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H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Harmony in Colour and design.". In: Daily Nation 6th March 1989 page 6. IPPNW; 1989. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Is Microsurgery Useful in the Management of Infertiligy in Kenya (Submitted as an Editorial to Journal of Obsterics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa.". In: Editorial to Journal of Obsterics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Daily guide - illustration and cover design.". In: Scripture Union Publication. IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A review of the medical aspects of adolescent fertility in Kenya.". EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Acute pneumonias in adults in Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 1976 Aug;53(8):480-3. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Design of Museum spaces. - PMDA, Mombasa Kenya.". In: PMDA, IAS, Mombasa, Kenya. IPPNW; 2003. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Over a six-month-period, from 1st March 1988 to 30th September 1988, 127 patients suspected of having ectopic gestation at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) were referred for sonographic examination, of whom 100 (78.7%) had enough data for a final diagnosis. During sonography, ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed in 31 (31%) patients, out of whom 15 (48.4%) were confirmed to have ectopic gestation at laparotomy. Of the 69 who were thought to have other gynaecological disorders at sonographic examination, 2 (2.9%) were later found to have other ectopic gestation at surgery. Of the 17 patients who had ectopic gestation finally, extrauterine gestational sac with a demonstrable foetal pole were observed in only 6 (35.3%) cases, thus allowing a confident diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy by sonography. An empty, bulky uterus, demonstrable adnexal mass, pseudo-gestational sac and fluid in the culde-sac, together improved the sonographic positive predictive value to 67.0%. This study has shown that sonography can be used in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy at the KNH. However, in order to improve its reliability, further studies are recommended involving a combination of pregnancy test and sonography. PIP: Between March and September 1988 at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, clinicians included all patients (127) referred for ultrasonography due to suspected ectopic pregnancy (age range, 18-45 years) in a study to determine whether ultrasonography can be used to accurately diagnose ectopic pregnancy. The researchers examined only the records of 100 patients who had data adequate enough to make a final diagnosis. Based on sonography, clinicians believed 31 women had an ectopic pregnancy, but laparotomy confirmed that just 15 (48.4%) of these women actually had an ectopic pregnancy. Based on sonography, they did not suspect ectopic pregnancy in the other 69 patients, but laparotomy revealed that 2 patients (2.9%) did indeed have an ectopic pregnancy. Thus, the overall ectopic pregnancy rate among the 100 women was 17%. The remaining 83 women had other gynecological conditions. 52.9% of the women with an actual ectopic pregnancy had a pseudogestational sac, which had a positive predictive value of 53% and a negative predictive value of 90%. A pseudogestational sac had a sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 90%. Just 6 ectopic pregnancy cases (35.3%) had an extrauterine gestational sac with a clear fetal pole and a fetal heart beat. An enlarged uterus was more common in women with an ectopic pregnancy than in those with other conditions (82.4% vs. 51.8%; p .05). Every ectopic pregnancy case had a complex adnexal mass compared to just 48.2% of those with other conditions (p .001). When a woman had all these conditions combined–an empty, enlarged uterus; distinct adnexal mass; a pseudogestational sac; and fluid in the cul-de-sac-sonography's positive predictive value increased to 67%. The researchers recommended additional studies using a combination of the urinary pregnancy test and sonography to improve sonography's reliability. PMID: 8181431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S., Murugu NM, Mati JKG 1985 Mortality due to Abortions at Kenyatta National Hospital 1974-1983 Abortion: Medical Progress and Social Implications Pitman, London (CIBA Foundation Symposium 115) 41-53.". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1985. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Advanced photography for Technical Institutions. A text book for teaching photography in Technical Institutions.". In: Olugraphics. IPPNW; 2005. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Shield making in Western Kenya.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 1971. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Infertility in Family Planning A Manual for Clinical Family Planning Practice pg 197-203.". In: KMA Publications 1988. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRODARIMASUMI. "An Overview of the Achievements of Daisaku Ikeda Author: Odari H. MasumiJournal: Daisaku Ikeda and AfricaDate of Publication: published in year.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2001. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Modern Kenyan Art.". In: University of Lodz. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rupture of the gravid uterus: a review.". Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1991. Abstract
A total of 105 patients were treated for ruptured gravid uteri at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, over a five year period, January, 1984 to December, 1988. During the same period, there were 44,156 deliveries, giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1:425 deliveries. Of these, records for 95 patients were traced and analysed, and the results are presented here. Majority (61.0%) of these patients were aged less than 30 years, and 62.1% were gravida 5 or less. 54 (56.8%) of them had rupture of scarred uteri, 33 (34.7%) had spontaneous rupture, while 8 (8.4%) had traumatic rupture. 56 (59.0%) ruptured while at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Repair of the uterus without tubal ligation was the treatment offered to most of them, while total abdominal hysterectomy was rarely done. The perinatal case fatality rate was 60% and there were two maternal deaths giving a maternal case fatality rate of 2.1%. Factors associated with uterine rupture at the Kenyatta National Hospital are discussed, and possible ways of reducing the incidence suggested. PIP: Physicians treated 105 patients with uterine rupture at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya between January 1984-December 1988. The ruptured gravid uterus incidence during the study period was 1:425. 56.8% of the mothers were between 20-29 years old. 62.1% were gravida 5. 21.1% had received no prenatal care. 59% ruptured at this hospital. Adequate labor monitoring would have prevented rupturing. 56.8% experienced at least 1 previous cesarean section (C-section). Only 2 women had had a classical C-section. Moreover 21.1% of mothers who had prenatal care at KNH underwent a previous C-section. Perhaps health workers did not evaluate these women properly. 74% of the mothers were at least 38 weeks gestation. 34.7% had a spontaneous rupture due to prolonged labor (12 hours). 8.4% experienced a traumatic rupture. 94.7% happened during labor. Most of the tears (51.6%) occurred along the lower anterior uterine segment primarily on the transverse or on a C-section scar. Surgeons were able to repair the uterus without tubal ligation in 47.4% of the cases. They could repair the uterus of 11.6%, but also had to perform a tubal ligation. They conducted a partial hysterectomy on 38% and total hysterectomy on 3.2%. 38.9% gave birth to their infants vaginally. 55.8% of the mothers gave birth to a stillborn infant. 35.8% of the infants were delivered in good condition and survived. 4.2% were in poor condition and survived and 4.2% were in poor condition and died. All the infants in the peritoneal cavity were already dead, but not all of those in the uterus died. The case fatality rate stood at 60%. 2.1% of the mothers died, all after surgery. 1 mother actually died of injuries from an earlier assault. In conclusion, C-section was the major predisposing factor. Ruptured gravida uteri continued to be a major obstetric problem in Kenya. PMID: 1752222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
H K, Njoroge K, Mugo S, Ariga ES, Kanampiu F, Nderitu JH. "Determination of levels of Striga germination stimulants for maize gene bank accessions and elite inbred lines." . International Journal of Plant Production. 2012;6 (2):209-224.
H DRODARIMASUMI. "Introduction to Poetry Author: Odari H. Masumi Journal: University of Nairobi, Faculty of Arts Distant LearningCourse BookDate of Publication: January.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2007. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Photographic and Graphic Art Exhibition.". In: Shelter Afrique, Nairobi. IPPNW; 1989. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Functions of Juakali Artisans.". In: University of Wuppertal, Germany. IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Lema VM, Makokha AE, Sanghvi HCG, Wanjala S. A Review of the Medical Aspects of Adolescent Fertility in Kenya. (Submitted Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H K, Njoroge K, Mugo S, Ariga ES, Kanampiu F, Nderitu JH. "Determination of levels of Striga germination stimulants for maize gene bank accessions and elite inbred lines." International Journal of Plant Production. 2012;6(2):209-224.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Arts For Personal Therapy.". In: Joy Centre Enterprise New Jersey U.S.A. IPPNW; 1995. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H LQ, L N, JM N, Gachago MM. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics Services In Resource-Limited Countries: The Case Of Retinoblastoma In Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;4(17):221-227. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS:
Clinical cancer genetics is an integral part of cancer control and management, yet its development as an essential medical service has been hindered in many low-and-middle-income countries. We report our experiences in developing a clinical cancer genetics service for retinoblastoma in Kenya.
METHODS:
A genetics task force was created from within the membership of the existing Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy group. The task force engaged in multiple in-person and telephone discussions, delineating experiences, opinions and suggestions for an evidence-based, culturally sensitive retinoblastoma genetics service. Discussions were recorded and thematically categorised to develop a strategy for the design and implementation of a national retinoblastoma clinical genetics service.
RESULTS:
Discussion among the retinoblastoma genetics task force supported the development of a comprehensive genetics service that rests on 3 pillars: (1) patient and family counselling, (2) community involvement, and (3) medical education.
CONCLUSIONS:
A coordinated national retinoblastoma genetics task force led to the creation of a unique and relevant approach to delivering comprehensive and accurate genetic care to Kenyan retinoblastoma patients. The task force aims to stimulate innovative approaches in cancer genetics research, education and knowledge translation, taking advantage of unique opportunities offered in the African context.

