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HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Safari ya Lamu. Nairobi, Kenya: Longhorn Publishers; 2011.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Mkimbizi.". In: Mayai Waziri wa Maradhi. Focus Publishers; 2004.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Politeness Among the Swahili of Mombasa:A Family Perpective." Burji Baraton University Journal. Forthcoming.
Hannah H;, Kimani T;, Irungu P;, Grace D;, Randolph T. "Participatory disease surveillance: Cost effectiveness relative to passive surveillance in Kajiado County, Kenya."; 2012. Abstract

Effective surveillance for infectious diseases is an essential and resource-consuming activity for mitigating unwanted consequences for animal and public health. Allocation of scarce resources for surveillance must be considered against alternative prevention and control measures and regularly reviewed. Few studies estimate cost-effectiveness and benefits of different animal disease surveillance approaches and systems. In this study, we considered the benefits and resource costs of participatory epidemiology (PE) surveys and participatory disease surveillance (PDS) compared with routine passive surveillance. Focusing on a 6-month interval in a primarily pastoralist district in Kenya, basic performance indicators for surveillance measured were (1) number of outbreaks; (2) number of samples generated from suspected outbreaks; (3) number of positive laboratory confirmations. Costs of passive surveillance and interventions mounted were determined for the 6-month interval. In the same district, PE surveys were conducted in randomly selected communities to determine the number of outbreaks of notifiable cattle diseases in the same 6-month interval. Additional information was collected on the scale of morbidity and mortality for historical outbreaks (numbers and duration), the value of individual animals and the number of active outbreaks. Costs associated with mounting PE visits were ascertained and extrapolated to district level. One month after completion of PE visits, district level stakeholders were interviewed to determine the response, if any, to outbreaks detected during the visits. The study provides cost effectiveness estimates at a district level for the 6-month interval, including losses which occurred from outbreaks missed by passive surveillance and costs if PE were applied at regular intervals. In addition, the findings consider available prevention and control responses and provide decision-makers with evidence to inform future application of participatory approaches in animal disease surveillance.

Hanotte O, Bradley DG, Ochieng JW, Verjee Y, Hill EW, Rege EJO. "African pastoralism: genetic imprints of origins and migrations." Science. 2002;296(5566):336-9. Abstract

The genetic history of African cattle pastoralism is controversial and poorly understood. We reveal the genetic signatures of its origins, secondary movements, and differentiation through the study of 15 microsatellite loci in 50 indigenous cattle breeds spanning the present cattle distribution in Africa. The earliest cattle originated within the African continent, but Near East and European genetic influences are also identified. The initial expansion of African Bos taurus was likely from a single region of origin. It reached the southern part of the continent by following an eastern route rather than a western one. The B. indicus genetic influence shows a major entry point through the Horn and the East Coast of Africa and two modes of introgression into the continent.

Hans RH, Guantai EM, Carmen L, Smith PJ, Baojie W, Gut J, Franzblau SG, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. "Synthesis, antimalarial and antitubercular activity of acetylenic chalcones.". 2010. Abstract

A series of acetylenic chalcones were evaluated for antimalarial and antitubercular activity. The antimalarial data for this series suggests that growth inhibition of the W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum can be imparted by the introduction of a methoxy group ortho to the acetylenic group. Most compounds were more active against non-replicating than replicating cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, an unusual pattern with respect to existing anti-TB agents

Hansen CP, Lund JF, Treue T. "Neither Fast, Nor Easy: He Prospect of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in Ghana.". 2009. Abstract

On the basis of a detailed case study of the High Forest Zone of Ghana, the paper challenges the common narrative of REDD as being fast and easy. The paper analyses proximate and underlying causes of deforestation and degradation and finds that these processes are driven by multiple underlying causes. The paper goes on to argue that the causes of deforestation and degradation that are found within the realm of the forestry sector, to which REDD measures will be largely confined, have emerged as a result of a political economy that gives priority to economic development over forest conservation, while at the same time allowing powerful interest groups, in particular the political and administrative elite, to financially benefit from resource depletion. The analysis suggests that forest conserving policy reforms are unlikely to come fast and easy, and that the prospect of future REDD payments may not accelerate them. It is argued that the case of Ghana is not unique and that REDD implementation may face similar constraints in many developing countries.

Hansen R, Emborg J, Neergaard M, Dalsgaard S. "The public nature of private forestry.". 1997.
Hansen JW, Mishra A, Rao KPC, Indeje M, Ngugi RK. "Potential value of GCM-based seasonal rainfall forecasts for maize management in semi-arid Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

We estimate the potential value of general circulation model (GCM)-based seasonal precipitation forecasts for maize planting and fertilizer management decisions at two semi-arid locations (Katumani and Makindu) in Southern Kenya. Analyses combine downscaled rainfall forecasts, crop yield simulation, stochastic enterprise budgeting and identification of profit-maximizing fertilizer N rates and stand densities. October–February rainfall predictions were downscaled from a GCM, run with both observed and forecast sea surface temperature boundary conditions – representing upper and lower bounds of predictability – and stochastically disaggregated into daily crop model inputs. Simulated interactive effects of rainfall, N supply and stand density on yield and profit are consistent with literature. Perfect foreknowledge of daily weather for the growing season would be worth an estimated 15–30% of the average gross value of production and 24–69% of average gross margin, depending on location and on whether household labor is included in cost calculations. GCM predictions based on observed sea surface temperatures increased average gross margins 24% at Katumani and 9% at Makindu when labor cost was included. At the lead time used, forecasts using forecast sea surface temperatures are not skillful and showed near-zero value. Forecast value was much more sensitive to grain price than to input costs. Stochastic dominance analysis shows that farmers at any level of risk aversion would prefer the forecast-based management strategy over management optimized for climatology under the study’s assumptions, despite high probability (25% at Katumani, 34% at Makindu) of lower returns in individual years. Results contribute to knowledge of seasonal forecast value in a relatively high-risk, high-predictability context; utility and value of forecasts derived from a GCM; and risk implications of smallholder farmers responding to forecasts.

Hanssen A-M, Ericson Sollid JU. "{SCCmec} in staphylococci: genes on the move." FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology. 2006;46:8-20. AbstractWebsite
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Harbison, J.E., Mathenge, E.M., Misiani, G.O, Mukabana, W.R., Day JF. "A simple method for sampling indoor-resting malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Africa." Journal of Medical Entomology. 2006;43(3):473-479.
Harder V, Mutiso V, Khasakhala L, Ivanova M, Burke H, Ndetei D. "Prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems among Kenyan youth from an urban slum.". 2010.
Hardy DG, Rhoton Jr AL. "Microsurgical relationships of the superior cerebellar artery and the trigeminal nerve." Journal of neurosurgery. 1978;49:669-678. AbstractWebsite
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Harper GW, Ngugi EN, Lemos D, Gikuni A, Riplinger AJ, Hooks K, Hooks K. "Sources of resillience among kenyan youth newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in the nairobi slum of kibera: Implications for intervetion.". 2009. Abstract

Adolescents and young adults who are living with HIV in Kenya comprise a growing percentage of the population. Currently, youth (ages 15-35) represent 38% of the Kenyan population, yet over 60% of new HIV infections occur among this group. In 2008, adolescents and young adults living with HIV accounted for an estimated 6 % of the adolescent population between the ages of 15 and 24 (KDHS, 2009). Of these, the prevalence rates are nearly 6 times higher among young women (2.7% for 15 to 24 year old females; 6.4% for 20 to 24 year old females) as compared to young men (0.7% for 15 to 19 year old males; 1.5% for 20 to 24 year old males) (KDHS, 2009). The difference in prevalence rates among age groups suggests that many youth are becoming infected during adolescence (NASCOP, 2009). Geographic disparities also exist with regards to HIV infection. HIV is more prevalent in urban areas (7.2%) than in rural areas (6.2%). The vast majority ofthe infections are attributed to heterosexual contact in regular partnerships, men who have sex with men, and prisoners (HIV Prevention, Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis, 2009). A study on HIV seroprevalence study found this disparity is even greater in young women aged 15-24 who are four times more likely to become infected with HIV than men of the same age (KDHS, 2009). While having multiple sex partners is seen as a risk factor for HIV transmission, it has also been reported that married persons (6.4%) have higher HIV prevalence rates than nonmarried persons (4.2%) in Kenya, suggesting the need for tailored messages for married partners. Additionally, despite the urgent need for focus on HIV in Kenya, with limited resources there is a need also to focus on urban slum settlements in Kenya as they have higher rates of HIV prevalence than urban regions in general (12% versus 7.1%).

