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Futrell N. "Pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke: new concepts in cerebral embolism." Cerebrovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 1998;8 Suppl 1:2-5. Abstract
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and Furukawa, T. FKMKSKP. "Threshold change in forest understory vegetation as a result of selective fuel wood extraction in Nairobi, Kenya. ." Forest Ecology and Management . 2010; 262:962-969.
Furukawa T, Fujiwara K, Kiboi S, Mutiso P. "Can stumps tell what people want: Pattern and preference of informal wood extraction in an urban forest of Nairobi, Kenya." Biological Conservation. 2011;144:3047-3054.
Furukawa T, Fujiwara K, Meguro S, Hayashi H, Mathenge S, Kiboi S, Miyawaki A. "A PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE MONTANE FORESTS OF CENTRAL KENYA FOR THEIR CONSERVATION." Abstracts of EcoSummit 2007——Ecological Complexity and Sustainability——Challenges & Opportunities for 21st Century's Ecology. 2007.
Furukawa T, Fujiwara K, Kiboi S, Mutiso P. "Threshold change in forest understory vegetation as a result of selective fuelwood extraction in Nairobi, Kenya. ." Forest Ecology and Management. 2011;262:962-969.
Furukawa T, Kiboi SK, Mutiso PCB, Fujiwara K. "Multiple use patterns of medicinal trees in an urban forest in Nairobi, Kenya." Urban forestry & urban greening. 2016;18:34-40.
Fulop M, Tannenbaum H, Dreyer N. "Ketotic hyperosmolar coma." Lancet. 1973;2:635-639. Abstract
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Fulano AM, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Efficacy of Antagonistic Fungal Isolates in Management of Diseases in Snap Beans.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Fulano AM, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Antifungal Activity of Local Microbial Isolates against Snap Bean Pathogens." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016;5(12):112-122.
Fukuda H, Saito T, Kihara E, Ogada C, Wagaiyu EG, Hayashi Y. "Oral Hygiene Status of Chewing Stick Users in a Rural Kenyan Community." OHDM. 2016;15(2).
Fujiwara K, Furukawa T, Kiboi S, MATHENGE S, MUTISO P, HAYASHI H, MEGURO S-ichi. "Forest types and biodiversity around the Great Rift Valley in Kenya." Contributii Botanice. 2014;49.
Fujita M;, Ngugi EN;, Rotha EA. "HIV/AIDS risk and worry in Northern Kenya HIV/AIDS risk and worry in Northern Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Data from a 2003 survey of sexual behaviour (n = 400) conducted in the Ariaal community of Karare, Marsabit District, northern Kenya, were used to delineate patterns of risk and worry about contracting HIV/AIDS. Despite widespread reporting of high-risk sexual behaviours (including multiple partners, concurrency, sexual mixing and not using condoms) by survey participants, logistic regression analysis found only one statistically significant positive association between these behaviours and self-assessment of being at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. In contrast, log-linear analysis of worry patterns found highly significant relationships between self-assessment of high risk of HIV/AIDS and worry about one's partner's sexual behaviour. These findings indicate that in relation to contracting HIV/AIDS currently Ariaal are more concerned about the sexual behaviour of others, rather than their own behaviour. More generally, results point to the potential for combining concepts of worry with risk assessment in HIV/AIDS research to generate insights into how both concepts are linked to individual, dyadic and population-level factors within specific cultural settings.

Fuente D, Gatua JG, Ikiara M, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mwaura M, Whittington D. "Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya." Water Resources Research. 2016;(doi:10.1002/2015WR018375).
Fualal J, Moses W, Jayaraman S, Nalugo M, Ozgediz D, Duh Q-Y, Kebebew E. "Characterizing thyroid disease and identifying barriers to care and treatment in {Uganda}." World J Endoc Surg. 2012;4:47-53. AbstractWebsite
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Fu P, Hughes J, Zeng G, Hanook S, Orem J, Mwanda OW, Remick SC. "A comparative investigation of methods for longitudinal data with limits of detection through a case study." Stat Methods Med Res. 2016;25(1):153-66. Abstract

The statistical analysis of continuous longitudinal data may be complicated since quantitative levels of bioassay cannot always be determined. Values beyond the limits of detection (LOD) in the assays may not be observed and thus censored, rendering complexity to the analysis of such data. This article examines how both left-censoring and right censoring of HIV-1 plasma RNA measurements, collected for the study on AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL) in East Africa, affects the quantification of viral load and explores the natural history of viral load measurements over time in AR-NHL patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. Data analyses using Monte Carlo EM algorithm (MCEM) are compared to analyses where the LOD or LOD/2 (left censoring) value is substituted for the censored observations, and also to other methods such as multiple imputation, and maximum likelihood estimation for censored data (generalized Tobit regression). Simulations are used to explore the sensitivity of the results to changes in the model parameters. In conclusion, the antiretroviral treatment was associated with a significant decrease in viral load after controlling the effects of other covariates. A simulation study with finite sample size shows MCEM is the least biased method and the estimates are least sensitive to the censoring mechanism.

Frye DM, Ilnicki RD, Michieka RW. "Weed control in southern greens."; 1978.
in and of indigenous and neglected plants and fruits ATPP. "Appropriate Technologies in Processing and Preservation of indigenous and neglected plants and fruits."; 1988.
Fridah L;G, Isabelle B;, Job L;, John M;, Henry M;, Joshua A;O, Okeyo AM. "A cost-benefit analysis of seced in-vitro fertilization embryo transfer in Kenya."; 2009.
Fridah L;G, Isabelle B;, Job L;, John M;, Henry M;, Joshua A;O, Okeyo AM. "A cost-benefit analysis of seced in-vitro fertilization embryo transfer in Kenya."; 2009.
Fridah L;G, Isabelle B;, Job L;, John M;, Henry M;, Joshua A;O, Okeyo AM. "A cost-benefit analysis of seced in-vitro fertilization embryo transfer in Kenya."; 2009.
Fridah L;G, Isabelle B;, Job L;, John M;, Henry M;, Joshua A;O, Okeyo AM. "A cost-benefit analysis of seced in-vitro fertilization embryo transfer in Kenya."; 2009.
Freund JE, Yuko-Jowi C, Freund MW. "Transcatheter embolization of a large aneurysm in a congenital coronary cameral fistula from the left coronary artery to the right ventricle." Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;85(3):435-9. Abstracttranscatheter_embolization_of_a_large_aneurysm_in_a_congenital_coronary_cameral_fistula_from_the_left_coronary_artery_to_the_right_ventricle_abstract.pdfWebsite

A congenital coronary cameral fistula (CCCF) is characterized by left ventricular dysfunction, electrocardiographic changes due to a reduced left coronary blood flow and impaired physical activity. CCCF's with a giant aneurysm are very rarely seen. The presence of a giant aneurysm imposes even greater health risks. We report a case of a CCCF from the left coronary artery to the right ventricle with a large distal aneurysm in a 20-year-old woman that we closed percutaneously with coils for the closure of ventricular septal defects (VSD) and persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA).

Frenea, J.; Bonneaua MD; S. "Velocity Measurements Grease – Lubricating Film of a Sliding Contact.". 2008. Abstract

Experimental results of the velocity distribution in a grease-lubricated cylindrical sliding contact are obtained. A comparison is made with the theoretical results of a parabolic velocity distribution similar to that of a Newtonian fluid, derived from a Bingham plastic flow model. This equation compares very well with the experimental results.

Freeman, H.Ade; Rohrbach DA-OCD;. Strategic Assessments and Development Pathways for Agriculture in the Semi-Arid Tropics.; 2002. Abstract

The agricultural economies of Africa have witnessed three major changes during the past 10 to 15 years that justify a reassessment of agricultural research priorities. First, liberalization of macroeconomic and trade policies has increased the relative importance of tradeables in the commodity mix. Second, agricultural input and product markets have expanded, broadening the range of livelihood strategies available to rural households. Finally, broader partnerships for technology development and dissemination are creating new opportunities. Many of Africa’s poorest and most food-insecure farmers live in semiarid areas. To survive in a harsh and variable environment, they pursue a range of livelihood strategies. Different households pursue different development paths. But almost all seek to diversify their income sources and investment strategies as a means to reduce risk and respond to changing market conditions. How can R&D agencies improve the payoffs to farmers’ investments? There are trade-offs between different alternatives – should the farmer spend her limited money looking for an off-farm job, or on livestock, or on a bag of fertilizer? It is hard to evaluate these trade-offs. But recent investment trends offer some clues on the trade-offs involved, and on how farmers’ investment decisions are influenced by changes in policy, technologies, and market conditions. In July 2002, ICRISAT sponsored a conference on Targeting agricultural research for development in the semi-arid tropics of sub-Saharan Africa to discuss how best to link technology development, market expansion, and agricultural growth in Africa’s semiarid tropics (SAT). This meeting • Examined and compared alternative growth paths for poverty alleviation and development of smallholder agriculture • Reviewed the market and institutional factors influencing technology adoption • Assessed the current stock of available technologies • Discussed institutional arrangements linking national and international research programs and the public and private sectors. The meeting concluded with a series of recommendations for better targeting of agricultural research to achieve faster development. This policy brief summarizes the discussions and outputs from the meeting.

