vol. 16, No. 10, 3095 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2009. Abstract
n/a
NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Training in Land Economy .". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2003. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "The Role of Women in Rural Land Management and the Impact of HIV/AIDS .". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2006. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Peripheral Neuropathy among Patients with Type Diabetes mellitus attending Kenyatta National Hospital."; 2012. Abstract

2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference, 18-19 June 2012, Nairobi,
Kenya
Peripheral Neuropathy among Patients with Type Diabetes mellitus attending
Kenyatta National Hospital
Stephen Kainga1
,2, Margaret Chegel, Miriam Wagoro\ Samuel Kiman!' ~
'University of Nairobi and 2Ministry of Medical Services, Government of Kenya.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become the epidemic of the 21st century with the
poorest nations bearing the greatest burden. DM affects both central and peripheral
nerves causing dysfunctional sensory activity with peripheral neuropathy (PN)
being the most common complication. Peripheral neuropathy has been associated
with lower limbs pain and ulceration among diabetic patients resulting to increased
morbidity, disability and reduced quality of life. Objective: We determined the
prevalence ofPN among patients with type 2 DM attending Kenyatta National
Hospital. Methods: We carried out descriptive cross-sectional study involving 147
patients with DM attending the KNH. Clinical history and physical findings were
captured using questionnaires and a focused physical examination. Data was
analyzed using SPSS software (version 17). Statistical significance was set at a cut
off value of 0.05. Results: Based on history and signs of peripheral numbness and
pain, 60 (41.1 %) participants with DM had PN. Peripheral neuropathy was
significantly associated with coexistence of DM and hypertension. Furthermore,
the duration of DM, participants' age and difficulties in healthcare financing were
significantly associated with PN. However, our study did not elicit any association
between smoking, alcohol consumption and prevalence of PN among the
participants. Conclusion: Our findings underscore the role ofDM on the
occurrence ofPN, the main cause of morbidity, disability, and reduced quality of
life among patients. Early diagnosis and adequate management of DM can
significantly reduce diabetic neuropathy and should be incorporated

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Chege, M.N. (2003): Health Seeking Behaviour of Commercial Sex workers. Kenya Nursing Journal, December; 2003.". In: Commun Statist. Theor. Meth. Vol. 16, No. 10, 3095 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
n/a
NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Evaluating Mentorship Practices Among Nursing Students In Selected Kenyan Universities.". 2009. Abstract

Evaluating Mentorship Practices Among Nursing Students In Selected Kenyan Universities
Ms. ESTHER GICHIGI, Compl~ted MScN (2009) At University of Nairobi School of Nursing Sciences
PROF. ANNAKARANI, Prof. at University of Nairobi, School of Nursing Sciences pRo MARGARET CHEGE, A lecturer at University of Nairobi School of Nursing Sciences
Abstract.
Mentorship programs are offered to support students in program completion, confidence building and transitioning
to further education or the work force. However mentoring relationships have been faced by challenges such as
inadequate knowledge and negative attitude. This study aimed at evaluating knowledge, attitude and perceived
benefits on mentorship among the nursing students in Kenyan universities.
The study was conducted in September, 2009. A descriptive cross sectional survey used both qualitative and
quantitative methods to gather information. The study participants were students from University of Nairobi
(U.O.N)and Kenya Methodist University (K.E.M.U).Asample of 188 students was selected from a total population
of 403 in both universities.
The data Were coded, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Presentation
of data was done in form of descriptive statistics, frequency distribution and graphs. Pearsons chi square tests
were used to compare the two groups. The tests level of significance was set at 5%. Results showed that there
was a significance difference between mentorship programmes in the two institutions ( 0 2= 17.02, d.f=l, P <
0.001) . Fourty four (72%) of the students at K.E.M.Ufelt that the program had positive impact on students'
development while only 26(21%)at the U.O.Nhad similar attitude.
To maximize on the benefits of mentorship for both institutions, clear policies and guidelines should be put
in place. Evaluation of the mentorship programs and their impact on students' development should be done
regularly. Further studies on ways to improve mentorship are recommended.
INTRODUCTION
Mentorship is a supportive relationship established between two individuals where knowledge,
skills and experience are shared .The mentee or protege is someone seeking guidance in developing
specific competencies, self awareness and skills in early intervention. The mentor is a person who
has expertise in the areas of need identified by the mentee and is able to share the wisdom in a
nurturing way (Alliance for excellent education, 2005).
Mentorship can also be referred to as the provision of model performance by persons with wisdom
from whom advice and guidance can be sought (European Region of world conference for physical
therapy, 2003).It is also considered as pairing students with adult volunteers or older students
who provide friendship, guidance and support as student navigate new and ever more challenging
circumstances (Val, 1994).

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Nov.2008 : Presented a scientific paper titled: .". In: Commun Statist. Theor. Meth. Vol. 16, No. 10, 3095 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2008. Abstract
n/a
NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "The Management of Residential Property Under the Sectional Properties Act in Kenya .". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2001. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
Njambi L. "Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and barriers to uptake of diabetic retinopathy screening at Embu Provincial General Hospital, Central Kenya." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012;16(1):5-11. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The risk of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) to sight can be greatly reduced by good blood glucose
and blood pressure control, effective screening and laser treatment. Diabetic retinopathy remains
asymptomatic in its early stages. Substantial barriers to screening and achieving regular eye examinations
for people with diabetes include the belief that ‘nothing is wrong with my eyes’, not being told of the need
for eye examinations and being too busy.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, to describe the relationship between
diabetic retinopathy and the various risk factors and to identify the barriers to uptake of screening for
diabetic retinopathy in diabetic patients at Embu Provincial General Hospital, Central Kenya.
Study design: Cross sectional hospital based survey.
Subjects: Two hundred and fifty three type II Diabetics and type I diabetic patients aged twelve years and
above attending the diabetic clinic.
Results: The overall prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) was 41%. Moderate Non Proliferative Diabetic
Retinopathy (NPDR) was the most prevalent grade of DR (20%). Vision threatening DR (Proliferative
Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR) and macular oedema) was found in 21 (8.3%) patients. Most of the patients
(74%) had hypertension. Duration of diabetes and systolic blood pressure had a significant association
with DR (p< 0.05). Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), mode of treatment and age were not significant. Only 29%
of the patients had prior eye examination, with majority (84%) citing lack of awareness as the main
hindrance.
Conclusion: The prevalence of DR was high. Most of the patients had not had prior eye examination and
were not aware of the need or the importance of the eye examination.
Recommendation: Reinforce the existing screening programmes through education and promotion and
provision of laser treatment for blinding diabetic retinopathy.