H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "HIV infection among patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

AIDS continues to exert considerable strain on the economy, as well as social aspects of our lives. Previous studies have identified the categories of people most at risk of contracting and developing HIV infection and AIDS. In this study, 20.9% of women with acute pelvic infection at the Kenyatta National Hospital, were found to be seropositive for HIV, much higher than the general population in Kenya. Though there was no direct correlation between one's age and serological status, most of the women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were young, quite sexually active, and involved with several partners. 49.0% of the entire group and 53.7% of the women who were seropositive, were married. This underlines the fact that marital status does not appear to offer any protection against HIV infection. The fact that majority of these women had started coitus quite early, they were not using any protective measure against STDs or HIV infection, and that they were involved with several partners, indicate that we are very far from winning the fight against HIV infection and AIDS. There is need to revise the currently operative programmes with a view to making them more effective, in preventing transmission and spread of HIV infection. PMID: 8261972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. 1980 A Review of Uterine Fibroids at Kenyatta National Hospital Part of M.Med Dissertation Submitted in 1980 (pg 356-377).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1980. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Design of Museum Spaces - PMDA, Mombasa Kenya.". In: PMDA, IAS, Mombasa, Kenya. IPPNW; 2005. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Lema VM, Ojwang SBO, Wanjala S. Rupture of the Gravid Uterus at the Kenyatta National Hospital: A five year review (1984-1988) (Submitted to East African Medical Journal).". In: East African Medical Journal. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRODARIMASUMI. "Vocational Training Guidebook: Kenya Author: Odari H. MasumiJournal: The Nairobi Journal of Literatureate of Publication:.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1996. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "International Art and design Exhibition.". In: Lodz, Poland. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A review of the medical aspects of adolescent fertility in Kenya.". Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1991. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRODARIMASUMI. "The Quest for Justice and the Lawyer's Dilemma: Time for a Paradigm Shift. Conference: Legal Ethics & Jurisprudence in Nation Buildingate of Publication: Odari H Masumi.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2005. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Creation: Ufungamano House Art exhibition.". In: Nairobi. IPPNW; 1989. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1993. Abstract