Fredrick Ongowe, Sophie Hennequin, Josephine Kagunda Wairimu, Nyoungue Aimé, Mamadou Lamine Diouf, Mouhamadou Diaby, Abderrahman Iggidr, Mamadou Sy, Salle G. "Biomathematics modelling for the study of failures propagation: Application to a production resource.". 2010.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Upper gastrointestinal findings in diabetic outpatients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of H. pylori and the associated upper gastrointestinal endoscopic lesions in diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Adult diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia attending the KNH diabetic clinic. RESULTS: Of the 257 randomly selected diabetic outpatients screened, 137 (53.3%) had dyspepsia. Seventy one of these patients underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Fifty five (77.5%) of the 71 patients had H.pylori infection identified by rapid urease test and histology. The prevalence of H. pylori increased with HbA1c level but there was no statistically significant association with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c >7.0%). Forty eight (67.6%) of the 71 had gastritis, 17 (25.7%) had duodenitis, eight (11.3%) had oesophageal candidiasis, seven (9.9%) had bile reflux, six (8.5%) had reflux oesophagitis, six (8.5%) had ulcers (five duodenal, one gastric) and one (1.4%) had gastric cancer. Fourteen (19%) had endoscopically normal mucosa. The prevalence of H. pylori was 82.3% (32/38) in patients with antral gastritis. All ulcers and the cancer lesion (adenocarcinoma) were associated with H. pylori. Histological gastritis was found in 57 (81.8%) and was significantly associated with H. pylori. CONCLUSION: Although dyspepsia is common in diabetic outpatients at KNH, endoscopic findings and H. pylori status are not significantly different from those of non-diabetic population.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango J F, Vilembwa A, Awange D O, Wakoli KA, Dimba E A: Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dentigerous cyst lining: a case report and literature review, JMOSI, 2008; 7: 478 .". In: a case report and literature review, JMOSI, 2008; 7: 478 . University of Nairobi Press; 2008. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F. and Awange, D.O.: Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible: A case report.East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):460-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):460-3. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
A case report of a primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in the mandible of a young adult male is presented and relevant literature reviewed. The clinical presentation and course of the case is typical of MFH of the jaw as reported in the literature
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Transfusion haemosiderosis inspite of regular use of desferrioxamine: case report. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):326-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):326-8. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
We describe a case of a female who developed haemosiderosis, in the course of treatment for very severe unstable aplastic anaemia for fourteen years. She was 37 years old at the time of initial diagnosis. Her management consisted of regular blood transfusions aimed at haemoglobin above 8.5 g/dl, antimicrobials, oxymetholone, low dose prednisone and folate. She had received about seventy five units of blood at the start of 2 grams of desferrioxamine with every subsequent blood transfusion. Annual tests of serum ferritin showed progressive increase. She developed skin changes, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, recurrent infections, generalized joint and abdominal pains and liver failure. She died within six weeks of developing congestive heart failure coupled with liver failure due to haemosiderosis despite regular use of desferrioxamine.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Wakiaga JM, Onyango JF, Awange DO.Clinico-pathological analysis of jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions at the Kenyatta national hospital.East Afr Med J. 1997 Feb;74(2):65-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Feb;74(2):65-8. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of 568 jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period of fifteen years. For descriptive purposes, the term tumour is used here in its wider context to cover both neoplastic and dysplastic jaw lesions which present primarily as jaw swellings. The study reveals a pattern consistent with other African series and suggests a more aggressive progression and younger age at onset than elsewhere.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Vasculitis in HIV: report of eight cases. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):656-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):656-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe vasculitis in HIV patients, their CD4 levels, anatomical sites affected and clinical patterns. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kisumu District Hospital and Nairobi Rheumatology Clinic between January 2002 and May 2005. SUBJECTS: Eight patients with HIV and vasculitis. RESULTS: Eight patients (four males and four females) were recruited with an age range of 24-61 years, mean 33.13 years. Five had central nervous system vasculitis and three had peripheral vasculitis. The CD4 counts were low, range 2-200 cells/mm3 (mean of 79.25 cells/mm3), normal levels of CD4 are 355-1298 cells/mm3, indicating severe immunosuppression. Two patients tested positive for HBV (hepatitis B virus). CONCLUSION: HIV associated vasculitis is recognised and may be complicated by coinfection with hepatitis viruses. It occurs at low CD4 counts. Central nervous system involvement is a common site. Management is multidisciplinary.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F: Ameloblastoma: Where are we? Afric. J. Oral Health Sci. 2001; 2: 2.". In: Afric. J. Oral Health Sci. 2001; 2: 2. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Patterns of homocysteine in Kenyans with type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S180-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S180-3. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Increased total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The measurement of tHcy in blood is therefore of potential great importance especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the total homocysteine levels in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, prospective study. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with Type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular, renal, liver or other chronic disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of tHcy, HbA1c, lipids and socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients, 48% males, with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean (sd) age of the males was 56.85 (8.96) years and of the females was 55.68 (8.93) years. The mean (sd) total serum homocysteine for males of 12.97 (6.06) micromol/l was significantly higher than that of the females of 10.64 (4.41) micromol/l. The cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, the body mass index and blood pressure of the study subjects did not show any statistically significant influence on their homocysteine levels. However, increasing age and duration of diabetes showed a significant linear relationship with rising level of total serum homocysteine. Some study participants reported smoking habit but unreliably. CONCLUSION: There was a significant proportion of the study patients with high levels of serum homocysteine, although most of them were of low to intermediate risk category. It may be prudent to assay homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are either older or have had diabetes for long duration for potential intervention.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F,. Kayima, J.K, and Owen, W.O: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):390-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):390-3. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Awange DO.Ossifying Fibroma of the Jaws: A case report and review of literature.East Afr Med J. 1991 Aug;68(8):661-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Aug;68(8):661-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1991. Abstract
This communication presents the first case report of ossifying fibroma of the jaw from Kenya and reviews the literature including the available published case reports from Africa. The relationship between ossifying fibroma and other related benign fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws is briefly discussed. Intensified research work on this condition in Africans is called for so that more cases should be published since it is reportedly more common in black race. The majority of the African cases are generally reported in advanced stages indicating neglect or delay in seeking for medical help. Since ossifying fibroma is a well encapsulated and expansile benign bone neoplasm, surgical enucleation appears to be the treatment of choice; recurrence is rare.
Fredrick O. "THE BULL AND BEAR MARKET AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." Aim Journal of Business . 2008. Abstract

This research sought to establish the existence of the bull and bear market at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The bull market is experienced when the prices of securities are in an upward trend while the Bear market is experienced when the prices of securities are in a downward trend. Bull and bear market can be traced back to the time of Charles Dow when he made analysis of trends in the stock market. The current and potential investors do not have any form of reference when making investment decisions, they will therefore benefit from this research since they will confirm which months are prone to the bull and bear markets and therefore not dispose their stocks in panic and also know the best time to purchase shares respectively. The Government will also benefit from it since it will be able to create a conducive environment for investment in the stock exchange and also for taxation purposes. It will also be useful to the Capital Markets Authority which is the main regulator of the Nairobi Securities Exchange since they will establish the genuine bull and bear market. The research was entirely based on secondary data from stocks of the year 2006. The research design was historical since it was dealing with issues that had occurred. Some fifteen out of the fifty two equities of companies trading in the Nairobi Securities Exchange were analyzed. Stratified and purposive samplings were used to select the fifteen companies. The data was analysed using percentages, mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. The findings confirmed that all the sampled stocks experienced both the bull and bear market. January, February and March were the months when most stocks experienced the bear market while August to November were the months when the majority of stocks experienced bull market. The study recommends the licensing of more stock brokers by CMA and also a further research into the role of stock brokers in influencing stock prices in the secondary market.

FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Noah S.Pattern of clefts of the lip and palate managed over a three year period at a Nairobi hospital in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):649-51.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):649-51. University of Nairobi Press; 2005. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The pattern of cleft lip and palate in the African population remains uncertain. The few studies of clefts in African populations have suggested that the pattern of these defects may be significantly different from those reported in other population groups. However, most of these studies have been based on very small sample sizes bringing into question the validity of those findings. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the pattern of cleft lip and palate cases managed at a Nairobi hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: Gertrude's Garden Children's Hospital, a private exclusive children's hospital in Nairobi, where cleft lip and palate treatment was being offered at subsidised rates to needy children under the sponsorship of an international organization. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and nine cases were seen during the study period. RESULTS: Age at presentation ranged between 1 week and 45 years, with 75% presenting between 0-5 years. The average age was 10 months. Gestation histories were missing for most cases but for those with gestation histories none were significant. Most children ranked between first to third birth orders, suggesting birth to young mothers. Six cases of associated deformities were identified among the cases. No syndromic clefts were seen. The most common cleft deformity was the cleft lip and palate (CL+P) followed by isolated cleft lip (CL). Isolated cleft palate was least common. There was a male preponderance in all cleft types and most of the clefts occurred on the left side. CONCLUSION: The pattern of clefts in this study does not differ significantly from those reported in the literature for the non-African populations.

FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange, D.O. and Onyango, J.F.: Oral Verricous Carcinoma: Report of two cases and review of literature.East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
Verrucous carcinoma is a rare and distinct pathological and clinical variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Two case reports of histologically proven oral verrucous carcinoma are presented. One case presented with a history of tobacco chewing, snuff taking and miraa chewing. While the relationship between tobacco chewing or snuff dipping and verrucous carcinoma has been investigated and described, the role played by miraa chewing is still unknown and thus requires further study. Both cases were successfully managed by only conservative surgical excision. No radiotherapy was used. Clinical and histo-pathological examination of verrucous carcinoma is therefore very important in its diagnosis and treatment planning.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus: case report. East Afr Med J. 2002 Feb;79(2):103-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Feb;79(2):103-5. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients with diabetes mellitus and alcohol dependence syndrome are presented. Both were married and in middle age. MI stayed alone in the city while his spouse and two children lived in the rural home. He showed no obvious underlying psychiatric morbidity. FWK was living with his family in the city. He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given. Review of literature on alcoholism and its potential impact on the course and management of diabetes is presented.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Adeline V L, Dimba E, Wakoli A K, Njiru A K, Awange D O, Onyango J F, Chindia M L: Clinicopathological features of Ameloblastoma in Kenya: a 10-year audit. J Craniofac Surg 2008; 19: 1589 .". In: J Craniofac Surg 2008; 19: 1589 . University of Nairobi Press; 2008. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Quality of glycaemic control in ambulatory diabetics at the out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treatment of diabetes mellitus is based on the evidence that lowering blood glucose as close to normal range as possible is a primary strategy for reducing or preventing complications or early mortality from diabetes. This suggests poorer glycaemic control would be associated with excess of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. This presumption is suspected to reach high proportions in developing countries where endemic poverty abets poor glycaemic control. There is no study published on Kenyan patients with diabetes mellitus about their glycaemic control as an audit of diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the glycaemic control of ambulatory diabetic patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study on each clinic day of a randomly selected sample of both type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. METHODS: Over a period of six months, January 1998 to June 1998. During routine diabetes care in the clinic, mid morning random blood sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 305 diabetic patients were included, 52.8% were females and 47.2% were males. 58.3% were on Oral Hypoglycaemic Agent (OHA) only, 22.3% on insulin only; 9.2% on OHA and insulin and 4.6% on diet only. 39.5% had mean HbA1c < or = 8% while 60.5% had HbA1c > or = 8%. Patients on diet-only therapy had the best mean HbA1c = 7.04% while patients on OHA-only had the worst mean HbA1c = 9.06%. This difference was significant (p=0.01). The former group, likely, had better endogenous insulin production. The influence of age, gender and duration of diabetes on the level of glycaemic control observed did not attain statistically significant proportions. CONCLUSION: The majority of ambulatory diabetic patients attending the out-patient diabetic clinic had poor glycaemic control. The group with the poorest level of glycaemic control were on OHA-only, while best control was observed amongst patients on diet-only, because of possible fair endogenous insulin production. Poor glycaemic control was presumed to be due to sub-optimal medication and deteriorating diabetes. There is need to empower patients with knowledge and resources to enhance their individual participation in diabetes self-care. Diabetes care providers and facilities also need capacity building to improve care of patients with diabetes.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange D O, Wakoli K A, Onyango J F, Chindia M L, Dimba E O, Guthua S W. Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. East Afr Med J 2009, 86: 517 .". In: East Afr Med J 2009, 86: 517 . University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Quality of glycaemic control in ambulatory diabetics at the out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):406-10. uon; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treatment of diabetes mellitus is based on the evidence that lowering blood glucose as close to normal range as possible is a primary strategy for reducing or preventing complications or early mortality from diabetes. This suggests poorer glycaemic control would be associated with excess of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. This presumption is suspected to reach high proportions in developing countries where endemic poverty abets poor glycaemic control. There is no study published on Kenyan patients with diabetes mellitus about their glycaemic control as an audit of diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the glycaemic control of ambulatory diabetic patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study on each clinic day of a randomly selected sample of both type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. METHODS: Over a period of six months, January 1998 to June 1998. During routine diabetes care in the clinic, mid morning random blood sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 305 diabetic patients were included, 52.8% were females and 47.2% were males. 58.3% were on Oral Hypoglycaemic Agent (OHA) only, 22.3% on insulin only; 9.2% on OHA and insulin and 4.6% on diet only. 39.5% had mean HbA1c < or = 8% while 60.5% had HbA1c > or = 8%. Patients on diet-only therapy had the best mean HbA1c = 7.04% while patients on OHA-only had the worst mean HbA1c = 9.06%. This difference was significant (p=0.01). The former group, likely, had better endogenous insulin production. The influence of age, gender and duration of diabetes on the level of glycaemic control observed did not attain statistically significant proportions. CONCLUSION: The majority of ambulatory diabetic patients attending the out-patient diabetic clinic had poor glycaemic control. The group with the poorest level of glycaemic control were on OHA-only, while best control was observed amongst patients on diet-only, because of possible fair endogenous insulin production. Poor glycaemic control was presumed to be due to sub-optimal medication and deteriorating diabetes. There is need to empower patients with knowledge and resources to enhance their individual participation in diabetes self-care. Diabetes care providers and facilities also need capacity building to improve care of patients with diabetes.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN, FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F., Awange, D.O. and Wakiaga, J.M: Oral tumours and tumour-like conditions in Kenya: I. Histological distribution. East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):560-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):560-3. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract

A histological analysis of 3141 cases of oral tumours and tumour-like lesions diagnosed at Kenyatta National Hospital between 1978 and 1992 has been carried out. Squamous cell carcinoma, salivary gland tumours and lymphoid tumours form the majority of lesions. In general, the histological distribution of the oral tumours do not differ significantly from those reported in non African series save for the Burkitt's lymphoma.

FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Acute aflatoxicosis: case report. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):320-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):320-4. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
The objective of this presentation is to document the salient clinical findings in a case of aflatoxicosis and to review the literature on the same so as to increase the index of suspicion, enhance early diagnosis and improve management. The case was a 17-year-old schoolboy presenting with vomiting, features of infection and gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Examination revealed a very ill looking pale patient with abdominal distension, tenderness and rectal bleeding and easy bruisability. Investigations showed abnormal liver function tests, pancytopenia and elevated serum levels of aflatoxins. Management consisted of supportive care including antibiotics and antifungal therapy, transfusion of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma. His recovery was uneventful. The literature on human aflatoxicosis shows that the presentation may be acute, subacute and chronic. The degree of emanating clinical events also conforms to status of the aflatoxicosis. Overall, the features are protean and may masquerade many other forms of toxaemias. In conclusion, the diagnosis of aflatoxicosis takes cognisance of geographical location, past events, staple diet and clinical features to exclude other infections. Also required are high index of suspicion and importantly serum levels of aflatoxin. Treatment strategies involved use of antimicrobials and supporting the damaged multi-organs.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F., Awange, D.O.: Ameloblastic Sarcoma of the Mandible: A case report, Afric J of Oral Health Sciences, 2000; 1:.". In: Afric J of Oral Health Sciences, 2000; 1:. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Kayima JK, Owen WO.Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: case report.East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):390-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):390-3. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F.: Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate and Oral Facial Defect Management: The need for Oro-facial cleft center in Kenya. Medicom. 1982; 4:.". In: Medicom. 1982; 4:. University of Nairobi Press; 1982. Abstract
This communication presents the first case report of ossifying fibroma of the jaw from Kenya and reviews the literature including the available published case reports from Africa. The relationship between ossifying fibroma and other related benign fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws is briefly discussed. Intensified research work on this condition in Africans is called for so that more cases should be published since it is reportedly more common in black race. The majority of the African cases are generally reported in advanced stages indicating neglect or delay in seeking for medical help. Since ossifying fibroma is a well encapsulated and expansile benign bone neoplasm, surgical enucleation appears to be the treatment of choice; recurrence is rare.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Upper gastrointestinal findings in diabetic outpatients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):232-6. test; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of H. pylori and the associated upper gastrointestinal endoscopic lesions in diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya.
SUBJECTS: Adult diabetic outpatients with dyspepsia attending the KNH diabetic clinic. RESULTS: Of the 257 randomly selected diabetic outpatients screened, 137 (53.3%) had dyspepsia. Seventy one of these patients underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Fifty five (77.5%) of the 71 patients had H.pylori infection identified by rapid urease test and histology. The prevalence of H. pylori increased with HbA1c level but there was no statistically significant association with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c >7.0%). Forty eight (67.6%) of the 71 had gastritis, 17 (25.7%) had duodenitis, eight (11.3%) had oesophageal candidiasis, seven (9.9%) had bile reflux, six (8.5%) had reflux oesophagitis, six (8.5%) had ulcers (five duodenal, one gastric) and one (1.4%) had gastric cancer. Fourteen (19%) had endoscopically normal mucosa. The prevalence of H. pylori was 82.3% (32/38) in patients with antral gastritis. All ulcers and the cancer lesion (adenocarcinoma) were associated with H. pylori. Histological gastritis was found in 57 (81.8%) and was significantly associated with H. pylori. CONCLUSION: Although dyspepsia is common in diabetic outpatients at KNH, endoscopic findings and H. pylori status are not significantly different from those of non-diabetic population.

FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, ENOCH DROMONGE. "Otieno CF, Huho AN, Omonge EO, Amayo AA, Njagi E.Type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and aetiologic types, therapy and quality of glycaemic control of ambulatory patients.East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):24-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):24-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2008. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease with multiple causes revolving around beta cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and enhanced hepatic glucose output. Clinical judgement based on obesity status, age of onset and the clinical perception of residual beta cell insulin secretory function (hence insulin-requiring or not), has been used to determine therapeutic choices for each patient. Further laboratory testing of the clinically defined type 2 diabetes unmasks the various aetiologic types within the single clinical group. OBJECTIVE: To determine the aetiological types of the clinically defined type 2 diabetic patients, their chosen therapies at recruitment and the quality of glycaemic control achieved. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Diabetes out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients with clinical type 2 diabetes were included, 49.2% were males. The mean duration of diabetes in males was 26.09 (20.95) months and that of females was 28.68 (20.54) months. The aetiological grouping revealed the following proportions: Type 1A-3.2%, Type 1B-12.1%, LADA-5.7%, and "true" type 2 diabetes 79.0%. All the patients with Type 1A were apparently, and rightly so, on "insulin-only" treatment even though they did not achieve optimal glycaemic control with HbA1c % = 9.06. However the study patients who were type 1B and LADA were distributed all over the treatment groups where most of them did not achieve optimal glycaemic control, range of HbA1c of 8.46 -10.6%. The patients with "true" type 2 were also distributed all over the treatment groups where only subjects on 'diet only' treatment had good HbA1c of 6.72% but those in other treatment groups did not achieve optimal glycaemic control of HbA1c, 8.07 - 9.32%. CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease where clinical judgement alone does not adequately tell the various aetiological types apart without additional laboratory testing of C-peptide levels and GAD antibody status. This may partly explain the inappropriate treatment choices for the various aetiological types with consequent sub-optimal glycaemic control of those patients.

FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Omondi BI, Njiru A, Awange OOOral Cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):318-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jun;81(6):318-21. University of Nairobi Press; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of oral cancer in the African population is still uncertain. Earlier reports suggested a relatively low incidence of oral cancer among Africans. However, there have been recent reports of an upward trend in the incidence of oral cancers in developing countries as a consequence of changes in life style and the emergence of new diseases. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect changes in the pattern of oral cancer in Kenya in view of these changes. OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in the pattern of oral cancer in the past 20 years. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. METHOD: Pathology records of cases of oral cancer diagnosed at Kenyatta National Hospital from 1978 to 1997 were analysed for relative frequency, age, sex and site distribution. RESULTS: Of a total 22,788 malignancies 821 cases (3.6%) were oral cancer. Yearly relative frequency of oral cancer ranged between 1.5% of the total malignancies. There was a small male predominance (M:F = 1.3:1). The most preferred site for oral cancer was the tongue but with a significant number involving the maxilla and mandible. Comparison with a previous study did not demonstrate a dramatic change in the pattern of oral cancer in Kenya. An overall gradual decline of cancers diagnosed at Kenyatta National Hospital was noted. This decline could not be accounted for in this study. CONCLUSION: This study does not show any increase in the frequency or change in the pattern of oral cancer in this population despite changes in life style and the emergence of AIDS disease in the country.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange DO, Onyango JF.Oral verrucous carcinoma: report of two cases and review of literature.East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. Review. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
Verrucous carcinoma is a rare and distinct pathological and clinical variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Two case reports of histologically proven oral verrucous carcinoma are presented. One case presented with a history of tobacco chewing, snuff taking and miraa chewing. While the relationship between tobacco chewing or snuff dipping and verrucous carcinoma has been investigated and described, the role played by miraa chewing is still unknown and thus requires further study. Both cases were successfully managed by only conservative surgical excision. No radiotherapy was used. Clinical and histo-pathological examination of verrucous carcinoma is therefore very important in its diagnosis and treatment planning.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "The effect of age, sex and education on reception and retention of health information: lessons from a rural area of Kenya. Cah Sociol Demogr Med. 1991 Jan-Mar;31(1):45-56.". In: Cah Sociol Demogr Med. 1991 Jan-Mar;31(1):45-56. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1991. Abstract
Two male patients with diabetes mellitus and alcohol dependence syndrome are presented. Both were married and in middle age. MI stayed alone in the city while his spouse and two children lived in the rural home. He showed no obvious underlying psychiatric morbidity. FWK was living with his family in the city. He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given. Review of literature on alcoholism and its potential impact on the course and management of diabetes is presented.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Awange DO, Njiru A, Macharia IM. Pattern of occurrence of head and neck cancer presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):288-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):288-91. University of Nairobi Press; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Currently there is a dearth of data on the pattern of occurrence of head and neck cancers in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive analysis of the pattern of occurrence of head and neck cancers in a Kenyan population. DESIGN: Retrospective hospital-based descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. RESULT: A total of 793 cases were recorded consisting of 507 male and 286 female (M: F = 2:1). Most of the lesions arose from the upper aerodigestive pathway. The larynx was the most common site for aerodigestive malignancies. This was followed in order of frequency, by the tongue, the mouth, and the nasopharynx. Outside the aerodigestive pathway the eye was the most commonly affected site followed by the thyroid. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy. Sarcomas were typically rare. Gender and age distribution showed an overall male preponderance and a wide age range. However, specific tumour sites and tumour types showed varying patterns of gender and age distribution. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the relative prominence of laryngeal, oral and nasopharyngeal cancers in the African population. It is, however, at variance with other African studies regarding the relative frequency of nasal and paranasal cancers.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):36-43.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):36-43. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. The diabetic patients with foot ulcers require long hospitalisation and carry risk of limb amputation. The risk factors for developing diabetic foot ulcers are manageable. In Kenya there is paucity of data on such risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the risk factors in a clinic-based setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus who had active foot ulcers in both outpatient and inpatient units. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diabetic foot ulcers glycated haemoglobin, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred and eighty eight patients with diabetes mellitus were screened and 82 (4.6%) were found to have foot ulcers. The males and females with diabetic foot ulcers were compared in age, duration of foot ulcers, blood pressure, glycaemic control, neurological disability score and their proportion. Diabetic foot ulcers occurred mostly in patients who had had diabetes for a long duration. The types of (occurence) ulcers were neuropathic (47.5%), neuroischaemic (30.5%) and ischaemic (18%). The neuropathic ulcers had significantly poorer glycaemic control compared to other types and the longest duration (23.3 weeks). Ischaemic ulcers had significantly higher total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared to other ulcer types. Wagner stage 2 ulcers were the commonest (49.4%) but stage 4 ulcers had their highest neuropathic score (7.8/10) and longest duration (23.6 weeks). Aerobic infective pathogens were isolated from 73.2% of the ulcers. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers was 4.6% in this tertiary clinic. The risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers in the study were poor glycaemic control, diastolic hypertension, dyslipidaemia, infection and poor self-care. These findings are similar to studies done in other environments and they are modifiable to achieve prevention, delay in formation or improved healing of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Solomon M M. Onyango J.F, Nyabola L.O, Opiyo A, Chindia M. L: Evaluation of Acute Morbidity and Quality of Life among head and neck cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. East Afr Med J 2009; 86: 173 .". In: East Afr Med J 2009; 86: 173 . University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Awange DO, Wakiaga JM.Oral tumours and tumour-like conditions in Kenya: II. Age, sex and site distribution.East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):568-76.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):568-76. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
This paper presents the age, sex and site distribution of oral tumours and tumour like conditions in Kenya. It confirms some important points. First, there is an overall lower mean age for oral tumours in African series compared to non African series. Secondly, sex bias in the distribution of oral tumours is less marked for most tumours in Africans. Thirdly, there is difference in site distribution and oral tumours between Africans and non-African populations.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Otieno CF, Vaghela V, Mwendwa FW, Kayima JK, Ogola EN.Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kenya: levels of control attained at the Outpatient Diabetic Clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):320-4. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of specific cardiovascular risk factors in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and the levels of control achieved in them. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study over a six month period. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eleven patients with type 2 diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic attributes, duration of diabetes, levels of glycaemia, body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and modes of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were enrolled, 57.3% were females. The mean (SD) age for women was 54.45 (9.44) and that of men was 55.8 (9.02) years. About 77% of the study population were on oral glucose-lowering agents with or without insulin but less than 30% achieved HbA1c < 7%; 15% were active cigarette smokers; about 50% were hypertensive with female predominance but 65% of them did not achieve desired blood pressure level inspite of treatment. Just over 50% had raised LDL-cholesterol and over 75% had raised total cholesterol but only three men were on statins without achieving desired targets. Body mass index above 30 kg/m2 as a measure obesity was found in 32% of females and 16% males. Most of the study patients admitted use of Aspirin at certain times in the course of their diabetes. CONCLUSION: The study showed that specific cardiovascular risk factors of hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity were prevalent although not adequately controlled to targets. Statin use was extremely low in people who already needed them. Regular Aspirin use was infrequent because many patients did not quite understand its role in their diabetes treatment. It is recommended that a more pro-active approach in multifactorial address of cardiovascular risk factors be used in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes to forestall future cardiovascular events.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F. and Mwangi W. N.: Medical Audit in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Dental Surgery, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. The New Afric. Journal of medicine. 1997; 2; 26 .". In: The New Afric. Journal of medicine. 1997; 2; 26 . University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Diabetes care in Kenya–where are we and which way forward? East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S161-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S161-2. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/ < 2 years) type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over six months. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 10.3 (7.5) months. There were 66% of the study subjects with obesity, 50% with hypertension, 29% had ideal glucose control and less than 40% had high LDL-cholesterol. Twenty eight (28%) who had polyneuropathy had significant differences in their older age, higher total and LDL-cholesterol compared with those who did not have polyneuropathy. Twenty five (25%) of the study patients had micro-albuminuria and only 1% had macro-albuminuria. There were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between study patients with and those without albuminuria. Only 7% of the study patients had retinopathy on direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSION: Microvascular complications occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes of short duration of not more than two years. The risk factors of hypertension, poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking were present in a fair proportion of the study patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be actively screened for complications and the risk factors thereof, even if the diabetes was of recent onset.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F., Awange, D.O. and Wakiaga, J.M.: Ameloblastoma: A clinico pathological analysis of 176 cases, Afric. J. Oral Health Sci, 2001; 2:4 .". In: Afric. J. Oral Health Sci, 2001; 2:4 . University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, fulminating opportunistic fungal infection caused by a fungus of the order mucorales. These fungi are ubiquitous, subsisting on decaying vegetation and diverse organic material. Although the fungi and spores of mucorales show minimal intrinsic pathogenicity towards normal persons, they can initiate aggressive and fulminating infection in the immune compromised host. Because rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurs infrequently it may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for those who are not familiar with its clinical presentation. We present a patient with classical presentation of rhinocerebral mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses, the orbit and cranial base who, was treated by a combination of aggressive surgical and medical therapy and subsequently had surgical repair of the oral defect. The purpose of this presentation is to draw attention to the clinical presentation and pathogenesis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and to emphasise the need for high index of suspicion in its diagnosis and management.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F.: Prabu S.R. Oral Cancer in Kenya. Medicom, 1980; 2: 87 -90.". In: Medicom, 1980; 2: 87 -90. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
This communication presents the first case report of ossifying fibroma of the jaw from Kenya and reviews the literature including the available published case reports from Africa. The relationship between ossifying fibroma and other related benign fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws is briefly discussed. Intensified research work on this condition in Africans is called for so that more cases should be published since it is reportedly more common in black race. The majority of the African cases are generally reported in advanced stages indicating neglect or delay in seeking for medical help. Since ossifying fibroma is a well encapsulated and expansile benign bone neoplasm, surgical enucleation appears to be the treatment of choice; recurrence is rare.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Focus on delay as a strategy for care designs and evaluation of diabetic foot ulcers in developing countries: a review. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S204-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S204-8. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract

Background: While foot care services for diabetic patients are necessary if limb morbidity and wastage are to be reduced, they may not be sufficient. Even when the few service centers and personnel that are available appear to be functioning relatively well, patients still face multiple barriers to derive maximum benefits from the services. OBJECTIVES: To review certain aspects of care of diabetes foot ulcers in developing countries with emphasis on causes of delay in care delivery. DATA SOURCES: Review of published literature on care of diabetic foot ulcers as well as our local experiences. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of potential or actual delay in care delivery and causes of such delay in pre-hospital phase, access to hospital and within-hospital phase of care. DATA SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS: The barriers or causes of delay are observed to occur at various levels: decision to seek care, reaching the treatment facility and receiving the desired optimal care. The usual main causative/ risk factors that include peripheral neuropathy causes inattention and delays the decision to seek care; peripheral vascular insufficiency and infection are both involved in initiation of diabetic foot ulcers and are also major causes of delay in ulcer healing process. Aside from the processes unique to diabetes, the health care providers and the facilities of care have had major contributions in delaying the desired care of the foot ulcers. This may arise from heavy workload, priority illnesses, shortage of required supply for standard care and/or just wrong attitudes. Patients' inadequate knowledge of self-care, unique socio-economic and socio-cultural characteristics are also contributors to the barriers that compound sub-optimal foot care. Care programme designs that lay emphasis on causes of delay are more likely to seek to eliminate such causes. Just like justice, footcare delayed is foot (care) denied.

FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F., Njiru, A. Kaposis sarcoma in a Nairobi hospital. East Afr Med J. 2004 Mar;81(3):120-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Mar;81(3):120-3. University of Nairobi Press; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is associated epidemiologically with HIV infection and a number of countries have reported a dramatic increase in the incidence of KS with the advent of AIDS. Although AIDS is prevalent in Kenya, no studies on the impact of AIDS on the pattern of KS has been carried out. OBJECTIVE: To determine any changes in the pattern of KS that might have occurred since the advent of AIDS in the country. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). METHOD: Pathology records of cases of KS diagnosed at KNH from 1968 to 1997 were analysed with respect to relative frequency, age, sex and site distribution; and trend. The period was divided into the pre and post AIDS era from 1983, which is the time the first AIDS patient was reported in the country. RESULT: A total of 1108 cases of KS consisting of 911 males and 197 females were recorded. The relative frequency of KS ranged between 2% to 5% of the total malignancies. There was a gradual decline in the male to female ratio from about 10:1 in the sixties to about 2:1 in 1997. There was no dramatic difference in the age distribution in the pre and post AIDS era, although a large number of cases were recorded as adults without age specification in the post AIDS era. Site distribution was characteristic of the disease with most of the cases having the lesions occurring in the lower limbs and involving the skin. CONCLUSION: Although these findings do not demonstrate a dramatic alteration in the pattern of KS in the post AIDS era there were indications that such changes may have been obscured by under-reporting. The fall in the male:female ratio is a strong indication of a rise in KS among female patients. A further study is necessary to elucidate the true impact of AIDS on the pattern of KS in the country.

FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F., Awange, D.O., Muthamia, J.M., Muga, B.I.O.: Salivary Gland Tumours in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):525-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):525-30. University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
Four hundred and seventeen tumours of salivary glands in Kenya were analysed. There is no evidence of higher incidence of salivary tumours than in non-African countries. The pattern of distribution differed from that of western countries, but in conformity with most African series showed a low proportion of tumours of the parotid gland and high proportion of tumours in the submandibular gland and the palate. The involvement of the palate by salivary gland tumour is very prominent in the African series and particularly more so in the females. Malignant tumours of the palate and parotid glands were frequent but were lower than those reported in other African series. On the other hand malignant salivary gland tumours of the submandibular glands while lower than those of the western countries, were higher than those of other African series.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango JF, Macharia IM.Delays in diagnosis, Referral and management of Head and neck cancers presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):85-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):85-91. University of Nairobi Press; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic factor in head and neck cancer is the stage of the disease at presentation. Early cancer has an excellent prognosis following treatment. Unfortunately most patients present with late disease that requires radical treatment with considerable morbidity and mortality. Clinical experience at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) shows that most patients present with late disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes of late presentation of head and neck cancer. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. RESULTS: Forty four cases were seen among whom 34 were males and 10 were females. The age range was 20 to 90 years with a peak incidence between 50 and 60 years. Most of the patients had little or no education and the majority lived in the rural areas. Seventy one percent of the patients came from the Central and Eastern provinces. Tobacco and alcohol use were the most common risk habits. The larynx was the most common site affected followed by the tongue. In 61% of the cases the size of the tumours at presentation was unknown. In 14% the size was 1-2cm, in 7% of the cases it was 2-4 cm while in 5% of the cases it was 4-6 cm. In 14% of the cases the tumour size was over 6 cm. The most common presenting symptom was hoarseness followed by swelling. The majority of the patients attended a public health facility nearest them. For most patients the facility lay within 5 km and could be accessed by walking. However, most of the patients went through multiple referrals to get to KNH. By the time the patients reached KNH, 35 patients (77%) had been treated with unspecified medications, two (4%) had had tooth extraction, and seven (16%) had had biopsies done. The time-lapse between the first symptom and consultation ranged from zero and eight months. Forty five percent of the patients presented to a medical facility within one month of their symptom and 45% presented after three months. The time lapse between referral and attendance at KNH ranged from zero and thirteen weeks and 45% of the patients presented to KNH within two weeks of referral. The overall duration of symptoms by the time of diagnosis ranged from zero months to unspecified years. Thirty two percent of the cases had experienced symptoms for six months or less by the time of diagnosis. However, a number of patients had had their symptoms for a number of years by the time of diagnosis. The distribution of the tumours by stage at the time of final diagnosis were as follows: stage I were 2%, stage II 6%, stage III 14% and stage IV 56%. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the referral system was the main cause of delayed presentation of head and neck cancer to Kenyatta National Hospital.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Introduction to GrADS.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. IGAG Climate Prediction and Applications Centre; 2005.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Tropical Meteorology I.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2005.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Tropical Meteorology II.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2005.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "The Boundary-Layer Flow-Field Regime over Nairobi.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 1992.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Response of the Moisture Budget to the Growth and Development of Nairobi City .". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Africa J. of Sc. and Tech; 2008.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Relationship between ENSO parameters and trends and periodic fluctuations in East Africa rainfall.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2007.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Principles of Numerical Weather Prediction.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre; 2003.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Urbanisation on Convective Activities over Nairobi City.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. International Human Dimensions Programme; 2005.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Anthropogenic Energy Component and Climate Change in Nairobi Metro-area.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2007.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "General Circulation and Climatology.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2005.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Response of the Moisture Budget to the Growth and Development of Nairobi City .". In: Proceedings: 1st KenGen/IAEA geothermal Conference in Kenya. Africa J. of Sc. and Tech; 2008.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Numerical Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on the Microclimate over Nairobi Area.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2000.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Contribution to the Heat Budget in Nairobi Metro-Area by the Anthropogenic Heat Component.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008. Abstract
This study quantifies the ejected waste heat from artificial supplies comprising road transport and industrial, commercial, domestic and metabolic heating activities which may enhance the urban temperatures in Nairobi metro area, taking into account the energy intensity of a given activity and the level of the activity, considering expended fossil and biofuels, electrical energy consumption and human metabolism. Translation of linear source strengths to area averages from the road transport sector yields about 4% of the total anthropogenic energy over the city. The contribution from the road sector is likely to rise to 10.8 W m-2 in 2029 as the City expands. The industrial/commercial sector contributes up to 35.5 W m-2 or 57% of the total anthropogenic energy, and could increase to 284 W m-2 by 2029 due to industrialization and economic growth. Domestic utilities account for up to 13 W m-2, which is 21% of the total anthropogenic energy. Depending on the activity engaged in, human metabolism contributes up to 11.4 W m-2, which is about 18% of the total anthropogenic energy supplies. The sum total area-averaged anthropogenic energy consumption over the city centre is currently small, constituting about 11 to 18% of the global radiation for the warmer and colder seasons, respectively. Notably, only a part of this energy is released into the atmosphere as waste heat as most is used for the intended purposes. If the current trends of rising population, increased motor vehicle density and enhanced industrialization persist, the anthropogenic waste heat ejection would be large enough to alter the heat balance of the study area appreciably in future by 2030.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Simulation of the Impact of Deforestation on Rainfall in the Lake Victoria Basin.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Natural Hazards and the Art of Forecasting.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2009.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Introduction to Unix.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. IGAG Climate Prediction and Applications Centre; 2004.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Inter-comparison of Satellite, Dobson Spectrophotometer and Ozonsonde Ozone Data Observations over Nairobi.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2007.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Introduction to Meteorology I.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2003.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Contribution to the Heat Budget in Nairobi Metro-Area by the Anthropogenic Heat Component.". In: Proceedings: 1st KenGen/IAEA geothermal Conference in Kenya. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008. Abstract
This study quantifies the ejected waste heat from artificial supplies comprising road transport and industrial, commercial, domestic and metabolic heating activities which may enhance the urban temperatures in Nairobi metro area, taking into account the energy intensity of a given activity and the level of the activity, considering expended fossil and biofuels, electrical energy consumption and human metabolism. Translation of linear source strengths to area averages from the road transport sector yields about 4% of the total anthropogenic energy over the city. The contribution from the road sector is likely to rise to 10.8 W m-2 in 2029 as the City expands. The industrial/commercial sector contributes up to 35.5 W m-2 or 57% of the total anthropogenic energy, and could increase to 284 W m-2 by 2029 due to industrialization and economic growth. Domestic utilities account for up to 13 W m-2, which is 21% of the total anthropogenic energy. Depending on the activity engaged in, human metabolism contributes up to 11.4 W m-2, which is about 18% of the total anthropogenic energy supplies. The sum total area-averaged anthropogenic energy consumption over the city centre is currently small, constituting about 11 to 18% of the global radiation for the warmer and colder seasons, respectively. Notably, only a part of this energy is released into the atmosphere as waste heat as most is used for the intended purposes. If the current trends of rising population, increased motor vehicle density and enhanced industrialization persist, the anthropogenic waste heat ejection would be large enough to alter the heat balance of the study area appreciably in future by 2030.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Are Weather and Climate Forecasts by National Meteorological Centres Reliable?" Bulletin of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2012.Website
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Mathematical Modelling of the Development of the Convective Planetary Boundary Layer in Nairobi.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. African Meteor. Soc.; 1993.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Cloud Cover Estimation Over Selected Locations in East Africa Using Satellite Derived Reflectivity Data.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Golden Sunbeams in Shadowy Storms.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. WordAlive; 2011.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Advances of Numerical Weather Prediction over the GHA Region.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre; 2004.
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "SAKAI, JUN; M. F. ODUORI and EIJI INOUE (1991). Research on the combine harvester reel mechanism.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1991. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "GUPTA, C. P. and M. F. ODUORI (1992). Design of the revolving knife-type sugar cane basecutter. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 35(6). CAB Agricultural Engineering Abstracts No. 2259.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1992. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "SAKAI, JUN; EIJI INOUE and M. F. ODUORI (1993). Combine harvester reel stagger.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (2000). Gear ratios for reverted compound gear trains of minimum weight. The mechanical engineering 6th annual seminar. Proceedings of a seminar held at Juja, near Nairobi, Kenya, on 8th - 9th June 2000.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2000. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F. and MBUYA T. O. (2005). The Limiting Value of the Fleet Angle of a Rope Running Off a Sheave. The Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering 1(1) 37-46.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F. and C. P. GUPTA (1988). Design of the revolving knife-type sugar cane basecutter. Paper No. 88-5511, American Society of Agricultural Engineers. CAB Agricultural Engineering Abstracts No. 3307.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1988. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F.; JUN SAKAI and C. P. GUPTA (1992). Kinematics of the revolving-knife disc-type sugar cane basecutter I - Fundamental mathematical relationships. Agricultural Mechanisation in Asia, Africa and Latin America 23(4) 9-15. CAB Agricultural Engine.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1992. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F.; JUN SAKAI and EIJI INOUE (1993). An algorithm for combine harvester reel stagger determination based on reel kinematics and crop stem deflection. International conference for agricultural machinery and process engineering. Proceedings of a .". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (1999). Gear ratios for non.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1999. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (2002). Gear ratios for compound gear trains of minimum weight. Computer.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2002. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES, OCHUKU MRMBUYATHOMAS. "T.O. Mbuya, .". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 2006.
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F.; JUN SAKAI and EIJI INOUE (1992). Mathematical analysis and computer graphic simulation of reel kinematics. International agricultural engineering conference. Proceedings of a conference held in Bangkok, Thailand on 7-10 December, 1992. Vol.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1992. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F.; JUN SAKAI and EIJI INOUE (1993). Aerodynamic torque and power on a rotating circular disc - a dimensional analysis approach. Journal of Kyushu Branch of the Japanese Society for Agricultural Machinery, No. 42, September 1993.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F.; JUN SAKAI and EIJI INOUE (1993). Combine harvester reel stagger.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (2001). An information processing approach to materials selection in engineering design and manufacturing.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2001. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Francoz M, Fenolland J-R, Giraud J-M, El Chehab H, Sendon D, May F, Renard J-P. "Reproducibility of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measurement with cirrus {HD}-{OCT} in normal, hypertensive and glaucomatous eyes." The British journal of ophthalmology. 2014;98:322-328. Abstract