Harper1, M. D, Morrison DEMHJ, Macharia MM, Mavuti KM, Upton C. "Morrison, , Kenneth M. Mavuti and Caroline Upton. 2011. Lake Naivasha, Kenya: ecology, society and future. ." Freshwater Reviews . 2011; (4):89-114.
Harriet J. Kidombo, Peter K’Obonyo, Chistopher M Gakuu. "Human Resource Strategic Orientation and Organizational Commitment in Kenyan Manufacturing Firms." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2012;Vol. 1 (Number 7).ijac_paper_2013.pdf
Harrison, L.J.S, Obiero, G.O, Gumede, SP, Highes, A, McMahon, A.R, Rawatlal, R, MS S. Activation of Linear Alkanes to Oxygenated Intermediates and Products using Genetically Engineered Yeast streams. Richards Bay, South Africa; 2007.
Harry Amuguni Chanzu • John Mmari Onyari, Shiundu PM. "), Biosorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions onto Polylactide/Spent Brewery Grains Films: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." J Polym Environ. 2012;DOI 10.1007/s10924-012-0479-5.
atthew Harsh M, aul Mbatia P, esley Shrum W. "Accountability and Inaction: NGOs and Resource Lodging in Development." Development and Change. 2010;41(2):253-278.
Hartman FC, LaMuraglia GM, Tomozawa Y, Wolfenden R. "The influence of pH on the interaction of inhibitors with triosephosphate isomerase and determination of the pKa of the active-site carboxyl group." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5274-9. Abstract

Ionization effects on the binding of the potential transition state analogues 2-phosphoglycolate and 2-phosphoglycolohydroxamate appear to be attributable to the changing state of ionization of the ligands themselves, therefore it is unnecessary to postulate the additional involvement of an ionizing residue at the active site of triosephosphate isomerase to explain the influence of changing pH on Ki in the neutral range. The binding of the competitive inhibitor inorganic sulfate is insensitive to changing pH in the neutral range. 3-Chloroacetol sulfate, synthesized as an active-site-specific reagent for triosephosphate isomerase, is used to provide an indication of the pKa of the essential carboxyl group of this enzyme. Previously described active-site-specific reagents for the isomerase were phosphate esters, and their changing state of ionization (accompanied by possible changes in their affinity for the active site) may have complicated earlier attempts to determine the pKa of the essential carboxyl group from the pH dependence of the rate of inactivation. Being a strong monoprotic acid, chloroacetol sulfate is better suited to the determination of the pKa of the carboxyl group. Chloroacetol sulfate inactivates triosephosphate isomerase by the selective esterification of the same carboxyl group as that which is esterified by the phosphate esters described earlier. From the pH dependence of the rate of inactivation of yeast triosephosphate isomerase, the apparent pKa of the active-site carboxyl group is estimated as 3.9 +/- 0.1.

Hasegawa S, Hirano R, Okamoto-Nakagawa R, Ichiyama T, Shirabe K. "Enterovirus 68 infection in children with asthma attacks: virus-induced asthma in Japanese children." Allergy. 2011;66:1618-1620. Abstract
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Haselsberger K, Pucher R, Auer LM. "Prognosis after acute subdural or epidural haemorrhage." Acta neurochirurgica. 1988;90:111-116. AbstractWebsite
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Hashim A. "Tradition and Innovation: Muslim Personal Law in Kenya and Tanzania." Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 2005;25(3, December):449-459.tradition_and_innovation.pdf
Hashim A. Reform and Resistance: Fatwa Institutions in Kenya between Traditional Trends and Modern Needs. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: International Islamic University Malaysia; 2008.reform_and_resistance.pdf
Hashim A. "Presumption of Marriage between Muslim Legal Theory and the Practice in Courts." The Law Society of Kenya Journal . 2017;13(1).
Hashim NO, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Rathore IVS. EDXRF analysis of lead and other toxic trace elements in soil samples along two major highways of Kenya.; 1998. Abstract

Adjacent lands along most major highways of Kenya are left as open spaces, or used for small scale farming and grazing of cattle and livestock. Some grass and plants are expected to have high levels of lead and other toxic metals. So far, no study has been carried out to determine the concentrations of toxic metals in soil samples along Thika and Mombasa highways of Kenya. This work is important and essential to the study of the impact of pollution on health and the environment.

Hashim A. Unity within Diversity: Codification and Unification of Muslim Law of Personal Status in East Africa. International University of Africa, Khartoum: International University of Africa; 2006.unity_within_diversity.pdf
HASHIM DRABDULKADIR. Kadhis’ Intellectual legacy in the East African Coast: The contributions of Al-Amin Al-Mazrui, Muhammad Kassim Al-Mazrui and Abdulla Saleh Farsy. Islamic University in Uganda: Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and culture (IRCICA); 2006.kadhis_intellectual_legacy.pdf
Hashim S Mohamed, Agnes Muthumbi, John Githaiga JO. "Sediment macro- and meiobenthic fauna distribution along the Kenyan continental shelf." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2018;17(2):103-116.
Hashim S Mohamed, Agnes Muthumbi, John Githaiga JO. "Sediment macro- and meiobenthic fauna distribution along the Kenyan continental shelf." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2018;17(2):103-116.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Topography of the posterior communicating artery in a Kenyan population.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Awori K.O., Saidi H., Kiptoon K., Acute acalculous cholecystitis in the outpatient setting. East and Centr. Afr. J. Surgery 2006; 11: 48-53.". In: East and Centr. Afr. J. Surgery 2006; 11: 48-53. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

Hassan S, Chavda SK, Magoha GA. "Appendicectomy for recurrent and chronic appendicitis." Tropical doctor. 2007;37:56-57. AbstractWebsite
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HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Variant anatomy of the uterine artery in a Kenyan population. Obimbo MM, Ogengo J, Saidi H. Int J. Gynaecol Obstet. 2010; 1: 49-52.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Olabu B, Ogengo J, Kirsteen A, Saidi H. Variations in the formation of supraclavicular brachial plexus in Kenyans. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2: 9-14.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2: 9-14. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern and prevalence of variations that occur in the supraclavicular part of the brachial plexus in a Kenyan population. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four brachial plexuses from forty-seven formalin fixed cadavers were displayed by gross dissection. RESULTS: The presence of at least one variation from the classical anatomy was observed in 73 (77.7%) of the 94 plexuses. The roots and trunks were involved in 32 (34%) of the plexuses . Pre- and postfixed roots were present in 23 (24.7%) and 3 (3.2%), respectively. The presence of four trunks, and trunks passing between the scalene medius and posterior were also noted. The long thoracic nerve was variant in 51 (54.3%) of the plexuses. Unusual relations of the phrenic nerve to scalene muscles and the subclavian vein were encountered. CONCLUSION: The presence of four trunks and an accessory phrenic nerve passing through the subclavian vein are probably described and reported for the first time. However, most of the variations of the BP among Kenyans are similar to those reported in the other populations.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Kahoro P. East Afr Med J.Experience with road traffic accident victims at The Nairobi Hospital. 2001 Aug;78(8):441-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Aug;78(8):441-4. Surgical society of Kenya; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological data on automobile injuries and to assess the adequacy of road trauma documentation at the Nairobi Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Accident and Emergency Centre of the Nairobi Hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Medical records of randomly selected road trauma patients who presented at The Accident Centre between 1st July 1997 and 31st August 1998 were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age was 32 years with a peak incidence in the 21-30 year age group. Males comprised 63.1% of the injured. The predominant category of the road user injured was the vehicle occupant (70%). Pedestrians only constituted 21.3%. Major city roads or highways were the commonest scenes of injury (38.3%). Most of the responsible vehicles were small personal cars (65.8%). The public service minibuses (popularly known as matatu) caused 20% of the injuries. Most of the injuries were mild and transport of the injured to hospital was uniformly haphazard. A quarter of the injuries were severe enough to warrant admission. Trauma documentation was poor with less than 30% accuracy in most parameters. CONCLUSION: The pre-hospital and initial care of the injured is not systematized. The study calls for re-orientation of trauma care departments to the care of the injured.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Who wants to be a surgeon? A survery of medical students at the University of Nairobi. Mwachaka P, Mbugua E, Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H. Firearm injuries: surgical perspective. East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):105-6.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
No abstract available. 
Hassan R, Njoroge K, Ngure M, Otsyula R, Laboso A. "Adoption patterns and performance of improved maize in Kenya. In: R.M. Hassan, (Ed).". In: Maize Technology Development and Transfer: A GIS application for research planning in Kenya (Chapter 7). CAB International, Oxford and New York; 1998.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi Hassan, Chavda SK , Magoha GA. Appendicectomy for recurrent and chronic appendicitis Tropical Doctor 2007; 37: 56-57.". In: Tropical Doctor 2007; 37: 56-57. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
In recent years, several reports have underlined the possible existence of chronic appendicitis. Up to 38% of spontaneously resolving acute appendicitis may recur. We studied 41 patients operated on between July 2000 and June 2001 for chronic and recurrent appendicitis at a teaching hospital in the city of Nairobi. The patients comprised 17.8% of all patients undergoing surgery for appendicitis during the study period. The majority (65.9%) were females. The faecolith rate was 51.2%. About half of appendices removed for these symptoms were normal at histology. Nearly 70% of the normal appendices contained faecoliths. Symptoms resolved in 90% of faecolith-containing appendices and 87.5% of non-faecolith-containing appendices that were normal on histology.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Nyakiamo J, Faya S.Gunshot injuries as seen at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):188-92.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):188-92. Surgical society of Kenya; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, injury patterns, offender-victim characteristics, treatment and outcome of firearm-related injuries at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Aga Khan Hospital, a major private hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seven patients who presented at the Aga Khan Hospital Accident and Emergency Department (January 1993-December 1998) with firearm injuries and were subsequently hospitalised. There were 97 males and 10 females aged four to 94 years. The mean age was 39 years. RESULTS: The peak incidence was in the 40-49 year age group. The male to female ratio was 10:1. The victim offender was a thug, thief or robber in 74.7% of cases. Law enforcement officers were responsible for 9.4% of the injuries. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) ranged from one to 32 with mean score of 8.25. Injuries involving the extremities were the most prevalent. There were 31 major operations performed. The complication rate was 35.5%. Six (6.5%) of these patients died. CONCLUSION: Gunshot injuries cause profound morbidity and significant mortality. A wider and larger study needs to be undertaken to elucidate the true nature of firearm injuries.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Machoki MS, Saidi H, Ahmed M. Conservative management of a high output enterocutaneous fi stula in abdominal tuberculosis BMJ Case Reports.". In: BMJcases. BMJcases; 2011. Abstract
Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Anatomy teaching: Flexnerian model to contexualized vertical integration? Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg. 2009; 4: 1-2.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Tharao MK, H Saidi, P Kitunguu and JA Ogengo Variant Anatomy of the Hepatic Artery in Adult Kenyans.". In: Eur J. Anat. 2007; 11 (3): 155-161. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
The causes of intra-abdominal masses associated with chronic abdominal pain range from the benign to malignant; common to bizarre and some raise major medical-legal issues. We present a case of a 40-year old African lady who presented with chronic right-sided abdominal pain with an associated mass on the right mid-abdomen. She had had a Caesarian section one year prior to presentation. Antecedent history of surgery and typical imaging features enabled a preoperative diagnosis of abdominal mass secondary to retained surgical gauze. The case illustrates the fallibility of the men and women in the operating theatres and the vital role of correct instrument and sponge counts.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H.S., Chavda S.K.Use of a modified Alvorado score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):411-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):411-4. Surgical society of Kenya; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The negative appendicectomy rates have remained high. The integration of clinical scores into the diagnostic process in acute appendicitis has had the purposes of improving decision making and reducing the negative rates in this common condition. The performance of these score systems have however, not been uniform. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of a modified Alvorado score (1986) to predict groups of patients with suspected appendicitis for definite surgery, observation or discharge from hospital. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a central referral and teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS: One hundred and eighty nine patients with suspected acute appendicitis were studied over a period of twelve months. METHODS: Five symptoms and four signs were assigned numerical values and the patients scored out of a total of 10 points. A score of >7 predicted mandatory operation, 5-6 observation and score 1-4 predicted those not considered for surgery. The decision to operate was the prerogative of the surgeon or surgical resident based on overall clinical suspicion and not the diagnostic score. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with scores >7 was 40.7%. The mean score was 6.02. The mean ages and the gender ratios were similar across score groups. The negative appendicectomy rate was 17.6% for group 1-4, 16.5% for 5-6 and 19.7% for >7. These were similar to the overall negative rate of 18% based on clinical suspicion. The overall sensitivity and sensitivity for the scoring system was 80.3% and 16.8% respectively. CONCLUSION: High scores were found to perform poorly in predicting diagnosis of acute appendicitis preoperatively and in the reduction of negative appendicectomies. The integration of a scoring system does not offer advantage over degree of clinical suspicion.
Hassan M, Agaba M, Bulimo W, Noyes, Brass A, Hinsley T, Iraqi F, Kemp S. "Role of plasma lipids in the susceptibility of laboratory mice to trypanosomosis." In: Rege JEO, Nyamu AM, Sendalo D, eds. The role of biotechnology in animal agriculture to address poverty in Africa: Opportunities and challenges. Proceedings of the 4th All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture and the 31st annual meeting of Tanzania Society for Animal Production, Arusha, . Arusha, Tanzania: TSAP (Tanzania Society for Animal Production), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya.; 2006:. Abstract