Over a six-month-period, from 1st March 1988 to 30th September 1988, 127 patients suspected of having ectopic gestation at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) were referred for sonographic examination, of whom 100 (78.7%) had enough data for a final diagnosis. During sonography, ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed in 31 (31%) patients, out of whom 15 (48.4%) were confirmed to have ectopic gestation at laparotomy. Of the 69 who were thought to have other gynaecological disorders at sonographic examination, 2 (2.9%) were later found to have other ectopic gestation at surgery. Of the 17 patients who had ectopic gestation finally, extrauterine gestational sac with a demonstrable foetal pole were observed in only 6 (35.3%) cases, thus allowing a confident diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy by sonography. An empty, bulky uterus, demonstrable adnexal mass, pseudo-gestational sac and fluid in the culde-sac, together improved the sonographic positive predictive value to 67.0%. This study has shown that sonography can be used in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy at the KNH. However, in order to improve its reliability, further studies are recommended involving a combination of pregnancy test and sonography. PIP: Between March and September 1988 at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, clinicians included all patients (127) referred for ultrasonography due to suspected ectopic pregnancy (age range, 18-45 years) in a study to determine whether ultrasonography can be used to accurately diagnose ectopic pregnancy. The researchers examined only the records of 100 patients who had data adequate enough to make a final diagnosis. Based on sonography, clinicians believed 31 women had an ectopic pregnancy, but laparotomy confirmed that just 15 (48.4%) of these women actually had an ectopic pregnancy. Based on sonography, they did not suspect ectopic pregnancy in the other 69 patients, but laparotomy revealed that 2 patients (2.9%) did indeed have an ectopic pregnancy. Thus, the overall ectopic pregnancy rate among the 100 women was 17%. The remaining 83 women had other gynecological conditions. 52.9% of the women with an actual ectopic pregnancy had a pseudogestational sac, which had a positive predictive value of 53% and a negative predictive value of 90%. A pseudogestational sac had a sensitivity of 53% and specificity of 90%. Just 6 ectopic pregnancy cases (35.3%) had an extrauterine gestational sac with a clear fetal pole and a fetal heart beat. An enlarged uterus was more common in women with an ectopic pregnancy than in those with other conditions (82.4% vs. 51.8%; p .05). Every ectopic pregnancy case had a complex adnexal mass compared to just 48.2% of those with other conditions (p .001). When a woman had all these conditions combined–an empty, enlarged uterus; distinct adnexal mass; a pseudogestational sac; and fluid in the cul-de-sac-sonography's positive predictive value increased to 67%. The researchers recommended additional studies using a combination of the urinary pregnancy test and sonography to improve sonography's reliability. PMID: 8181431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H PROFS, P O, K A. "Child Maltreatment at a Violence Recovery Center in Kenya ;.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Symmetry and Asymmetrical forms in Traditional African Architecture.". In: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculutre and Technology. IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Acute Puerperal Inversion of the Uterus at Kenyatta National Hospital (Submitted to Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "The Role of Art And Design in religious worship in the African Context.". In: An International Journal of the Christian Churches Educational Association Page 5-6. IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rupture of the gravid uterus: a review.". EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract
A total of 105 patients were treated for ruptured gravid uteri at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, over a five year period, January, 1984 to December, 1988. During the same period, there were 44,156 deliveries, giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1:425 deliveries. Of these, records for 95 patients were traced and analysed, and the results are presented here. Majority (61.0%) of these patients were aged less than 30 years, and 62.1% were gravida 5 or less. 54 (56.8%) of them had rupture of scarred uteri, 33 (34.7%) had spontaneous rupture, while 8 (8.4%) had traumatic rupture. 56 (59.0%) ruptured while at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Repair of the uterus without tubal ligation was the treatment offered to most of them, while total abdominal hysterectomy was rarely done. The perinatal case fatality rate was 60% and there were two maternal deaths giving a maternal case fatality rate of 2.1%. Factors associated with uterine rupture at the Kenyatta National Hospital are discussed, and possible ways of reducing the incidence suggested. PIP: Physicians treated 105 patients with uterine rupture at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya between January 1984-December 1988. The ruptured gravid uterus incidence during the study period was 1:425. 56.8% of the mothers were between 20-29 years old. 62.1% were gravida 5. 21.1% had received no prenatal care. 59% ruptured at this hospital. Adequate labor monitoring would have prevented rupturing. 56.8% experienced at least 1 previous cesarean section (C-section). Only 2 women had had a classical C-section. Moreover 21.1% of mothers who had prenatal care at KNH underwent a previous C-section. Perhaps health workers did not evaluate these women properly. 74% of the mothers were at least 38 weeks gestation. 34.7% had a spontaneous rupture due to prolonged labor (12 hours). 8.4% experienced a traumatic rupture. 94.7% happened during labor. Most of the tears (51.6%) occurred along the lower anterior uterine segment primarily on the transverse or on a C-section scar. Surgeons were able to repair the uterus without tubal ligation in 47.4% of the cases. They could repair the uterus of 11.6%, but also had to perform a tubal ligation. They conducted a partial hysterectomy on 38% and total hysterectomy on 3.2%. 38.9% gave birth to their infants vaginally. 55.8% of the mothers gave birth to a stillborn infant. 35.8% of the infants were delivered in good condition and survived. 4.2% were in poor condition and survived and 4.2% were in poor condition and died. All the infants in the peritoneal cavity were already dead, but not all of those in the uterus died. The case fatality rate stood at 60%. 2.1% of the mothers died, all after surgery. 1 mother actually died of injuries from an earlier assault. In conclusion, C-section was the major predisposing factor. Ruptured gravida uteri continued to be a major obstetric problem in Kenya. PMID: 1752222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. 1980 A Prospective Study of Premature Study of Membranes at Kenyatta National Hospital Part of M.Med Dissertation Submitted in 1980 (Pg 160-185).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1980. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DG, Nyanamba T, Wahome R. "Quality protein maize for the feed industry in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Quality protein maize (QPM) has increased levels of lysine and tryptophan, limiting amino acids for monogastric animals, so its use in animal feed reduces the need for more expensive high-protein sources. The authors, through the application of a linear programming optimization model with the composition and prices of feed components used at the coast, show that the cost reduction from substituting QPM for regular maize in poultry feed for Kenya is 5% (mainly as a result of a reduction in fishmeal). The optimal ratios based on QPM and regular maize were calculated and formulated, and trials showed that broilers raised with either mixture had the same food intake, mortality and growth. Moreover, when the chickens were fried in the style popular at the coast, there was no difference in the taste of the meat between the two batches. If QPM were to replace regular maize in broiler feed in Kenya, a 5% cost reduction would translate into a gain of US$300,000. If the cost reduction were passed on to the broiler producers as a reduction in feed price, producers would be expected to gain on average US$32 per year. If the cost reduction were not passed on to the broiler producers, it would result in an extra profit for the feed industry.

