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Iwuoha' EI, Baker P, Masikini M, Njomo N, Mailu SM, Mbambisa G, Ajayi RF. "Electronics of Conjugated Polymers (I): Polyaniline.". 2012.electronics_of_conjugated_polymers...0001.pdfWebsite
Iwuoha' E, Baker P, Njomo N, Ikpo CO, Baleg AA, Ndangili PM, Olowu RA. "Spectroelectrochemical Dynamics of Dendritic Poly (Propylene imine)- Polythiophene Star Copolymer Aptameric 1713-Estradiol Biosensor.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Aptamers, which are in vitro-selected functional oligonucleotides, have been employed to design novel aptasensor due to their inherent high selectivity and affinity compared to traditional biorecognition elements. This report presents a novel aptamer biosensor for determining the endocrine disrupting compound (EDC), 17~-estradiol (E2), which was constructed from a SELEX-synthesized 76-mer biotinylated aptamer for 17~-estradiol incorporated in a dendritic generation 1 poly(propylene imine)- poly thiophene (G 1PPT-co-PEDOT) star copolymer-functionalised Au electrode via biotin-avidin interaction. The sensor platform and aptasensor were interrogated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The kinetic parameters of the sensor platform were determined by modelling the [Fe(CN)6r3/ - 4 (redox probe) Nyquist and Bode impedimetric spectra to the appropriate equivalent electrical circuit. The EIS spectra shows that at low frequencies (100 mHz) when the electronics of the electrode systems are only minimally perturb.ed.. the AuIG1PPT-co-PEDOT nanoelectrode exhibited greater semi-conductor behaviour (higher phase angle value) than AulG IPPT due to the incorporation of charged functionalized dendrimer. However, the Bode plot also shows that the charge transfer dynamics of the nanoelectrode can be frequency modulated. The biosensor response to 17 B-estradiol was based on the decrease in the SWV current as the EDC binds to the ssDNA aptamer on the biosensor. The dynamic linear range of the sensor was 0.1 - 100 nM. These initial studies also showed that the aptamer used in this study was very selective to, and reproducible for, 17 B-estradiol.

Ithondeka, P; Wafula MWIWEN; TN;. Screening of goats for Contagious Caprine Plueropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (biotype F38) in ranches with potential for export.; 2013. Abstract

Contagious Caprine Plueropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae, biotype F38) is the most contagious and virulent type of pneumonia in goats. It is an important trade disease associated with both direct and indirect costs arising from mortality (ranges from 60-100%) and trade restrictions (in import and export) respectively. The OIE Terrestrial code requires that in endemic regions, goats for export be vaccinated within a period of 4 months prior to shipment or be subjected to a complement fixation test with negative results, on two occasions. The two tests should be at an interval of not less than 21 days and not more than 30 days between each test, with the second test being performed within 14 days prior to shipment. In Kenya, it is a requirement that both vaccination and testing be carried out prior to export. A study was undertaken to access the CCPP situation in selected ranches that have potential for export. A total of 1400 goats were observed in Taru ranches before 140 goats were randomly selected, bled and tested for important trade diseases, including CCPP, PPR, Brucellosis and RFV. Approximately 2 goats in each flock were in poor body condition and showed signs of persistent cough. In Laikipia district, a total of 100 goats and 100 sheep were sampled. To test for CCPP, the compliment fixation test (CFT) was used. Out of the 140 serum samples from Taru ranches, 4 (3%) were found positive for CCPP. All goats from Lakipia district were negative for CCPP, while 5 sheep were positive on CFT for CCPP. These findings indicate that Kenya is able to export CCPP free goats as per the Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) requirements.

Isutsa PDK, Hutchinson DMJ, Otiato DDA, Kioko DE, Muthoka DPN, Mulwa PRMS, Matofari DJ, Musieba MF, Joseph W. KAPAP Vegetables VC proposal 2ND PHASE- 30-10-2013. Nairobi; 2013.kapap_vegetables_vc_proposal_2nd_phase-_30-10-2013.pdf
Issa J, Abdullahi Y, tephen Ondieki C, Mutua JM, Mohammed HA. "Evaluation of Small Scale Irrigation Water Management in ASALs, Kenya.". 2011.Website
Isolan GR, Pereira AH, de Aguiar PHP, Antunes ÁCM, Mousquer JP, Pierobon MR. "Microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial arteries: stereoscopic printing study." Jornal Vascular Brasileiro. 2012;11:114-122. AbstractWebsite
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Ismail LW, ZP Q, SB O. "The acceptability of HIV testing among women receiving post abortion care." South Sudan Medical Journal. 2019;12(3):101-105. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: In South Sudan few women have heard about the HIV. The prevalence of HIV infection in the country is 2.6%. Post abortion care (PAC) accounts for over 50% of all gynaecological admissions at the Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH). HIV testing is not routinely offered as part of PAC services.

Objective: To determine factors associated with acceptability of HIV testing among women receiving PAC at JTH.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted at the Gynaecological Unit of JTH. Three hundred and forty patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 24.7 years with 50.5% aged <25years, 31.5% were employed, and 31.8% had no formal education. Acceptability of HIV testing was 70.9% and the prevalence of HIV was 2.7%. The most common reason for not accepting, was the belief, based on previous results, that they were HIV negative. Patients aged ≥25 years and those with primary and secondary education were twice as likely to accept HIV testing than those <25 years and those with no formal education, respectively. Employment status, religion and marital status were not statistically associated with acceptability of HIV testing. Patients previously tested for HIV were more likely to accept testing.

Conclusion: Routine HIV testing should be integrated into PAC services with efforts to increase awareness of HIV and importance of testing

Key words: HIV, abortion, post-abortion care, South Sudan

Ismaiel Y, Anand P, Megan L, Karen M, C. FK, Sam O, Nyongesa S, Francis Maiga, H. A, O SAB, Stefanos L, Wole S, M ASCE. "Porosity, Flow, and Filtration Characteristics of Frustum-Shaped Ceramic Water Filters." Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2013.
Isinta, H, Aduda J, Magutu P. "The Moderating Effect of Sales Channels on the Relationship between Bancassurance and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2019;8(2):41-54 .
Isingoma BE, Samuel MK, Edward KG, Maina GW. "Performance of Nutritionally Optimized Millet Porridges in the Rehabilitation of Severely Malnourished Children at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda ." British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research . 2016;18(2):1-12.
Isenberg L. "A double application approach to ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis." Br J Ophthalmol. 2003 Dec;87(12):1449-52.. 2003. AbstractWebsite

{ Jules Stein Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Research and Education Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, USA. isenberg@ucla.edu AIMS: To investigate if a second drop of 2.5% povidone-iodine ophthalmic solution placed within the first postnatal day would achieve better prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum than a single drop applied at birth. METHODS: A masked, prospective, controlled trial was conducted over a 2 year period in a Kenyan hospital. Randomisation was achieved by alternating weeks of one or two eye drop application to both eyes. All 719 neonates received one drop of the povidone-iodine solution to both eyes at birth, while 317 received a second drop at hospital discharge or 24 (SD 4) hours after delivery, whichever was first. All infants developing conjunctivitis within a month after birth underwent microbiological analysis using Gram and Giemsa stains, direct fluorescent antibody assay for Chlamydia trachomatis, and culture. RESULTS: Of the neonates receiving the one eye drop application, 18.4% returned with a red eye with discharge, 4.0% had organisms found on the initial smear, and 8.2% had a positive culture. The corresponding proportions for the multidrop group were 24.3%, 4.7%, and 10.4%. Of those returning with an inflamed eye, there were no cases of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 4.2% in the single dose group and 3.9% in the double dose group were positive for C trachomatis, and 5.4% and 6.5% respectively for Staphylococcus aureus. At discharge, the eyelid oedema score of the double dose group was mildly greater than the single dose group (1.4 (0.67) v 1.2 (0.73)

