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M’mboroki KG, Wandiga S, Oriaso SO. "Climate change impacts detection in dry forested ecosystem as indicated by vegetation cover change in —Laikipia, of Kenya." Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2018;190(4):255. Abstractlink.springer.com

The objective of the study was to detect and identify land cover changes in Laikipia County of Kenya that have occurred during the last three decades. The land use types of study area are six, of which three are the main and the other three are the minor. The main three, forest, shrub or bush land and grassland, changed during the period, of which grasslands reduced by 5864 ha (40%), forest by 3071 ha (24%) and shrub and bush land increased by 8912 ha (43%). The other three minor land use types were bare land which had reduced by 238 ha (45%), river bed vegetation increased by 209 ha (72%) and agriculture increased by 52 ha (600%) over the period decades. Differences in spatiotemporal variations of vegetation could be largely attributed to the effects of climate factors, anthropogenic activities and their interactions. Precipitation and temperature have been demonstrated to be the key climate factors for plant growth and vegetation development where rainfall decreased by 200 mm and temperatures increased by 1.5 °C over the period. Also, the opinion of the community on the change of land use and management was attributed to climate change and also adaptation strategies applied by the community over time. For example unlike the common understanding that forest resources utilisation increases with increasing human population, Mukogodo dry forested ecosystem case is different in that the majority of the respondents (78.9%) reported that the forest resource use was more in that period than now and also a similar majority (74.2%) had the same opinion that forest resource utilisation was low compared to last 30 years. In Yaaku community, change impacts were evidenced and thus mitigation measures suggested to address the impacts which included the following: controlled bush management and indigenous grass reseeding programme were advocated to restore original grasslands, and agricultural (crop farming) activities are carried out in designated areas outside the forest conservation areas (ecosystem zoning) all in consultation with government (political class), community and other stakeholders. Groups are organised (environmental management committee) to address conservation, political and vulnerability issues in the pastoral dry forested ecosystem which will sustain pastoralism in the ecosystem.

M’Ikiugu MH. "Demographic Factors that Affect Adoption of Biogas Technology in Kiambu County, Kenya." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE. 2018;3(1):48-57.mbali_et_al._2018-_mutemebi-_muthee.pdf
Mæhle K, Haug B, Flaatten H, Nielsen EW. "Metabolic alkalosis is the most common acid–base disorder in {ICU} patients." Critical Care. 2014;18:420. AbstractWebsite

PMID: 22585659

Mziray RS, Imungi JK, Karuri EG. "Nutrient and antinutrient in contents of raw and cooked Amaranthus hybridus.". 2001. Abstract

Amaranthus hybridus was grown as a leafy vegetables in four sites in Dar‐Es‐Salaam, Tanzania. Freshly harvested leaves from each of the growing sites were analyzed for proximate composition of beta‐carotene, reduced ascorbic acid, minerals iron, calcium, phosphorous and the antinutrients oxalates and nitrates. The leaves from the four sites were bulked and cooked by boiling in distilled water in the ratio vegetable to water of 1:4 then drained. The drained vegetables were analyzed for beta‐carotene, reduced ascorbic acid, iron, calcium, phosphorus, oxalate and nitrate. Results indicated that fresh amaranth vegetables from the four sites had comparable high moisture contents ranging between 85.3% to 86.5%, protein of between 28.2% to 31.6%. The level of minerals calcium, iron and phosphorus ranged between 2062 mg/100 g and 2263 mg/100 g, 108 mg/100 g and 128 mg/100 g and 500 mg/100 g and 553 mg/100 g respectively on dry weight basis. The levels of beta‐carotene of between 25.2 mg/100 g to 37.3 mg/100 g, ascorbic acid of between 455 mg/100 g to 535 mg/100 g. Nitrates and oxalates were at levels of between 501 mg/100 g to 560 mg/100 g and 3383 mg/100 g to 4333 mg/100 g respectively on dry matter basis. On cooking, the levels of beta‐carotene did not change significantly but there were significant reductions (P < 0.05) in the levels of ascorbic acid of up to 50.4%, and 41.4% for phosphorus, while the total nitrate was reduced by 39.2%, and the oxalate by 40.2%. The study established that Amaranthus hybridus leaves grown in four sites of Dar‐Es‐Salaam were good sources of nutrients, had low nitrates levels but high oxalate contents. Furthermore the cooking losses of the nutrients were not excessive, while the antinutrients were substantially reduced.

Mworia J.K., J.I. K, Omari J.K., Wambua J.K. "Patterns of Seed Dispersal and Establishment of the Invader Prosopis juliflora in the Upper Floodplain of Tana River, Kenya." African journal of range and forage science. 2011;28:35-41.
Mworia JK, Kinyamario JI, Githaiga JM. "Influence of cultivation, settlements and water sources on wildlife distribution and habitat selection in south-east Kajiado, Kenya." Environmental Conservation. 2008;35(02):117-124.
Mwonjoria JJ, Ngereanwa JJ, Kariuki HN, Githinji CG, Sigina MN, Wambugu SN. "Ethno medicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of solanum incanum (lin.)." International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology (IJPT). 2014;2(2):17-20.abstract-mwonjoria_et_al_2014.docx
Mwonga PV, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, R. Gateru, Mwabora J. Ab-initio Studies of Point Defects in : A Density Functional Approach. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide has been intensively studied as a wide band gap transition metal oxide due to its n-type semi-conducting property which makes it to have many applications in industry. Some of the observed conductivity arises from its intrinsic point defects. The structural properties and electronic band structures of TiO2 (rutile and anatase) phases, have been investigated using ab-initio methods. The structural properties were obtained using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) employing pseudopotentials and plane wave basis sets. For the two phases of TiO2, the calculated equilibrium lattice constants, bulk moduli and bond lengths were found to be in good agreement with other recent theoretical calculations and also with experimental data. After introduction of various defects to the perfect super cell, the Ti-O bond lengths were altered greatly. The apical bond lengths changed from a constant 1.959 Å to a range of values (1.718 - 1.861) Å, and the equatorial bond lengths changed from a constant 2.006 Å to a range of values (2.072 - 2.231 ) Å for rutile TiO2. The apical bond lengths changed from a constant 1.956 Å to a range of values (1.782 - 1.830) Å, and the equatorial bond lengths changed from a constant 2.050 Å to a range of values (2.112 - 2.214) Å, for anatase TiO2. Also altered were Ti-O-Ti angles, from the two constants (99.93, 131.04)° to a range of values (88.86 - 95.69 and 132.01 - 143.49)° for rutile TiO2. For anatase TiO2, Ti- O-Ti angles changed from the two constants (103.81, 152.39)° to a range of values (93.59 - 149.91 and 156.74 - 176.05)°. Electronic properties were investigated too. Perfect rutile and anatase super cells gave band gaps of 2.24 eV and 2.44 eV, respectively, underground-state conditions. Valence bandwidths (VB) and conduction bandwidths (CB) were also obtained for both phases. VB of 5.6 eV and CB of 1.654 eV were observed for rutile TiO2, while VB of 4.76 eV and CB of 2.35 eV were observed for anatase TiO2; all in good agreement with experimental values. This study also investigated the defect formation enthalpies of Frenkel and Schottky defects in both rutile and anatase phases of TiO2. This study also considered point defect stability in rutile and anatase phases of TiO2. The formation energies for oxygen and titanium atoms, defects were found to be in agreement with the experimental values, especially the case of rutile oxygen atom vacancy. Both Frenkel and Schottky defects were found to induce new energy states in titanium dioxide. Normally band gaps are reduced in defective TiO2 crystals, and in this study, reduced energy band gaps were reported for all the defective super cells. In rutile, the metal oxide gaps were found to almost vanish due to the presence of oxygen atom vacancy, oxygen atom Frenkel and titanium Frenkel defects. These gave direct energy band gaps: 0.35 eV, 0.207 eV and 0.327 eV, respectively. Defects in anatase phase showed a similar trend, with the least energy band gap being reported for the case titanium interstitial (0.041 eV, which is indirect). With such infinitesimal gaps, these otherwise insulating oxides can with ease become conducting metal oxides, by either increasing the temperatures or pressure since these calculations were done at 0 K and 0 pressure. It can thus be said that intrinsic point defects in titanium dioxide do contribute to the improvement of the electrical conductivity of this oxide.