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "A Study of Community Industrial Design in Kenya.". In: University of Nairobi. IPPNW; 2003. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. 1988 Microsurgery in the Management of Tubal Factors in Female Infertile at a Nairobi Hospital (Submitted to Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H A, T. T. "Wire-Frame Approximation of Surface from Contour Data by GA." Trans. IEEJ. 1997;117-C(2):207-208.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Anti Pollution Poster Exhibition United Nations.". In: University of Lodz, Poland. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Problems of Contraceptive of Family Planning In a Manual for Clinical Family Planning Practice P167-177. Edited by Khama O. Rogo KMA Publications 1988.". In: KMA Publications 1988. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H W, H O, B G. "Effectiveness of Street Youth Integration in East Africa." Postmodern Openings. 2011;6:57-75.
H A, T. T. "A Genetic Algorithm Solution to Relaxation Labeling of Line Images." Trans. IEEJ. 1998;118-C(11):1670-1671.
H S. "Respiratory System.". In: KIMANI’S HISTOLOGY Text and Manual. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
H DRODARIMASUMI. "Self Identity: Reflections on Yusuf K. Dawood Journal: The Nairobi Journal of Literature. Author: Odari H.Masumi.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2003. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Kenya Music and Art - illustration and cover design.". In: Ministry of Culture and Social services, Kenya. IPPNW; 1988. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "HIV infection among patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1993. Abstract

AIDS continues to exert considerable strain on the economy, as well as social aspects of our lives. Previous studies have identified the categories of people most at risk of contracting and developing HIV infection and AIDS. In this study, 20.9% of women with acute pelvic infection at the Kenyatta National Hospital, were found to be seropositive for HIV, much higher than the general population in Kenya. Though there was no direct correlation between one's age and serological status, most of the women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were young, quite sexually active, and involved with several partners. 49.0% of the entire group and 53.7% of the women who were seropositive, were married. This underlines the fact that marital status does not appear to offer any protection against HIV infection. The fact that majority of these women had started coitus quite early, they were not using any protective measure against STDs or HIV infection, and that they were involved with several partners, indicate that we are very far from winning the fight against HIV infection and AIDS. There is need to revise the currently operative programmes with a view to making them more effective, in preventing transmission and spread of HIV infection. PMID: 8261972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H Saidi, EO Nyaim KJWGD. "Young patients with colorectal cancer at a tertiary hospital in Kenya, 1993–2005." Annals of African Surgery. 2007;1. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: The onset of colorectal cancer appears to be two to three decades earlier in developing countries. Data on whether colorectal cancer in the young has worse prognosis than in older patients is conflicting.
METHOD: Clinical charts of 70 patients ≤40 years old were reviewed to determine clinical and pathological patterns and treatment outcomes. Their data were compared with a
larger group of older patients treated between 1993-2005 at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.
RESULTS: The data retrieval was highest for sub-site distribution and lowest for pathology information. Patients ≤ 40 years of age comprised 27.3% of all colorectal cancer
cases treated over the study period. There were 41 males (58.6%) and 29 (41.4%) females patients. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (76.9%), change in bowel habit
(71.4%) and rectal bleeding (54.3%). The mean duration of symptoms was 24.6 ± 30 months. The rate of advanced colorectal disease (Duke C and D) was 73.5%. Mean follow-up time was 5.8 months with median survival of only 6.9
months. The Duke staging, histology, symptom duration, locations of tumours, follow-up and the complication rates were similar for young and older patients.
CONCLUSION: Younger patients form a significant proportion of colorectal cancer burden. Both the clinico-pathological
characteristics and treatment outcome correspond to older individuals. It is suggested that the concluded colorectal symptoms in younger patients should also be aggressively
evaluated including early endoscopy. A prospective follow-up study of patients with the disease will unravel the true survival picture

H. A, T. T. Meta-GA Multi-Window Human Eye Detection. Orlando, Florida, USA; 2004.
H. A, T. T. A Detection Of Human Eyes by Window-Pair Chasing. Nairobi, Kenya; 1995.
H. A, T. T. Applying Genetic Algorithm to Labeling. Nairobi, Kenya; 1997.
H. A, T. T. "A Novel Approach to Triangulating Contours for Surface Approximation." Trans. IEEJ. 1997;117-C(6):667-675.
H. DRMULEKAJOSEPH. "A Guide to Encounters from Africa.Published by Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Published by KOLA. uon; 2003. Abstract
n/a
H. A, T. T. "GA Relaxation Labeling." Trans. IEEJ. 1999;119-C(12):1489-1499.
H. DRMULEKAJOSEPH. "Introduction to Prose-A Study unit for Distance and Open Learning.Published by University of Nairobi.". In: sfdsadfsa. uon; 2006. Abstract

research theories for high school students

H. A, T. T. "A Study of Human Eyes’ Detection by Window-Pair Chasing." Trans. IEEJ. 1996;116-C(9):1015-1028.
H. DRMULEKAJOSEPH. "A Guide to Half a Day and Other Stories. Published by Macmillan Publishers.". In: Published by KOLA. uon; 2005.
H. A, T. T. Optimization by Genetic Algorithm. Nairobi, Kenya; 1998.
H. JH. "Axial Capacity and Design of Thin-walled Steel SHS Strengthened with CFR." Thin walled structures. 2009;47(10):1112-1121.
H. A, Y. I, T. T. A Heuristic Approach to Solution of Industrial Optimisation Problems. Cape Technikon, Cape Town, South Africa; 1999.
H. MUCHUGUKIIRUD. "Going Gentle into That Good Night: Indigenous Therapy on Death in Kenya." Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;Volume 114(4th World Conference on Psychology, Counseling and Guidance (WCPCG-2013) Edited by Tulay Bozkurt and Mukaddes Demirok):298-310 .going_gentle_into_that_good_night.pdf
H. JH, R.H. G. "Characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes into roadside safety barriers in Australia and New Zealand." Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volum. 2011;43(3):652-660.
H. A, T. T. Surface Reconstruction by Triangulation Using GA. Kyongju, Korea; 1996.
H. DRMULEKAJOSEPH. "A Guide to Encounters from Africa.Published by Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Published by KOLA. uon; 2003.
H. DRMULEKAJOSEPH. "Introduction to Prose-A Study unit for Distance and Open Learning.Published by University of Nairobi.". In: sfdsadfsa. uon; 2006. Abstract
research theories for high school students
H. JH. "Energy Absorbing Characteristics of Aluminium Beams Strengthened with CFRP subjected to Transverse Blast Loads ." International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2010;37(1):37-49.
H. DRMULEKAJOSEPH. "A Guide to Half a Day and Other Stories. Published by Macmillan Publishers.". In: Published by KOLA. uon; 2005. Abstract
n/a
and H. B. Wafula, J. Simiyu WAMSBOJM. Structural and morphological characterization of pressed nitrogen doped TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. 13-15 October 2009, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2009.
and H. Indangasi MOAM. "Value Creating Education in Kenya: Building a Humane Society." Kenya Literature Bureau. 2018.
H. M. Mugo, E. M. El-Banhawy, L. W. Irungu, P. N. Ndegwa, D.M. Mburu. "Resistance of Predacious mites, Euseius kenyae (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to chlorpyrifos (Dursdan." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2011;13(1):53-64. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