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya
Samuel Kimani, BScN, MSc, Stephen Kainga, BScN, lV1argaret Chege, MPH, PhD, Miriam Wagoro, BScN,
MScN, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In a sub Saharan Africa cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases including diabetes are increasingly causing significant socio-economic and health burden. The increase has severely affected our health care systems already struggling with the burden of tropical and communicable diseases. Patients with diabetes are 2--4 times likely to develop cardiovascular disease and/or stroke. Although the risk factors for cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetes may be known, there is inadequate information concerning diabetic patients attending Kenyarta National Hospital (KNH).

Objective: To determine risk for cardiovascular disease among patients with type 2 diabetes at KNH.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 147 participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
Participants were recruited consecutively after provision of written consent. The socio-demographics and
relevant clinical data were obtained. Cardiovascular assessment, heart rate, blood pressures, lipid profile,
and anthropometric parameters were obtained using standard clinical methods.

Results: Majority (63.3%) of the participants were hypertensive and suffered diabetes for more than 10 years. Additionally, they had higher (p < 0.05) total cholesterols; however, only 26.5% were on anti-lipidernia
therapy. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors was associated with reduced (P < 0.05) risk of
hypertension. Further, a significant number (69.2%) of participants added salt to food regularly and exhibited
significantly (p < 0.05) higher anthropometric parameters and psychological stress.

Conclusion: Our study underscores the role of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, psychological stress, higher
anthropometric parameters and high dietary salt intake as risk factors for cardiovascular disease among

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Chege, M.N., Kabiru, E.W., Mbithi, J.N. and J.J. Bwayo (2002): Childcare Practices of Commercial Sex Workers. East African Medical Journal, July; 79 (7): 382-389.". In: PMID: 12638835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the childcare practices of commercial sex workers (CSWs). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and December 2000 during which a structured questionnaire was administered. SETTING: Kibera slum, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred eighty five CSWs and four focus group discussions (FGDs) held. Health cards from 126 under five years old children belonging to the respondents were reviewed for immunization status and regularity of growth monitoring. RESULTS: The mean age of the 385 CSWs surveyed was 32 +/- 7 years and mean duration of sex work was 6 +/- 4 years. The mean number of living children was 3.4 +/- 2 and 81.2% of the mothers lived with their children. Three quarters of the CSWs practised prostitution at home. The most common daily childcare activities by the mothers were food preparation (96.2%) and washing children's clothes (91.3%). Overall 96.8% of their under-five years old children were fully immunized and 80% of their under one year old children had their growth monitored monthly. About three quarters of the mothers with adolescent children educated them on HIV/STDs. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by health care cost (71.4%) and consumption of alcohol by the mothers. Like other mothers, the CSWs encouraged their adolescent children to take up some adult roles such as maintaining a clean house (93.3%). However only 2.0% took time to converse or counsel the children. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with the CSWs showed that children were left unattended at night while the mothers went out in search of clients. Efforts to provide better education for the children were undermined by lack of funds (52.2%) and truancy (46.6%). One third of the study population had invested for the future maintenance of their children. CONCLUSION: There was more emphasis on physical, rather than psychological aspect of childcare. The practice of living with the children ensured that earnings from the sex trade were used for the immediate needs of the children such as food. However this practice had a negative influence on the children as the majority of the respondents conducted their sexual business at home with little or no privacy. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by lack of funds and to some extent alcohol consumption by the mothers. Efforts to invest in the education of their children were undermined by lack of funds and truancy.

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Factors Influencing Ethical Decision Making .Among Psychiatric Nurses At Mathari Hosprtal In Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

Factors Influencing Ethical Decision Making Among Psychiatric Nurses At Mathari Hosprtal In Nairobi
Authors:
Mageto Gacheri Irene, (MScN, BScN) - Lecturer, Department of Nursing, Presbyterian University of East
Africa.
Prof. Joyce 0 Musandu (Late) (PhD, MScN, DAN, KRN, KRM, KRCHN)- former Director and
Senior Lecturer, School of Nursing sciences. University of Nairobi.
Dr Margaret N Chege, (PhD, MPHE, BScN, DAN, RN/RM/PHN) - Lecturer, School of Nursing Sciences,
University of Nairobi
Dr James Mwaura (PhD, MSc, BScN) - Lecturer, and Head of Medical I Surgical Nursing School of
Nursing Sciences, University of Nairobi
Abstract
Ethical decision making is the process of trying to distinguish right from wrong in situations without clear guidelines. While
ethical dilemmas confront nurses in all areas of nursing practice, those. that occur in psychiatric nursing care settings are
more challenging than those occurring in other areas of nursing. This is because the decrease in mental ability of psychiatric
patients leads to vulnerability which evokes ethical difficulties for the psychiatric nurses.
This was a descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at identifying the factors that influence ethical decision making among
psychiatric nurses in Kenya. It was carried out at Mathari Hospital in Nairobi. The study aimed at identifying factors that
influence the process of ethical decision making by the psychiatric nurses in their clinical practice. The study hypothesis was
that there is no relationship between nurses' demographic characteristics and the way they make ethical decisions.
Quantitative data was collected using a self administered questionnaire which was developed and distributed to 152 randomly
sampled psychiatric nurses at Mathari hospital. Qualitative data was collected via a focused group discussion which comprised
of eight nurse managers. Data was categorized and coded according themes. Data entry was done by use of statistical package
for social sciences (version 16.0) Descriptive and inferential statistics were used as appropriate for data analysis. Qualitative
data from
focused group discussions was analyzed manually.
Overall the results of this study showed that factors influencing nurses ethical decision making were professional experience (r
= 0.0.40, p=O.Ol), workload (rho=0.227, p=0.042), psychiatric nursing experience(r= 0.037, p= 0.01) and gender (rho=0.277,p=
0.013). Knowledge and skills obtained through psychiatric care specializations should be considered when posting nursing
staff to the psychiatric care areas. Further ethnographic research is recommended to identify what other aspects of the
clinical environment affect ethical decision making by the care givers.

NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "A review of current accessibility Legislation in Kenya, report of the CIB Expert Seminar on Building Non-Handicapping Environments, Harare, 1992 with N. Nzioki and A. Maganjo.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "A Legal Analysis of the Real Estate Agent in the Changing Political Arena in Kenya .". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2004. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
Njambi L, Kariuki M, S M. "Ocular findings in children attending occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009;15(1):21-26. Abstract

Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: Cross sectional hospital based.
Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.
Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.
Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.
Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Chege M.N., Mwaniki P.K., Waweru C.M., Mwamburi R.L., Miano J.N, Kanjuga A., Karani A. , Syagga E., Macharia J. , Mwamuye J.N. Registered Theatre Nursing Clinical Log. Nursing Council of Kenya. Nairobi, May, 1999.". In: PMID: 12638835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the childcare practices of commercial sex workers (CSWs). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and December 2000 during which a structured questionnaire was administered. SETTING: Kibera slum, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred eighty five CSWs and four focus group discussions (FGDs) held. Health cards from 126 under five years old children belonging to the respondents were reviewed for immunization status and regularity of growth monitoring. RESULTS: The mean age of the 385 CSWs surveyed was 32 +/- 7 years and mean duration of sex work was 6 +/- 4 years. The mean number of living children was 3.4 +/- 2 and 81.2% of the mothers lived with their children. Three quarters of the CSWs practised prostitution at home. The most common daily childcare activities by the mothers were food preparation (96.2%) and washing children's clothes (91.3%). Overall 96.8% of their under-five years old children were fully immunized and 80% of their under one year old children had their growth monitored monthly. About three quarters of the mothers with adolescent children educated them on HIV/STDs. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by health care cost (71.4%) and consumption of alcohol by the mothers. Like other mothers, the CSWs encouraged their adolescent children to take up some adult roles such as maintaining a clean house (93.3%). However only 2.0% took time to converse or counsel the children. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with the CSWs showed that children were left unattended at night while the mothers went out in search of clients. Efforts to provide better education for the children were undermined by lack of funds (52.2%) and truancy (46.6%). One third of the study population had invested for the future maintenance of their children. CONCLUSION: There was more emphasis on physical, rather than psychological aspect of childcare. The practice of living with the children ensured that earnings from the sex trade were used for the immediate needs of the children such as food. However this practice had a negative influence on the children as the majority of the respondents conducted their sexual business at home with little or no privacy. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by lack of funds and to some extent alcohol consumption by the mothers. Efforts to invest in the education of their children were undermined by lack of funds and truancy.

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Impact of Student and Teacher Characteristics on Perfomance of Diploma Nursing Graduates'.". 2009. Abstract

Impact of Student and Teacher Characteristics on Performance of Diploma Nursing Graduates' In The Nursing Council Registration Examination
Authors:
Gachuiri Grace Wangechi, MScN University of Nairobi, School of Nursing Sciences
Prof. Karani Anna, University of Nairobi, School of Nursing Sciences
Dr Che e Margarete, University of Nairobi, School of Nursing Sciences
Abstract
Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this descriptive study sought to establish the
impact of students and teacher characteristics on performance in the Nursing registration examination.
The study combined both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data was collected using
self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHNgraduates working at Kenyatta National
Hospital.
The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling.
Qualitative data was collected using a study guide from lecturers' Secondary data on past performance in the
examination was used to supplement the findings.
The data was subjected to Pearson product moment correlation to establish the relationship between nurse
graduate, teacher characteristics and performance in the NCKexamination. Results of the study showed a
very strong correlation (r=l, p

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Attended the 11th International Ottawa Conference on Medical Education on 2004 in Barcelona where co- presented the research work.". In: Commun Statist. Theor. Meth. Vol. 16, No. 10, 3095 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
n/a
Njaria PM, Abuga KO, Kamau FK, Chepkwony HK. "A versatile hplc method for the simultaneous determination of bromhexine, guaifenesin, ambroxol, salbutamol/terbutaline, pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough–cold syrups." Chromatographia . 2016;79(21):1507-1514. Abstract

A simple, rapid, isocratic, and versatile liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous
determination of bromhexine, guaifenesin, ambroxol, salbutamol/terbutaline, pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and
chlorpheniramine maleate in cough–cold syrups commonly marketed in Kenya. Separation was achieved using
a Gemini® NX C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40 °C and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.25 M sodium hexanesulphonate-0.2 M ammonium acetate, and pH 3.0-water (35:4:10:51, % v/v/v/v) delivered at 1.0 mL min−1. The eluents were monitored by means of UV detection at 254 nm. During validation, the method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The developed liquid chromatographic method was applied in the analysis of nine commercial samples obtained from Nairobi City County, Kenya. Extraction procedures were not applied during the assay of the samples, thus significantly shortening the analysis time.