Mwololo JK, Muturi PW, Mburu MWK, Njeru RW, Kiarie N, Munyua JK, Ateka EM, Muinga RW, Kapinga RE, Lemaga B. "Integration of farmers in technology developments as a basis for enhancing sweet-potato productivity in Kenya. .". In: Published online at knowledge.cta.int/en/content/view/full/15294.; 2012.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C. "Do farmers’ socio-economic characteristics influence their preference for agricultural extension methods?, ." Development in Practice. 2019;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2019.1638344.
Mwololo A, Joshua Nyagol, Rogena E, Ochuk W, Kimani M, Noel Onyango, Pacenti L, Santopietro R, Leoncini L, Mwanda W. "Correlation of EGFR, pEGFR and p16INK4 expressions and high risk HPV infection in HIV/AIDS-related squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva." Infect. Agents Cancer. 2014;9(1):7. Abstract

Squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva has increased tenfold in the era of HIV/AIDS. The disease pattern has also changed in Africa, affecting young persons, with peak age-specific incidence of 30-39 years, similar to that of Kaposi sarcoma, a well known HIV/AIDS defining neoplasm. In addition, the disease has assumed more aggressive clinical course. The contributing role of exposure to high risk HPV in the development of SCCC is still emerging.

Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C., Ogutu, S.O., Kabunga, N. "Determinants of actual and potential adoption of improved indigenous chicken under asymmetrical exposure conditions in rural Kenya." African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development. 2019;DOI: 10.1080/20421338.2019.1636489.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C., Aseta, A. "Is the type of agricultural extension services a determinant of farm diversity? Evidence from Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2019;6(1):40-46.
Mwololo A, oshua Nyagol, Rogena E, Leoncini L, Mwanda W. "Correlation of EGFR, pEGFR and p16 INK4 expressions and high risk HPV infection in HIV/AIDS-related squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva." Infectious Agents and Cancer. 2014;9(7):1-8. Abstractcorrelation_of_egfr_pegfr_and_p16.pdf

Background:
Squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva has increased tenfold in the era of HIV/AIDS. The disease
pattern has also changed in Africa, affecting young persons, with peak age-specific incidence of 30-39 years, similar to that of Kaposi sarcoma, a well known HIV/AIDS defining neoplasm. In addition, the disease has assumed more aggressive clinical course. The contributing role of exposure to high risk HPV in the development of SCCC is still emerging.
Objective:
The present study aimed to investigate if immunohistochemical expressions of EGFR, pEGFR and p16,
could predict infection with high risk HPV in HIV-related SCCC.
Methods:
FFPE tissue blocks of fifty-eight cases diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin with SCCC between 2005-2011,
and subsequently confirmed from medical records to be HIV positive at the department of human pathology,
UoN/KNH, were used for the study. Immunohistochemistry was performed to
assess the expressions of p16INK4A, EGFR and pEGFR. This was followed with semi-nested PCR based detection and sequencing of HPV genotypes. The sequences were compared with the GenBank database, and data analyzed for significant statistical correlations using SPSS 16.0. Ethical approval to conduct the study was obtained from KNH-ERC.
Results:
Out of the fifty-eight cases of SCCC analyzed, twenty-nine (50%) had well differentiated (grade 1), twenty
one (36.2%) moderately differentiated (grade 2) while eight (13.8%) had poorly differentiated (grade 3) tumours.Immunohistochemistry assay was done in all the fifty eight studied cases, of which thirty nine cases (67.2%) were positive for p16INK4A staining, forty eight cases (82.8%) for EGFR and fifty one cases (87.9%) showed positivity for p-EGFR. HPV DNA was detected in 4 out of 40 SCCC cases (10%) in which PCR was performed, with HPV16 being the only HPV sub-type detected. Significant statistica
l association was found between HPV detection and p16INK4 (p=0.000, at 99% C.I) and EGFR (p=0.028, at 95% C.I) expressions, but not pEGFR. In addition, the expressions of
these biomarkers did not show any significant association with tumor grades.
Conclusion:
This study points to an association of high risk HPV with over expressions of p16INK4A and EGFR
proteins in AIDS-associated SCCC.
Keywords:
SCCC, Biomarkers, HPV, HIV/AIDS