The current debate on agricultural biotechnology is, at best, confusing—even to the better informedsections of the public. A complex set of issues, all intertwined, combine to complicate the debate.These include, ethical, moral, socio-economic, political, philosophical and scientific points ofview being expressed. While champions provide fascinating arguments illuminating howbiotechnology could save the world from poverty and hunger, opponents deride it as the doomsdaydevil of agriculture. The rest of the public remain sandwiched between the two camps eitherengaged enough to take a semi-informed stand or indifferent to the discussions.Africa is emerging as one of the frontlines in the battle for acceptance (or otherwise) of agriculturalbiotechnology. For Africa, the debate is occurring at a crucial time. The local policy makers whowill ultimately decide on the future of biotechnology, including genetically modified foods, arebeing pushed and pulled in both directions. Only a few countries, namely Burkina Faso, Egypt,Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe are involved in some form of biotechnology researchor (at least for South Africa) commercial use, especially in crop agriculture. A few of thesecountries have introduced regulations to govern transgenic agriculture.Clearly, biotechnology issues specific to Africa must include crop and animal productivity, foodsecurity, alleviation of poverty and gender equity, and discussions must not be allowed todegenerate into political and philosophical battles, usually led by those who are least affected bythe plight of the poor in the continent. Like any new technology, the risks and benefits ofbiotechnology should be assessed in a cost–benefit analysis framework. The final verdict on awell-tested technology should be untainted by views of zealots on either side of the debate,driven by the needs of the people and supported by solid scientific facts taking into considerationsocial and monetary costs and benefits. In all the debate to date, the application of biotechnologyin animal agriculture has received much less consideration than that for crops. With a focus onthe animal sector of agriculture, this conference was designed to provide opportunity for expertsand policy makers to examine the potential role of the public sector (notably national governmentsin developing countries and development partners), the private sector and public–privatepartnerships that could facilitate North–South transfer of relevant biotechnology.The overall objective of the conference was to provide an opportunity for African scientists andthe broader stakeholder groups of the livestock sector to discuss the potential role of biotechnologyin animal agriculture to improve the livelihoods of African people. The conference aimed toattempt, through discussions of a series of papers, to answer the questions: Is biotechnology amenace or an opportunity to address the pressing needs for sustainable livelihoods of poor people?What are the potentials and limitations/threats of biotechnology? The conference organisersenvisioned that at the end of the conference some of the following questions would have beenaddressed, at least in part: Are there proven technologies currently available which Africa canimmediately take up to address the known constraints? What are the current technical andinstitutional constraints to livestock biotechnology research and development in Africa? Howcan Africa organise itself to take full advantage of available opportunities and to minimise possiblethreats?The conference was organised by the All Africa Society for Animal Production (AASAP) inassociation with the Tanzania Society for Animal Production (TSAP). We would like to expressour gratitude to the sponsors of the conference. Special thanks are due to the Government of theUnited Republic of Tanzania which was a major sponsor and also host of the conference, presentersand authors of papers and posters, our colleagues on the organising committee, institutions,groups and individuals who assisted in one way or the other, and everyone who attended theconference.While the following pages provide a good coverage of the proceedings of the conference, theydo not, indeed could not, cover the sense of enthusiasm and commitment that characterised theconference itself. Contributions were critical, open and frank, but also constructive and objectivein content. The conference atmosphere was truly that of a sense of purpose by a people united toaccomplish a task, i.e. to translate the potential of biotechnology for Africa into improvedlivelihoods for Africa’s people. The collegial atmosphere also provided opportunity for networkingby participants from across the continent and with colleagues from other corners of the globe.Many new friendships were made, old ones strengthened/renewed, and collaborations born. Wehave made no attempt to summarise the outcomes of the wide array of discussions on the manypapers presented in the six sessions of the conference. After the conference, presenters wereasked to submit or revise their papers, taking into account the issues raised during the conferencediscussions. The papers were then subjected to light technical reviews and language editing, thusensuring that the intellectual content remains that of the authors.It is our hope that these proceedings will provide useful reference material for those interested inbiotech applications in animal agriculture in developing countries generally and Africa inparticular.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Nasio N.A., Saidi H. Perforated peptic ulcer disease at Kenyatta National hospital East & Centr. Afr. J. Surg.;14:13-17.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Histomorphometry of the left anterior descending coronary artery among Kenyans. Kilonzi PJ, Saidi HS, Hassanali J, Ogeng’o JA. Eur. J. Med. Res., 2008; 13(suppl 1): 2.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Hassan Saidi, Macharia WM, Atinga J Self-reported alcohol prevalence in an urban traffic trauma population in Kenya East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82(3); 145-148.". In: East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82(3); 145-148. Surgical society of Kenya; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Kenya has a soaring rate of road traffic fatalities. Available evidence suggests significant alcohol-relatedness to trauma. We know little about the prevalence of alcohol-related injuries in Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and pattern of alcohol use in subjects admitted following road traffic accident. DESIGN: A descriptive hospital based survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)- a university affiliated hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: The overall incidence of alcohol use was 26.3%. This was higher in males (29.6%) than females (9.1%). Use was 24.4%, 31.0%, 28.6% and 13.6% in the 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 age groups respectively. The mean ages, pre-hospital times and ISS were similar for the AUG and NAUG. The incidence of males, weekend injuries, night collisions, and pedestrian involvement was 94.4%, 69.4%, 41.7%, 77.8% in the AUG and 83.2%, 35.6%, 19.8% and 61.4% in the NAUG respectively. The incidence of head and extremity injuries in AUG was 27.8% and 50% respectively compared to 11.9% and 66.3% in the NAUG. Treatment costs were higher for the NAUG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a high incidence and potential alcohol-relatedness to road trauma in Nairobi. The study calls for objective evaluation of the extent, interactions and effects of this modifiable trauma factor.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Who wants to be surgeon?". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
A survey of Medical studen Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Webmedcentral:Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010;(9);WMC000793ts at the University Nairobi, Kenya. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Sexual and Partner violence at a Womens’ hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Saidi H., Awori K., Odula P. East Afr. Med. J. 2008; 85: 347-54.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Odhiambo D, De Souza J, Gikenye G, Saidi HS. Radiological anatomy of a cranial malformation in a conjoined dicephalus twin. Eur. J. Anat., 2006; 10 (3): 121-125.". In: Eur. J. Anat., 2006; 10 (3): 121-125. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI, KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2008 May;85(5):244-7.". In: Trop Doct. 2008 Apr;38(2):87-9. Folio Morphol; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty carotid arteries of forty cadavers were dissected. RESULTS: The bifurcation of the commonest carotid artery was high (above the reference points) in 63.8% of vessels and the external carotid was antero-lateral to the internal carotid artery in 30% of the vessels. A linguo-facial trunk was the most common variation of the external carotid artery. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively. CONCLUSION: The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck.
Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland SR. "Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections." Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34(6):384-8. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Variations in the branching pattern of the celiac trunk in a Kenyan population. Mburu KS, Alexander O.J., Hassan Saidi, Bernard N. Int. J. Morph. 2010; 28(1): 199-204.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Ojuka K, Saidi H. Exposure in emergency general surgery in a time-based residency program: A call for review? Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2:15-18.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2:15-18. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to characterize the resident exposure to acute general surgical conditions during a three-months rotation in a general surgical unit. SETTING: The Department of Surgery, University of Nairobi and Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. METHODS: Four residents (in their first to third post-basic science year) were evaluated during a 12-week General Surgery rotation. Details assessed included number and variety of admission diagnoses logged by each resident, number and nature of surgical operations performed independently by each resident and with consultant support, and the resident involvement in the continuity of care. The experiences were compared across the residents. RESULTS: One hundred and forty five patients were admitted. The number of admissions per resident varied between 30 and 41. Fifty-eight patients had surgery. Operative experience where the resident was the principal surgeon ranged from 11 cases to 23 cases per resident. A second resident assisted in 8 out of the fifty-eight cases operated on and consultant support was infrequent. CONCLUSION: The operative experience was variable for the general surgical residents. Exposure could be improved by a policy of resident assistance at emergency surgery. The infrequent consultant support may invalidate formative assessment of resident competence.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Wasike R, Saidi H.Perforated Meckel's diverticulitis presenting as a mesenteric abscess: case report.East Afr Med J. 2006 Oct;83(10):580-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Oct;83(10):580-4. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Kabiru J Fifty consecutive renal transplants- an audit I: 30-day mortality and morbidity. Nairobi hospital proceedings 2001 5(1): 21-28.". In: Nairobi hospital proceedings 2001 5(1): 21-28. Surgical society of Kenya; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological data on automobile injuries and to assess the adequacy of road trauma documentation at the Nairobi Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Accident and Emergency Centre of the Nairobi Hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Medical records of randomly selected road trauma patients who presented at The Accident Centre between 1st July 1997 and 31st August 1998 were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age was 32 years with a peak incidence in the 21-30 year age group. Males comprised 63.1% of the injured. The predominant category of the road user injured was the vehicle occupant (70%). Pedestrians only constituted 21.3%. Major city roads or highways were the commonest scenes of injury (38.3%). Most of the responsible vehicles were small personal cars (65.8%). The public service minibuses (popularly known as matatu) caused 20% of the injuries. Most of the injuries were mild and transport of the injured to hospital was uniformly haphazard. A quarter of the injuries were severe enough to warrant admission. Trauma documentation was poor with less than 30% accuracy in most parameters. CONCLUSION: The pre-hospital and initial care of the injured is not systematized. The study calls for re-orientation of trauma care departments to the care of the injured.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Severe necrotizing infection of the perineum: Beyond necrosectomy. Abdihakin M, Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg., 2010; 5: 39-43.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Biometric features of facial foramina in adult Kenyan skulls. Ongeti K., Hassanali J, Ogeng�o J, Saidi H. Eur J Anat 2008; 21(1): 89-95.". In: Eur J Anat 2008; 21(1): 89-95. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