Njau VN, Maina ENM, Anjili CO, Ingonga JM, Koech JC, Kariuki HW, Ngure PK. "In vitro antileishmanial activity and phytochemical analysis of Carissa edulis against Leishmania major." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;5. Abstract
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Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho COA, Mukwana S. "STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: assessment of the time period for successful analysis." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2016;6:261-269. Abstract
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Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Njenga LW, Mbugua, M., Onani, M.O., Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO. "New Bis(Pyrrolylimine) Platinum (II) and Palladium (II) Complexes: Synthesis, X-Ray Structure Determination, Spectroscopic Characterization, and in vitro Anticancer Activity on Various Human Carcinoma Cell Lines.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga MJ, Munyua SJM, Mutiga ER, Gathuma JM, Kangethe EK, Bwangamoi O, Mugera GM, Mitaru BN. "Semen characteristics of goats with subacute, acute and chronic besnoitiosis. Journal of South African Veterinary Association(1999) 70(1):14-17. Citation:.". 1999.
Njenga M, Karanja N, Munster C, Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Kithinji J, Jamnadass R. "Charcoal production and strategies to enhance its sustainability in Kenya." Development in Practice. 2013;23(3):359-371.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Kabuage, L. W., P. N. Mbugua and B. N. Mitaru (1991): Effect of feeding diammoniamum citrate on body fat level and performance in broiler chickens: Bull. Anim Hlth. Pro.Afr. 39: 405-409.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
Njenga MM. Evaluating Fuel briquette technologies and their implications on Greenhouse gases and livelihoods in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Description
Charcoal is the principal cooking fuel in Kenya which provides energy to 82% of urban and 34% of rural households. Poor households are opting to use unhealthy sources of fuel such as tyres, old shoes and plastics especially those in urban and peri-urban areas while many families are shifting from traditional meals that require long cooking times and are compromising dietary diversity and nutrition as a result. Faced with poverty and unemployment, communities are turning to fuel briquette which is made by compressing biomass material into a solid unit. Fuel briquette production methods in Nairobi and surroundings and their implications on the quality of the product were studied through focus group discussions with eight groups and one private company. The fuel briquette producing community SHG‘s in Nairobi comprised all those identified and located using an existing database on self-help groups involved in waste management in Nairobi. One group SHG that produced sawdust fuel briquettes was identified in Naro Moro through PactKe an NGO working on Natural Resource Management in Laikipia county. Implications of fuel briquettes on the community livelihoods were also investigated. Theresults obtained were applied in designing experiments to assess different fuel briquettes producing techniques using, (i) different binders namely soil, paper, cowdung and gum Arabica, (ii) pressing machines, (iii) charcoal dust from Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus spp and Acacia xanthophloea,(iv) sawdust from Grevillia robusta, Pinus patulaandCupressus lusitanica and (v) carbonized sawdust from the three tree species above in (iv).combustion …

NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Jacob, J. P., B. N. Mitaru, P. N. Mbugua and R. Blair (1996): The feeding value of Kenya sorghum, sunflower seed cake and sesame seed cake for broilers and layers. Anim Feed Sci. and Tech. 61:41-56.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1996.
Njenga HN. "ESTIMATION OF AZEOTROPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ETHANOLWATER SYSTEM BELOW 760MM Hg PRESSURE." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2004;Vol 13(No 2):43-46.pub azeotropic.pdf
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Jacob, J. P., B. N. Mitaru, P. N. Mbugua and R. Blair (1997): The nutritive value of Kenyan sorghum for poultry. Trop. Sci. 37: 43-48.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P.N., D. Cunningham and R. E. Austic (1983): Effect of feed restriction on production performance of replacement pullets: Poultry Science 62: 1169- 1176.". In: In proceedings: FAO experts consultative meeting on animal feeds in the tropics, Bangkok, Thailand. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1983.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Maribei, J. M., E. M Njoroge and P. N Mbugua (1998). Clinical Manifestation of experimental water intoxication in calves. Indian J. Anim sci. 68:531-532.". In: In proceedings 4th biennial Faculty of veterinary Medicine, university of Nairobi, conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Kabuage, L. W., P.N. Mbugua and B. N. Mitaru (1988): Effect of diet on carcass fat in broiler chickens.". In: In proceedings: Animal production society of Kenya conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Muia, J. M. K., S Tamminga, P.N. Mbugua and J. N. Kariuki (2000). The nutritive value of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and its potential for milk production with or without supplementation: a review. Tropical Science 40: 109-131.". In: In proceedings 4th biennial Faculty of veterinary Medicine, university of Nairobi, conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P.N. and J. Kiragu (1989): A case study of the importance of mineral supplementation in a dairy cattle herd: In Proceedings: 1st annual conference of faculty of veterinary medicine, University of Nairobi. Bull. Anim. Hlth Pro. Afr. special issue p.". In: In proceedings: CTA International seminar on small- holder rural poultry production in Africa. Thessaloniki, Greece. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
Njenga MJ, Munyua SJM, Mutiga ER, Gathuma JM, JM; Kang’ethe EK, Bwangamoi O;, Mugera GM, Mitaru BN. "Semen characteristics of goats with subacute, acute and chronic besnoitiosis : research communication.". 1999. Abstract

A study on the semen obtained from breeding goats suffering from mild to severe chronic besnoitiosis revealed marked changes in semen volume, colour, density, concentration, mass and individual motility and percentage live. There were also many neutrophils and spermatozoa with primary and secondary defects, including missing tails and deformed heads and tails. The observed changes were considered to be severe enough to account for the infertility observed in the flock. Sections of testes obtained for histopathology were characterised by massive blockage of the pampiniform plexus, degeneration of the germinal epithelium, tubular necrosis with an inflammatory infiltrate and, in some cases, accumulation of haemosiderin-like material in the tunica vaginalis.

Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Omwenga EI, Maina EM. "Use of Intelligent Agents in Collaborative M-Learning: Case of Facilitating Group Learner Interactions." International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science. 2017;9(10):18. AbstractFull website link

Intelligent agents have been used in collaborative learning. However, they are rarely used to
facilitate group interactions in collaborative m-learning environments. In view of this, the
paper discusses the use of intelligent agents in facilitating collaborative learning in mobile
learning environments. The paper demonstrates how to design intelligent agents and
integrate them in collaborative mobile learning environments to allow group learners to
improve their levels of group knowledge construction. The design was implemented in a
collaborative mobile learning system running on Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic
Learning Environment (Moodle) platform. The application was used in some experiments to
investigate the effects of those facilitated interactions on the level of group knowledge
construction.

NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P. N. S.N. Muturi, L.N. Kimenye and C. Gor (2001). Role of partnerships in agricultural technology transfer and adoption in eastern Africa.". In: In proceedings 4th biennial Faculty of veterinary Medicine, university of Nairobi, conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Muinga, R. W. and P.N. Mbugua (1991): The feeding value of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) meal as a substitute for traditional energy source in broilers. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Pro. Afr. 39: 355-360.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
Njenga MK, Nyaga PN, Buoro IBJ;, Gathumbi PK. "Use of hyperimmune serum as a prophylaxis in puppies CPV-2 enteritis infection.". 1991.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mburu, J. N., J.M.Z. Kamau, M.S. Badamana and P. N. Mbugua (1994). Use of serum vitamin B12 in diagnosis of cobalt deficiency in small East African goats. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 42: 141-146.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1994.
Njenga LW, Maina DM, Kariuki DN, Mwangi FK. Aluminium exposure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya.; 2007.
Njenga, M J; Kang’ethe BMMMEK; O;. "Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae in goats .". 1999. AbstractWebsite

Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae from naturally chronically-infected goats to susceptible ones was achieved by intra-nasal instillation and intra-conjunctival inoculation of cystozoite-containing suspensions, subcutaneous implantation of fascia containing cysts and alternate needle pricking between the infected and non-infected goats. Typical chronic symptoms developed in the fascia-infected does. Cystozoite inoculation into the eyes and mouth did not result in infection. Kids born of dams with acute and chronic besnoitiosis did not contract the infection in utero, suggesting that intra-uterine transmission may not occur. In contrast to does with acute besnoitiosis, which occasionally aborted, the does with chronic besnoitiosis gave birth to healthy kids. Kids below the age of 4 months (pre-weaned period) born of both infected and non-infected does were susceptible to besnoitiosis but appeared to be more resistant than adult goats.

Njenga JM, Bwangamoi O, Mutiga ER, Kangethe EK, Mugera GM. "Preliminary findings from an experimental study of caprine besnoitiosis in Kenya.". 1993. Abstract

Inoculation of cystozoites obtained from natural, chronic cases of caprine besnoitiosis produced clinical disease in goats but not in rabbits, mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, rats or cattle. Histological examination of tissue sections from the experimental animals showedBesnoitia cysts only in goats. This, together with field observations that cattle reared together with goats having besnoitiosis do not contract the disease, suggests that theBesnoitia species that infects goats in Kenya is host-specific and is notBesnoitia besnoiti. We suggest that the nameBesnoitia caprae be adopted for the caprine pathogen.

Njenga M, Karanja N, Jamnadass R, Kithinji J, Sundberg C, Jirjis R. "Quality of cooking fuel briquettes produced locally from charcoal dust and sawdust in Kenya." Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 2013;7(3):315-322. AbstractJournal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy

Description
Fuel briquettes are made by compressing biomass material into a uniform solid and present an opportunity for good quality cooking fuel. The study evaluated the quality of locally produced fuel briquettes in Kenya and their combustion properties, chemical composition and emissions of gases and fine particulate matter. Briquette made from charcoal dust bonded with paper, soil or corn starch and sawdust briquettes bonded with gum arabica were studied. Charcoal dust briquettes bonded with corn starch or paper had the highest calorific values of 23.6 kJ/g and 21.4 kJ/g respectively. Contaminants comprising of chromium, mercury and lead were high in briquettes made from material sourced from garbage heaps in informal settlements and dumpsites. Charcoal dust briquettes bonded with soil was the safest in terms of indoor air concentrations of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter when burned. Burning …

NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Njoroge, E. M, J. M. Maribei and P. N. Mbugua (1997): Pathological changes in calves that died from experimental water intoxication. Ondersterpoort J. Vet. Res. 64: 111-114.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Thomas, C. and P. N. Mbugua (1981): Effect of supplements on the live weight gain of beef cattle given forage during the dry season.". In: In proceedings: International grasslands congress. Kentucky, USA. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1981.
Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Omwenga EI, Maina EM. "Use of Intelligent Agents in Collaborative M-Learning: Case of Facilitating Group Learner Interactions." International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science. 2017;9(10):18. AbstractFull Text Link

Intelligent agents have been used in collaborative learning. However, they are
rarely used to facilitate group interactions in collaborative m-learning environments. In view
of this, the paper discusses the use of intelligent agents in facilitating collaborative learning
in mobile learning environments. The paper demonstrates how to design intelligent agents
and integrate them in collaborative mobile learning environments to allow group learners to
improve their levels of group knowledge construction.

NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Njue, S. W. P.N. Mbugua, M.N. Kyule and J.M. Gathuma (1998). Risk factors associated with ascites in commercial broiler production in peri-urban areas of Nairob. The Kenya Veterinarian 23: 163-165.". In: In proceedings 4th biennial Faculty of veterinary Medicine, university of Nairobi, conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P.N., R. E. Austic and D. Cunningham (1985): Effect of feed restriction on growth and metabolism of replacement pullets: Poultry science 69: 1950-?". In: In proceedings: Animal production society of Kenya conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga, PN; Kirui G, Gitonga, PN; Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
Njenga M;, Karanja N;, Magoiya J. "Risks Associated with Urban Wastewater Irrigation and Production of Traditional African Vegetable (TAVs) Seeds in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

Globally farmers use wastewater to irrigate crops because it also supplies plant nutrients and ensures all year round food availability. A study was carried out in Nairobi with farmers who used wastewater to produce both food and fodder along the Ngong/Motoine River to obtain an understanding of the benefits and risks associated with wastewater farming and to identify mitigation strategies. Farmers cultivated plots below 0.5 acres where they grew vegetables for home consumption, sale for employment. Analysis of the wastewater samples showed that heavy metal contents were within acceptable limits. However, investigation done on plant samples taken from selected crops showed that there was bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium and lead to levels that were several times higher than the recommended critical limits. Determination of biological contamination samples from these farms and from the wet markets showed that produce from the markets had higher loads of faecal colifoms and parasitic eggs than vegetables irrigated with untreated water. One strategy for mitigating health risks associated with consumption of the contaminated vegetables was to introduce an alternative farming activity to farmers which in this case was to introduce production of Traditional African Vegetables seeds. Eight farmers have for two seasons been able to produce 30 kg of assorted seeds valued at KShs 30000 or USD 400. This has increased both income and assets for farming households and availability of quality seed for rural and urban farmers.