Mwololo JK, Muturi PW, Mburu MWK, Njeru RW, Kiarie N, K.Munyua J, Ateka EM, Muinga RW, Kapinga RE. "Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis of genotype x environmental interaction among sweetpotato genotypes. ." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2009;2(3):148-155.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Assessment and monitoring of nutrients flows and stocks to determine appropriate integrated nutrient management strategies. A methodological approach adapted for arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. In: Gacimbi, L.N., Ikombo,B.M.,Itabari,J.K.,Nandwa, S.M., .". In: China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Production in the Face of Global Environmental Deterioration (FPEC), Fukuoka, Japan in September 2004. University of nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Stigter, C.J., Mungai, D., Ong, C., Kinama, J.M and Otengi, S.B. (2004). Testing alley cropping contour in semi-arid areas on flat and sloping land: Soil and water conservation, competition, yields and economic factors. Experts for collection of case stud.". In: China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Production in the Face of Global Environmental Deterioration (FPEC), Fukuoka, Japan in September 2004. University of nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Kinama, J.M., Ong, C., Stigter, C.J., Ng.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Stigter, C.J., Kinama J.M.,Yengui Zhang, Tunji, K.O., Dawie Zeng., Nawal, K.N.Ahmed Abdalla. Agrometeorological Services and information for decision making: Some examples from Africa and China. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 60(5):327-330,2005.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Agroforestry for soil and water in drylands. E. Afr. For. J. 62 (1). 151-162. Nairobi, Kenya, 1996.". In: Proc. of Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) held in Kampala, Uganda, Sept.1999. (ISBN No 9966-879-27-7) pp. 220-226. University of nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Assessment and monitoring of nutrient flows and stocks to determine appropriate integrated nutrient management strategies. Technical report on the study approach and preliminary results of Nutsal project, 2000. In: Gacimbi,L.N., Ikombo,B.M.,Itabari, J.K.,.". In: China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Production in the Face of Global Environmental Deterioration (FPEC), Fukuoka, Japan in September 2004. University of nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Kinama, J.M. (2004). Indigenous Technical Knowledge and Rural development in Eastern Kenya. South African Rural Development Quarterly. Vol2, 04, ) Oct- December 2004. ISSN 1812-299X. A Quarterly publication of the rural forum.". In: China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Production in the Face of Global Environmental Deterioration (FPEC), Fukuoka, Japan in September 2004. University of nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Kinama, J.M., Stigter, C.J., Ong, C., Ng.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Stigter, C.J., Kinama J.M.,Yengui Zhang, Tunji, K.O., Dawie Zeng., Nawal, K.N.Ahmed Abdalla. Agrometeorological Services and information for decision making: Some examples from Africa and China. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 60(5):327-330,2005.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Kinama, J.M., Stigter, C.J., Ong, C., Ng.". In: The TTMI project and the picnic model. Proc. of at both local and international levels a TTMI workshop April 1994 Nairobi, Kenya. (ISBNo 90-6754-403-5) pp136-146. University of nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Kinama, J.M., Stigter, C.J., Ong, C., Ng.". In: Proc. of Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) held in Kampala, Uganda, Sept.1999. (ISBN No 9966-879-27-7) pp. 220-226. University of nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Kinama, J.M. and Van Keulen, H., (2001). Development of coefficients for using USLE in the Nutmon model in the semi-arid areas of Kenya. EU/KARI project working journal paper 2001, KARI, Nairobi.". In: China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Production in the Face of Global Environmental Deterioration (FPEC), Fukuoka, Japan in September 2004. University of nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Stigter, C.J., Kinama, J., Zhang, Y., Tunji, K.O., Zheng, D. Nawal, K.N and Ahmed. A. (2004). Agrometeorological services and information for decision makers: Some examples from Africa and China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Prod.". In: China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Production in the Face of Global Environmental Deterioration (FPEC), Fukuoka, Japan in September 2004. University of nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Nutrient balances at farm level in Machakos (Kenya), using a participatory nutrient monitoring (NUTMON) approach. Gachimbi, L.N., Van Keulen, H., Kinama, J.M., Nguluu, S., Itabari, J.K., Ikombo, B.M., Thuranira, E.G., Karuku, A.M., de Jager, J. and Nandwa.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Kinama,J.M, Stigter, C.J., Ong, C.K. Ng.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Nguluu, S.N., Ikombo, B.M., Kinama, J.M., Wambua, J.M., Karanja, D., Kitheka, A., Njuguna, E., Ndunda, Rundiri, L. and Nzioka,M. (1997). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) for Kiomo sub-location of Mwingi District to identify and prioritise the farmers p.". In: Proc. of Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) held in Kampala, Uganda, Sept.1999. (ISBN No 9966-879-27-7) pp. 220-226. University of nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
Mwiti BK. Deception in advertising: a case study of fruit juices in the local Kenyan market .; 2012. Abstract

Deception in advertising is an ongoing moral, and in some cases, controversial issue. What may appear to be a harmless advertisement to one person or group may be very misleading to another. With the increase in technology and the ever-increasing use of the Internet, consumers remain prime targets for advertising and marketing practices that are deceptive. The research thesis first gives background information on deception in advertising and describes different types of deception. It then examines what makes an advertisement deceptive, or what kind of advertisement would be defined 'as containing information that is deceptive and what role the designer plays in the advertising process/chain. It also gives information about juices and studies done on the production of juices, being that the case study revolves around fruit juices and the deception that occurs in their marketing. A field research was conducted to establish just how much deception there is in advertising, using fruit juices sold in the local Kenyan market as a case study. From the findings I was able to determine the level of deception the consumer is exposed to and the likely effects. Within the research were sought views of designers on why, if at all, they use deception in the adverts they produce. Discussions with designers, marketers and advertisers were heldto understand the point at which deceptive information was incorporated as part of the advertising process. Consumers were also interviewed to get an in-depth into what influences their purchasing powers. Retailers came n handy when informing me as to whether advertising was crucial in purchases made in their shopping outlets. The results from the field research proved that deception does exist and led me to conclude that advertising ought to be a moral concern & thus the need to inform consumers of this so that they can make more informed decisions about their purchases; and the need for designers to be held responsible for advertisements they create to market products and services.

Mwisukha. A, Gitonga E, P.M. W. "Towards gender equality in sports." Insights into the underrepresentation of women in sports leadership in Kenya. 2011;2(1).
Mwisukha A, E.R. G, Njororai WWS. "Analysis of Postgraduate Research in the department of Physical Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya. ." African Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology and Sports Facilitation. 2004;6:81-86.
Mwisukha A, Rintaugu EG, Mwangi PW. "Witchcraft Practices in Kenyan Football: A Reality or Myth?" International Journal of Sports Technology Management and Allied sciences. 2012;1(1):1-10.
Mwisukha A, Omotayo OO, Gitonga ER. "Streamlining the selection Process of Sports teams: A Presentation of Valuable tips." East African Journal of Physical Education, Sports Science, Leisure and Recreation Management. 2003;1(2):100-105.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Aye R, Soi R, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Naessens J, Wesonga H. "Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.". In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.; 2015.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Aye R, Soi R, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Naessens J, Wesonga H. "Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;169:63-67.
Mwirigi M, Ochanda H, Soi R, Wambugu A, Naessens J. "Effect of a monoclonal antibody on mycoplasma adherence to bovine lung cells." East African Agricultural Forestry Journal. 2010;76(4):217-223.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Efficacy of a capsular polysaccharide conjugated vaccine against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.". In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.; 2016.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;178:64-69. Abstract

Abstract Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease
caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa.
The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence
determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies,
but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice
cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in ...