Isaksson A, Manda DK. "Kenya: From Chaos to Prosperity? A Macroecono mic Report." SIDA, Stockholm, Sweden; 1998.
Isaboke PA, Njomo N, Onyatta JO. "Spectroscopic Determination of Heavy Metals in Plant Tissues in Kisii County." International Journal of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology. 2018;7(11):45-47.
Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Chokwe TM, Edwin Lugazia, Francois Ndarugirire, Tw T. "Challenges of Anesthesia in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Access to Safe Obstetric Anesthesia in East Africa ." Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2017;124(1):290-299.
Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Francois Ndarugirire, Theogene Twagirumugabe, Lugaz ER, Chokwe TM. "Working towards safer surgery in Africa; a survey of utilization of the WHO safe surgical checklist at the main referral hospitals in East Africa ." BMC Anesthesiology . 2016;2016 (16)(BMC series – 2016(16):60).
Isabella K, Murrithi M, Kioko U. "Determinants of Health Insurance Choice in Kenya." European Scientific Journal, . 2013;Vol. 9(No. 13): ISSN: 7857-7881 .
ISAAC O. JUMBA, S. O. WANDIGA, C, MIRIKAU, ODUOR FD, WAFULA GA, V. MADADI. THE STATUS OF EFFLUENT TREATMENT AND SAFE WASTE DISPOSAL OF TOXIC AND OBSOLETE PESTICIDES UNDER THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION. INDONESIA: UNIDO-RENCAP Conference on POPs,BOGOR; 2006. Abstract

INTRODUCTION
Kenya strives to move along the path of sustainable development to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the resource base to meet those of future generations. However, the development process in the country is at a stage at which land use interests such as agriculture, tourism, ranching, wildlife management, forestry, water conservation, mining, manufacture development are often conflicting. This is excercabated by the mismatch between population and economic growth together with inadequate policies governing land use. Additionally, existing policies and programmes are either poorly implemented or lack harmonization and coordination. These inadequacies especially those governing management of the resource base have resulted in widespread environmental degradation and subsequent threat to ecosystem health.
Some of the threats to ecosystem health can be attributed to poor effluent treatment and disposal of toxic waste and obsolete pesticides (commonly
referred to as persistant organic pollutants, POPs) in the environment. These
* ,
pollutants include polychlorinated piphyeyls (PCBs), aldrin diedrin, DOT, endrin, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, minex, toxaphene, heptachlor, dioxins and furans.

KENYA COUNTRY PAPER: UNIDO-RENPAP WORKSHOP, BOGOR INDONESIA 18"1 - 20'" SEPTEMBER, 2006

editor Isaac M.T. Mwase, editor Eunice K. Kamaara. Theologies of Liberation and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of Professor Jesse N.K. Mugambi. Nairobi: Acton; 2012.Website
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 83-99. BEP Electronic Press; 2001. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Isaac MM, Muya SM, Kiiru W, Muchai M, others. "Avian Abundance, Diversity and Conservation Status in Etago Sub-County Kisii County Kenya." Open Journal of Ecology. 2019;9:157. Abstract
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Isaac J, O. WS. "The determination of mercury in body beauty soaps and creams sold in Kenya and Norway.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol (a) 3, 89-91. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1982. Abstract

flame-less atomic absorption spcctropholometry technique lias been used to determine mercury concentrations in 14 skin-lightening creams and soaps commonly sold in the Kenyan market and 10 in the Norwegian market. The use of borohydride or stannous chloride as the reducing agents for mercuric salts gave different results. When slannous chloride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 222 to 4920 jjg/kg. When borohydride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 0.95 to 1121.86 |jg/kg. The difference in results has been attributed to the difference in digestion modes and the ability of the boric acid to encapsulate the mercuric salts. In general the Kenya products had slightly higher mercury content.

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 83-99. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Carbon Monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya.". In: Energy Conversion and Management 42, 1517-1542. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Dissipation, Distribution and Uptake of 14C-Chloropyrifos in a Model Tropical Seawater/Sediment/Fish Ecosystem. Bull.". In: Environ. Contam. and Toxicology, 70 883-890. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2003. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Factors affecting the simultaneous determination of cooper, lead, cadmium and zinc concentrations in human head hair using different pulse anodic stripping voltametry method.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol. (A) 3, 9-25. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1982. Abstract
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ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Mineral composition of tropical forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya. I. Macro-minerals.". In: Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 73 No. 2 (April) 108-112. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, Suttle NF, Wandiga SO. "Mineral composition of tropical forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya. II. Trace Elements.". In: Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 73 No. 2 (April) 113-118. Association of Africa Universities; 1996. Abstract

A survey of trace mineral concentrations in herbage in the Mt Elgon region of western Kenya is described. A total of 135 samples of mature herbage from 84 farms covering 30 000 km2 was analysed for cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), sele¬nium (Se), and zinc (Zn). Mean (±standard deviation) concentrations [mg kg'1 dry matter (DM)] were Co, 0.2 (0.16); Cu, 4.0 (1.6); Fe, 300 (169); Mn, 220 (128); Mo, 1.1 (0.23); Se, 0.1 (0.03); Zn, 23.6 (9.4). Copper and Zn concentrations were low compared with surveys in other tropical countries but this may partly reflect the mature stage at which herbage was sampled. Comparisons with recent estimates of the mineral requirements of ruminants indicated that most of the samples were deficient in Cu. A minority of the pastures contained less Se and Zn than ruminants are thought to require, but deficiencies of Co, Fe, and Mn were rare. Iron may be more significant as an antagonist of Cu but Mo rarely reached concentrations high enough to be antagonistic to Cu. The possibility of constraints upon livestock production should be inves¬tigated by supplementation trials with grazing livestock beginning with Cu.

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Worker exposure and health risks from volatile organic compounds utilized in the paint manufacturing industry in Kenya.". In: Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene (U.S.A.)16 (11):1035-1042. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Accumulation, distribution and Metabolism of 14C-1, 1-Trichloro-2, 2- bis-(p-Chlorophyenly) ethane (ppDDT) residues in model tropical marine ecosystem.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1285-1292. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2002. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 71-82. BEP Electronic Press; 2001. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Effects of soil origin and mineral composition of herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya I. Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sulphur.". In: Tropical Grasslands (Journal of Australian Grassland Society) 29, 40-46. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1995. Abstract
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ISAAC PROFJUMBA, Wandiga. SO, Oduor FDO. "Evaluation of the mineral status of grazing cattle in Trans Nzoia: Preliminary assessment of Data. Proc.". In: 2nd Kenya Chemical Society Conference. 2nd-6th September 1996 pp 20-24. Association of Africa Universities; 1996. Abstract

Abstract
A number of diseases and production problems have been observed in grazing ruminants in many countries around the I world Some of these problems and health effects have been attributed to dietary imbalances in mineral supply and appear \ to be geographically distributed. Grazing cattle require different levels of minerals in their diet depending on the stage of class of development; young and growing, lactating or pregnancy. Common findings indicate that the lactating and young} and growing animals are the most vulnerable to mineral problems, thus providing a sufficient ground for their choice in\ experimental studies. In this preliminary review of the project, the nutritional status of cattle grazing on a range of farms in \ Irons Nzoia District are assessedfrom the mineral content of blood from young and growing as well as lactating animals] sampled during the dry and wet seasons of the study period. Data -will be evaluated in terms of established criteria normality.