Several studies have indicated ethnic, age and sex-related variations in the position and size of the facial foramina. The present study reports the biometric features of the mental foramen (MF), and infraorbital (10), supraorbital (SO), and zygomaticofacial (ZF) foramina in a sample of adult Kenyan skulls. One hundred and four adult human skulls were evaluated for the sizes, positions, multiplicity, syrnmetry and geometries of the MF, 10, SO, and ZF foramina. Our observations reveal that the MF was present in all 104 skulls. The distance of the mental foramina from the symphysis menti ranged from 16.5 mm ro 34.0 mm. The 10 foramina were multiple in 5% of the skulls. The 10 foramen was positioned 6.26: +/-1.8 mm from the inferior orbital margin and 32.87: t3 mm from the superior alveolar margins, respectively. The distance from the superior alveolar pracess was greater in males. The distance of the MF, IO and SO from the midline was about 27 mm. ZF were absent in 3-4% of the skulls and multiple in 50% of the skulls. Ten percent of the supraorbital passages were foramina; 60% were notches, while the rest were both notches and foramina. In conclusion, the biometric characteristics of the facial foramina reveal variations in Kenyan skulls. Clinicians operating in this are a should be aware of this anatomy and dimorphic sexual features when anaesthetizing and operating in the facial region.
Hassan R, Corbett J, Njoroge K. "Maize Technology Development and Transfer: A GIS application for research planning in Kenya (Chapter 4) (Chapter 4). .". In: ). Combining geo-referenced survey data with agro-climate attributes to characterize maize production systems in Kenya. In: R.M. Hassan (Ed). CAB International, Oxford and New York:; 1998.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Awori M, Kibira G. Blunt colon injury and multiple organ failure (MOF) syndrome; a case report. EAMSJ 2002; 1(1) 34-36.". In: EAMSJ 2002; 1(1) 34-36. Surgical society of Kenya; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, injury patterns, offender-victim characteristics, treatment and outcome of firearm-related injuries at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Aga Khan Hospital, a major private hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seven patients who presented at the Aga Khan Hospital Accident and Emergency Department (January 1993-December 1998) with firearm injuries and were subsequently hospitalised. There were 97 males and 10 females aged four to 94 years. The mean age was 39 years. RESULTS: The peak incidence was in the 40-49 year age group. The male to female ratio was 10:1. The victim offender was a thug, thief or robber in 74.7% of cases. Law enforcement officers were responsible for 9.4% of the injuries. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) ranged from one to 32 with mean score of 8.25. Injuries involving the extremities were the most prevalent. There were 31 major operations performed. The complication rate was 35.5%. Six (6.5%) of these patients died. CONCLUSION: Gunshot injuries cause profound morbidity and significant mortality. A wider and larger study needs to be undertaken to elucidate the true nature of firearm injuries.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Onget KW, Ogeng.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg. J Morph Sci; 2011. Abstract
Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI, D K, EO. N. "Correlation of clinical data, anatomical site and disease stage in colorectal cancer. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jun;85(6):259-62.". Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the colorectal cancer clinical data with respect to the anatomical location and stage of disease. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fifty three tumours were categorised as right colonic (RCC), left colonic (LCC) and rectal (RC) lesions. The distribution of symptoms (rectal bleeding, tenesmus, change in bowel habits, abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, rectal mass), anaemia, transfusion requirement, and the Dukes' stages were compared for right colon, left colon and rectal tumours. RESULTS: There were 54 RCC, 59 LCC, 140 RC lesions. Patient delay from onset of symptom(s) to presentation was a mean of 26.6 +/- 43, 20 +/- 25 and 33.7 +/- 42 weeks for right, left and rectal lesions respectively (p = 0.092). The proportion of patients presenting with rectal bleeding was 21%, 44% and 79% for RCC, LCC and RC lesions, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal obstruction was 14.8%, 27.1% and 43.6% in right, left and rectal lesions, respectively. The haemoglobin levels were significantly lower for right sided lesions (p = 0.05 for right colon/rectum pair; p = 0.059 for right colon/left colon pair). The sites of the lesions had no relationship to the stage of disease at presentation. CONCLUSION: In patients with colorectal cancer, the duration of symptoms was prolonged irrespective of the anatomical sub-sites. Symptoms were evenly distributed across the anatomical regions except for bleeding and obstruction which predominated in rectal and left colon cancers respectively. This underlines the need for early investigations in patients with rectal bleeding, change of bowel habit, intestinal obstruction and anaemia.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Olabu B, Saidi H , Ogengo J, Kirsteen A, Prevalence and distribution of the third coronary artery in Kenyans.Int. J. Morphol. 2007;25(4): 851-854.". In: Int. J. Morphol. 2007;25(4): 851-854. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Ndonga A Patient and allograft survival after transplantation with living donor kidneys; 14 years experience East & Centr. Afr. J Surg. 2003; 8(1); 19-24.". In: East & Centr. Afr. J Surg. 2003; 8(1); 19-24. Surgical society of Kenya; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The negative appendicectomy rates have remained high. The integration of clinical scores into the diagnostic process in acute appendicitis has had the purposes of improving decision making and reducing the negative rates in this common condition. The performance of these score systems have however, not been uniform. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of a modified Alvorado score (1986) to predict groups of patients with suspected appendicitis for definite surgery, observation or discharge from hospital. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a central referral and teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS: One hundred and eighty nine patients with suspected acute appendicitis were studied over a period of twelve months. METHODS: Five symptoms and four signs were assigned numerical values and the patients scored out of a total of 10 points. A score of >7 predicted mandatory operation, 5-6 observation and score 1-4 predicted those not considered for surgery. The decision to operate was the prerogative of the surgeon or surgical resident based on overall clinical suspicion and not the diagnostic score. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with scores >7 was 40.7%. The mean score was 6.02. The mean ages and the gender ratios were similar across score groups. The negative appendicectomy rate was 17.6% for group 1-4, 16.5% for 5-6 and 19.7% for >7. These were similar to the overall negative rate of 18% based on clinical suspicion. The overall sensitivity and sensitivity for the scoring system was 80.3% and 16.8% respectively. CONCLUSION: High scores were found to perform poorly in predicting diagnosis of acute appendicitis preoperatively and in the reduction of negative appendicectomies. The integration of a scoring system does not offer advantage over degree of clinical suspicion.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Sex variation in occurrence of myocardium in the human mitral valve cusps. Gatonga P., Odula P.O., Saidi H., Mandela P. Int. J. Morph. 2009; 27(4): 1217-1222.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Karanja TM, Ogengo JA.Variant anatomy of the cystic artery in adult Kenyans. Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Hassan Saidi, Adari G Primary breast sarcoma; a case report East Afr. Med J. 2004; 81: 375-377.". In: East Afr. Med J. 2004; 81: 375-377. Surgical society of Kenya; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Kenya has a soaring rate of road traffic fatalities. Available evidence suggests significant alcohol-relatedness to trauma. We know little about the prevalence of alcohol-related injuries in Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and pattern of alcohol use in subjects admitted following road traffic accident. DESIGN: A descriptive hospital based survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)- a university affiliated hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: The overall incidence of alcohol use was 26.3%. This was higher in males (29.6%) than females (9.1%). Use was 24.4%, 31.0%, 28.6% and 13.6% in the 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 age groups respectively. The mean ages, pre-hospital times and ISS were similar for the AUG and NAUG. The incidence of males, weekend injuries, night collisions, and pedestrian involvement was 94.4%, 69.4%, 41.7%, 77.8% in the AUG and 83.2%, 35.6%, 19.8% and 61.4% in the NAUG respectively. The incidence of head and extremity injuries in AUG was 27.8% and 50% respectively compared to 11.9% and 66.3% in the NAUG. Treatment costs were higher for the NAUG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a high incidence and potential alcohol-relatedness to road trauma in Nairobi. The study calls for objective evaluation of the extent, interactions and effects of this modifiable trauma factor.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Severe necttrotising infection of the perineum: Beyond Necrosectomy.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:39-43. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
A survey of Medical studen Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Webmedcentral:Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010;(9);WMC000793ts at the University Nairobi, Kenya. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Variations in the formation of supraclavicular brachial plexus in Kenyans. Olabu B, Ogeng’o J, Kirsteen A, Saidi H. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2008; 2: 9-14.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Macharia WM, Atinga JEO Outcome for hospitalized road trauma patients at a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Eur. J. Trauma; 2005; 31: 401-6.". In: Eur. J. Trauma; 2005; 31: 401-6. Surgical society of Kenya; 2005. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Histomorphometric evidence of early onset coronary artery disease among Kenyans. Ogeng’o JA, Kilonzi J, Saidi H, Hassanali J. Afr. J. Hosp. Med. 2010; 19-24: 11-14.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Kitunguu P., Ogengo JA. Variant anatomy of the anterior cerebral artery in Adult Kenyans. Afr. J. Neurol. Sci.2008; 27: 97 - 105.". In: Afr. J. Neurol. Sci.2008; 27: 97 - 105. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H., Macharia W, Atinga J. Crash and road-user characteristics in non-fatal motor vehicle collisions in Nairobi, Kenya Afr. Safety Promotion Journal 2006; 4: 50-58.". In: Afr. Safety Promotion Journal 2006; 4: 50-58. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: Is it of surgical significance? Mwachaka P.M., Saidi H., Odula P.O., Awori K.O., Kaisha W.O. Clinical Anatomy 2010; 23: 84-86.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Njeru, E.K., Mutiso, V.M., Saidi H, Mak.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg.2008; 3: 3-9. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Mutebi , Abdalla A., Saidi H. Acute pancreatitis at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi: a two year audit. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2007; 1: 60-65.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg. 2007; 1: 60-65. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007.