Mwinzi JM, Higgs LG. "Paper presented:Theoretical Frameworks and Indigenous Knowledge Systems.". In: World Congress on Education-London – UK.; 2014. Abstract
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Mwinzi JM. "Religion Escalates Social and Ethical Diversity in Kenya." European Journal of Education Studies. 2018;4(1):323-343.
Mwinzi JM. "Theoretical Frameworks and Indigenous Knowledge Systems." International Journal of Education and Research. 2015;3:677-684. Abstract
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Mwinzi DJM. "Reconceptualising Research Methodology in Philosophy of Education.". In: Kenya Scholars and Studies Association- KESSA-Multimedia University Joint International and Inter Disciplinary Conference. Nairobi; 2016.edf_publications4.pdf
Mwinzi R, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "The Structure of Corporate Identity Public Universities in Kenya have Adopted." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;Vol. 4(No. 1, January 2016):pp. 1-14.
Mwinzi JM. "Redefining Slants of Research in Philosophy of Education as Distinct Academic Discipline." Elixir International Journal. 2017;113(11):49083-49091.
Mwinzi JM. "Education and Development in Africa.". In: Education and Development in Africa, Catholic University of Eastern Africa.; 2012. Abstract
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Mwinzi JM, Higgs LG. "Philosophy of education and the Africanization of secondary school curriculum in Kenya." Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Revisiting the Research Paradigm,. 2013;12:126-141. Abstract
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Mwinzi JM, Chepkoech S. "The Essential Strategies of Empowering the Youth as an Enterprise of Enhancing National Harmony and Social Cohesion in Kenya.". In: Commonwealth Association of Universities and Polytechnics in Africa. Mombasa; 2016.
Mwinzi JM. "‘Challenges of Development in Africa.". In: Paper Presented: Philosophy of education in secondary school curriculum in Kenya.; 2013. Abstract
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Mwinzi JM. "Philosophy of Education in School Curriculum in Amutabi." Studies in Culture, Gender and Education in Africa. 2013:315-326. Abstract
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Mwinzi DJM. "Towards the Africanization of Teacher Education: A Critical Reflection.". In: Kenya Scholars and Studies Association- KESSA-Multimedia University Joint International and Inter Disciplinary Conference. Nairobi; 2016.
Mwinzi, R., Mberia H, Ndeti N. "Communication Methods used to Disseminate Corporate Identity to Employees by Public Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2016;Vol. 6(Issue 2):pp.183-191.
MWIMALI DBUSALILEJACK. "Socio-Legal Perspective of HIV/AIDS in Media Discourses, In Katiambo D., HIV/AIDS and the Media." Nairobi: Moi University Press.; Forthcoming.
Mwimali BJ, et al. The East Africa Court of Justice Law Digest: 2005 -2011. East African Law Society; 2011.
Mwimali MI, Kitaa JMA, Osoro LN, others. "An analysis of the causes of poultry condemnations at a Nairobi slaughter house, Kenya (2011-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2018;7:121-126. Abstract
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MWIKYA NK, KYALO DN, MULWA SA. "‘Relational Coordination in the Airline Industry: Getting it Right to Enhance on-time Service Delivery at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport. .". In: The 9th Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa . International Conference Imperial Resort Beach Hotel, Entebbe, Uganda.; 2013.
Mwika PM, Munguti J, Khanbhai MM, El-busaidy H, Ogeng'o JA. "Variant anatomy of sciatic nerve in a black Kenyan population.". 2011. Abstract

Knowledge of variant anatomy of the sciatic nerve is important in avoiding inadvertent injury during operations in the gluteal region and interpreting nondiscogenic sciatica. This variant anatomy may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of sciatic nerve block. The variations differ between populations but data from Africans is scarce. This study, therefore, investigated variations of sciatic nerve in a black Kenyan population. One hundred and sixty-four sciatic nerves from 82 cadavers of black Kenyans were exposed by dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The level of bifurcation, relationship to piriformis, and topographic relations between the branches were studied. The results were analysed by SPSS version 16.0 and are presented by macrographs. In 33 (20.1%) cases division occurred in the pelvis, while in 131 (79.9%) it occurred outside the pelvis. A single trunk sciatic nerve exited below the piriformis muscle in 131 (79.9%) cases. In cases of pelvic division, the tibial nerve was always infrapiriformic, while the common peroneal nerve passed below piriformis in 16 (9.8%) cases, pierced the piriformis in 13 (7.9%), and passed above it in 4 (2.4%). For those in which division was extrapelvic, 110 (67.1%) were in the popliteal fossa, 17 (10.4%) in the middle third of the thigh, and 4 (2.4%) in the gluteal region. Where the division was pelvic, in 19 (11.6%) cases they continued separately, in 8 (4.9%) the two nerves reunited, and in 6 (3.7%) they were connected by a communicating nerve. The sciatic nerve in the Kenyan population varies from the classical description in over 30% of cases, with many high divisions, low incidence of piriformic course of common peroneal nerve, reunion, and unusual connection between common peroneal and tibial nerves. These variations may complicate surgery and interpretation of sciatic neuropathy. Preoperative nerve imaging and extra operative diligence in the gluteal region and the back of the thigh are recommended

MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya I. The role of indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) based on a thermo-stable antigen. E. Afr. Med. J. 63:311 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "NJERUH, F.M., GATHUMA, J.M., TUMBOH-OERI, A.G. and OKELO, G.B.A. (1989). Purification and partial characterization of a thermo-stable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Usefulness of indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis. East. Afr. Med.J. 66: 310 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "A ten-year review of human hydatid cases seen at Kenyatta National Hospital (Kenya). Discovery and Innovation 2: 41 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1990. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "The application of monoclonal antibodies in identification of a hydatid cyst antigen found in boiled sera from individuals with hydatid disease and its significance in Diagnosis of hydatid disease caused by E. granulosus in man. The Kenya Veterinarian: 23.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1998. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya II. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermo-stable antigen. E. Afr. Med. J. 63: 318 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Distribution and diagnosis of hydatid disease in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 12: 53 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1988. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two E. granulosus antigens in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis. East. Afr.Med. J. 66: 738.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract

A total of 180 sera consisting of 50 sera from Kenyans with surgically confirmed hydatidosis and 130 sera from individuals without hydatid disease were examined. "Antigen 880" (which is suspected to be similar to Antigen B) showed a sensitivity of 88%. No false reactions were obtained with sera from individuals with non-hydatid infections, hence a specificity of 100% was recorded with this antigen. "Antigen 346" (which is similar to Capron's "Arc 5") showed a sensitivity of 52% and a specificity of 100%. It is concluded that "Antigen 880" may be more useful than "Arc 5" in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya due to the high sensitivity obtained with the antigen.

MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for livestock hydatidosis based on partially purified thermo-stable antigen. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 38: 7 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1990. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Sandwich enzyme immunoassay for specialization of cooked meats and for detecting trace amounts of adulterants in phylogenically related species. A. Afr. Agric. For J. 59: 205 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1994. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "NJERUH, F.M. and GATHUMA, J.M. (1987). Serodiagnosis of livestock hydatidosis by the use of indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bull. An. Hlth. Prod. 35: 124 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1987. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Diagnosis of hydatid disease in surgically confirmed cases by the use of the indirect hemagglutination test based on a thermo-stable lipoprotein and an unfractionated hydatid cyst fluid. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 83: 299 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "The amino acid fatty acid composition of the thermo-stable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "An assessment of microbiological quality of borehole water in the suburbs of the city of Nairobi, Kenya. East. Afr. Med. J. 67: 105 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1991. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "A survey on the parasites of the swine and their prevalences over a ten year period. The Kenya Veterinarian: 23: 166 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1998. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
Mwihia EW, Mbuthia PG, Gunnar SE, Gathumbi JK, Joyce GM, Mutoloki S, Waruiru RM, Mulei IR, Ludvig LJ. "Occurrence and Levels of Aflatoxins in Fish Feeds and Their Potential Effects on Fish in Nyeri, Kenya.". 2018.
Mwihia EW, Mbuthia PG, Eriksen GS, Gathumbi JK, Maina JG, Mutoloki S, Waruiru RM, Mulei IR, L J. "Occurrence and levels of aflatoxins in fish feeds and their potential effects on fish in Nyeri, Kenya." Toxins. 2018;2018(10).
Mwihia EW, Lyche JL, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi JK, Maina J, Ivanova L, Uhlig S, Mulei IR, Eriksen GS. "Co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in fish feed in Kenya.". In: ASM 2018 Scientific Programme. Leisure Lodge Resort, Mombasa, Kenya; 2018.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""User Charges in Government Health Facilities in Kenya: Effect on Attendance and Revenue," (with James Mwanzia and Wilson Liambila), Health Policy and Planning, 10:2(1995), pp. 164-170.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "Health and Education (with Albert Agbonyitor) Basic Needs Workshop Papers.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1978. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""The Burden of Natural and Technological Disaster-related Mortality on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the WHO Africa Region," (with Joses Kirigia, Luis Sambo, and W. Aldis), African Journal of Health Sciences, 9: 2 (2002), pp. 169-180.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "Conditional Logit Analysis of Household Choice of Medical Treatment Alternatives in Rural Villages in Kenya.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Predicting Household Poverty" (with S. Mwangi S. Kimenyi, Paul Kimalu, Nancy Nafula, Damiano Manda), African Development Review, 15:1(2003), pp. 77-85, June.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Household Composition and Expenditures on Human Capital Formation in Kenya," (with Robert E. Evenson), in T. Paul Schultz (ed.), Research in Population Economics, 8 (1996), pp. 205-232, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""The Economics of Essential Drugs Schemes: The Perspectives of Developing Countries" (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1987. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Predicting Rural Household Poverty: Methodological Issues and the PRSP Process in Kenya," in: Frank Ellis and H. Ade Freeman, eds, Rural Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction Policies, London: Routledge, September 2004.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Wage Premiums for Education and Location of Workers in South Africa, by Gender and Race" (with T. Paul Schultz), Economic Development and Cultural Change, 48:2(2000), pp. 307-334.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""A Comment on Kenyan Migration Movement", Eastern Africa Economic Review, 3:2, pp. 143-145.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Determinants of Health Insurance Ownership Among South African Women" (with Joses M. Kirigia, Luis G. Sambo, Benjamin Nganda, Rufaro Chatora and Takondwa Mwase), BMC Health Services Research 2005, 5:17doi:10.1186/1472-6963-5-17.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Intra-household Allocations: A Review of Theories and Empirical Evidence," (with John Strauss and Kathleen Beegle), Journal of African Economies, 9:Suppl. 1(2000), pp. 83-143.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Economic Development and Malaria Prevalence: An Empirical Analysis with Reference to Kenya," in Malaria and Development in Africa, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Status in Africa: A Regional Profile", South African Journal of Economics, 69:2 (2001), pp. 319-335, June.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Care Reform in Kenya: A Review of the Process," Health Policy, 32 (1995), pp. 245-255.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the WHO Africa Region," (with Joses M. Kirigia, Luis G. Sambo, Tuoyo Okorosobo), African Journal of Health Sciences, 9: 1(2002), pp. 27-39.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Household Composition and Expenditures on Human Capital Formation in Kenya," (with Robert E. Evenson), in T. Paul Schultz (ed.), Research in Population Economics, 8 (1996), pp. 205-232, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "Health Care Decision.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1982. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""The Demand for Medical Care in Kenya," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Care Decisions at the Household level: Results of a Rural Health Survey in Kenya", Social Science and Medicine, pp. 315-319.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1986. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Impact of Disaster-related Mortality on Gross Domestic Product in the WHO Africa Region" (with Joses M. Kirigia, Luis G. Sambo and William Aldis), BMC Emergency Medicine 2004, 4:1doi:10.1186/1471-227X-4-1.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Service Pricing Reforms in Kenya," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Labor Unions and the Distribution of Wages and Employment in South Africa," (with T. Paul Schultz), Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 51:4, pp. 681-703.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1988. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Economics: Potential Applications in HIV/AIDS Control in Africa" (with Joses M. Kirigia, Luis G. Sambo, Emilienne Anikpo and Eddie Karisa), African Journal of Health Sciences, 12: 1 (2005), pp. 1-12.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Wage Premiums for Education and Location of Workers in South Africa, by Gender and Race" (with T. Paul Schultz), Economic Development and Cultural Change, 48:2(2000), pp. 307-334.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Non-monetary Factors in the Household Choice of Medical Facilities", Economic Development and Cultural Change, 37: , pp. 383-92.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""The Effect of Agricultural Extension on Farm Yields in Kenya" (with Robert Evenson), African Development Review, 13:1(2001), pp. 1-23, June.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Quality of Medical Care and Choice of Medical Treatment in Kenya: An Empirical Analysis," with Martha Ainsworth and Andrew Nyamete), Journal of Human Resources, 28: 4, pp. 838-862.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "Social Provision in Low-Income Countries: New Patterns and Emerging Trends (editor), with Cecilia Ugaz and Gordon White, Oxford: Oxford University Press, May 2001.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Black Market Trade: An Example from a Rural District in Kenya," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "The Economics of Primary Health Care.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1982. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Financing Medical Care Through Insurance," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "A Model of Household Choice Among Medical Treatment Alternatives in Rural Kenya.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1984. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Rural Development, Growth and Poverty in Africa," (with Erik Thorbecke), Journal of African Economies, 13: AERC Supplement (2004), pp. i16-i65, July.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""A Model of Occupational Choice Applied to Rural Kenya," (with Robert E. Evenson), African Development Review, 9:2(1997), pp. 7-14.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Financing Rural Health Services in Kenya," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1988. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "Improving Health Policy in Africa (editor, with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Poverty, Inequality and Intra-household Allocation Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa: an Overview" (with Augustin Fosu), Journal of African Economies, 9: Suppl. 1(2000), pp. 3-8.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Referral Systems and Health Care Seeking Behavior of Patients: An Economic Analysis", World Development, 17: 1(1989), pp. 85-92.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Human Capital Externalities and Returns to Education in Kenya," (Damiano K. Manda and S. Mwangi Kimenyi), Eastern Economic Journal, 32(3): 493-513.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Seasonality, the Shadow Price of Time and Effectiveness of Tropical Disease Control Programs", in: A. Herrin and P. Rosenfield, (eds.) Economics of Tropical Diseases, Manila: University of Philippines Press, 1988.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Agricultural Land Use Patterns and Malaria Conditions in Kenya," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Status and Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Long-term Perspective," (with Giovanni A. Cornia), in: Dharam Ghai (ed.), Renewing Social and Economic Progress in Africa, London: Macmillan Press, May 2000.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Mwiandi. "Colonial Vision for Rural Kenya? Case of Community Development Training at the Jeanes School, Kabete, 1945-1961.". In: Nairobi Journal of Historical Studies.; 2014. Abstract