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 71-82. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in marine samples along the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1235-1246. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2002. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Distribution, metabolism and toxicity of 14C-DDT in model aquarium tanks with fish and sediment simulating a tropical marine environment.". In: Toxicol and Environ. Chem. 84, 253-268 (Trailer & Francis Group). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2003. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Irurah DK, Anyamba TJC. "A Study on Access to Binders and the Art of Binder Use for Low Income Housing Kenya .". In: East Africa Regional conference on “Lime and Alternative Binders” . Tororo, Uganda; 1994.
Irungu P. Formalisation of Village Peace Committees in the Karamoja Cluster A Consultancy Report.; 2001. Abstract

Nomadic livestock production is the backbone of the economy of pastoral communities in the Karamoja cluster. However, widespread and uncontrolled livestock raiding is currently threatening the success of this enterprise. In fact, raiding has been named as the single most important impediment to the development of the cluster generally and particularly in the delivery of animal health services. Efforts are being made by national and international agencies to remedy the situation. One of these agencies is the CAPE Unit of OAU-IBAR’s PACE Programme whose mandate in the area includes the control animal diseases through community-based initiatives. Following the realisation of the negative impact of livestock raiding on animal health service delivery, the PACE with the assistance of the donor community, particularly REDSO, DFID and CDTF, initiated a Pastoral Community Harmonisation (PCH) project to find solutions to this problem in order to enable it fulfil its mandate. One of the steps taken in this direction has been to facilitate dialogue between cross-border neighbours in what has come to be referred to as “border harmonisation meetings”. However, commitments made at these peace meetings lacked agents at the grassroots to follow them up and oversee their implementation. In this regard, this study was commissioned by the CAPE Unit to document the process of linking village peace committees in the cluster to local government machinery. Due to time constraints, this exercise was confined along the Kenya-Uganda border involving the Turkana, Karimojong and Pokot. One of the findings of this study is that village committees already exist in the cluster in form of traditional councils of elders, which, among other things, resolve conflicts at the grassroot level. However, these committees are poorly integrated into the formal conflict resolution structures. This study also found that the criteria for selection of members of the village committees, as well as their tasks, are well known by the villagers. In addition, there are traditionally institutionalised incentives for the village committees. The few traders in the area pledged their support for the village committees. The district administration in the area also pledged to support the committees morally but regretted that they cannot offer any meaningful financial support because limited funding from the government. From the observations made in this study, the following recommendations are made: In the short term, (i) An immediate follow up of the village committees should be conducted as soon as possible to activate them. (ii) A similar village committee formalisation exercise needs to be urgently carried out along the Uganda-Sudan, Kenya-Sudan, Ethiopia-Sudan and Kenya-Ethiopia borders in order for enable them start on an equal footing. (iii) A trader sensitisation/advocacy exercise should be conducted in order to solicit for their support for the village committees. In the intermediate term, (iv) There is need to provide the village committees with communication equipment to facilitate the dispersal of information across the common border. Due to the sensitivity of this issue, more discussion with the relevant government organs is advised. (v) There is need to establish a rapid response team comprising elders, the youth and government security personnel to complement the efforts of the village elders in diffusing local conflicts. The formation of such as team could benefit from the experience of the Wajir Peace and Development Committee. In the long term, (vi) Taking advantage of the existing trust of CAPE Unit by the cluster governments, the Unit could persuade them to speed up the construction of roads from their side of the borders. This will help to tone down the tension and suspicion that is rife between cross-border neighbours. (vii) In the same token, using the goodwill of the OAU and other regional bodies such as IGAD and EAC, the CAPE Unit could persuade the cluster governments to speed up the disarmament programme. Until this is done, the delicate balance of power existing between the youth and the elders today will continue to frustrate any efforts aimed at bringing peace, reconciliation and development in the Karamoja cluster.

Irungu P;, Bett B;, Mbogoh SG;, Randolph TF;, Nyamwaro SO;, Murilla G. "Determinants of cattle market price volatility in Maasailand: a GARCH-M application."; 2009.
Irungu DM, Michael M. "EFFECTS OF TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE.". In: ORSEA CONFERENCE. KAMPALA; 2010.
Irungu P. Cattle Keeping Practices Of The Orma People A Household Survey In Tana River District, Kenya.; 2000. Abstractirungu1.pdf

Trypanosomosis, a disease mainly transmitted by tsetse flies, is widespread throughout the humid and sub-humid areas of Africa. For centuries the disease has taken its toll on cattle and people living in tsetse-infested areas. In Kenya, 25% of the country’s total landmass is tsetse infested. This land supports over half of the country’s national cattle herd. The Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (KETRI) has conducted a series of studies over the last 20 years on the Orma Boran, an indigenous cattle breed kept by the Orma tribe in Tana River district in the Coast province of Kenya. Field studies on Galana Ranch, Coast province, Nguruman, Kajiado district, and some laboratory based studies at their Nairobi headquarters have shown this breed to be less susceptible to trypanosomosis than other Kenyan cattle. The current study aimed to provide information on the Orma pastoralists and their cattle in their own environment of the Tana River district. A household survey was conducted in 12 locations of Tana River district. A total of 48 household heads were interviewed and data collected on body weight for 407 cattle and milk yield for 164 cows. The household heads interviewed, despite having minimal formal education, were very knowledgeable cattle keepers. They selected their cattle for breeding or commercial purposes primarily on the basis of their milk yield and body size. There was a marked degree of sedentarisation amongst the Orma people in the areas studied. On average, the household heads had resided in their current villages for 25 years. The average herd size of these pastoralists was 156 head of cattle, some of which remained close to the villages. The larger proportion of the cattle was herded by young men away from the villages in fora herds and living in temporary manyattas. The mean live weight of mature cows was 250kg, mean calf weight at eight months was 78kg. The average daily milk off-take was 1.6 litres per cow. The mean yearly expenditure per household on trypanocidal drugs was Kshs 15,575, but this varied greatly depending on the tsetse challenge in any particular area. The Tana delta area, which is heavily infested by four species of tsetse fly, was used by the majority of the households as dry season grazing for their catt

Irungu JGRM & K. "Influence of Quality Service Delivery on Performance of Pharmaceutical Retail Businesses in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Kenya. International Journal of Social Science and Business . 2018;3(1).
Irungu, Patrick; Ndirangu L; OJ. Social Protection and Agricultural Development in Kenya.; 2009. Abstract

This paper focuses on social protection programs in Kenya’s agriculture. A case study approach was used where three cases were examined: (a) emergency seed distribution in the arid and semi-arid lands and remote areas which are inadequately served by the formal seed sector, (b) hunger and safety net programme in northern Kenya, and (c) Njaa Marufuku Kenya. The study found that while social protection programs/strategies are necessary to cushion vulnerable groups from covariate risk, these have not been properly domesticated in the Kenyan policy and legal frameworks. In fact, the national response to shocks and stresses among the vulnerable groups has largely been ad hoc. Emergency interventions have been implemented in rather haphazard and knee-jerk approach with minimal strategic policy focus. And even where social safety nets have been implemented, these have largely been untargeted, uncoordinated and humanitarian in nature. Hence, although some efforts have been made in the past to entrench social protection in the Kenyan society (e.g., the Equity Bill, the Affirmative Action Bill and the Constitutional Review), these initiatives have suffered from lack of political goodwill, ethnic and class chauvinism and political patronage. There is therefore need to for the Kenyan society as a whole to re-define its strategic direction with regard to empowering poor households to enable them cope with shocks. The starting point would be to design a comprehensive social protection policy which is now in progress.

Irungu P, Wambugu A, Githuku SN. "Technical Efficiency in Kenya’s Sugar Production: a Stochastic Frontier Approach.". 2009. Abstract

This study measured technical efficiency overtime and explored sources of technical inefficiency of sugar mills in Kenya. A time varying translog stochastic production frontier was simultaneously estimated with inefficiency effects model based on panel data. The mean technical efficiency level of the five sugar factories was found to be 79.83%. This suggests that factories on average were 20.17% off the fully efficient frontier. The results also suggest that decreasing returns to scale (0.23) prevailed in the sugar processing industry. In addition, technical change was driving the sugar factories off the frontier at an annual rate of 1.25%. Finally, the results suggest that capital-labour ratio, market share, sucrose content in sugarcane delivered and factory age had significant impact on technical inefficiency of the sugar factories.