AIM: To evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness measurement by automated detection on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images in normal, hypertensive (ocular hypertensive (OHT)) and glaucomatous eyes. METHODS: A total of 138 eyes were enrolled in three groups: 69 normal, 35 OHT and 34 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination, 24-2 automated perimetry, biometry and pachymetry. Macular imaging was performed in each eye using the Cirrus HD-OCT 4000 with software V.6.0. (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA) three times on the same day by each of two observers, and the GC analysis (GCA) algorithm provided parameters expressed as average, minimum and six sectoral GC-IPL thicknesses. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV) and test-retest variability (TRTV) calculated as 1.96 times the SD. RESULTS: Mean GC-IPL thickness was 82.27±7.37 μm, 76.84±7.01 μm and 66.16±11.16 μm in normal, OHT and glaucoma groups, respectively. GC-IPL thickness was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal and OHT eyes (p{\textless}0.0001 for all parameters). In all groups, ICC ranged from 96.4 to 99.9% and 92.5 to 99.8%, CV ranged from 0.41 to 2.24% and 0.55 to 1.67%, and TRTV ranged from 0.61 to 2.64 μm and 0.83 to 2.22 μm for intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of GCA algorithm reproducibility in normal, OHT and glaucomatous eyes. The reproducibility of GC-IPL thickness measurements using the Cirrus HD-OCT GCA algorithm was found to be highly satisfactory. GC-IPL thickness may be a promising new OCT parameter for analysis of ganglion cell damage in glaucoma.

Francis Opiyo, Oliver V. Wasonga MNSMJOMM, Munang R. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya." Climate and Development. 2015. Abstract
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f c Francis M. Awahe, Peter N. Uzoegwua PIJOJRO, XiaoJian Yaob, Frauke Fehrmannb KFMERO. "Free radical scavenging activity, phenolic contents and cytotoxicity of selected Nigerian medicinal plants." Food chemistry. 2012;131(4):1279-1286.
Francis M. Awah, Peter N. Uzoegwu JOJRPIO, Xiao-Jian Yao, Keith R. Fowke MEO. "Free radical scavenging activity and immunomodulatory effect of Stachytarpheta angustifolia leaf extract." Food Chemistry. 2010;119(4):1409-1416.
and FRANCIS GAKUYA1*, JACKSON OMBUI2 NDICHUMAINGI3 GERALDMUCHEMI2 WILLIAMOGARA2 RAMÓNSORIGUER4 SAMERALASAAD4C 5. "Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): epidemiological study in a wildlife/livestock system." Parasitology. 2012:1-9.summary.pdf
Francis Gakuya1, Jackson Ombui2 JH3 NM4 GM2 WO2 DM1 SA. "Knowledge of Mange among Masai Pastoralists in Kenya." Plos one. 2012;7(8):1-7.abstract.pdf
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "Generalization of non-singularity Conditions of Fifth Order Rotatable Designs.". In: Everyman's Science vol. XVII (1991). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "M.Sc. Project on Kenya's Domestic Export.". In: . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "A fifth Order Rotatable design in Three dimensions.". In: Comm., Stat., Theo. Meth., vol. A18. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "Fifth Order Rotatability.". In: Comm. Stat. Theo. Meth. Vol A17, No. 3. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "Deletion Designs.". In: Journal of Science and Technology, 7, (2002), 323-332. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "Ph.D. Thesis entitled Fifth Order Rotatable Designs submitted to the University of Nairobi.". In: Kenya. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Franceschi L, Gachenga E, Lutz D, Akech M. "14) GOVERNANCE, INSTITUTIONS AND THE HUMAN CONDITION ." Strathmore University & Law Africa. 2009.
Frances A, et al. "One Health- the WSPA Approach.". 2014.
Fraley DS, Adler S. "Correction of hyperkalemia by bicarbonate despite constant blood {pH}." Kidney International. 1977;12:354-360. Abstract

Patients having hyperkalemia often are given bicarbonate to raise blood pH and shift extracellular potassium into cells. Blood pH in many hyperkalemic patients, however, is compensated. To determine whether bicarbonate, independent of its pH action, affects plasma potassium, 14 hyperkalemic patients were treated with bicarbonate in 5% dextrose. In five patients (changed pH group), blood pH rose at least 0.08, while in nine (constant pH group), it changed less than 0.04. In the first group, pH rose 0.12, bicarbonate rose 5.9 mEq/liter, and plasma potassium fell 1.6 mEq/liter, and plasma potassium fell 1.4 mEq/liter. The correlation between changes in plasma potassium and bicarbonate was identical in the two groups and independent of urinary potassium excretion. Four additional patients, who were treated with 5% dextrose alone, did not significantly lower their plasma potassium, although subsequent treatment with bicarbonate in 5% dextrose lowered their plasma potassium. Thus, bicarbonate lowers plasma potassium, independent of its effect on blood pH, and despite a risk of volume overload, should be used to treat hyperkalemia in compensated acid-base disorders, even in the presence of renal failure, provided the plasma bicarbonate concentration is decreased.

Fozia AA, Victor K, Armelle MT, Matthias H, Andreas K, Albert N, Beatrice I, Abiy Y, Thomas E. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural Product Research. 2019;33(18): 2609-2617 .
Fowler NO, McCall D, Chou TC, Holmes JC, Hanenson IB. "Electrocardiographic changes and cardiac arrhythmias in patients receiving psychotropic drugs." Am. J. Cardiol.. 1976;37(2):223-30. Abstract

Eight patients had cardiac manifestations that were life-threatening in five while taking psychotropic drugs, either phenothiazines or tricyclic antidepressants. Although most patients were receiving several drugs, Mellaril (thioridazine) appeared to be responsible for five cases of ventricular tachycardia, one of which was fatal in a 35 year old woman. Supraventricular tachycardia developed in one patient receiving Thorazine (chlorpromazine). Aventyl (nortriptyline) and Elavil (amitriptyline) each produced left bundle branch block in a 73 year old woman. Electrocardiographic T and U wave abnormalities were present in most patients. The ventricular arrhythmias responded to intravenous administration of lidocaine and to direct current electric shock; ventricular pacing was required in some instances and intravenous administration of propranolol combined with ventricular pacing in one. The tachyarrhythmias generally subsided within 48 hours after administration of the drugs was stopped. Five of the eight patients were 50 years of age or younger; only one clearly had antecedent heart disease. Major cardiac arrhythmias are a potential hazard in patients without heart disease who are receiving customary therapeutic doses of psychotropic drugs. A prospective clinical trial is suggested to quantify the risk of cardiac complications to patients receiving phenothiazines or tricyclic antidepressant drugs.

Foster C, Graham M, Mann L, Waema T, Friederici N. "Who controls the digital? Value chains and the challenges of connectivity for East African firms." Economic Geography. 2018;94(1):68-86. AbstractFull text link

In recent years, Internet connectivity has greatly improved across the African continent. This article examines the consequences that this shift has had for East African firms that are part of global value chains (GVCs). Prior work yielded contradictory expectations: firms might benefit from connectivity through increased efficiencies and improved access to markets, although they might also be further marginalized through increasing control of lead firms. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Kenya and Rwanda,including 264 interviews, we examine 3 sectors (tea, tourism, and business process outsourcing) exploring overarching, cross-cutting themes. The findings support more pessimistic expectations: small African producers are only thinly digitally integrated in GVCs. Moreover, shifting modes of value chain governance, supported by lead firms and facilitated by digital information platforms and data standards are leading to new challenges for firms looking to digitally integrate. Nevertheless, we also find examples in these sectors of opportunities where small firms are able to cater to emerging niche customers, and local or regional markets. Overall, the study shows that improving connectivity does not inherently benefit African firms in GVCs without support for complementary capacity and competitive advantages.