Njenga GJ, Nkirote KC, Mwangi MP, Jasper I. "The Present Status of Meat Processing and Preservation in the Pastoral Regions of Kenya." Food Science and Quality Management. 2014;32:42-50.
Njenga MN, Kuria JKN, Wahome RG, P.B G, A.G T, C.G. M. "An Investigation into an outbreak of human anthrax in Maragua District, Central Kenya." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2007;30:52-67.
Njenga M, James Gitau, Miyuki Iiyamaa, Ramni Jamnadassa, Mahmoud Y, Karanja N. "Innovative biomass cooking approaches for sub-Saharan Africa." Agric. J.Food Nutri. Dev. 2019;19 (1):14066-14087.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Njoroge, E. M., J.M. Maribei and P.N. Mbugua (1999). Water intoxication in cattle. S. Afr. Vet Ass 70: 177-179.". In: In proceedings 4th biennial Faculty of veterinary Medicine, university of Nairobi, conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999.
Njenga D, Irungu B, Mbaria J, Mutai C, Nguta JM. "Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxic and Acute Toxicity Activities of Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffman." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(1):16-20.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P. N. (1989): Progress made in identifying alternative ingredients for use in poultry feeds in Kenya.". In: In proceedings: DLG conference on poultry production in hot climates. Hameln, W. Germany. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
Njenga M, Kimani S, Romney D, Karanja N. "Nutrient recovery from solid waste and linkage to urban and peri-urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Community based composting practices were studied in Nairobi using a questionnaire, and the quality of composts produced characterised for nutrient and heavy metal contents. An inventory of the composting groups was made using existing databases. The quality of different manure types and their sources were also noted. The movement of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) for composting and its outlets, as well as manures, were investigated through mapping of market and ecological chains. The study objectives aimed at documenting group dynamics in community based composting activities, quality of composts as influenced by different composting techniques and mapping of the movement of organic resources for soil fertility improvement. It was established that composting practices used by the community-based organisations (CBO’s), had an impact on the quality of the composts, which was found to be lower than the recommended international standards. The CBO’s involved regard composting activities as a business enterprise from where their livelihood comes. Low market opportunities (low demand) for their product have hampered their growth and development.. It was also observed that there is an inflow of organic nutrients in the form of animal manure imported into the city from the arid and semi arid livestock producing areas, some of which are as far as 300 km from Nairobi. In contrast, there is a big challenge in the disposal of the same product within the informal settlement areas of the city

Njenga HN, W. W. Industrial Chemistry. Nairobi: African Virtual University; 2009.industrial_chemistry.pdf
Njenga MJ, Wabacha JK, Abuom TO, Ndurumo SM, Gitonga PN, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004. .". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2004.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Muia, J.M. K, S. Tamminga. P.N. Mbugua and J.N. Kariuki (2000). Prediction of yield and digestibility on napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) from maturity, leaf: stem ratio and laboratory analyses. Tropical Science 40: 32-39.". In: In proceedings 4th biennial Faculty of veterinary Medicine, university of Nairobi, conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Nambi, J., P. N. Mbugua and B. N. Mitaru (1991) Effect of heat processing on the chemical and bacteriological composition and gross protein value of poultry waste. Discovery and Innovation 3 (3): 91-96.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
Njenga L, Nguli1 M, M. J. Gatari1, Shepherd2 K. "Assessment of Selected Micronutrients in Common Beans in Kenya.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga JN, Gitau GK, Thaiyah AG. Infectious Diseases of Sheep and Goats. Njoro, Nakuru: Egerton university press; 2013.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Nambi, J., P. N. Mbugua and B. N. Mitaru (1992): The nutritive value of dried poultry excreta as a feed ingredient for broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. and Tech. 37:99-109.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.
Njenga HN, Oyake L, Kamau GN. "Effect of Nairobi Industrial Area's Effluents on Levels of Ngong Pollution." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2009;Vol 17(No 1).helenvol17_nairobi_river.pdf
Njenga LW, Macharia JW, Shem O. Wandiga*, Madadi VO. "Moringa Oleifera and Ceramic Filters for Escherichia Coli and Turbidity Removal From Drinking Water." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2016;9(5):2278-5736.final_paper_jane.pdf
Njenga M, Karanja N, Munster C, Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Kithinji J, Jamnadass R. "Charcoal production and strategies to enhance its sustainability in Kenya." Development in Practice. 2013;23(3):359-371. AbstractDevelopment in Practice

Description
In sub-Saharan Africa, 72 per cent of urban and 98 per cent of rural households use fuelwood for energy. In Kenya use of charcoal in urban areas has risen by 64 per cent in two decades. Despite the charcoal industry providing employment to 500,000 people and generating over US $427 million that benefits grassroots communities, it has been kept out of the formal economies of this country. This review presents the status of the charcoal industry in Kenya, highlighting its contribution to livelihoods, production, utilisation, and implications for the environment; policy issues; and stakeholders' involvement. The review also proposes strategies to improve the sustainability of this sector.

Njenga M;, Mulei CM. "Ostrich (Struthio camelus) farming in Namibia."; 1992.
Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Muuro EM, Omwenga EI. "Regulating group cognitive conflicts using intelligent agents in collaborative M-learning." AFRICON, 2017 IEEE. 2017;38(43). AbstractFull Text Link

Group cognitive conflicts occur when a learner in a collaborative mobile learning environment becomes aware of a discrepancy between his/her existing cognitive framework and new information or experience. The cognitive conflicts stimulate the learning process by making an individual to move from his/her learning sphere and participate with others in the learning process. However, there is a big challenge on how students handle and resolve conflicts during collaborative learning. Intelligent agents have been used in this paper to provide support for group interactions by regulating the group conflicts. An experimental design with one control group and two experimental groups (role playing and guided negotiation) is used to compare levels of group knowledge construction. The findings showed improved levels of knowledge construction where regulated conflicts were used compared to where they were not used.