H. M. Mugo, E. M. El-Banhawy, L. W. Irungu, P. N. Ndegwa. "The insect pests of coffee and their distribution in Kenya. InternationalJournal of Science and Nature. 2(3), 564-569." International journal of Science and Nature. 2011;2(3):564-569. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

H. M. Mugo, L. W. Irungu, P. N. Ndegwa. "Population dynamics of predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae and coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae and their Interactions in coffee agro ecosystems in Kenya." International Journal of Science and Nature. 2012;3(3):12-16. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

H. N. Kim, J. Scott CC2 MRTJALRA, K. R. Jerome, G. Lule J-SCGMH. "HBV Lamivudine resistance among Hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya ." Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2011; Volume 18( 10):e447-e452. Abstract

Summary.  Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV–HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤10 000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV–HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

H.C. Wien, undefined, Nyankanga R. ". Low light stress influences lower abscission and yield of bell pepper cultivars." HortScience. 1996;31(4).
H.J K, C.M G, P.N. K. Fundamentals of Management. Nairobi: Aura Books, Nairobi, ISBN 9966-123-456-7; 2012.
J
H
H.J. K, C.M G. "Breaking New Frontiers? Successes, Challenges And Impact Of Ict In Kenyan Schools’.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE:ICT and Education. Naivasha, Kenya; 2009.breaking_new_frontiers_ppt_presentation_1.pdf
H.J. K. "Quality Assurance in Open and Distance Learning: The Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON QUALITY ASSURANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN AFRICA (ICQAHEA). Dares salaam; 2007.quality_assurance_in_odl-_unesco_conference_paper_2007.pdf
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H.J. OJWANG. "OKOT P."; 2000. Abstract

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H.J. K. An African Perspective of Human Resource Strategic Orientation. KGDudweiler Landstr. 99, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. : VDM Verlag Dr. Müller GmbH & Co. ; 2010.
H.J. OJWANG. "Life and Message of a Biography."; 1995. Abstract

n/a

H.J. OJWANG. "Human Rights in a Multi -Cultural Context:Implications for Kenya." Governance and Development/International Commission for Jurists, Kenya Section; 1996. Abstract

n/a

H.J. K, C.M. G, P.N. K. Fundamentals of Management:Theories, Concepts & Practice. Nairobi: Aura Books; 2013.
H.K W, R.D N, J.H N, L WH. "The status of Potato Leaf Roll Virus in Kenya." Plant Pathology . 2003;75(3):153-156.
H.M. Thairu KNDN & LW. "The distribution of fluoride in Kenya waters.". 1982.
H.N GATUMU. "“Factors Influencing Secondary School Students’ Attitude towards Physics in Imenti South District, Kenya”." Journal of Research in 14 Education and Society: International Perspective. 2011;Volume 2; Number 2.
H.N GATIMU. "”Performance of Civil Servants as Influenced by Factors of Motivation in Government Ministries Headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya”." Journal of Sociology, Psychology and Anthropology in Practice (ISSN:2141-274X). 2011;3; Number 1:p.30-42.
H.N GATIMU. "Factors Influencing Secondary School Students’ Attitude towards Physics in Imenti South District, Kenya." Journal of Research in 14 Education and Society: International Perspective. 2011;Volume 2; Number 2.
H.Saidi, Mutisto BK. "Motorcycle injuries at a tertiary referral hospital in Kenya: injury patterns and outcome." Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 39:481–485. 2013;38:481-485.
H.W. Chege, D.C.Kemboi, L.C. Bebora, Maingi N, P.N. Nyaga, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Livestock for Research for Rural Development. 2014;26(1).chege_et_al._2014-_chicken_parasites_and_treatment_-lrrd.pdf
H.W.O. Okoth-Ogendo and Oucho JO. "Population Growth and Agricultural Change in Kisii District, Kenya: A Sustained Symbiosis?". In: Population Growth and Agricultural Change in Africa. Gainesville: University Press of Florida; 1993.
HA N, GO O, MD J, FMT O, IM M. "Patterns of knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis in Kenyatta National Hospital." EAOJ. 2014;8(2):60-63.AJOL
Habib A, Odhiambo A, Othieno-Abinya N, Maina JMD. "Prevalence of Deep Venous Thrombosis in Cancer Patients Admitted to the Medical Wards at the Kenyatta National Hospital." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies. 2018;2(2):50-56. Abstract