The Establishment of Jeanes School at Kabete was from the onset a government venture to train men and women whose task was advance the colonial government hegemonic control of the population. This was done mainly through community development programs and activities both in the urban and rual areas. During the pre-Second World War period, the school trained school supervisors and their wives who in different capacities made their schools and homes radiating centers of change and progress. Later the chiefs and sub-chiefs and their wives having underwent short courses training at the school led the way in the rural in propagating government agenda. The Second World war period transformed the school into military training center for the purpose of advancing government’s control policies. It was the period after the war the School systematically embarked of crash programs to train men and women to spearhead development in their respective communities as well as become agents keeping law and order in the colony

Mwiandi. "We dressed wounds and touched hearts”: African pioneering nurses and dressers at the Church of Scotland missions in Kenya, 1898-1963.". In: Nairobi Journal of Historical Studies.; 2014. Abstract

The establishment of Christian missionary stations and the spread of Christianity, Western education and medical services were possible due to concerted efforts of the White missionaries and African teachers, evangelists and ‘dispensers’. However, role played by the pioneering hospital dressers and nurses in this endeavor has received little attention from scholars. The African nurses and dressers in the Church of Scotland Mission (CSM) now Presbyterian Church of East Africa, contributed a lot to the establishment and growth of not only the medical wing of CSM but to the expansion of education and Christianity in the their areas of jurisdiction during the colonial period. In order to complete the missionary story, the inclusion of the mission hospital nurses and dressers story to the existing literature is long overdue.. The pioneering nurses and nurses took advantage of their position to spread the Gospel, opened and taught in the school, were local opinion leaders beyond hospital confines and added voices to the socio-political and economic developments in their communities. Their diverse roles were beyond the hospital boundaries.

Mweu MM, Nielsen SS, Halasa T, Toft N. "Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2012;106:244-250. Abstractinc_prev_paper.pdf

Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, ˇ, and recovery rate for S. agalactiae infection.
Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed. There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of ˇ was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0–63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2–0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6–8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7.4–11.5) and recovery rate 40.0 (95% CI 36.8–43.5). This study demonstrates a need to tighten the current controls against S. agalactiae in order to lower its incidence.

Mweu MM, Fournié G, Halasa T, Toft N, Nielsen SS. "Temporal characterisation of the network of Danish cattle movements and its implication for disease control: 2000–2009." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110:379-387. Abstractsna_paper.pdf

Social network analysis provides a valuable framework for understanding the dynamics of diseases on networks as well as a means for defining effective control measures. An understanding of the underlying contact pattern for a susceptible population is advisable before embarking on any strategy for disease control. The objective of this study was to characterise the network of Danish cattle movements over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 with a view to understanding: (1) cohesiveness of the network, (2) influential holdings and (3) structural vulnerability of the network.
Network analyses of data involving all cattle movements in Denmark registered during the period of interest were performed. A total of 50,494 premises participated in 4,204,895 individual movements during the 10-year period. The results pointed to a predominantly scale-free structure of the network; though marked by small-world properties in March–April 2001 as well as in 24 other months during the period October 2006 to December 2009. The network was sparsely connected with markets being the key influential holdings. Its vulnerability to removal of markets suggests that targeting highly connected holdings during epidemics should be the focus of control efforts.

Mweu MM, Nielsen SS, Halasa T, Toft N. "Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline andmovement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiaeinfection in Danish dairy herds: 2000–2009." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2014;113:219-230. Abstractspatial_paper.pdf

Several decades after the inception of the five-point plan for the control of contagiousmastitis pathogens, Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) persists as a fundamental threatto the dairy industry in many countries. A better understanding of the relative importance ofwithin- and between-herd sources of new herd infections coupled with the spatiotemporaldistribution of the infection, may aid in effective targeting of control efforts. Thus, theobjectives of this study were: (1) to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of infection with S.agalactiae in the population of Danish dairy herds from 2000 to 2009 and (2) to estimate theannual herd-level baseline and movement-related incidence risks of S. agalactiae infectionover the 10-year period.The analysis involved registry data on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samplescollected as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme as well as livecattle movements into dairy herds during the specified 10-year period. The results indicated that the predicted risk of a herd becoming infected with S. agalactiae varied spatiotempo-rally; the risk being more homogeneous and higher in the period after 2005. Additionally,the annual baseline risks yielded significant yet distinctive patterns before and after 2005 –the risk of infection being higher in the latter phase. On the contrary, the annual movement-related risks revealed a non-significant pattern over the 10-year period. There was neitherevidence for spatial clustering of cases relative to the population of herds at risk nor spatialdependency between herds. Nevertheless, the results signal a need to beef up within-herdbiosecurity in order to reduce the risk of new herd infections.

Mweu MM, Toft N, Katholm J, Nielsen SS. "Evaluation of two herd-level diagnostic tests for Streptococcus agalactiae using a latent class approach." Veterinary Microbiology. 2012;159:181-186. Abstractdte_paper.pdf

Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis persists as a significant economic problem for the dairy industry in many countries. In Denmark, the annual surveillance programme for this mastitis pathogen initially based only on bacteriological culture of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, has recently incorporated the use of the real-time PathoProof Mastitis PCR assay with the goal of improving detection of infected herds. The objective of our study was to estimate the herd sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of both tests of BTM samples using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis while evaluating the effect of herd-level covariates on the Se and Sp of the tests. BTM samples were collected from all 4258 Danish dairy herds in 2009 and screened for the presence of S. agalactiae using both tests. The highest Se of PCR was realized at a cycle threshold (Ct) cut-off value of 40. At this cut-off, the Se of the PCR was significantly higher (95.2; 95% posterior credibility interval [PCI] [88.2; 99.8]) than that of bacteriolog cal culture (68.0; 95% PCI [55.1; 90.0]). However, culture had higher Sp (99.7; 95% PCI [99.3; 100.0]) compared to PCR (98.8; 95% PCI [97.2; 99.9]). The accuracy of the tests was unaffected by the herd-level covariates. We propose that screenings of BTM samples for S. agalactiae be based on the PCR assay with Ct readings of <40 considered as positive. However, for higher Ct values, confirmation of PCR test positive herds by bacteriological culture is advisable especially when the betweenherd prevalence of S. agalactiae is low.