Irungu BN, Adipo N, Orwa JA, Kimani F, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Björemark PM, Håkansson M, Yenesew A, Erdélyi Máté. "Antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of the constituents of Turraea robusta and Turraea nilotica." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;174:419-425. AbstractJournal Article

Ethnopharmacological relevance
Turraea robusta and Turraea nilotica are African medicinal plants used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including malaria. The genus Turraea is rich in limonoids and other triterpenoids known to possess various biological activities.

IRUNGU LUCYW. "SURVEY OF PREDACIOUS PHYTOSEIID MITES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE) INHABITING COFFEE TREES IN KENYA WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. ELSAYED EL BANHAWY,1 L. IRUNGU1 & H. MUGO2; 2009. Abstract

SUMMARY:  During a comprehensive survey of predacious mites in the different coffee zones of Kenya 33 species of phytoseiid mites were reported from 122 coffee farms: eight species of Euseius Wainstein, three Ueckermannseius Chant & McMurtry, seven Amblyseius Berlese, two Typhlodromalus Muma, nine Typhlodromus Scheuten, and four species from different genera.  The number of species and abundance of mites greatly varied among coffee agrozones: 14 species in UMI, 22 in UMII, and 21 in UMIII.  The predacious mite E. kenyae Swirski & Ragusa was the most common species in any zone.  Although Typhlodromus species showed a greater diversity, they were recorded at low abundance.  The study included the description of 6 new species: Amblyseius hamisi n. sp., Euseius majengo n. sp., Uckermannseius lugula n. sp., Transeius maragoli n. sp., Phytoseius kaimosi n. sp. And Typhlodromus ruiru n. sp.; Amblyseius italicus Chant and A. sundi (Pritchard & Baker) were reported for the first time from Kenya and descriptions are included.

Irungu LW, Mutinga MJ, Kokwaro E. "The chorionic sculpturing of eggs of some Kenyan Phlebotomine sandflies." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1986;7(1):45-48. AbstractWebsite

Studies of outer chorionic sculpturing of eggs of four species of sandflies were carried out by the use of scanning electron microscope. Two species, P. martini and S. garnhami, which utilize similar resting sites, termite hill ventilation shafts, had similar chorionic sculpturing, while two other species (S. bedfordi and S. kirki) which use several resting sites, i.e. rock crevices, tree holes and termite ventilation shafts, had chorionic sculpturings which were dissimilar.

Irungu CW, Oburra HO, Ochola B. "Prevalence and Predictors of Malnutrition in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma." Clin Med Insights Ear Nose Throat. 2015;8:19-22. Abstract

We assessed the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Sixty cases and 123 controls matched for age and gender were included. Bio-data, dietary history, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), ideal body weight, and serum albumin levels were recorded. Pretreatment weight loss of >5% was present in 35% of subjects (P < 0.0001). A BMI of < 18.5 kg/m(2) was present in 13.3% (P < 0.001), percent ideal body weight of <90% was present in 30% (P < 0.001), and serum albumin levels <30 g/dL was present in 23.3% (P < 0.001) of cases. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma increased the likelihood of having a BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2) (odds ratio, 9.3 (3.4-25.3) P ≤ 0.001). Logistic regression shows that stage IV disease was associated with a decrease in all parameters except protein-calorie intake. Stage IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a predictive marker for weight loss and low serum albumin levels. Nutritional management is important for ensuring the patients' ability to withstand chemoradiation and thus improve survival and quality of life.

Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Maniania NK. "V. Tumuhaise, S. Ekesi*, SA Mohamed, PN Ndegwa 2." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2015;35(1):34-47.
Irungu P;, Bett B;, Mbogoh SG;, Randolph TF;, Nyamwaro SO;, Murilla G. "Determinants of cattle market price volatility in Maasailand: a GARCH-M application."; 2009.
IRUNGU LUCYW. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control. Malaria Journal. 2011;10(1):121.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Mala AO, Irungu LW, Shililu JI, Muturi EJ, Mbogo CC, Kiambo JK, Mukabana WR, Githure JI; 2011.
Irungu LW, Mwangi RW. "Effects of a biologically active fraction from Melia volkensii on Culex quinquefasciatus." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1995;16(2):159-162. AbstractWebsite

A chromatographically enriched fraction designated Fraction B from dry fruits of the plant Melia volkensii (family Meliaceae) was evaluated with the objective of determining its toxic and growth inhibiting effects on the larvae and adults of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The fraction was purified from a crude methanolic extract by cold precipitation and elution of the precipitate dissolved in a hexane-ethyl acetate solvent system through a silica gel column. Larval treatments involved rearing the larval stages in water containing the fraction at concentrations of between 5 and 200 ppm. The LC50 for this fraction was found to be 34.72 μg/ml in 48 h. Second instar larvae were found to be more susceptible to fraction B when compared to fourth instar larvae. All fourth instar larvae that survived the treatment moulted into larval-pupal intermediates that were short-lived. The extract was also found to be an oviposition deterrent at a concentration of 20 ppm and above. It is concluded that M. volkensii extract has potential in the control of Culex quinquefasciatus.

Irshad M, Acharya KS. "An update on viral hepatitis.". 1992.
Irimu GW. Uptake of best-practice recommendations for management of acutely ill children admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital: a longitudinal study employing participatory action research in a complex environment.; 2011. Abstract

The need for improving practice in low-income settings has been demonstrated in recent research assessing the quality of hospital care. Consequently, the Ministry of Health developed clinical practice guidelines and an evidenced-based programme for their dissemination. This thesis explored what factors influence the uptake of the best-practice recommendations in a university teaching hospital. This thesis used a mixed methods research approach that utilized a before and after design and participatory action research. This approach recognizes that health recommendations are compiled for universal use, but that their successful implementation requires particular attention to the individual and complex socio-political contexts of each setting, both at the micro and -macro level, which in this case was the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). This thesis is supported by eighteen months of participant observation, based on ethnographic research methodology and action research. Patients' care was largely inconsistent with best-practice recommendations, with nine of the 17 key indicators having performance of below 10% in the pre-intervention period. The intervention had an absolute effect size of over 20% in eight of the 17 key indicators; three of which had an effect size of over 50%. The indicators that required collective efficacy achieved performance of less than 10% in the post-intervention period. The activities during the action research component failed to predict the trend in practitioners' performance, illustrating the difficulty of gaining a holistic understanding of the quantitative results using component parts of the qualitative results as the lens. The notion of professionalism provided an overarching understanding of the implementation process. There were clear gaps between the stated values espoused in the ideal of professionalism and the observed actions of professionals in KNH. Gaps spanned knowledge management, expertise and skills, teamwork, conscientiousness and patient centeredness. I attributed the gaps in professionalism to complexity of professional development.

Irimu GW, Gathara D, Zurovac D, Kihara H, Maina C, Mwangi J, Mbori-Ngacha D, Todd J, Greene A, English M. "Performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital: before and after a training intervention." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e39964. Abstract

Implementation of WHO case management guidelines for serious common childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. The impact of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on the quality-of-care of patients in tertiary hospitals has rarely been evaluated.