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of DVT in cancer patients at KNH medical and oncology wards, to describe patient characteristics of those with DVT vs those without and compare rates of DVT in different types of cancer. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital general medical wards and oncology wards. Patients were interviewed and examined. Patients’ records were perused for information relevant to the study. Patients with history and physical examination findings suggestive of a thrombotic event were screened by compression sonography to confirm a DVT. A total of 266 patients with a diagnosis of cancer were studied, 29 (10.9%) had DVT. Among the patients who were found to have DVT, 13 (44.8%) had gynaecological cancers, 3 (10.3%) breast cancer, 3(10.3%) prostate cancer, 3(10.3%) gastric cancer, 2(6.9%) patients had lymphoma and a patient (3.4%) each in the multiple myeloma, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer groups. Some significant patient characteristics in the patients who had a DVT were female sex (P value 0.014), presence of comorbidities (P 0.004) and ECOG scores of 3 and 4 (P 0.04, 0.001). Some common risk factors known for DVT were analysed and some were found to be significant in our patient group. Of the significant risk factors,
presence of comorbid condition, female sex and higher ECOG scores were noted. Keywords: DVT, VTE, ECOG, Comorbidities, Kenyatta National Hospital
Venous thromboembolic events in cancer are quite common and are a leading cause of morbidity, delays in care and death. As cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the risk of DVT depends on cancer types and stages, treatment
measures, and patient-related factors

Habwe J. Kiswahili Language Dictionary. Nairobi: Jamo Kenyatta Foundation ; 2016.
prof habwe. pendo la kahara. nairobi: moran publishers; 2014.
Habwe J. "Changamptp za kueleza Msamiati wa Samaki: Mtazamo wa Kiuhusiano." Journal of Kiswahili Moi University. Forthcoming.
Habwe J. Hadaa ya Nafsi. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2014.
Habwe J. "The Development of the Kiswahili: Prose and the Evolution of the Kiswahili." Journal of Literature UoN. Forthcoming.
Habwe J, Foundation KFJK. "The Ekegusii Determiner Phrase. Analysis in the Minimalist Programme. ." International Journal of Linguistics and Communication. Forthcoming.
Habwe J. Hidaya. Moran Publishers; Forthcoming.
Habwe J. Pendo La Karaha. Nairobi: Moran Publishers; 2016.
Habwe JH, IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Strategies and Challenges of Communicating Gender Information in a Non-Gender Marking Language: The Case of Kiswahili." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2015;4(1):3-18.
Habwe J, TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. " 'The Development of Kiswahili Prose and the Evolution of the Kiswahili Novel' in Reyono." Reyono-Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2016;Vol.5,(Issue 2):21-43 .
Habwe J. Shujaa Wa Taifa. Pheonix; Forthcoming.
Habwe J. "Strategies and Challenges of Communicating Gender Issues in a non Gender Marking Language." Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Kerala. 2016;4(1):3-18.
Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Status of e-learning Quality in Kenya: Case of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Postgraduate Students." The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2018;19(1). AbstractFull text Link

There is a substantial increase in the use of learning management systems (LMSs) to support e-learning in higher education institutions, particularly in developing countries. This has been done with some measures of success and failure as well. There is evidence from literature that the provision of e-learning faces several quality issues relating to course design, content support, social support, administrative support, course assessment, learner characteristics, instructor characteristics, and institutional factors. It is clear that developing countries still remain behind in the great revolution of e-learning in Higher Education. Accordingly, further investigation into e-learning use in Kenya is required in order to fill in this gap of research, and extend the body of existing literature by highlighting major quality determinants in the application of e-learning for teaching and learning in developing countries. By using a case study of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), the study establishes the status of e-learning system quality in Kenya based on these determinants and then concludes with a discussion and recommendation of the constructs and indicators that are required to support qualify teaching and learning practices

Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "A model for evaluating e-learning systems quality in higher education in developing countries." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2017;13(2). AbstractFull text link

The rapid growth of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has brought
about significant changes in the practice of e-learning globally. In recent years, there has
been an increasing adoption of Learning Management System (LMS) assisted e-learning in
higher education institutions (HEIs) in developing countries. Despite the perceived benefits
attached to e-learning, several studies concur that there are still many challenges facing e-
learning.

Hadullo K, Oboko R, Omwenga E. "Factors affecting asynchronous e-learning quality in developing countries university settings." International Journal of Education and Development using ICT. 2018;14(1). AbstractFull website link

Despite the potential of Learning Management System (LMS) supported asynchronous e-
learning to improve asynchronous e-learning system quality by enhancing learning
effectiveness and academic achievement of HEIs, several challenges are faced in the
process of providing the e-learning mode of study particularly in developing countries. The
study will explore five factors that influence quality of asynchronous e-learning: instructional
design, learner support, contextual factors, student characteristics and instructor
characteristics. The quality factors can be used to evaluate quality so as to monitor and
improve the inputs, processes and outputs of asynchronous e-learning systems. The study
examines existing e-learning literature and then proposes five factors that determine the
quality of e-learning systems.

Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Pulkki-Brännström AM, Lafort Y, Beksinska M, Rambally L, Roy A, Reza-Paul S, Ombidi W, P G, J S-W. "Inequity in costs of seeking sexual and reproductive health services in India and Kenya." Int J Equity Health.. 2015;14(1):84. doi: 10.1186/s12939-015-0216-5.
Haidar J;, Abate G;, Kogi-Makau W;, Sorensen P. "Risk factors for child undernutrition with a human rights edge in rural villages of North Wollo, Ethiopia."; 2006. Abstract

Objective: To identify the factors associated with childhood under-nutrition in North Wollo, Ethiopia. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Four purposefully selected rural villages (kebeles) in North Wollo zone of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Subjects: One hundred-forty four sampled households with under five year old children (n=200) comprising of 96 male-headed, 24 female-headed and 24 landless with children aged between six and 59 months. Main outcome measures: Determinations of anthropometric measurements and various socio-economic factors. Results: The overall prevalence rate of under nutrition as determined by stunting, underweight and wasting was 44.5%, 25.0% and 9.0% respectively with more preponderance among the toddlers. The proportion of under nutrition was higher in female-headed households. Shortage of farmland, lack of irrigation, dispossession of livestock, shortage of non-farm employment options, parental illiteracy, high number of children, water inadequacy, food taboos and wrong eating habits of families, poor child feeding practices, deprivation of health nutrition education as well as maternal attributes such as young motherhood, low body mass index and short stature of mothers influenced the nutritional status of the children. The prominent risk factors for under-nutrition among children were dispossession of livestock, child food taboos and wrong eating habits of families, deprivation of health/nutrition education, short stature and early marriage of mothers. Conclusion: This study led to the conclusion that improvement of household resources through promotion of irrigation and initiation of income generating livelihood options can reverse the nutrition situation for better. Health and nutrition education focusing on appropriate child feeding, eradication of harmful traditional practices such as early marriage and inequitable intra-household food distribution, encouragement of family planning and nutrition interventions including food diversification is recommended