Hassan S, RA Skilton, R Pelle OD, RP Bishop, J Ahmed SBSMHAMEHUM. "Assessment of the prevalence of Theileria lestoquardi in sheep from the Sudan using serological and molecular methods." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2019;169:104697.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Olumbe AO, Saidi H.S.Coronary arterial vessels in relation to sudden cardiac death: a review. .East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):185-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):185-9. Surgical society of Kenya; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review literature on the coronary vascular factors related to the syndrome of sudden cardiac death. DATA SOURCE/SYNTHESIS: Major published articles and case reports on the nature of sudden cardiac death were searched electronically (Medline, Internet) and through hand scanning. Comparison of the different studies with regard to common themes was undertaken and consensus opinions highlighted. RESULTS: The aetiology of sudden cardiac death is diverse. Many conditions, hitherto considered benign, including coronary arterial anomalies and muscle bridges have been shown to cause sudden cardiac death. Coronary atherosclerosis, hypoplastic coronary vessels, coronary artery dissections are the commoner causes. The role of coronary arterial thrombi is controversial. The protective role of exercise is seriously questioned by the many reports of sudden cardiac death in long distance runners. CONCLUSION: Cases of sudden cardiac death are increasingly being reported. As a minimum, autopsy worksheets for cases of sudden death should include atherosclerosis, congenital coronary anomalies, tunneling of coronary vessels and hyposplastic vessels in addition to valvular and myocardial disorders.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Topography of the posterior communicating artery in a Kenyan population. Sinkeet R, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 37-40.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI, KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2008 May;85(5):244-7.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty carotid arteries of forty cadavers were dissected. RESULTS: The bifurcation of the commonest carotid artery was high (above the reference points) in 63.8% of vessels and the external carotid was antero-lateral to the internal carotid artery in 30% of the vessels. A linguo-facial trunk was the most common variation of the external carotid artery. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively. CONCLUSION: The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H., Anangwe D., Ogeng.". In: Ann. Afr. Surgery 2007; 1: 56-59. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
Background: The sigmoid colon in Africans is commonly affected by volvulus formation. Anatomical characteristics of this part of the colon could provide some of the contributory explanations for male gender predisposition. Method: Ninety five sigmoid colons (fifty  male subjects) were harvested at autopsy. The following measurements were made: length of the sigmoid colon, length of the mesocolon root, height of the mesocolon. The sigmoid length.mesocolic root length ratio and sigmoid length:mesocolic height ratios were also calculated. All means and ratios were compared for gender using the Student t-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean sigmoid colon length was higher in males (36.9cm) than in females (32.6cm) (p=0.007). Most (41.7%) of the sigmoid colons measured 30-34.9cm long. Males had shorter mesocolon roots and longer mesocolon heights. Conclusion: The greater colon length and smaller mesocolic root lengths in males may be the anatomical basis for the higher incidence of sigmoid volvulus in males.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Olumbe AO, Kalebi. Anatomy and pathology of coronary artery in adult black Kenyans. A.East Afr Med J. 2002 Jun;79(6):323-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jun;79(6):323-7. Surgical society of Kenya; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of coronary arterial anatomy and prevalence of postmortem coronary pathology in adult Kenyan Africans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Nairobi City Mortuary and the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. METHOD: One hundred hearts were retrieved during consecutive autopsies over a three month duration and systematically dissected. Details on coronary ramification, dominance, atherosclerosis, tunnelling and hypoplastic segments were obtained and statistically analysed. RESULTS: Seven patterns of left coronary ramifications were identified. The right coronary artery anomalously exited from the left coronary sinus in one situation. There were separate ostia for the coronary artery branches in 2% and 31 % of cases on the left and right coronary systems respectively. The right coronary artery was dominant in 82% of the hearts. Coronary ostial sizes and luminal dimensions showed wide variations. Only two of the hearts had atheromatous luminal narrowing greater than 75% of the cross-sectional area. Muscle bridges of average depths of 1.1-2 mm were demonstrable in 29% of the autopsies. Diminutive left anterior descending artery was present in four cases. The right coronary artery was diminutive in one case. CONCLUSION: Coronary atherosclerosis is still a rarity in the setting within which the study was undertaken. The diverse patterns of ramifications of the coronary tree begs for caution during coronary investigations and interventional procedures. Coronary arterial anomalies, myocardial bridges, atheroma and diminutive arteries should be considered in cases of sudden cardiac death in the absence of other pathologies.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Experience with Hirchprung’s disease at a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Ongeti K, Saidi H., Ogeng’o J, Tharao M. Ann Afr. Surg. 2009; 4: 8-12.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Mohammed U, Machoki M.An unusual abdominal mass: case report.East Afr Med J. 2007 Feb;84(2):88-92.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Feb;84(2):88-92. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
The causes of intra-abdominal masses associated with chronic abdominal pain range from the benign to malignant; common to bizarre and some raise major medical-legal issues. We present a case of a 40-year old African lady who presented with chronic right-sided abdominal pain with an associated mass on the right mid-abdomen. She had had a Caesarian section one year prior to presentation. Antecedent history of surgery and typical imaging features enabled a preoperative diagnosis of abdominal mass secondary to retained surgical gauze. The case illustrates the fallibility of the men and women in the operating theatres and the vital role of correct instrument and sponge counts.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H.S. Initial injury care in Nairobi, Kenya: a call for trauma care regionalisation..East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):480-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):480-3. Surgical society of Kenya; 2003. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe the emergency care of injuries at a main city hospital. DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Data were collected between February 1st, 1999 and 30th April, 1999 from the records of the 2000 bed Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and forty injury patients admitted at KNH were analysed. METHODS: All patients were analysed for demographics, environment of injury hospital arrival and Emergency Department times. The effects of injury severity, place of injury and time of day on these time intervals were analysed statistically. RESULTS: Road injury admissions formed 31% of all injury admissions. The mean age was 30 years. Males comprised 84.6% of all patients. The proportions of patients under 20 years of age was 20% with a peak age of 20-29 years. Majority (43.3%) of the injured resided in deprived neighbourhood of East Nairobi. The mean pre-hospital time was 2.56 hours. The Emergency Department disposition time was 3.36 hours. Injuries of all severities, as determined by the Injury Severity Score (ISS), were treated. The pace of care did not match severity of the injuries. Only 17.5% reached their areas of definitive care within sixty minutes. CONCLUSION: Injuries following road traffic accidents (RTAs) are common in Nairobi. The response to injury is slow and haphazard. The insitution of a care incorporating the city's health centers and pre-hospital triage may optimise care.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Ongeti KW, Ogengo J. Morphology f human myocardial bridges and association with coronary artery disease. Afr Health Sci;2010: 10: 242-47.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:39-43. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
A survey of Medical studen Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Webmedcentral:Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010;(9);WMC000793ts at the University Nairobi, Kenya. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Colorectal Cancer Surgery Trends in Kenya. Saidi H, Nyaim EO, Githaiga JW, Karuri D. 1993-2005. World Journal of Surgery, 2008; 32: 217-223.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Chavda S, Saidi Hassan, Magoha G Acute appendicitis at Kenyatta National hospital; an audit East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82: 527-531.". In: East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82: 527-531. Surgical society of Kenya; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Appendicitis still remains a diagnostic challenge particularly in women and extremes of age. The incidence of appendicectomy for suspected appendicitis is higher but declining in the developed countries in contrast with a low but increasing incidence in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of appendicitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, with emphasis on epidemiological oddities. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a 2000 bed teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya SUBJECTS: One hundred and eighty nine patients managed for suspected acute appendicitis between July 2000 and June 2001. RESULTS: There were 116 males and 73 females. The peak incidence was in the third decade. Sixty four percent of patients were below 30 years of age. The elderly (< 60 years of age) accounted for 1.6% of cases. The rate of false appendicectomy was 18.0%. This rate of negative appendicectomies was 12.9% for males and 30.1% for females. The rate of perforation/gangrene was 29.7%. Hospital stay averaged 6.4 days. Overall morbidity was 12.3%. It was 19.4% in perforated appendicitis and 7.6% in non-perforated appendicitis. There was no mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence of appendicitis has increased at Kenyatta National Hospital over the last 30 years. The disease is common in men in their third decade. These odd characteristics warrant further investigations.
Hassanali J, Amwayi P, Muriithi A. "Removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in Kenyan rural Maasai.". 1995. Abstract