IRIBEMWANGI PI. "The Global Place of Kiswahili: yesterday, today and tomorrow.". In: English – Kiswahili Learner’s Handbook. Nairobi: Petersberg International Publishers; 2012. Abstract

This handbook has deliberately opted to use Standard Kiswahili because this is the dialect that has largely given Kiswahili international status (the language is taught in most major world Universities) and which is bound to take it to greater heights. Standard Kiswahili is the dialect that is taught in schools and colleges and is used in formal trade and official circles. As stated by Chimerah (2000) Standard Kiswahili is the mainstream Kiswahili. This handbook holds the view that Kiswahili is a Bantu language. Greenberg (1966) states that the African region has four main language families namely: Niger-Kordofanian, Nile-Saharan, Afro-Asiatic and Khoisan. Under Niger-Kordofanian there is the Benue-Congo sub-family from which Bantu languages emanate. One of the major distinctions of the Bantu languages is that their noun-class systems portray concordial agreement. Kiswahili is a mobilizing tool that is spoken in the East African Coast from Brava all the way to Mozambique. Encarta Africana [Ms Encyclopedia (2005)] remarks that this coastal strip measures about 2,000 miles (approximately 3,200KM).Kiswahili has its place now and in the future. In the year 2003, for example, Kiswahili was declared as one of the working languages of the African Union. It has also been adopted as a language for the East African Community by the Heads of State Summit of member countries.

IRIBEMWANGI PI, Mbuthia EM. "An Analysis of Stylistic Trends in Published Kiswahili Short Story Genre." Journal of Education and Practice . 2014;5(8):32-42.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Lokidor EE, Obuchi SM. "Mifanyiko ya Kimofolojia ya Kosonanti za Nomino Mkopo za Kiturkana kutoka Kiswahili." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2018;2 (1):45-55.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kabwana I. Alfa na Omega (Play). Nairobi: Oxford University Press; Submitted. Abstract

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IRIBEMWANGI PI. Mwongozo wa Utengano. Nairobi: ISBN 978-9966-25-533-8; EAEP; 2008. Abstractmwongozo_wa_utengano.pdfWebsite

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IRIBEMWANGI PI, Nyaga L, Warambo JP. Kiswahili Pevu: Isimu, Muundo na Sarufi .; Forthcoming.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Babusa H. Vazi la Mhudumu na Hadithi Nyingine Kutoka Afrika Mashariki. Nairobi: E.A. E. P; 2017.vazi_la_mhudumu.pdf
Iribemwangi, Sanja M. "Towards Redefining the Institution of Marriage; The New Historicism Approach of Kiswahili ." International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science.. 2014;Volume 2 number 7. 2014:115-123 .
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Dhana na Sifa Bainifu za Hadithi Fupi.". In: Kunani Marekani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Target Publishers Ltd; 2012.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Kiswahili as a Privileged Mother Tongue in Kenya: the Pros and Cons - Expected." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. . 2020.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Makanji N. "Lugha-Kati kama Mchakato wenye Manufaa: Kifani cha Matumizi ya Kiswahili na Wazungumzaji wa Kikisa kama Lugha ya Kwanza." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). Journal of Bantu Linguistics. 2019;(Special):114-128.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "“An Application of NGP and APT to Vowel Harmony in Standard Kiswahili” ." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2012;1(1):45-60. Abstract

Kiswahili is not classified as a harmonic language. However, this paper argues that the language exhibits some harmonic tendencies in so far as vowels are concerned. Consequently, the paper discusses vowel harmony as evident in Standard Kiswahili. The paper applies a segmental and a suprasegmental theory. The discussion proves that vowel harmony in Standard Kiswahili is both a segmental and a suprasegmental property. The two theories used are the natural generative phonological theory and autosegmental phonological theory. The corpus used is drawn from verbs and demonstratives.

IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Cultural Transfer from Europe and Asia to Africa: Evidence from Borrowed Lexicon Adapted into Kiswahili." International Journal of Education and Research (IJER) . 2013;1(8):1-14.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Mutua BF. "Language Games and Language Teaching in Kenya: The Case of Kiswahili in Lower School." Journal of Education and Practice . 2014;5(6):191-198.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Ndung’u M. "Metaphorical Extension of Kiswahili Tense: An Application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2018;2 (2):55-75.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Phonology of Borrowed Lexicon in Standard Kiswahili." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2012;1 ( 2):59-74. Abstract

Standard Kiswahili has borrowed various lexical items from many diverse languages. As a result of this borrowing, Standard Kiswahili is at times (erroneously) seen as an admixture language born out of mixing different languages. The purpose of this paper is to show that while Standard Kiswahili has borrowed just like many other languages have, the loan words undergo various adaptation processes that give them a fundamentally Kiswahili and Bantu structure (Iribemwangi 2012). In the adaptation, various strategies are applied and these include substitution, insertion and deletion of both consonants and vowels. These strategies do not just lead to nativization of borrowed lexicon but they do also lead to the realization of the preferred syllable structure. Although Standard Kiswahili has largely maintained its syllable structure, nonetheless, it has had to accede to a few new structures. Using the P-rules and, to a lesser extent, the MP-rules as espoused in Natural Generative Phonology, this paper shows that any rules and structures in a language remain the only rules and structures to the extent that no new rules and processes have entered a language at a given time. Otherwise, the rules of any language are very dynamic and are perpetually prone to change as is exemplified using Standard Kiswahili data.

IRIBEMWANGI PI, Gaithuma VW. "Phonological Influence of Kiamu dialect to Amu Learners of Standard Kiswahili - Expected." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). 2020.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Chege K, Kiruja B. Fasihi Andishi na Simulizi. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2016.fasihi_andishi_na_simulizi.pdf
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Kiswahili kama Lugha Changizi: Uchambuzi wa kifonolojia wa Maneno Yaliyokopeshwa Lugha ya Kikikuyu." Mwanga wa Lugha, Kiswahili Journal of Moi University. . 2019;4( 1):45-59.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Karani R, Wamitila KW. "Exploring Equivalence as Measure of Skopos in Translation of Software Products: The Case of English to Kiswahili." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). Journal of Bantu Linguistics. 2019;(Special):1-16.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Wamalwa K. Miali ya Ushairi: Shule za upili na vyuo vya elimu. Nairobi: EAEP; 2015.miali_ya_ushairi_2016.jpg
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Chisia M. Sarufi Pevu ya Kiswahili Sanifu.; Forthcoming.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "From Oral Narration to the Publishing House: An Examination of Thematic Development of Kiswahili Short Story." International Journal of Education and Research (IJER) . 2013;1(9):1-8.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Michira JN. "Kiswahili as an Official Language in Kenya: Its Past, Present and Future Roles and Challenges." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2014;3(1):42-52.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Profesa Mohamed Hassan Abdulaziz: Mwanaisimu, Mwandishi na Mwalimu wa Walimu.". In: Isimu na Fasihi ya Lugha za Kiafrika. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2018.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "“Kikuyu Phonology and Orthography: Any hope for continuity of indigenous languages?”.". In: The Language Loss of the Indigenous. New Delhi: Routledge; 2016. Abstractthe_language_loss_of_the_indigenous.jpg

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IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A Case for the Harmonization of Kikuyu, Kiembu and Kimbeere Phonology and Orthography.". In: The Harmonization and Standardization of Kenyan Languages: Orthography and Other Aspects. Cape Town: CASAS; 2012. Abstract

Kikuyu, Kiembu and Kimbeere are Bantu languages spoken in the Southern Mount Kenya region. Although they are classified as different languages, they are mutually intelligible. However, these languages have minor structural differences at the phonological and morphological levels but these do not imply the existence of different languages. This chapter will focus primarily on phonological differences and similarities and from this analysis build a case for the harmonization of the sound systems of the three codes. Kikuyu is the largest of the three codes, with at least five linguistically discernable dialects, namely Kindia, Gigichugu, Kimathira, the Southern and Northern dialects. This chapter proposes the establishment of harmonization of the codes at the sound level and a harmonized phoneme matrix for the three codes. In order to do this, it will be necessary to explore the various phonemes evident in each of them. The thesis of this chapter is that the three codes emanate from a single proto-language and that the phonological differences that are apparent are due to sound changes. Consequently, the various sounds differentiating words are not very different in terms of articulation.

IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Analytical Issues in Standard Kiswahili Phonology." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2017;6(1):52-68.20180523_172417.jpg20180523_172417.jpg
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Sanja L, Mbuthia E. "Towards Re -defining the Institution of Marriage: New Historicism Approach to Kiswahili Prose." International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science. 2014;2(7):115-123.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Zingo la Bahari.". In: Vazi la Mhudumu na Hadithi Nyingine Kutoka Afrika Mashariki. Nairobi: EAEP; 2017.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Ndohvu JB, Njeri M, Mumia O. Poverty as a Human Rights Violation?. Naivasha: CHRP; 2012.poverty_report_copy.pdf
IRIBEMWANGI PI. ""Female Genital Mutilation, Human Rights and Language: The Meeting Point" Chapter in Iribemwangi P. et. al: Human Rights, African Values and Traditions. Nairobi: Focus. pp 50-64; ISBN 9966-01-152-8.". In: Human Rights, African Values & Traditions . Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2011. Abstract

In the communities where it is practiced, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a valued cultural practice. It is justified using many and varied reasons, some cultural, others religious, some attitudinal and yet others psychological. The operation is performed in many different ways and in varying degrees of severity for different purposes. However, research has shown that the practice has many negative effects on girls and women. The effects are both long and short term. Such effects are mostly health related but they also fall under education, economic and political fields. It is these effects that directly make FGM an issue of human rights concern. FGM contradicts many of the principles laid down in the international instruments of human rights. To reduce its prevalence, one medium, language, is of utmost importance. So, in any strategy geared towards reducing the practice, language plays an integral part. Our thesis is that it is language that would determine the success or failure of any advocacy strategy against FGM. Use language that is unfamiliar to the people, could reduce the effectiveness of messages directed at changing people’s perceptions, attitudes and appreciation of the practice on the one hand. On the other hand, use of a language that people understand easily could result into positive reception of the message and perhaps change in worldview and attitudes toward the practice.

IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kilonzo P. Matata (Play). Nairobi: E.A. E. P; Submitted.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Ndungu MN. "Metaphorical Extension of Kiswahili Tense: An Application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory." Mwanga wa Lugha: Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika. 2018;2(2):55-75.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Chisia M. Mwongozo wa Kidagaa Kimemwozea. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2016.mwongozo_wa_riwaya_kidagaa_kimemwozea.pdf
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A River from Rivulets? A Study of Sheng vis-à-vis Indigenous Kenyan Languages and Modern Technology - Expected." Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS), Hankuk University. 2020.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Karani R, Olali T. "Software Localization: An Exploration of the Problems Encountered by Localizers in Transfering Messages from English into Kiswahili." Mwanga wa Lugha, Kiswahili Journal of Moi University. . 2019;3(1):125-146.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Mofofonolojia ya Kiswahili Sanifu: Matatizo Katika Machapisho Yake.". In: Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili: Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbalimbali. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2014.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Obuchi SM. "Masuala Ibuka katika Nadharia ya Sintaksia na Pendekezo la Mwelekeo Mpya.". In: Isimu na Fasihi ya Lugha za Kiafrika. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2018.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Warambo JP. Mwongozo wa Damu Nyeusi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2016. Abstractmwongozo_wa_damu_nyeusi_cover_copy.pdf

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Ireri BN, Omwenga EI. "A Bridging Technology of Learner Entry Behavior in a Flipped Classroom Model. In J. Keengwe, & G. Onchwari (Eds.)." Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age . 2016:106-121. Abstractjournal_mobile-learning_-a-bridging-technology-of-learner-entry-behavior-in-a-flipped-classroom-model.pdfJournal Website

Today's learner is able to access information from mobile devices. Due to accessibility and affordability of mobile devices, more instructors continue to adopt instructional design models of mobile learning as more learners also bring their mobile devices to their classrooms. Instructors using flipped classroom model organize the learning activities both inside and outside classroom. Before the next class the instructor avails instruction and content in advance. The learner reviews class content materials and assigned research activities at home prior to class. In class, the instructor allows learners to peer review their work in groups while the instructor engages them to validate their work. The findings described in this chapter suggest that introducing mobile learning to learners in a flipped classroom model helps to bridge learner entry behavior as it improves learner performance.

Ireri BN, Omwenga EI, Oboko R, Wario R. "Developing Pedagogical Skills for Teachers: A Learner-Centered Approach ." Handbook of Research on Learner-Centered Pedagogy in Teacher Education and Professional Development. 2016:128. AbstractFull Link Text

A Learner-Centered Approach for
Technology Supported Instructions ABSTRACT Bonface Ngari Ireri Africa Nazarene
University, Kenya Elijah I. Omwenga University of Nairobi, Kenya Robert Oboko University of
Nairobi, Kenya Ruth Wario University of Free State, South Africa Since technology alone without
the instructor or teacher cannot deliver learning to learners, the presence of the teacher or instructor
is very important. For any meaningful teaching and learning to take place in a class, the teacher
must gain learner's attention. Teachers who use learner centered approaches have a strong
trust in students, they believe that students want to learn, have great faith in student ability and
offer students ownership of class activities. They are able to manage their classroom.

Ireri BN, Omwenga EI. "Modelling an Institutional Mobile Learning Readiness Analyser." Journal of Education and Practice. 2015;6(5):104-110.Journal website
Ireri TG, Abungu NO. "An Efficient Method of Load Forecasting for Non-Working Days.". In: Kenya Society of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Kenya Society of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (KSEEE); 2012. Abstract

Power utility companies are required to supply customers with power within specified voltage limits. Voltage rise in networks with distributed generators therefore poses a challenge. This paper presents a coordinated network controller whose objective is to maintain an optimal voltage profile across the power network. The operations of distributed generators, on-load tap-changing transformers and reactive power sources are controlled. The controller is modelled as an optimisation problem which is solved using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The IEEE 30-bus test network is then used to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The results obtained show that this controller can greatly improve the voltage profile of a power network by varying the parameters of existing generation and voltage control equipment.

Ireri BN, Omwenga EI, Oboko RO, Wario R. "Developing Pedagogical Skills for Teachers: A Learner Centered Approach for Technology Supported Instruction. Accepted for publication In J. Keengwe, & G. Onchwari (Eds.)." Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age. 2016.
Ireri BN, Wario RD, Omwenga EI, Oboko R, Mukiri MI. "Mobile Learning: Content Format and Packaging for Effective Teaching and Learning in a Learner-Centered Pedagogy." Handbook of Research on Transformative Digital Content and Learning Technologies. 2017. AbstractFull Text Link

When an instructor is able to identify, develop and apply appropriate digital media
content that motivates learners and encourages them to learn, the process of learning is
empowered. This study has identified multimedia digital content packaged in the format of
video as the most preferred learning media by the learners. Content formats that had highest
hit rate with accessed mean rate above 300 (discussion forums, video clips, and graphics)
are discussed.

Ireri TG, Murage DK, Abungu NO. "Short Term Load Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Networks.". In: Mechanical Engineering Annual Conference. Juja; 2013. Abstractjkuat_conf_paper.pdf

Load forecasting refers to the prediction of future load conditions based on present or historical data. This is important especially for transmission planning and economic dispatch. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained using historical data for a sub-station at Ruiru, Kenya and the corresponding loading conditions for the sub-station are used to test its accuracy in forecasting the electrical load when given other parameters.