Haidar, J; Umeta M;, Kogi-makau W. "Effect of iron supplementation on serum zinc status of lactating women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.".; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of daily and weekly iron supplementation on serum zinc status among anaemic lactating mothers. DESIGN: A randomised iron intervention controlled trial. SETTING: Seven urban slum communities of Addis Ababa. SUBJECTS: Phase one of the study involved 207 anaemic lactating women assigned into two intervention groups; the daily (N=71) and weekly (N=71) Iron supplemented and the control group (N=68). Supplementation with 60 mg tablet containing 300 microg ferrous sulphate and 400 microg folic acid was done for three months while the control group was n otsupplemented. Phase two involved 53 participants systematically drawn from phase one. Main outcome measures: Haemoglobin from all subjects and serum zinc and ferittin levels following three months supplementation. Zinc status based on serum zinc value of less than 10.7% micromole/L. RESULTS: The mean baseline characteristics and serum zinc of the women at baseline were similar, overall marginal zinc deficiency prevalence was 11.3% and no zinc deficiency was detected. Following supplementation, zinc deficiency was detected in the supplemented groups but not in the control group. The mean serum zinc significantly changed in both supplemented groups while no change was observed in the control group. The reduction in the mean serum zinc was significantly higher in the daily than in the weekly supplemented group. CONCLUSION: Iron supplementation impacts negatively on serum zinc status (exacerbates zinc deficiency) and hence, its contribution to zinc deficiency deserves further investigation especially in the context of the on-going promotion of double fortification strategies that involve iron.

Haile A;, Duguma G;, Mirkena T;, Tibbo M;, Iñiguez L;, Rischkowsky B;, Mwai OA;, Wurzinger M;, Sölkner J. "Designing and implementation of community-based breeding programs for adapted local sheep breeds in Ethiopia."; 2010.
Haile A;, Duguma G;, Mirkena T;, Tibbo M;, Okeyo AM;, Iñiguez L;, Wurzinger M. "Indigenous Knowledge in Animal Management: Essential for Designing Community Based Sheep Breeding Programs.". 2010.Website
Haines S, Imana CA, Opondo M, Ouma G, Rayner S. Weather and Climate Knowledge for Water Security: Institutional Roles and Relationships in Turkana. Vol. 5.; 2017. AbstractREACH

Lodwar town in Turkana County faces water security issues relating to its strategic location, (semi-)arid climate, hydroclimatic variability, high poverty rates, low piped water service and a rapidly growing population challenges that are also relevant to many Kenyan and African small towns in fragile environments. Political, economic and environmental changes affecting Lodwar, including devolution, climate variation and change, demographic shifts, and the exploration of subterranean resources (both water and oil), make this an important time to examine the challenges and prospects for inclusive water security. This working paper discusses findings from a 2016 study of the institutions involved in water decision-making in Lodwar, focusing on their access to and use (or non-use) of weather and climate information. What organisations are involved in water decisions affecting Lodwar town; how do they negotiate information access, accountability and uncertainty; and what is at stake? Drawing on qualitative material collected during a 10-week study of institutional arrangements and decision-making, this paper explores
connections and mismatches between weather/climate knowledge and water decisions in Lodwar town and the wider Turkwel basin.

Hale PJ, Crase J, Nattrass M. "Metabolic effects of bicarbonate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis." British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.). 1984;289:1035-1038. Abstract

The effect of intravenous bicarbonate on the changes in intermediary metabolites during the initial treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis was examined in 16 patients. The results were compared with the changes seen in 16 patients receiving intravenous saline. Infusion of 150 mmol (mEq) bicarbonate significantly delayed the fall in blood lactate, lactate:pyruvate ratio, and total ketone bodies observed in the saline treated group. No difference in the rate of fall of blood glucose concentration was found. There is no metabolic indication for the use of intravenous bicarbonate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Hale SJM, Mirjalili AS, Stringer MD. "Inconsistencies in surface anatomy: {The} need for an evidence-based reappraisal." Clinical Anatomy. 2010;23:922-930. AbstractWebsite

Accurate surface anatomy is a key component of safe clinical practice. But how consistent are modern clinical and surface anatomy texts in their reporting of common surface anatomy landmarks? Thirteen popular texts in common use were analyzed in detail: one clinical and anatomical reference text; seven clinical anatomy texts; two surface anatomy texts; and three clinical examination texts. Content relating to surface anatomy was reviewed, summarized, and assessed for consistency. Four main findings emerged: (i) there are numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings (e.g., the femoral artery in the groin, superficial and deep inguinal rings, and accessory nerve in the posterior triangle), including inconsistencies within some texts; (ii) there is a consensus on many surface markings, e.g., the spleen and termination of the spinal cord; (iii) few texts address variation in surface anatomy related to age, sex, body mass, posture, respiration, and ethnicity; and (iv) the three standard clinical examination texts included in this review contain comparatively little surface anatomy. Seven surface anatomy landmarks were redefined within an evidence-based framework: termination of the spinal cord, supracristal plane, base of the appendix, renal length, the deep inguinal ring, the femoral artery in the groin, and the accessory nerve in the posterior triangle of the neck. An evidence-based framework is essential if surface anatomy is to be accurate and clinically relevant. Clin. Anat. 23:922–930, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Kung'u A, Brubaker G. "HLA antigens in East African Black patients with Burkitt's lymphoma or nasopharyngeal carcinoma and in controls: a pilot study." Hum. Immunol.. 1982;5(2):91-105. Abstract