Njenga D, Irungu B, Mbaria J, Mutai C, Nguta J. "Antiplasmodial activity, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Zanthoxylum Chalybeum Engl. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,." World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,. 2016;5(11), :208-217.
Njenga M, Karanja N, Karlsson H, Jamnadass R, Iiyama M, Kithinji J, Sundberg C. "Additional cooking fuel supply and reduced global warming potential from recycling charcoal dust into charcoal briquette in Kenya." Journal of cleaner production. 2014;81:81-88. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Rising demand for energy is one of the major challenges facing the world today and charcoal is a principal fuel in Kenya. Faced with energy poverty many poor households turn to briquette making. This study assessed the additional cooking fuel obtained from recycling charcoal dust into charcoal briquettes. It applied Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the global warming potential (GWP) from use of charcoal and production of briquettes from charcoal dust and cooking a traditional meal for a standard household of five people. Native vegetation of Acacia drepanolobium and a low efficiency kiln were considered the common practice, while an Acacia mearnsii plantation and a high efficiency kiln was used as an alternative scenario. Charcoal and kerosene were considered as reference fuels. Recovering charcoal dust for charcoal briquettes supplied an additional 16% cooking fuel. Wood carbonization and cooking caused the highest GWP, so there is a need for technologies to improve the efficiency at these two stages of charcoal briquettes and charcoal supply chain. Supplying energy and cooking a traditional meal in a combined system using charcoal and recovering charcoal dust for charcoal briquettes and charcoal alone accounted for 5.3–4.12 and 6.4–4.94 kg CO2 eq. per meal, respectively, assuming trees were not replanted. These amounts declined three times when the carbon dioxide from the carbonization and cooking stages was assumed to be taken up by growing biomass. This requires replanting of trees cut down for charcoal if the neutral impact of biomass energy on GWP is to be maintained.

NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P. N. and L.W. Kabuage (1998): Sustainable use of grasslands, forests, grains and crop residues.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Said, A.N. and P. N. Mbugua (1985). Present situation of compounded feed industry in Kenya and perspectives for use of local feed resources.". In: In proceedings: FAO experts consultative meeting on animal feeds in the tropics, Bangkok, Thailand. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
Njenga MJ;, Wabacha JK;, Ndurumo SM;, Gitonga PN;, Kirui G. "Ambulatory clinical exposure of final year veterinary students 2003/2004.".; 2004.
Njenga KG, Kariuki MI. "Effect of macroeconomic variables on financial performance of microfinance banks in Kenya." Scholarly Research Journal For Humanity Science & English Language. 2020;3(8).
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Muia, J. M. K., S. Tamminga, P. N. Mbugua and J. N. Kariuki (1999): Optimal stage of maturity for feeding napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) to dairy cows in Kenya. Tropical grasslands 33: 182-190.". In: In proceedings 4th biennial Faculty of veterinary Medicine, university of Nairobi, conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mitaru, B. N., J. Nambi and P. N. Mbugua (1988): Effect of heat processing methods on the nutritive value of layer waste for broiler chickens.". In: In proceedings: Vith World conference on animal production, Helsinki, Finland. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P.N. Poultry production in Kenya (1990).". In: In proceedings: CTA International seminar on small- holder rural poultry production in Africa. Thessaloniki, Greece. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1990.
Njenga1 LW, Njogu1 REN, Kariuki1 DK, AY1O, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Selected Applications.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njeri KM, Kamau, L., Kuria P. "Production and Trade Systems.". In: African Business System. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2007.
Njeri KM. "Employees in small enterprises in Nairobi: Job search and Career patterns." IDC working Paper No. 528, Nairob IDC University of Nairobi. 1999.
Njeri KM, Khayes M. "Opportuities in the Matatu Services.". In: Rembering Kenya Vol. 2. Nairobi: Twaweza Limited; 2013.
Njeri KM. "The search for a gender Sensitive Development Policy.". In: Structural Adjustment: Towards indigenising the Policy Debate. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis; 1999.
Njeri LN. Ocular findings in children attending occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2008. Abstract

There is a high prevalence of ocular abnormalities in children with physical and mental
disabilities which are often overlooked due to the difficulties encountered while
examining them.
OBJECTIVES
To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical
disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational
therapy clinic at KNH.
STUDY DESIGN
Cross sectional hospital based study at the Occupational therapy clinic in KNH.A
hundred and eighty seven children were examined." from both the general paediatric unit
and the sensory integration unit.
RESULTS
A total of 187 children were examined, males were 109(58%) and females were 78(42%).
The mean age was 2.56 years. The youngest child was 0.25 years and the oldest patient
being 13 years with a range of 12.75 years .. The majority of the children were between
one and two years, representing 45.5% of the whole group. Majority of the patients had
cerebral palsy, 160(85.6%), while ADHD and autism had almost equal proportions,
20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Only one child had learning disability, which
represented 0.5%. Some patients had multiple diagnoses. Among the children, 62% had
ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to
the sensory integration deficit group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included
cortical visual impairment 48.7%, refractive errors 39% and squints 34.2%. Other less
frequent findings included strabismic amblopia13.4%, nystagmus 12.8%, and optic
atrophy 5.3%. Corneal scars, cataracts, maculopathy and eyelid anomalies comprised of
small proportion (5%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was
noted in patients with cerebral palsy compared with sensory integration group.
Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients
with cerebral palsy. Significant hyperopia was noted only in the cerebral palsy group.