Irene W. Inwani, Ruth W. Nduati, Rachel M. Musoke. "Feasibility of infant cord blood HIV testing for anti-retroviral post-exposure prophylaxis." J Infect Developing Countries 2007; 1(3):308-314.. 2007. Abstract

Abstract
Background: Many maternity hospitals in developing country settings deliver women who are of unknown HIV status. The main
objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of post-partum infant cord blood HIV testing and the subsequent
uptake of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study among infants delivered to women of unknown HIV status at the maternity ward
of the Kenyatta National hospital, Kenya. At the time of delivery, five milliliters of cord blood was collected from consecutive
singleton-birth infants born to women with unknown HIV status. After delivery, the women were counseled and consent was
sought for HIV antibody testing of the cord blood. Anti-retroviral post-exposure prophylaxis was provided for HIV exposed infants
and their mothers counseled on infant feeding.
Results: Overall 220 (87%) of the 253 mothers gave consent for HIV testing. This included 35 (90%) of 40 mothers of babies
with HIV positive cord blood and 184 (86.4%) of 213 with HIV negative cord blood. Seventeen (48.6%) of the 35 women who
knew their status accepted to administer anti-retroviral prophylaxis to their infants, and 28 (80%) chose to breast-feed their
infants.
Conclusions: Infant cord blood testing is highly acceptable among women who deliver with an unknown HIV status and provides
an additional entry point for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

Irene Njeri Chege, Faith Apolot Okalebo ANGSKSD. "Herbal Product Processing Practices of Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Kenya-Key Informant Interviews." Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing. 2015;16:11-23. Abstract24799-27406-1-pb_1.pdf

Herbal Product Processing Practices of Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Kenya-Key Informant Interviews
Irene Njeri Chege, Faith Apolot Okalebo, Anastasia Nkatha Guantai, Simon Karanja, Solomon Derese
Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing, 2015, 16, 11-23

Abstract
Introduction: Herbalists in Kenya use self-taught processing practices which are inadequate. The objective of
this study was to conduct an assessment of selected practices used by herbalists during drug processing and to
identify knowledge gaps.
Method: Four long practicing traditional medicinal practitioners were identified using purposive sampling. An
interview guide and field visits were used to gather data. Data analysis was done using content thematic
approach.
Results: Sources of herbal knowledge were varied with the use of internet being a key finding. Regulatory
compliance presented various challenges to the herbalists. The wild and cultivation of herbs were identified as
key medicinal sources although the protection of biodiversity was a key concern of the herbalists. The facilities,
area of practice and general hygiene were inadequate. Positive and negative practices were identified in
processing of the herbal medicines.
Conclusions: Secrecy by the herbalists has resulted in limited in innovation. More training of herbalists is
required to improve on the quality of their drugs. It is however encouraging that they have adopted some
modern methods in their practice.
Keywords: Herbalists, processing practices, herbal drugs

Irene M, swaleh. Pure non-gestational ovarian carcinoma.; 2019.
IRAYA MWANGICYRUS, Lucy M. "Performance of socially screened portfolio at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2013;3(6):73-83. Abstract

Since its introduction in the early 1970s, socially responsible investment (SRI) has gained prominence as both a rival and a complement to conventional investment. SRI is the philosophy and practice of making strategic investment decisions by integrating financial and non-financial considerations, including personal values, societal demands, environmental concerns and corporate governance issues. One of the major concerns in socially responsible investing is whether there is a difference between the performance of socially screened portfolios and that of conventional funds. This study sought to determine whether applying social screens to a portfolio would affect the portfolio`s performance. Two portfolios were formulated each comprised of 20 firms. One comprised of the NSE 20-share index firms and the second comprised 20 firms that passed the negative screening criterion that was employed. The descriptive research design approach was used. The target population was all the firms listed at the NSE. The risk adjusted returns were computed using the Sharpe index. Monthly and annual returns were calculated for years 2007 - 2011. F and T-tests were used to determine whether there was significant difference between the risk adjusted returns of the two portfolios. The NSE-20 portfolio had a higher average Sharpe ratio than the social screened portfolio hence it outperformed the socially screened portfolio when compared in terms of risk adjusted returns. The study concludes that social screening results in reduced portfolio performance.

IRAYA MWANGICYRUS, Millicent O, Samuel A. "Capital Structure Adjustment, Speed of Adjustment and Optimal Target Leverage among Firms Quoted on the Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2012;2(9):100-114. Abstract

The literature provides conflicting assessments about how firms choose their capital structures, with the trade off, pecking order and market timing hypothesis all receiving some empirical support. The study’s objectives were to determine whether firms in Kenya have an optimal target leverage, whether an adjustment towards this target takes place and finally to ascertain the speed of adjustment towards this target leverage. Secondary data was collected from the records maintained at NSE. From these records financial statements for 12 years starting from the year 1999 to 2010, were extracted. Out of the 30 firms targeted, only 23 firms met the criteria of having complete data for at least ten years. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics together with a partial regression model. Estimations from the model established that firms in Kenya do have target capital structure. On average however, a typical firm closes about 5.3% of the gap between the current and the desired leverage within one year. At this rate it takes about 10 years to close half of the gap between a typical firm’s current and the desired leverage ratios. The slow adjustment is consistent with the hypothesis that other considerations such as market timing or pecking order outweigh the costs of deviating from the optimal leverage.

IRAYA MWANGICYRUS. Socially responsible investments and portfolio performance: A critical literature review. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Since its introduction in the early 1970s, socially responsible investment (SRI) has gained prominence as both a rival and a complement to conventional investment. SRI is the philosophy and practice of making strategic investment decisions by integrating financial and non-financial considerations, including personal values, societal demands, environmental concerns and corporate governance issues. One of the major concerns in socially responsible investing is whether there is a difference between the performance of socially screened portfolios and that of conventional funds.

This study is a literature review of socially responsible investment and portfolio performance. The objectives of the study are to establish the documented relationship between socially responsible investment (SRI) and portfolio performance; to investigate, from the literature, whether investor demographic characteristics moderate the relationship between socially responsible investment and portfolio performance, to examine whether the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance is intervened by portfolio management process, to identify and document research gaps in socially responsible investment and lastly to establish researchable issues in socially responsible investment. The study presents a conceptual model guided by the modern portfolio theory, the stakeholders’ theory, the institutional theory and the new social movement theory.

Literature reviewed on the performance of SRI mutual funds has been inconclusive with three schools of thought emerging: SRI under-performs, over-performs or performs as well as conventional mutual funds. The paper concludes that the conflicting results are caused by the fact that the relationship between SRI and portfolio performances is not direct but is intervened by other variables such as the portfolio management process. Five factors in the portfolio management process that are affected by SRI have been identified (Havemann and Webster, 1999). These are the portfolio diversification process, the size and structure of the investable universe, concentration and the research costs incurred in monitoring the investee companies. Another explanation into the conflicting results is that the relationship between SRI and portfolio performances may be moderated by the investors’ demographic characteristics such age, gender, level of education and amount of funds under management (Nilsson, 2008; Nilsson, 2009; Junkus and Berry, 2010).

A number of research gaps arise from the analysis of the issues examined in this paper. These include: Firstly, lack of consensus on why SRI occurs even when empirical evidence on the impact of SRI on portfolio performance is inconclusive. Secondly, difficulties in assessment of non-financial risk and return created by SRI especially given the inability to quantify social, ethical, governance, moral and environmental issues. Thirdly, most studies have not controlled for any intervening or moderating variable affecting the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance. Variables such as differences in demographic characteristics of the fund managers and portfolio management process may affect the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance.

Arising from the research gaps identified, several areas of further study have been suggested. These include: Firstly, a research instrument be developed to empirically test the variables that impact on socially responsible investment including the moderating and intervening variables. Secondly, a study can be undertaken to investigate the heterogeneity among investor clienteles and its implications for understanding the effects of social values on asset prices. Thirdly, given that investors have different reasons for investing in SRI profiled mutual funds, future research with regard to this segmentation would be to find out the reasons why investors belong to certain groups. Fourthly, further research can be done focusing on the type of mutual funds that could be marketed to the different investors’ segments and finally, an index can be developed to quantify the non-financial risk and returns existing in SRI mutual funds.