Mwesigwa JB, Ouma GO, Ouma JO, Lutta IM, Mwangi SG, Ogallo LA. "Tools and Procedures for Seasonal Downscaling of Climate Forecasts for Use by Farmers Over the Greater Horn of Africa: A Case Study for Western Kenya.". In: Climate Change Adaptation in Africa. Springer, Cham; 2017. Abstract

Seasonal climate outlooks have become a necessary input to agricultural planning and execution of all farming activities as a form of adaptation to climate change and variability. Extended climate forecasts of 3–4 months pose a challenge to farmers as it is difficult for them to pinpoint exactly what might happen on daily, weekly or decadal time scales. In addition, such forecasts are presented in form of probability maps and in very coarse resolution, making them difficult for farmers to comprehend. Community-specific downscaled forecasts offer an opportunity for farmers to decide on what, where and when to plant, allocation of resources and on other investment options. This study evaluated various downscaling tools and procedures for seasonal forecast interpretation over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) region. The tools evaluated were: analogue year approach, Fact-Fit tool, Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) and GeoCLIM tool. Analogue year approach turned out to be good but highly dependent on accuracy of the selected year; Fact-Fit tool was able to convert the seasonal probability forecasts into amounts but unable to disaggregate rainfall amounts at daily, weekly or dekadal time scales; the WRSI tool used was limited to a number of crops, seasons and regions but was necessary for monitoring seasonal progress and predicting crop performance. The current GeoCLIM software used was unable to disaggregate rainfall amounts to daily, weekly or dekadal scales but was good for suitability analysis and producing spatial distribution rainfall maps. An integrated approach is therefore desirable for producing more reliable and dependable location-specific seasonal forecasts for direct application by farmers and other agricultural practitioners. This is so important in the Horn of Africa region, where climate change is already affecting populations, and adaptation is seen as a major approach to cope with the impacts of climate change.

Mweseli M. "New Syllabus in English and Literature.". In: New English Syllabus. Anna Nanjal/Resource Centre - Lodwar; 2005.
Mweseli M. " Teaching of Poetry to form IV students .". In: Teaching of Poetry. Kibisi Secondary School; 2005.
Mweseli M. "Teaching of Poetry.". In: Teaching of Poetry. Lodwar High School; 2005.
Mweri JG. "Cohesion: Structuring Content Through Textual Features in Kenyan Sign Language (KSL) Formal Discourse." Linguistics and Literature Studies. 2015;3(4):131-147.
MWERI DRKAHUNYOJ. "ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN CHICKEN FAT: A SURVEY.". In: Nrb.Un.Dent.J. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1986.
Mweri JG. "Kenya Sign Language (KSL) Phonology: Articulatory Properties and Phonological Processes." Linguistics and Literature Studies. 2018;6(4):69-182.
MWERI DRKAHUNYOJ. "ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN CHICKEN EGGS: A SURVEY.". In: journal. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1986.
Mweri JG. "How access to health care for deaf people can be improved in Kenya ." The conversation. 2017;march(2):1-3.
Mweri JG. UTANGULIZI WA ISIMU. Nairobi: Kenya literature Bureau; 2010.
Mwenesi BM. "L’enseignement du français dans le contexte multilingue Est-Africain et kenyan .". In: L’enseignement du français dans le contexte multilingue Est-Africain. Kenyatta University; 2011.ku_paper.pdf
Mwenesi BM. "- Cohesion and Integration in Kenya through the teaching of French in Kenyan Schools.". In: NCIC. KCB Centre; Karen; Forthcoming.
Mwendwa R, Owino OW, Ambuko J, Wawire M, Nenguwo N. "Characterization of postharvest physiology attributes of six commercially grown tomato varieties in Kenya." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10613-10631. Abstract
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Mwendia SW;, Mwangi DM;, Wahome RG;, Wanyoike M. "Assessment of growth rate and yields of three Napier grass varieties in Central Highlands of Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

An evaluation of the performance of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) cultivars Kakamega-I (ILRI accession No. 16971), Kakamega-II (ILRI accession No. 16978) and Muguga Bana was carried out in the Lower Highland Zone 3 (LH3) at KARI-Muguga South, Central Kenya. Kakamega-I has been shown to be resistant to Napier grass head smut disease while Muguga Bana is susceptible but popular in Central Kenya. The varieties were planted in a Complete Randomised Design (CRD) without application of manure or fertiliser. Dry matter yields (DM), leaf to stem ratio and tiller numbers were recorded for six consecutive harvests. Growth rates were measured during the fourth, fifth and sixth ratoon (regrowths). The varieties produced similar (P > 0.05) number of tillers but differed in the tiller heights and subsequent growth rates. Kakamega-I produced significantly the tallest tillers and had the highest growth rate followed by Kakamega-II and Muguga Bana respectively. Cumulative DM yields (t/ha) for six harvests was highest for Kakamega-I (68.3 t/ha). Leaf to stem ratio was higher for Muguga Bana (4.98) than both Kakamega-I and Kakamega-II, which were similar in this aspect (2.49 and 3.32). The higher dry matter yields in Kakamega-I was attributed to the faster growth rate than the other varieties.

Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Culture Aware M-Learning Classification Framework for African Countries." Cross-Cultural Online Learning in Higher Education and Corporate Training. 2014:98-111. AbstractFull Text

African countries are currently experiencing proliferation of mobile phone
subscriptions but no prevalence of personal computers or electricity (Parker, 2011). It is
estimated that, by the end of 2015 in Sub-Saharan Africa, the percentage of people with
mobile network access will surpass that of access to electricity in homes (Rao, 2011). This
phenomenon is also experienced in learning institutions, particularly universities, where
almost every student owns a mobile phone (Kashorda & Waema, 2009). Although there is

Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Ambient Learning Conceptual Framework for Bridging Digital Divide in Higher Education." IGI Global. 2016;4:179. AbstractFull Text

According to ITU (2012), digital divide is the difference between countries in
terms of levels of ICT development. This difference remains significant. In 2011, the ICT
Development Index (IDI) value of developed countries (6.52) was twice as high as that of
developing countries (3.24). The need to link the digital divide for universal broadband
Internet access is within the key international development goals, which include World
Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) goals and Millennium Development Goals

Mwendarani B. “Taswira ya mwanamke katika tamthilia mbili za kiswahili’’. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Submitted.
MWENDA MRNTWIGAJASPER. "Mwenda J. N. (2000): Survey Regulations for the proposed Survey Act, 2000. A paper presented at the Institution of Surveyors of Kenya, Land Surveyors Chapter, Seminar on the theme: Regulating the Land Surveying Profession in the New Millennium, held on 29.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Mwenda M. Njozi Yapata Mtenzi.; 2018.
MWENDA MRNTWIGAJASPER. "Mwenda J. N. (2001): Spatial Information in Land Tenure Reform with special reference to Kenya. Paper presented at the ISK/FIG/UNHABITAT International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, held at the Kenya School of Monetary Stud.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Mwenda E, Musundi SW, Nzimbi BM, Marani VN, Njagi L. "Distribution of spectrum in a direct sum decomposition of operators into normal and completely non-normal operators." International Journal of Modern Mathematical Sciences. 2014;11(3):118-124.
MWENDA MRNTWIGAJASPER. "Mwenda J. N. (1986): An Assessment of the Cadastral Survey System in Kenya. Master of Engineering Report, Department of Surveying Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Mwenda JM, Machoki JM, Omollo E, Galo M, Langat DK. "The prevalence of endometriosis among African-American and African-indigenous women.". In: Gynecol Obstet Invest 2004: 57:1-60.; 2004. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.