There was no significant association noted between amblyopia, nystagmus and optic
atrophy and either of the physical disability. Some of the known risk factors for the
physical disabilities were observed to have an association with the ocular anomalies.
Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with
neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic
atrophy in patients with meningitis. No significant association was noted between
nystagmus, and amblyopia and any of the risk factors. Co-morbid conditions associated
with the physical conditions included speech (29.9%), epilepsy (18.7%), mental
retardation (MR) 8%, dental problems 8%, hearing loss 6.4% and breathing difficulties
4.3%.
CONCLUSION .•
Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual
impairment, refractive errors, squint and amblyopia, were seen in a large proportion of
these children. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the sensory
integration deficit group.
RECOMMENDATION
All Children with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits should be referred to
ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment as part of a broad
multidisciplinary approach to their management. The occupational, speech and hearing
therapists should work closely with the low vision specialists in co-ordinating the
physical and ocular rehabilitation. Low vision unit should be started at KNH and
specialist should be trained to provide the much needed services to these children. Follow
up of the patients for evaluation of long term outcome of the visual interventions to be
offered with the aim of improving the quality of treatment options.

Njeri KM. Polytechnic Graduates : what next?. Lambert; 2009.
Njeri KM, Munguti, Kaendi. "Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair.". In: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO; 2002.
Njeri KM. "After Graduation what next: A Tracer study of polytechnic graduates." IDC working Paper No. 547,Nairob IDC University of Nairobi. 2008.
Njeri KM. "Women Informal Garment Traders in Taveta Road’ Nairobi: From the Margins to the Centre." African Studies Review. 2013;56(03):147-164.
Njeri KM, McCormick, Dorothy. "E-Commerce in the Garment in the Garment Industry in Kenya: A Preliminary Review of Usage, Obstacles and policies.". In: Clothing and Footwear in Africa industrialization. Johannesburg: Africa Institute of South Africa; 2004.
Njeri KM. "Graduates Stir Business Potential." African Executive Online Magazine (2009).
Njeri KM, Paul K. "Production and Trade .". In: Business in Kenya, Institutions and interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2007.
Njeri KM. "How did some Detour to Indigence?" Daily Nation (2011).
Njeri KM, Dorothy McCormick, Kimuyu P. "Textiles and Clothing : Global players and Local Struggles.". In: African Business System. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2007.
Njeri KM. "Nancy Baraza: war against Women Elite: african executive." Online Magazine, February 8, 2023.
Njeri KM, Dorothy McCormick, Peter K. "Kenya's garment industry: An institutional view of medium and large firms'." IDC working Paper No. 531 University of Nairobi. 2001.
Njeri KM. "Trade justice: The case of bonded small scale farmers in eastern and southern Africa.". In: Environment, Society and Development in East and Southern Africa. Bay press; 2012.
Njeri KM. "Small and Medium manufacturing enterprises formation and development in central Kenya: Entrepreneurship of Plodding along?". In: Small Enterprises:Flexibility and Networking in African Context. Nairobi: Longhorn; 1996.
Njeri KM, D MC, P. K. "Institutions and industrialisation process: A Proposal for a study of the textile and textile products industry in Kenya." IDS working paper No. 527, IDS University of Nairobi. 1999.
Njeri GL, Zaja JO, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2020;Volume 5(1):185-194.
Njeri KM, Meleckidzedeck K. Social Capital, Micro and Small Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation.. Addis Ababa: OSSREA; 2005.
Njeri KM. "Micro Enterprises and the Labour Market: Employees in Small Enterprises in Nairobi.". In: Negotiating Social Space: East African Micro Enterprises. Eritrea: Eritrea Africa World Press; 2001.
Njeri KM. "Government and Gender Equity in Micro and small enterprises ." IDC working Paper No. 541,Nairob IDC University of Nairobi. 2007.
Njeri KM. Women and the Informal Economy in Urban Africa. London: Zed Publishers; 2014.
Njeri KM, Ligulu, Peter, McCormick, Dorothy. "Policy and Footwear in Kenya in McCormick.". In: Clothing and Footwear in Africa industrialization. Johannesburg: Africa Institute of South Africa; 2004.
Njeri KM. "Kenya Grapples with labour Policies." African Executive Online Magazine (2009).
Njeri KM, McCormick, Dorothy, P. K. "Textiles and Clothing : Global players and Local Struggles.". In: Business in Kenya, Institutions and interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2007.
Njeri KM. "Urbanization: Detour." African Executive (2011).
Njeri KM, Darkoh MBK. "Industry and Rural development in the Anglophone African Countries." Journal of Developing Societies. 2015;31(3):358-384.
Njeri KM, Kiruthu F. "Super Imperialism.". In: Regional Perspectives on Globalization International Political Economic Series. England: Palgrave Macmillan; 2007.
Njeri LW, Ogallo WO, Nyamu DG, Opanga SA, Birichi AR. "Medication related problems among adult chronic kidney disease patients in a Sub-Saharan tertiary hospital." International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy. 2018.Website
Njeri KM. "Inter-Firm Dynamics in the construction sector." IDC discussion Paper No. 296, IDS University of Nairobi. 1999.
Njeri KM. "The kamukunji Metal Work Cluster in Kenya.". In: Knowledge, Technology and Cluster - Based Growth in Africa. Washington: The World bank pp 25-36; 2009.
Njeri KM. "Women must determine their own destiny." Daily Nation (2013).
Njeri W-T, Ogutu C. "Intelligent Buildings in Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Buildings have a profound impact on the quality of our lives and on the world around us. They have enhanced our communities and enriched our well-being. On the commercial front, they support and house the operations of our businesses. Intelligent Buildings (IBs) have been touted to be a significant milestone in office buildings with the potential for increased efficiency in the management of building services, energy savings and positive returns on investment. Despite these benefits, the uptake and application of the IB technology in Kenya is still very slow. Consequently a pioneer study was undertaken to identify the elements of IBs technology adopted and their applications in Kenya. Moreover, the study investigates the benefits of IBs - to developers, occupants and property managers and lastly establishes the challenges of implementing intelligent technologies in Kenya. The study employed a case study approach of the few intelligent buildings which are rich in information. Purposive sampling was accordingly used to select two case studies which were subjected to intensive analysis. The study recommends the complete integration of all building services to the Building Management System (BMS), sensitization of the stakeholders and proper documentation by pioneer projects as a way of creating general awareness and demystifying wrong perception about IBs. This may eventually lead to a paradigm shift from reactive to proactive management of building services and utilities for the benefit of developers, managers and users of commercial buildings

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