Forthal DN, Landucci G CRBASMCJBOBRW. "Antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI) antibody activity does not correlate with risk of HIV-1 superinfection." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2013; 63(1): 31-3.
Forthal DN, Landucci G CRBAMCRSJBOBWC. "Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Virus Inhibition Antibody Activity Does Not Correlate With Risk of HIV-1 Superinfection." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.. 2013;63(1):31-33.
Fonta WM, Ichoku HE, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "The Effect of Protest Zeros on Estimates of Willingness to Pay in Healthcare Contingent Valuation Analysis." Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. 2010;8(4):225-37.
Fonck K, Kaul R, Kimani J, Keli F, MacDonald KS, Ronald AR, Plummer FA, Kirui P, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, others. "A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of monthly azithromycin prophylaxis to prevent sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 in Kenyan sex workers: study design and baseline findings." International journal of STD & AIDS. 2000;11:804-811. Abstract
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Fonck K, Kaul R, Keli F, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Moses S, Temmerman M. "Sexually transmitted infections and vaginal douching in a population of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya." Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2001;77:271-275. Abstract
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Fombong AT, Teal TE, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus haroldi: role of (Z)-9-pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38(12):1463-1473. AbstractPubMed link

Oplostomus haroldi Witte belongs to a unique genus of afro-tropical scarabs that have associations with honey bee colonies, from which they derive vital nutrients. Although the attributes of the honey bee nest impose barriers to communication among nest invaders, this beetle still is able to detect conspecific mates for reproduction. Here, we show, through behavioral studies, that cuticular lipids serve as mate discrimination cues in this beetle. We observed five steps during mating: arrestment, alignment, mounting, and copulation, and a post-copulatory stage, lasting ~40–70 % of the total mating duration, that suggested mate guarding. Chemical analysis identified the same nine straight-chain alkanes (C23–C31), six methyl-branched alkanes (6), and five mono-unsaturated alkenes in the cuticular lipids of both sexes. Methyl alkanes constituted the major component (46 %) of male cuticular lipids, while mono-unsaturated alkenes were most abundant (53 %) in females. (Z)-9-Pentacosene was twice as abundant in females than in males, and ~20 fold more concentrated in beetles than in worker bees. In mating assays, (Z)-9-pentacosene elicited arrestment, alignment, and mounting, but not copulation, by male beetles. These results represent the first evidence of a contact sex pheromone in a scarab beetle. Such contact pheromones may be an essential, cryptic mechanism for arthropods associated with eusocial insects.

Fombong AT, Teal PEA, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus harlodi: Role of (Z)-9- Pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38:1463-1473.Website
Fombong AT, Haas F, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW. "Life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) under laboratory conditions and a description of its third instar larva." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2012;32(1):1-8.Website
Follis Jr RH, Connor DH. "Some patterns of urinary iodine excretion in {Uganda}." East African medical journal. 1966;43:114. AbstractWebsite
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Folds JD, Cohen M, Lule G, Hamilton H, Hoffman I, Behets F, Dallabetta G, Schmitz JL, Jethwa HS. "Comparison of molecular and microscopic techniques for detection of Treponema pallidum in genital ulcers.". 1995. AbstractWebsite

We compared the ability of direct immunofluorescent staining (DFA) and the PCR to detect Treponema pallidum in specimens from patients with genital ulcer disease. Touch preparations from 156 patients with genital lesions were fixed in acetone and stained with a fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody specific for the 37-kDa antigen of T. pallidum. After microscopic examination, the smear was removed from the slide with a swab. DNA was extracted with phenol-chloroform and precipitated with isopropanol. Ten microliters of the extracted DNA was amplified by PCR using primers for the gene encoding the 47-kDa protein of T. pallidum and hybridized to an internal probe. Twenty-two of 156 specimens were positive for T. pallidum by DFA and PCR, while 127 were negative by both methods, yielding a concordance of 95.5% (kappa = 0.84). Four specimens were positive by PCR and negative by DFA, while three specimens were negative by PCR and positive by DFA. The DFA-negative, PCR-positive specimens may have resulted from the presence of large numbers of leukocytes on the slides, obscuring visualization of treponemes. The DFA-positive, PCR-negative results were not due to inhibition of the PCR since purified T. pallidum DNA was amplified when added to aliquots of these specimens. Negative results in these specimens were most likely due to inefficient recovery of their DNA. These data suggest that DFA and PCR are equivalent methods for detection of T. pallidum on touch preparations of genital lesions. Further refinements of the PCR assay are necessary for it to significantly improve the detection of T. pallidum in genital lesions.

Fogoum AL, Atteh NI, Atteh NI, Ndongo BC, Wami B, Nouedoui C, Muna WFT. "Elijah N. Ogola Elijah N. Ogola OP78 Observance médicamenteuse chez les patients diabétiques suivis au Centre National d'Hypertension et de Diabétologie de l'Hôpital Central de Yaoundé (CNHD-HCY)." Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2014;103. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Mobile. Twitter; RSS Feeds. Login Email/Username:
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Your Subscription. Subscribe. Articles and Issues: Articles in Press; Current Issue; List of Issues.
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Foeken D, Owuor SO, Mwangi AM. "Urban School Farming to Improve School Feeding: The Case of Nakuru Town, Kenya." Children, Youth and Environments . 2010;20(1):276-300.
Foeken DWJ. "Urban Agriculture, Food Security And Nutrition In Low Income Areas Of The City Of Nairobi, Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

This article considers the extent to which farming activities undertaken by low-income dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, play a role in the food security and nutritional status of the households involved. It compares three low-income groups - two in Korogocho, viz. those who practise urban agriculture and those who do not, and one in the Kitui-Kanuku-Kinyago area, viz. households involved in the Undugu Society Urban Agriculture Project (USUAP). The questionnaire results indicate that those who farmed produced mainly for home consumption. The major problem urban farmers faced was theft. The food situation of the USUAP farming group was generally better than that of the two Korogocho groups. In all three groups, purchased food formed by far the most important food source. On average, all three groups had inadequate energy intake. However, the energy and protein intakes in the USUAP group were higher than in the other two groups. The USUAP group purchased more food, a fact related to their higher level of welfare as a result of benefits derived from income-generating activities and a shelter improvement project that came along with the urban agriculture project. Measures of nutritional health for young children showed a similar pattern in favor of the farming groups, albeit to a lesser extent. The long-term beneficial effect on nutritional status, however, was negligible. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French

Foeken D, Owuor SO, Mwangi AM. "Coping with Increasing Food Prices in Nakuru, Kenya: Urban school farming as a way to make school lunches affordable." Urban Agriculture Magazine . 2009;22:31-33.
FO Otieno, GO Oyoo CFOEAO, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF, Omondi EA. "Clinical presentation of patients with adult onset still’s disease in Nairobi: case series." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2015;3(1). AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adult Still’s Disease (ASD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, typically characterized by a clinical triad (daily spiking high fevers, evanescent rash, arthritis), and a biological triad (hyperferritinemia, hyperleukocytosis with neutrophilia and abnormal liver function test).
Objective: This case series set out to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with ASD seen at a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi.
Results: After a record search, 8 patients were noted to have ASD. Fever and arthritis were noted to be most predominant presenting features with almost all the patients having hyperferritinemia.

FO N, M B, Gachago MM, D K. Outcomes of Combined Cataract and Trabeculectomy Surgery In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
FN. K, Waruingi) BC. "Fundamentals of Marketing: An African Perspective; Nairobi: ." Kenya Literature Bureau; 1998.
FN. K. " “A bird’s eye view of Factors influencing Product Distribution Systems in Kenya”, ." CONTACT, Journal of Consumer Association,. 1980:3-6.
FN. K. " “Communication and Modernization in Central Kenya: An Experiment,” ." Business Management Review, Faculty of Commerce and Management, University of Dares- Salaam, . 1999;2(2):71-84.
FN. K. " “Rural Buyers’ Exposure to mass media”, ." Management, Journal of Kenya Institute of Management. 1982.
FN O, JP O, F W. "The challenges fraughting isoniazid prophylaxis as a child tuberculosis prevention strategy in high burden settings in Nairobi, Kenya." East and Central Africa Medical Journal. 2015;2(1):39-45. Abstractthe_challenges_fraughting_isoniazid_prophylaxis_as_a_child_tuberculosis_prevention.pdf

Background: Paediatric Tuberculosis (TB) is rapidly becoming a major public health concern among the urban poor. Though contacts' tracing and Isoniazid Prophylaxis Therapy (lPT) is an effective prevention strategy, its benefits have not been realized in many resource poor settings. Barriers to its uptake have not been fully elucidated.
Objectives: To evaluate the challenges that fraught the implementation of' contact tracing and IPT, as a TB prevention strategy in children in household contact with adults with TB from informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.
Metbodology: A prospective longitudinal multicenter cohort study was done, where 366 recently diagnosed TB smear positive source cases were asked to enroll their child contacts for IPT. Consent was sought. Structured standard questionnaire was used to get information on source case TB treatment, socio-demographics, TB knowledge and perceptions. Baseline screening was done to exclude those with TB and/or other chronic illnesses. Contacts were then put on daily isoniazid for 6 months and followed up monthly for one year for new TB disease. Adherence, safety and challenges were monitored. Focused group discussions and key informant interviews were used to provide secondary data.
Results: All the 366 source cases interviewed were on first line anti- TB treatment. IPT acceptability was 87.3%. A total of 428 child contacts were screened, but 14(3.2%) had TB disease hence excluded. Compliance rates were 93% (95% CI 90.1 - 96.2%) and 85% (95% CI 80.2%- 88%) after 1'1and 6th months respectively. Challenges reported included; side effects in 22%, programmatic concerns in 86%, drug related issues in 70.1 %, and various health system challenges. The leading programmatic challenge was too many hospital visits (65.2%) and the drug related challenge was difficulty in administering tablets to children (44.3%). IPT completion rate was 368 out of 414 (88.8%). By endpoint, IPT failure was documented in 6( 1.6%), hence the relative risk of new TB disease in contacts on IPT was 0.49 (95% CI 0.21 -0.86).
Conclusion: IPTwas an effective and safe child TB prevention strategy in informal settlements, but it's implementation had been hampered by relatively low acceptability, sub-optimal adherence, programmatic challenges, and high defaulting rates and by limited benefits realized.