A pilot study is reported of HLA-A, B, and C antigens in 141 East African Blacks comprising patients with Burkitt's lymphoma or nasopharyngeal carcinoma, either with active disease or in long-term remission, together with comparable controls. This study forms part of a wider program investigating host factors in these diseases. A protocol was selected for optimal testing of cells processed and cryopreserved between 1972 and 1976, largely under field conditions, which employed a two-color fluorochromasia typing procedure. Antigen distribution and computed haplotype frequencies in the total unrelated population are given. New findings include an approximately equal frequency of Aw23 and Aw24, a high (18%) incidence of Bw21, and the gametic associations of Aw36 with Bw44, and Aw30 with Bw45. Of the major group of B15-related antigens reported earlier. SV is the most common, and there are strong linkages of SV with Cw2 and Bu with Cw3. The possible presence of further variants at the A- and B-loci is reported. The proportion of B-locus antigen "blanks" in this study is 5.9%. Relationships have been sought between the HLA antigens and diseases studied: the antigen A29, possibly in linkage with Bw42, shows a correlation with disease susceptibility, and associations are suggested between Bw44 (in possible combination with Aw36) and resistance to both BL and NPC, and between Bw45 and long-term remission in NPC.

Hall PJ, Levin AG, Entwistle CC, Knight SC, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "B15 heterogeneity in East African Blacks." Tissue Antigens. 1980;16(4):326-32. Abstract

One-hundred-forty-one Blacks (135 unrelated) from Kenya and Tanzania have been tissue-typed (HLA-A, B and C loci) as part of a study of host factors involved in Burkitt's lymphoma and naso-pharyngeal carcinoma. Evidence is presented for the existence in this population of several B15-related antigens which together occur with a relatively high frequency of 30% in unrelated individuals. It is likely that these variants may include the antigens SV and perhaps Bu recently defined with population frequencies of under 1% in Caucasians. In the absence of monospecific typing sera, identification of these variants may be helped by their apparently strong association with C-locus antigens in Blacks. Recognition of these B15 variants has been largely responsible for reducing the proportion of unidentified or "blank" B-locus antigens in this population to only 6%. These findings substantiate and amplify previous reports suspecting the presence of such antigens in Blacks, and should facilitate studies of possible associations of disease with HLA in these populations.

Hambwe JH. "Ungamo la Janaha .". 2010.Website
Hamilton SR, Aaltonen LA, for on Cancer IAR, Organization WH, others. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the digestive system. Vol. 48. IARC press Lyon:; 2000. AbstractWebsite
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Hampson L, Maranga IO, Masinde MS, Oliver AW, Batman G, He X, Desai M, Okemwa PM, Stringfellow H, Martin-Hirsch P, AM M, P G, IN H. "A Single-Arm, Proof-Of-Concept Trial of Lopimune (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) as a Treatment for HPV-Related Pre-Invasive Cervical Disease." PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0147917.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Paradiso. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2005.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "The Place of Action Research in the Writing of Fiction: Reflections on Kovu la Moyoni.". In: Action Research conference MMUST(PROCEED).; Forthcoming.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A book entitled .". In: published by Phoenix Publishers. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2004.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Cheche za Moto . Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2008.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Kovu la Moyoni. Nairobi: Bookmark; 2014.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Siku ya Kheri.". In: Mwavyaji Roho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2011.
Hamu HJ. Maumbile si huja.; 1995.Website
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A novel entitled .". In: publiushed by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 1995.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Mbunge.". In: Mizungu Ya Manabiina Hadithi Nyingine. Phoenix; 2010.
Hamu PJH, Nyonje J. Darubini ya Utunzi. Phoenix Publishers; 2008.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A novel entitled .". In: published by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2000.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Cohesion in the Kiswahili Complex Sentence." University of Nairobi. 2012;2/2.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Safari ya Lamu. Nairobi, Kenya: Longhorn Publishers; 2011.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Mkimbizi.". In: Mayai Waziri wa Maradhi. Focus Publishers; 2004.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Politeness Among the Swahili of Mombasa:A Family Perpective." Burji Baraton University Journal. Forthcoming.
Hamu HJ. Sofia mzimuni.; 2008.Website
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A short story called .". In: edited by Kyallo Wamitila, published by Focus Publishers. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2004.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Safina na Kima wa Ajabu. Longhorn Publishers; 2007.
Hamu HJ. Pamba.; 2011.Website
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Co-authored a book entitled .". In: published by Phoenix Publishers. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2006.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "The Role of Kiswahili in the Integration of The EastAfrican Region." Journal of Pan African Studies. 2009.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A book chapter entitled .". In: edited by J.G. Kiango and J.S Mlee, published by Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 1995.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Uchochoro wa Mauti .". In: Mizungu YaManabii na Hadithi Nyingine. Phoenix; 2010.
Hamu PJH, Nyonje J. Darubini ya Isimujamii Kwa Shule na Vyuo . Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers; 2010.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A short story .". In: edited by M Mbatiah and published by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2000.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Lulu ya Maisha. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2013.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Fumbo la Maisha. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2011.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Kiswahili as a Mobilizing Tool: A Critical Approach ." Kiswahili in the 21st Century; edited by K. Njogu, published by Casas book series, Cape Town.. 2001.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A paper entitled .". In: published at Moi University. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2002.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Sofia Mzimuni. Longhorn Publishers; 2007.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "The Discourse of Allienation in Kiswahili Poetry: A re-analysis of Muyaka wa Muhaji's Poetry." The University of Nairobi Literature Journal. 2014.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A book entitled Paradiso.". In: published by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2005.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Fumbo La Maisha . Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2009.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "An article entitled.". In: in the Kiswahili journal of the University of Nairobi (MWAMKO) EDITTED BY Mwenda Mbatiah. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 1990.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. The Discourse Political Language in Kenya: Structure and Meaning of Speeches. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2011.
Hamu PJH, Matei A. Darubini ya Kiswahili. Phoenix Publishers; 2006.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A short story entitled .". In: edited by R Wafula and G. King. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 1995.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Politeness Phenomena: A case of Kiswahili Honorifics." in Swahili Forum( SwaFo). 2010.
Hamu PJH, Karanja P. Misingi ya Sarufi ya Kiswahili. Phoenix Publishers; 2004.

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