MWENDA MRNTWIGAJASPER. "Mwenda J. N. (2001): Registration of Properties in Strata in Kenya. Paper in the Proceedings of the Registration of Properties in Strata International Workshop on 3D Cadastres, held on 28.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Mwenda JM, Machoki JM, Omollo E, Galo M, Langat DK. "The prevalence of anti-phospholipid antibodies in a selected population of Kenyan women and development of a non-human primate model.". 2004. Abstract

The mechanisms by which anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPLs) may induce pregnancy losses, intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy-induced hypertension are not clearly understood. Moreover, there is a controversy regarding the possible direct effects of these antibodies on the physiology of the placenta since the target antigens of these antibodies are intracellular antigens and are potentially inaccessible to the antibody. Also, controversy exists regarding the usefulness of the treatment regimens currently available. In this study, we present preliminary data on the prevalence of aPLs in a selected population (n = 80) of Kenyan women visiting Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya for obstetrical complications including recurrent pregnancy losses. Our results showed approximately 13.8% of the patients were positive for anti-cardiolipin antibodies whereas 33.8% were positive for aPS. Additionally, we screened 72 non-human primates for presence of aPLs and our results showed that the olive baboon (Papio anubis) had the highest prevalence rate (52.2%, n = 23). Overall, our results suggest that the olive baboon may be a suitable animal model for studying the mechanism of action of the anti-phospholipid antibody and pregnancy complications associated with aPLs.

Mwenda JN, Wandiga SO, Kariuki DK, Madadi VO. "Occurrence and Distribution of Aflatoxin in Maize from Selected Counties, Eastern Region, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Policy. 2020;3(2).
Mwenda AM. "Personalizing Power in Uganda.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

A dozen years after the adoption of Uganda's new constitution, the democratization process has been thrown into reverse. Uganda today is sliding backward toward a system of one-man rule engineered by the recently reelected President Yoweri Museveni, who has now been in power for more than two decades. Due to Museveni's use of force and intimindation on the one hand, and his manipulation of patronage on the other, the stakeholders whom one would naturally expect to denounce the backsliding have been silent.

MWENDA MRNTWIGAJASPER. "Mwenda J. N. (2000): The Role of the Land Surveyors Registration Board in the proposed Land Surveyors Registration Act, 2000. A paper presented at the Institution of Surveyors of Kenya, Land Surveyors Chapter, Seminar on the theme: Regulating the Land Sur.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Mwenda JN. Country Report: Kenya.; 2002.
MWENDA MRNTWIGAJASPER. "Mwenda J. N. (2002): Country Report: Kenya. Presentation at the FIG Commission 7 Annual Meeting, 4- 9 November 2002, held at Burgers Park Hotel, Pretoria, South Africa.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Mweke AN, Kimenju JW, Seif AA, Mutitu EW, Mutua GK. "Potential of sequential cropping in the management of root-knot nematodes in okra.". 2008. Abstract

The response of different crops to a mixed population of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita and their potential as suppressants in sequential cropping systems was evaluated in greenhouse and field experiments. Crops rated as resistant were five maize cultivars, four sorghum cultivars, two millet varieties, guwar and two pigeonpea cultivars which had galling indices ranging between 1.4-3.6. cowpea cv. K80 was rated as moderately resistant with a galling index of 4 while greengram and cowpea cv. KKI were rated as susceptible with galling indices ranging from 5.6 to 7.4. Four crops namely sweetcorn, babycorn, maize cv. Pioneer (Ph3253) and guwar were selected after the greenhouse tests for field trials, based on their poor host status to root-knot nematodes as well as relative acceptability to vegetable growers. These crops were then incorporated into a rotation program with okra. Initial and final J2 numbers in the field were determined before planting and at the end of the season, respectively. Okra was then sown in the plots previously grown with the selected nematode suppressive crops and the nematode numbers determined mid and end of the season. A 44 and 21% decline in nematode numbers was recorded in plots under guwar or sweetcorn and babycorn, respectively. In contrast, a 441% increase in nematode numbers was recorded in plots under continuous crop of okra. The galling index on a crop of okra that followed sweetcorn was 3.3 compared to 8.6 in the control which was continuously under okra, resulting in an increase in yield within a range of 60-92%. This underscores the potential of rotating highly susceptible crops with poor hosts in the management of root-knot nematodes.

Mweha F, Mwangi N, Ngola S. "9. `Real Interest Rates and the Mobilization of Private Savings in Africa: The Case of Kenya'." Ile Ife Journal of Economics and Finance. 1991;1(1).
Mwega F, Muga KL, Oyejide A, Lyakurwa W, Njinkeu D. "Africa and the World Trading System: The Case of Kenya." New Jersey: Third World Press; 2007.
Mwega FM. enya’s Market Access Constraints On Non - Agricultural Products In The European Union. Paper prepared for the Ministry of Trade and Industry through the Trade Negotiations Support Under Kenya - EU Post Lome Trade Programme (KEPLOTRADE); 2005.
Mwega FM. "Public Debt Constraints to Financing Pro - Poor Growth.". In: Financing Pro - Poor Growth in Afri ca, AERC Senior Policy Seminar VI.; 2004.
Mwega F, Due J, Osoro N. "8. `Evolving Sales Taxation in Kenya and Tanzania'." Bureau of International Fiscal Documentation. 1990:233-239.
Mwega FM. "Study to Explore the Opportunities for Fostering Pro - Growth in Kenya.". In: Oxford Policy Management Ltd.; 2001.
Mwega FM, Helleiner GK. "Promoting Non - traditional Exports from Kenya.". In: Non - Traditional Export and Development in Sub - Saharan Africa: Issues and Experience.; 2002.
Mwega F. "Explaining Africa's Economic Growth Performance: the Case of Kenya.". In: The Political Economy of Economic Growth in Africa, 1960–2000: Volume 2, Country Case Studies. Cambridge University Press; 2008.
Mwega FM. "`Monetary Policy Issues in an African Contex.". In: African Centre for Monetary Studies Semina.; 1990.
Mwega FM, Oyejide A, Ndulu B, Gunning J. "Trade Libe ralization, Credibility and Impacts: A Case Study of Kenya, 1972 - 94.". In: Trade Liberalization and Regional Integration in Sub - Sahara Africa: Country Case Studies.; 1999.
Mwega FM. "Slum and non - slum enterprises market survey: A case study of Mathare Valley in Nairobi, Kenya." A survey of 200 enterprises in Mathare Valley and 50 in the neighbouring non - slum areas undertaken for the National Christian Council of Churches (NCCK) and financed by ILO. 1990.

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