The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase

Hatcher AM, Romito P, Odero M, Bukusi EA, Onono M, Turan JM. "Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: implications for the health of pregnant women.". 2013. Abstract

More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women and four with male partners, and in-depth interviews with service providers, we explored the social context of IPV using an ecological model. We found that women experienced physical and sexual IPV, but also economic violence such as forced exile from the marital home or losing material support. Relationship triggers of IPV included perceived sexual infidelity or transgressing gender norms. Women described hiding antenatal HIV testing from partners, as testing was perceived as a sign of infidelity. Extended families were sometimes supportive, but often encouraged silence to protect the family image. The broader community viewed IPV as an intractable, common issue, which seemed to normalise its use. These results resonate with global IPV research showing that factors beyond the individual - gender roles in intimate partnerships, family dynamics and community norms - shape high rates of violence.

Hatcher J, Smith A, Mackenzie I, Thompson S, Bal I, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Okoth-Olende C, Oburra H, Wanjohi Z. "A prevalence study of ear problems in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, May 1992.". 2011. Abstract

Information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and related ear pathologies in children in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A pilot study for a clinical trial of simple treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, provided information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and ear pathologies. Five-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-eight children from 57 randomly chosen primary schools in Kiambu district were examined. Simple otoscopy was performed by clinical officers with specialty training in ENT, and hering testing was performed by trained nurses, using a hand held field audiometer. Microbiological specimens were obtained from those children with CSOM. Five-point-six percent of the children had a hearing impairment of > 30 dB HL in one or both ears, with 2.2% having bilateral hearing impairment. Two-point-four percent had at least one perforated tympanic membrane, and 1.1% had CSOM. Eight-point-six percent of the children had wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. There is evidence of a relationship between hearing impairment and both CSOM and wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. The most common organisms found were Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Proteus spp. (34%) and Eschericia coli (19%). These results are comparable with other studies in Africa and indicate a considerable burden of ear disease in Kiambu district, Kenya

Hattori M, Frazier J, Miles HT. "Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid): formation of ordered self-structures and interaction with poly(cytidylic acid)." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5033-45. Abstract

Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid) has in neutral solution a novel ordered structure of high stability. The 8-amino group permits formation of three hydrogen bonds between two residues along the "top", or long axis, of the purines. The usual hydrogen bonding protons and Watson-Crick pairing sites are not involved in the association. The bonding scheme has a twofold rotation axis and is hemiprotonated at N(7). Poly(8NH2G) is converted by alkaline titration (pK = 9.7) to a quite different ordered structure, which is the favored form over the range approximately pH 10-11. The bonding scheme appears to be composed of a planar, tetrameric array of guanine residues, in which the 8-amino group does not participate in interbase hydrogen bonding. Poly (8NH2G) does not interact with poly(C) in neutral solution because of the high stability of the hemiprotonated G-G self-structure. Titration to the alkaline plateau, however, permits ready formation of a two-stranded Watson-Crick helix. In contrast to the monomer 8NH2GMP, poly(8NH2G) does not form a triple helix with poly(C) under any conditions. The properties of the ordered structures are interpreted in terms of a strong tendency of the 8-amino group to form a third interbase hydrogen bond, when this possibility is not prevented by high pH.

Hattori M, Frazier J, Miles HT. "Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid): formation of ordered self-structures and interaction with poly(cytidylic acid)." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5033-45. Abstract

Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid) has in neutral solution a novel ordered structure of high stability. The 8-amino group permits formation of three hydrogen bonds between two residues along the "top", or long axis, of the purines. The usual hydrogen bonding protons and Watson-Crick pairing sites are not involved in the association. The bonding scheme has a twofold rotation axis and is hemiprotonated at N(7). Poly(8NH2G) is converted by alkaline titration (pK = 9.7) to a quite different ordered structure, which is the favored form over the range approximately pH 10-11. The bonding scheme appears to be composed of a planar, tetrameric array of guanine residues, in which the 8-amino group does not participate in interbase hydrogen bonding. Poly (8NH2G) does not interact with poly(C) in neutral solution because of the high stability of the hemiprotonated G-G self-structure. Titration to the alkaline plateau, however, permits ready formation of a two-stranded Watson-Crick helix. In contrast to the monomer 8NH2GMP, poly(8NH2G) does not form a triple helix with poly(C) under any conditions. The properties of the ordered structures are interpreted in terms of a strong tendency of the 8-amino group to form a third interbase hydrogen bond, when this possibility is not prevented by high pH.

Hauschild.W., Mutiso PBCand PCM. "Prenyladterocarpanes from Erythrina melalacantha." Nat.Prod. Comm . 2010;5:721-724.
Hawary, El., Yumoto, K., Yamazaki, Y., Mahrous, A., Ghamry, E., Meloni, A., Badi K, Kianji, G., Uiso CBS, Mwiinga N, Joao, L., Affluo, T., Sutcliffe, P.R., Mengestu, G., Baki, P., Abe, Ikeda, A., Fujimoto A. Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa, Earth and planets Space. Earth and planets space; 2012.
Hawary ELR, Yumoto K, Yamazaki Y, Mahrous A, Ghamry E, Meloni A, Badi K, Kianji G, Uiso CBS, Mwinge N, Joao L, Affluo T, Malinga S, Mengeshtu G, Baki P. Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa, Earth and planets Space. KOGOSHIMA, JAPAN; 2009.
Hayano Y, Yamamoto N. "Activity-{Dependent} {Thalamocortical} {Axon} {Branching}." The Neuroscientist. 2008;14:359-368. AbstractWebsite
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Hayashi Y, Fukuda H, Matsuura T, Toda K. "Oral hygiene status among the Elderly in an area with limited access to dental services in a rural Kenyan community." Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health 2017. 2017;4(402).
Hayes, P. FO-MMKRKMNGJE, O. Anzala, F. Roman BBEEHSFPCPBJM, and Gilmour J. "Assessment of Viral Inhibition Activity in Low Seroprevalent Adenovirus-35 Vectored Hiv Vaccines+/- Adjuvanted Protein or Electroporated DNA." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 1:A188.
Hayford A, Joseph OO, Afra N. "Green Marketing Orientation (GMO) and Performance of SMEs in Ghana." American Journal of Management. 2017;11(1):99-109.amegbe_owino__nuwasiima_2017.pdf
Hazlett, DT; Bowmer MI; NFD'costa RAR; AGRH; L; L;. "ademba.". 1984. Abstract

PIP: Of 110 males selected for review with possible chancroid, 96 were clinically diagnosed as having chancroid, 7 as having herpetic lesions, and 7 as having syphilis. Of the 96 patients diagnosed clinically as chancroid, 76 (79.2%) were culture positive for H. ducreyi. 9 (9.4%) of these 96 patients yielded Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). Both HSV and H. ducreyi were isolated from 5 of the patients, and from 4 of the patients HSV alone was isolated. 7 patients (6.4%) were clinically diagnosed as having herpetic ulcers. 5 of these grew HSV. Overall, 14 of the 110 patients (12.7%) yielded HSV. 1 patient, who presented with small vesicular lesions characteristic of HSV, yielded the virus on culture. The vesicles were initially negative for H. ducreyi, but 6 days later he had developed deep purulent ulcers in the same sites as the vesicular lesions and became culture positive for H. ducreyi snd HSV-negative. The possible association between HSV and chancroid is discussed in the light of these findings and comparisons made between the results of the present study and earlier findings made in Kenya and elsewhere, with suggestions being given as to the reasons for the apparent differences. The HSV isolation techniques used in this study may be less sensitive than those used in other studies, but it is highly unlikely that this possibility alone accounts for all of the observed differences. Patients with hepetic ulcers may be less likely to present early in the course of the disease, if at all, believing the infection to be minor and one that will heal on its own. It is also possible that HSV infection is less common in Kenya, either alone or as an initiator of chancroid, than in the US or Europe, becuase of a higher rate of childhood HSV infections in Kenya, which may confer a degree of immunity against genital HSV infection in this population. The lower prevalence of HSV in association with H. ducreyi reported may be at least partly the result of a much higher incidence in Kenya of chancroid which is not initiated by HSV. A higher incidence of HSV genital infection in Europe and America would also make it more likely that HSV would fortuitously be isolated more frequently from H. ducreyi positive lesions.