IRAYA MWANGICYRUS, Duncan M. "An Investigation into the Existence of Exchange Rate Arbitrage in The Mombasa Spot Market." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2012;2(21):182-196. Abstract

This study sought to investigate if exchange rate arbitrage existed in the Mombasa spot market. The study was conducted in a background of gains in information efficiencies, drastic reductions in information costs and increased market vibrancy. The study is descriptive in nature. The population in this study comprised all the banks and forex bureaus that were operational in Mombasa between January and December, 2010. Those included 26 banks and 14 forex bureaus. A census was conducted. The study covered 252 days in the year 2010. Analysis of both triangular and locational arbitrage opportunities was done. The findings showed that both arbitrages existed in the spot market but descriptive statistics indicated a comparative decline from earlier studies with comparative sums, means, counts and maximums generally declining. A decline of 59% on locational arbitrage frequencies was registered on Mule (2004). Further, declines of 64% on locational and 67% on triangular arbitrage frequencies were registered from Muhoro (2005). The results also indicated that triangular arbitrage presented more arbitrage opportunities than locational arbitrage. While the mean arbitrage was 147.1% higher, the sum was 52.7% greater and 291.8% more margins were realized. In addition, hard currencies that were more frequently traded including the US Dollar, Sterling Pound and Euro were more efficiently priced than hard currencies that were hardly traded including the Australian Dollar, Japanese Yen and the Canadian Dollar. This study therefore lent support to literature and studies that have identified market vibrancy, information cost reductions and greater proliferation of information as foctors that lead to greater market pricing efficiency and less arbitrage opportunities. The study equally lent support to existence of pricing inefficiencies in the foreign exchange market that lead to exchange rate arbitrage opportunities.

Iraya C, MWANGI MIRIE, Wanjohi G. "The effect of corporate governance practices on earnings management of companies listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." European Scientific Journal. 2015;11(1 (January)):169-178. Abstract

The objective of the study was to establish the effect of corporate governance practices on earnings management of companies listed at the Nairobi Security Exchange (NSE). The target population consisted of the 49 companies that had been continuously and actively trading at the NSE between January 2010 and December 2012. Secondary data was used covering the period 2010 to 2012 and analyzed using linear regression to test the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The study found that earnings management is negatively related to ownership concentration, board size and board independence but positively related to board activity and CEO duality. The study recommended the need for effective corporate governance practices in listed companies in Kenya to contribute to reduced earnings management and avert possible collapse of listed companies in Kenya.

IRAYA MWANGICYRUS. Forecasting demand in health services: The case of University of Nairobi Health clinics. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
IRAYA MWANGICYRUS, Jerotich OJ. "The Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility Practices and Financial Performance of Firms in the Manufacturing, Construction and Allied Sector of the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology. 2013;3(2):81-90. Abstract

Literature provides conflicting results on the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) practice and firm financial performance with some studies showing a positive relationship (Waddock & Graves, 1997; Cheruiyot, 2010), others negative (Cordeiro & Sarkis, 1997; Wagner et al, 2002) and still others showing that there is no relationship between the two variables (McWilliams & Siegel, 2000; Aragon & Lopez, 2007). It is with this background that this study sought to establish the relationship between corporate social responsibility practice and financial performance of firms listed in the manufacturing, construction and allied sector of the Nairobi Securities Exchange. Although the study was meant to be a census survey, non-availability of complete data for some of the companies resulted in only 10 out of the 14 companies in the sector being studied. Secondary data was obtained from the audited financial reports of the companies for the period from 2007 to 2011. Corporate social responsibility score was obtained using content analysis of reports of the companies on various components of corporate social responsibility as reported in their audited financial reports. A multiple regression model was established to determine the relationship between the two variables. Control variables of manufacturing efficiency and capital intensity were also introduced in the regression model. The results indicated the existence of a relationship between the independent variables (corporate social responsibility score, manufacturing efficiency and capital intensity) used in the model and the dependent variable (return on assets) with a correlation coefficient of 0.870. The results of the study also showed that there was an insignificant positive relationship between corporate social responsibility practice and financial performance. Financial performance and manufacturing efficiency was found to have a significant linear inverse relationship.

Irandu EM, Makunyi EW. "Sport Hunting as a Sustainable Wildlife Conservation Strategy in Kenya: Prospects and Challenges ." International Journal of Social Science and Business. 2016;1(4):1-17.
Irandu EM. "Multimodal Freight Transport Security in Kenya .". In: Multimodal transport Security: Frameworks and Policy Applications in Freight and Passenger Transport. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishers; 2016.
Irandu EM. "Wildlife Tourism and Local Communities in Kenya." Aspects of Tourism in Kenya. 2007.
Irandu EM, Shah P. "The Role of Ecotourism in Promoting Women Empowerment and Community Development: Some Reflections from Kenya ." Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management. 2014; 2(6):245-259.
Irandu EM. "Global Change and Sustainable Mountain Tourism: The Case of Mount Kenya.". In: Impact of Global Changes on Mountains: Responses and Adaptation. Aw Publication; 2015.
Irandu EM, Ndolo J. "Green Energy for the City of Nairobi: a path to sustainable future .". In: Food Security, renewable energy and water: Insights on sustainability. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2018.
Irandu EM. "Opening up African Skies: the case of Airline Industry Liberalization in East Africa." JOURNAL OF THE TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH FORUM, Vol.47, No.1: 73-89.. 2008;Vol.47, No.1: 73-89.
Irandu EM. "A review of the impact of the Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) on Kenya’s national development." World Transport Policy and Practice. 2017;23(2):22-37.
Irandu EM. "Air Transport Security in Kenya .". In: Air Transport Security: Issues, Challenges and National Policies. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishers; 2018.
Irandu EM(2008). "Towards Efficient Management of Public Transportation in the City of Nairobi through Application of Intelligent Transport Systems." JOURNAL OF WORLD REVIEW OF INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH. 2008;Vol.2, No.1: 72-83.
Iraki XN. "The economic goldmine in Happy Valley legacy." The Standard, August 18, 2015.
Iraki XN. "The Politics and Economics of City Spaces: Parks, Trading Zones and Slums.". In: (Re)membering Kenya. ISBN NO: 978-9966-028-50-1. Nairobi: Twaweza Communication; 2014.
Iraki XN. "Is Women empowerment good for our Economy?" The Standard, May 28, 2013.
Iraki XN. "The great expectations: MBA and after.". In: Sixth annual Africa International Business and Management (AIBUMA 2015) conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2015.
Iraki XN. Economic Models in Africa: Poverty vs. Cohesion. Juja, Kenya: Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology; 2015.
Iraki XN. "Does Mau Mau Compensation Make Economic Sense." The Standard, June 11, 2013.
Iraki XN. "Are religion, economic growth friends or foes?" The Standard, May 26, 2015.
Iraki XN. Interview with Voice of America on Weakening Shilling. Voice of America, Swahili Service; 2015.
Iraki XN. "To win war on illicit brews, open an economic front." The Standard, July 6, 2020.
Iraki XN. "Privacy vs. Security: Was Orwell Right?" The Standard (2013).
Iraki XN. "Obama trip: It's more than just a visit." The Standard, July 20, 2020.
Iraki XN. "After Obama: A return to reality, unless we work towards change." The Standard, July 28, 2020.
IRAKI WN. "Working Paper 1: Economics of (and) ideas: Using patents as a measure of National Competitiveness.". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2010. Abstract

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Iraki XN. "Despite great wealth, the rich also cry." The Standard, January 13, 2015.
Iraki XN. "The politics in sugar sector is more than meets the eye." The Standard, August 14, 2015.
Iraki XN. Entrepreneurship, Productivity and International Trade: A study of Three Catalysts of Economic Growth. Jackson, Mississippi, USA: Jackson State University; 2005.

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