He LQ, Njambi L, Nyamori JM, Nyenze EM, Kimani K, Matende I, Rono H, Njom V, Bett J, Mukuria M, Gachago M, Roberts H, Dimaras H. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics Services in Resource-Limited Countries: The Case of Retinblastoma in Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;17(4):221-227.
Headmond P, Wangia S, Magomere T. "Effectiveness of community radio in disseminating market information among small holder maize farmers: Experience from Suba Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research. 2017;6(3)(ISSN):2278-0211.
of health M, of Nairobi U. kenya national oral health survey. kenya: ministry of health; 2015.kenya_national_oral_health_survey_report_2015.pdf
Heap RB. "Prostaglandins in pyometrial fluid from the cow, bitch and ferret." Br. J. Pharmacol.. 1975;55(4):515-8. Abstract

1 Pyometra is a disorder of the uterus usually associated with bacterial infection plus obstruction. 2 Large quantities of fluid often collect in the uterus during this condition. 3 Pyometrial fluid obtained from three species was found to contain prostaglandin F2alpha, usually in large quantities. 4 Prostaglandin E2 was present in smaller quantities in five of the six samples. 5 These findings are discussed in relation to the known occurrence of prostaglandins in inflammatory fluid, and to the problem of infertility.

Hedden-Dunkhorst B;, Denich M;, Mburu J;, Mendoza-Escalante A;, Borner J. "Assessing Technological Innovations for Smallholder Agriculture in the Eastern Amazon Region — Implications for Technology Adoption and Dissemination."; 2004. Abstract

Over the last four decades smallholder agriculture in the Amazon region continuously adapted to changing economic conditions. This had environmental implications on a local and global scale. In order to reduce pressure on the environment as well as poverty through sustainable production, technological innovations need to be ecologically sound, economically viable, and socially acceptable at the same time. Various research activities currently conducted in the Amazon region investigate the potential of alternative technologies for smallholder agriculture. The session presents selected findings of a research project carried out by the Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, and its Brazilian partners (Embrapa Amazˆonia Oriental and Federal University of Par´a — NAEA, Bel´em) during the past twelve years. The project developed, tested, and economically evaluated fire-free alternatives to slash-and-burn practices in the eastern Amazon region. The fire-free technologies aim at maintaining the existing fallow system while integrating “modern”, productivity increasing inputs like fertiliser and mechanisation. Fallowing provides important economic and ecological services, such as temporary carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation, which most technologies for continuous cropping do not accomplish. The presentations first introduce various technologies for smallholders that are currently under investigation. Secondly, a cost-benefit analysis of on-farm trial data highlights the private and social determinants of technology profitability. Moreover, results of a profit function analysis based on representative farm household data reveal the quantitative importance of fallow as a production factor and the role of fertiliser and product prices in production decisions. Finally, the impact of technology adoption on land use and household welfare is assessed in a set of technology and policy simulations using a bio-economic farm-household model including uncertainty. The results indicate that the economic impact of environmental degradation is still too low for many farmers to switch from traditional technologies to more sustainable — but cost and / or labour intensive — technologies without substantial government support. Moreover, institutional frame conditions and infrastructure at the municipal level favour technological innovation in some districts, while holding it back in others. Especially, in the latter areas, cash and liquidity constraints represent the main obstacle to technological innovation among smallholders. Concluding remarks reflect on: 1. the research design and the methodological approaches employed in the project, 2. interdisciplinary research that combines ecological as well as socio-economic aspects, 3. and the need to adopt a broader perspective including technological and institutional innovations to stimulate farmers’ adoption behaviour. Finally, a discussion of implications for policy action that arise from the project findings will open the session to a broader debate.

HEDIMBI M, KAAYA GP, CHINSEMBU KC. " Mortalities induced by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to different ticks of economic importance using two formulations." International Research Journal of Microbiology. 2011;2:141-145.
HEDIMBI M, Singh S, KAAYA GP, Chimwamurombe P. Improvement of fungal formulations for tick control using oils and sunscreens.; 2006.
HEDIMBI, M., KAAYA GP, SAMISH M, GINDIN, G., GLAZER I. "Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to the red-legged tick, Rhipicephalus evertsi everts." Journal of Entomology and Nematology. 2011;3(7): 68-72.
HEDIMBI M, KAAYA GP, Singh, CHIMWAMUROMBE, P.M., GINDIN, G., GLAZER I, SAMISH M. "Protection of metarhizium anisopliae conidia from ultra-violet radiation and their pathogenicity to Rhipicephalusevertsi evertsi ticks." Experimental and Applied Acarology. 2008;46:149-156.
HEDIMBI, M., P. KAAYAG, M. CHIMWAMUROMBEP. "Infections and mortalities induced by Metarhizium anisopliae in various developmental stages of the red-legged tick Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi using 2 formulations." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 2009;80(2):129.
HEDIMBI, M., KAAYA GP, Singh S, CHIMWAMUROMBE, P.M. "Improvement of fungal formulations for tick control using oils and sunscreens.". In: PARSA 2006. Windhoek, Namibia; 2007.
Heffron R, Were E, Celum C, Mugo N, Ngure K, Kiarie J, Baeten JM. "A prospective study of contraceptive use among African women in HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships." Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37(10):621-8. Abstract

Dual contraception is important for averting HIV-1 transmission, unintended pregnancy, and maternal-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Few studies have explored contraceptive use in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, a population at high risk for HIV-1 transmission.

Heffron R, Donnell D, Kiarie J, Rees H, Ngure K, Mugo N, Were E, Celum C, Baeten JM. "A prospective study of the effect of pregnancy on CD4 counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected women." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2014;65(2):231-6. Abstract

In HIV-1-infected women, CD4 count declines occur during pregnancy, which has been attributed to hemodilution. However, for women who have not initiated antiretroviral therapy, it is unclear if CD4 declines are sustained beyond pregnancy and accompanied by increased viral levels, which could indicate an effect of pregnancy on accelerating HIV-1 disease progression.

Heffron R, Were E, Celum C, Mugo N, Ngure K, Kiarie J, Baeten JM. "A prospective study of contraceptive use among African women in HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships.". 2010. Abstract

Dual contraception is important for averting HIV-1 transmission, unintended pregnancy, and maternal-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Few studies have explored contraceptive use in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, a population at high risk for HIV-1 transmission. METHODS: Data from a prospective study of 3407 women in HIV-1 heterosexual serodiscordant partnerships were analyzed to describe use and correlates of contraception. RESULTS: Among 2298 HIV-1 seropositive women, 23.5% used contraception at enrollment and 30.2% used contraception after 24 months of follow-up; among 1109 HIV-1 seronegative women, contraceptive use decreased from 21.3% to 14.2%. For both HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative women, contraceptive use was less common among women from East Africa compared to women from southern Africa (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.8 and AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8, respectively) and more common among women with at least one child (AOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-3.4 and AOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.5, respectively). Condom use increased significantly during follow-up from 71.2% to 92.6% and 73.5% to 95.6% among HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative women, respectively, at baseline and 24 months. However, contraceptive use was associated with unprotected sexual activity among both HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative women (AOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5 and AOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8, respectively), although not among women who initiated contraception during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Counseling and provision of dual contraception should receive high priority in programs that care for women in HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships.

Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H, Celum C, Mugo N, Were E, de Bruyn G, Nakku-Joloba E, Ngure K, Kiarie J, Coombs RW, Baeten JM. "Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study." Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(1):19-26. Abstract

Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. We aimed to assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their male partners.

Heffron R, Mugo N, Ngure K, Celum C, Donnell D, Were E, Rees H, Kiarie J, Baeten JM. "Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 disease progression." AIDS. 2013;27(2):261-7. Abstract

For HIV-1-infected women, hormonal contraception prevents unintended pregnancy, excess maternal morbidity, and vertical HIV-1 transmission. Hormonal contraceptives are widely used but their effects on HIV-1 disease progression are unclear.

Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H, Celum C, Mugo N, Were E, de Bruyn G, Nakku-Joloba E, Ngure K, Kiarie J, Coombs RW, Baeten JM. "Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study." Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(1):19-26. Abstract

Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. We aimed to assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their male partners.

Heffron R, Mugo N, Ngure K, Celum C, Donnell D, Were E, Rees H, Kiarie J, Baeten JM. "Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 disease progression." AIDS. 2013;27(2):261-7. Abstract

For HIV-1-infected women, hormonal contraception prevents unintended pregnancy, excess maternal morbidity, and vertical HIV-1 transmission. Hormonal contraceptives are widely used but their effects on HIV-1 disease progression are unclear.

Hegde D, Hegde SD. "Variables in right iliac fossa anatomy and their relevance to appendicectomy: improving knowledge and practices." Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2008;21:165-170. Abstract

The anatomy of the right iliac fossa was reappraised with the intention of improving, open appendicectomy. The surface anatomy was studied on volunteers and the internal topography was examined during the operation of appendicectomy. Our findings vary slightly from prevailing knowledge which is mostly based on cadaver anatomy. Our findings suggest that McBurney's point is very close to the rectus sheath in some individuals and in most subjects it does not overly base of appendix. Surgical teaching through most of the 20th century stressed safety and recommended large incisions with generous exposure, allowing surgeons to operate yet not appreciate these variables. An attempt is made to provide a precise account of the variables in right iliac fossa anatomy to help surgeons operate using smaller, minimally invasive incisions with the inevitable reduced exposure of local anatomy. The proximity of the base of the appendix to the ileocaecal junction raises concern that burial of the appendicular stump might distort local anatomy.

HeLQ, Nyamori J NEMKMRNBMGRDKIHV. "Developing clinical genetic services in the resource limited countries: The case of Retinoblastoma in Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;17(4):221-227.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Epistemology, Biodiversity and Economic Growth: Some Historical Perspectives", paper prepared for the Biodiversity Suport Program, Washington, D.C.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Technology Acquisition for Sustainable Development in the South" paper presented at the Sumposium on Transfer of Technology for the sustainable Development of South, Mach 6th - 9th, Bad Ball, Stuttart, Germany.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1991.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Intellectual Property Rights: Perspectices on Traditional Medicine and Biodiversity Conservation"Paper presented at the symposium on Tropical Forest Medical Resources and Conservation of Biodiversity, 24th -25th September, New york.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Search for Power: Technological Change in the World Geothermal Industry.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Orthodoxy, Nature and Economic Change.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Acquisitions of Technological Capabilities: Some Third Woirld Experiences.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Intellectual Property Rights and Traditional Medicine in a New Technological Order.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Perspectives in Transition: Medicinal Plants and the Emerging Technologies (Forthcoming).". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Medicinal Plants in a New Technological World" Paper prepared for KIBORD, Nigeria.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Structural Adjustment and Environment: Experiences from Developing Countriesdd.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Biotechnology Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Rights.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Struggle for Power: Kenya's Faultering Steps in Energy Investments.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Science-Technology Interaction in Development: A Review on Policy.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Government Policy and Environment: The Case of the Waste-oil Recycling Industry in Kenya", (Forthcoming).". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Development Policies and Ecological Change in Kenya: A Review Paper presented at the Biodiversity Support Program Meeting, 14th Sept - 17th Sept Washington, D.C.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Science-Technology Balance: Policy Concerns for Developing Countries.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Multinational Corporations and Biotechnology in Developing Countries in Biotechnology for Food Production and Process in Developing countries.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Power Investments and Global Influences: Developing Countries in Perspectives.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Market and the State in Economic Change: Some Kenyan Experiences.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Economic Policy Reforms and Environmental Education, a Paper presented at he Regional Workshop on Environmental Education, Nyeri, Kenya, 5th - 10th.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
Hemis M, Singh CB, Jayas DS, Bettahar A. "Simulation of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer in Granular Porous Media: Application to the Drying of Wheat.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

A mathematical model was developed to simulate the deep-bed convective drying of Algerian wheat and barley using the characteristics of the selected local varieties. The nonequilibrium model, composed of a system of partial differential equations (PDEs), was solved using temporal and spatial discretization with some simplifying assumptions. The simulated results were compared with experimental data obtained during drying of wheat in deep beds (1-, 5-, and 10-cm depths) in a laboratory dryer under the experimental conditions of 60°C temperature, 10% RH, 0.7 m/s air velocity, and initial grain moisture content of 25.0% (db). The simulation results obtained by the mathematical model were in good agreement with those obtained by experiments carried out on the Algerian wheat.

Hendler A, Mulli TK, Hughes FJ, Perrett D, Bombardieri M, Y Houri-Haddad, Weiss EI, Nissim A. "Involvement of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis." Journal of Dental Research. 2010;89(12):1389-94.
Hendrickson WA, Ward KB. "Atomic models for the polypeptide backbones of myohemerythrin and hemerythrin." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1349-56.
Hendrickson A, Boothe R. "Morphology of the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in dark-reared monkeys ({Macaca} nemestrina)." Vision Research. 1976;16:517-IN5. AbstractWebsite

Nine infant monkeys were reared in continuous darkness from 2 weeks to 1, 3 and 6 months of age. One monkey was dark-reared from 3 to 7 months after birth. Light microscopic morphological studies of retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) were done on animals sacrificed immediately after emerging from darkness and others that were tested behaviorally before sacrifice. Neither retina nor dLGN showed any obvious changes in cell number, size or staining characteristics when compared to light-reared, age-matched controls. Autoradiographic tracing of labeled retinal ganglion cell synaptic terminals indicated a normal distribution for dark-reared animals.

Hendrickx AG, Otiang'a-owiti GE, Gachoka JM, Onyango DW. "Seasonally dependent testicular apoptosis in the tropical Long-fingered bat (Miniopterus inflatus).". 1995. Abstract

Testicular morphology of long-fingered bats trapped in March and early April (a period of sexual dormancy) was studied using both light and electron microscopy. The interstitial tissue, generally smaller in proportion to the seminiferous tubules, was largely made up of compactly arranged interstitial (Leydig) cells. Physiological cell death (apoptosis) was characterized by the occurrence of dense cytoplasm obscuring most of the subcellular organelles, myelin-like whorls of residual bodies and lipid inclusions in the cytoplasm, and roughly spheroidal nuclei. Normal mitochondria were round in outline. Some of these apoptotic cells were phagocytosed by the interstitial tissue macrophages. In the seminiferous tubules this degenerative process was marked by spermatogonial karyolysis, apoptosis of spermatocytes and extensive accumulation of large lipid droplets in the Sertoli cell cytoplasm. The tubular walls and lumen were completely devoid of spermatids and spermatozoa. These observations suggest that the sexual dormancy in these bats is characterized by a marked apoptosis of testicular micro-structural components hitherto unreported.

HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Life's Tense Irony", A Review of Tensions: Poems by Richard C. Ntiru, Dhana 1 56-58.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1971. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Henry M. "Migration, Mobility, Conflict and Climate Change Nexus." VII Conference of Climate Change Action, Safari Park, Nairobi; 2018.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "Revision English. Top Mark Series, With Elegwa Mukulu, Phyllis Mwangi, Charles Gecaga, Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Volume 6, PP 117-145. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2006. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Ngugi's Ideal Audience and the Post-Colonial Reality." In The Yearbook of English Studies. Vol.27.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1997. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""My Daughter's Blood Sister." A poem in Tender Memories. Eds. Arthur Luvai et al. Nairobi: Heinemann.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1989. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Ngugi and the National Language Issues", Sunday Nation 5 August 1979.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1979. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""James Baldwin and Africa." In East Africa and the US. Ed. Hamza Njozi.Dar es Salaam: Institute of Kiswahili Research.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1997. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""From Linguistic to Literary Competence." In The Role of Language and Literature in the School Curriculum. Published proceedings of a seminar held at the British Council, Nairobi, February.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1991. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""The New Jerusalem in African Literature and Literary Criticism", Literature Review Edinburgh, Scotland 25, 26.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1980. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""The Tabanic Genre", in Standpoints on African Literature, Nairobi (EALB) pp. 86-95.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1973. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Henry M. "Strategic water towers management." Kenya Institute of Enviroment, Nairobi; 2016.
Henry M. "Endocrine regulation of testis." 5th International Congress on Farm animal endocrinology (ICAE), Budapest, Hungary; 2004.
Henry WJ, Mechie J, Maguire PKH, Khan MA, Prodehl C, Keller GR, Patel J. "A Seismic Investigation of the Kenya Rift Valley.". 1990. AbstractWebsite

In August 1985 the crustal structure underlying the southern part of the Kenya Rift Valley was investigated by long-range explosion seismology. the experiment (KRISP 85) consisted of two seismic lines in the central sector of the rift, one along the axis and the other across it. Interpretation of the data, including time-term analysis and ray tracing has shown that the thickness of rift infill varies from about 6km below Lake Naivasha to about 2 and 1.5km below Lake Magadi and Lake Bogoria respectively. the underlying material has a P-wave velocity of 6.05 ± 0.03 km s-1 which suggests that the rift is underlain by Precambrian metamorphic basement. A localized high-velocity zone identified to the east of Nakuru may be due to basic intrusive material. the P-wave velocity increases discontinuously to 6.45 ± 0.2 km s-1 at a depth of 12.5 ± 1.0 km below sea level. This depth is similar to that inferred for the brittle-ductile transition zone from a study of local seismicity in the Lake Bogoria region. A high P-wave velocity layer (7.1 ± 0.2 km s-1) occurs at 22 ± 2 km depth below sea level which might be associated with a sill-like basic intrusion in the lower crust. an upper mantle velocity of 7.5 ± 0.2 km s-1 (unreversed) is reached at a depth of 34.0 ± 2.0 km below sea level. This implies that only moderate crustal thinning has occurred beneath the central sector of the rift. No evidence was obtained for the existence of a continuous‘axial intrusion’ reaching to shallow levels below the rift and associated with crustal separation as suggested by previous studies.

HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Guarding Against the Fallacy of Constitutionalism in Constitution Making." In Negotiating Co-existence and Governance Structures: Essays on Gender and Constitution Making. Eds. Wanjiku Kabira and Peter Wasamba. Nairobi: Collaborative Centre for Gender an.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2001. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""I'll Love my Country" and "If I Were Old." Poems in Sing me a Song. Ed. Ole Sunkuli. Nairobi: Heinemann.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1992. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Where is Ngugi", in Black Phoenix, 2, 23-24.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1981. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Henry M, Victor T, David K. "Factors Affecting Adoption Of Embryo Transfer Technology In Dairy Cattle In Kenya." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2019;5(8):456-463.mutembei-kios_2018.pdf
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Cesaire's Responsibilities as a Poet", in Thought and Practice: The Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya 1, 1, 59-72.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1974. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Henry M. "Connection between Environment and Peace." National Symposium of Peace and Environment, Nairobi.; 2018.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""The Kenyanness of Kenyan Literature." In The Nairobi Journal of Literature. No. 13. March.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Volume 6, PP 117-145. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2003. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "The Winner and other Stories. With other editors. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1994. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.

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