Fluck RA, Jaffe MJ. "Cholinesterases from plant tissues. VI. Preliminary characterization of enzymes from Solanum melongena L. and Zea mays L." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):130-4. Abstract

Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing esters of thiocholine have been assayed in extracts of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) and Zea Mays L. (corn). The enzymes from both species are inhibited by the anti-cholinesterases neostigmine, physostigmine, and 284c51 and by AMO-1618, a plant growth retardant and they both have pH optima near pH 8.0. The enzyme from eggplant is maximally active at a substrate concentration of 0.15 mM acetylthiocholine and is inhibited at higher substrate concentrations. On the basis of this last property, the magnitude of inhibition by the various inhibitors, and the substrate specificity, we conclude that the enzyme from eggplant, but not that from corn, is a cholinesterase.

FLORENCE DRMURILA. "Galactosaemia in an infant: case report.Murila FV. East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 1999. Abstract
Galactosaemia is a disorder of galactose metabolism in which raised levels of galactose and galactose-l-phosphate damage various organs. It is a very rare disease (incidence 1 in 60,000) and the diagnosis is often missed, leading to poor prognosis. A case of clinical galactosaemia that was diagnosed at the age of 11 months is reported. It is important to be aware of this condition as early treatment may prevent some of the complications.
FLORENCE DRMURILA. "Seroprevalence of hepatitis B markers in pregnant women in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 2006 Sep; 83 ( 9 ): 485-93 . PMID: 17447350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okoth F, Mbuthia J, Gatheru Z, Murila F, Kanyingi F, Mugo F, Esamai F, Alavi Z, Otieno J, Kiambat.". In: East Afr Med J . 2006 Sep; 83 ( 9 ): 485-93 . UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
Virus Research Center, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. Box 54628, 00200, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hepatitis B serological markers in pregnant women from various geographical sites in Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study of women attending antenatal clinics. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital and eight hospitals from five provinces in Kenya. SUBJECTS: All women in their third trimester of pregnancy attending the antenatal clinic over the period June 2001 to June 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each pregnant woman age and gestation were documented. Hepatitis serological markers were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 2241 pregnant women were enrolled. Among them 205 women (9.3%) were positive for HbsAg and from these 18 (8.8%) were found to have HbeAg. Protective antibodies (anti-HbsAg) were detected in 669 (30.2%) of the women. There were notable significant regional differences for HbsAg rates. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the presence of high disease carrier rate and the corresponding previously reported low level of HbeAg suggesting questionable low rate of perinatal transmission but high rate of horizontal transmission. PMID: 17447350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Florence N. History of Daylighting.; 2015.
FLORENCE DRMURILA, M. PROFMACHARIAW, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Iron deficiency anaemia in children of a peri-urban health facility. East Afr Med J . 1999 Sep; 76 ( 9 ): 520-3 . PMID: 10685324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murila FV, Macharia WM, Wafula EM.". In: East Afr Med J . 1999 Sep; 76 ( 9 ): 520-3 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia(IDA) and its risk factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: A peri-urban health centre in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and three children, aged six months to six years. INTERVENTION: Demographic data were obtained and each child examined for signs of iron deficiency anaemia. Blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia was made using a pre-defined criteria. RESULTS: Iron deficiency anaemia had a prevalence of 7.4% (95% CI = 4.8-10.0) and was predominantly mild (93.6%). Age was found to be significantly associated with iron deficiency anaemia with a prevalence of (14.6%) in infants. No association was found between IDA and sex, birthweight, weaning age and weaning diet, sanitation, water source or mother's education. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in this health facility was relatively low and was predominantly mild.

PIP: This cross-sectional survey, conducted in a periurban health center in Nairobi, Kenya, determined the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and its risk factors among 403 children aged 6 months to 6 years. Demographic data were obtained and each child was assessed for signs of IDA. Blood was drawn for hemoglobin determination. The diagnosis of IDA was made using predefined criteria. Findings revealed that the prevalence of IDA was 7.4% (95% confidence interval = 4.8-10.0) and was predominantly mild (93.6%). Age was found to be significantly associated with IDA, with a 14.6% prevalence rate in infants. No association was found between IDA and factors such as sex, birth weight, weaning age and weaning diet, sanitation, water source, or education of the mother. Although the study showed that IDA was not a major health problem in the area, as evidenced by the low prevalence rate and presence of only mild cases, there is still a need for emphasis on health education at the health facility since young children are at high risk of IDA.

PMID: 10685324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

FLORENCE DRMURILA, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection. PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Florence N. "Emerging Trends in Building Envelope Technologies; Transferable Technologies in Nairobi.". In: 2nd Annual East African Regional Workshop; . ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2011.
FLORENCE DRMURILA, M. PROFMACHARIAW, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Iron deficiency anaemia in children of a peri-urban health facility. East Afr Med J . 1999 Sep; 76 ( 9 ): 520-3 . PMID: 10685324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murila FV, Macharia WM, Wafula EM.". In: East Afr Med J . 1999 Sep; 76 ( 9 ): 520-3 . UN-HABITAT; 1999. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia(IDA) and its risk factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: A peri-urban health centre in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and three children, aged six months to six years. INTERVENTION: Demographic data were obtained and each child examined for signs of iron deficiency anaemia. Blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia was made using a pre-defined criteria. RESULTS: Iron deficiency anaemia had a prevalence of 7.4% (95% CI = 4.8-10.0) and was predominantly mild (93.6%). Age was found to be significantly associated with iron deficiency anaemia with a prevalence of (14.6%) in infants. No association was found between IDA and sex, birthweight, weaning age and weaning diet, sanitation, water source or mother's education. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in this health facility was relatively low and was predominantly mild.

PIP: This cross-sectional survey, conducted in a periurban health center in Nairobi, Kenya, determined the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and its risk factors among 403 children aged 6 months to 6 years. Demographic data were obtained and each child was assessed for signs of IDA. Blood was drawn for hemoglobin determination. The diagnosis of IDA was made using predefined criteria. Findings revealed that the prevalence of IDA was 7.4% (95% confidence interval = 4.8-10.0) and was predominantly mild (93.6%). Age was found to be significantly associated with IDA, with a 14.6% prevalence rate in infants. No association was found between IDA and factors such as sex, birth weight, weaning age and weaning diet, sanitation, water source, or education of the mother. Although the study showed that IDA was not a major health problem in the area, as evidenced by the low prevalence rate and presence of only mild cases, there is still a need for emphasis on health education at the health facility since young children are at high risk of IDA.

PMID: 10685324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Florence N. "Emerging retrofitting of University Campuses within Highrise buildings in Nairobi." The Architect Magazine . 2015;1(001):001.
FLORENCE DRMURILA, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Bacteraemia, urinary tract infection and malaria in hospitalised febrile children in Nairobi: is there an association? East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Okwara FN, Obimbo EM, Wafula EM, Murila FV.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Jan; 81 ( 1 ): 47-51 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: There is laboratory evidence of altered immune function in children with malaria. Bacterial infections have been documented to complicate severe forms of malaria. However, it remains unclear whether such infections are attributable to the malaria, other risk factors, or are coincidental. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in febrile hospitalised children with and without malaria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: General paediatric wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Children aged between three months and 12 years admitted with an acute febrile illness, with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standardised questionnaire, information on socio-demography, symptomatology, and nutritional status was obtained. Malaria slides, blood and urine cultures were performed on each child. RESULTS: Malaria parasitaemia was present in 158 (60%) of 264 children presenting with acute febrile illness with no obvious focus of bacterial infection. Bacteria were isolated from blood and/or urine of 62 (23%) of all enrolled children. Bacteraemia was prevalent among 11.4% of 158 children with malaria and among 13.2% of 106 without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 28.1% of blood isolates, gram-negative 62.5%, and atypical bacteria 9.4%. UTI was prevalent among 13.3% of 158 children with malaria and 16.0% of 106 children without malaria. Gram-positive organisms comprised 18.4%, gram-negative 78.9%, and atypical bacteria 2.6% of the urine isolates. Presence of malaria parasitaemia was not associated with an increased risk of bacteraemia (OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.4-0.7], or UTI (OR 0.8 95% CI [0.4-1.6] in this study population. CONCLUSION: Among children hospitalised in Nairobi with fever and no obvious bacterial infective focus, there should be a high index of suspicion for malaria, followed by bacteraemia and UTI. Malaria parasitaemia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bacterial co-infection. PMID: 15080516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Flora N. Namu, John M. Githaiga, Esther N.Kioko, Paul N. Ndegwa, L. C. "Butterfly species composition and abundance in an old, middle-aged, and young secondary forests, in:Kühne L. (Ed.), Butterflies and moths diversity of the Kakamega forest (Kenya)." Brandenburgische Universitätsdruckerei und Verlagsgesellschaft, Germany. 2008:47-61.
Flohr H, Breull W. "Effect of etafenone on total and regional myocardial blood flow." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1400-3. Abstract

The distribution of blood flow to the subendocardial, medium and subepicardial layers of the left ventricular free wall was studied in anaesthetized dogs under normoxic (A), hypoxic (B) conditions and under pharmacologically induced (etafenone) coronary vasodilation (C). Regional myocardial blood flow was determined by means of the particle distribution method. In normoxia a transmural gradient of flow was observed, with the subendocardial layers receiving a significantly higher flow rate compared with the subepicardial layers. In hypoxia induced vasodilation this transmural gradient of flow was persistent. In contrast a marked redistribution of regional flow was observed under pharmacologically induced vasodilation. The transmural gradient decreased. In contrast to some findings these experiments demonstrate that a considerable vasodilatory capacity exists in all layers of the myocardium and can be utilized by drugs. The differences observed for the intramural distribution pattern of flow under hypoxia and drug induced vasodilation support the hypothesis that this pattern reflects corresponding gradients of regional myocardial metabolism.

Fleming I, Mwaniki JM. "A synthesis of enantiomerically enriched propargylsilanes." J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. . 1998;1:1237-1247. Abstract

Reduction of ethyl 3-methyl-, 3-isopropyl- and 3-n-pentyl-3-[dimethyl(phenyl)silyl]propanoates with DIBAL to the aldehydes, enol trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) formation using trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) anhydride and 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine, and elimination using LDA, gives the propargyl silanes . The esters could also be prepared enantiomerically enriched, and the final products are the enantiomerically enriched propargyl (homochiral) silanes.

Flegel TW, Nielsen L, Thamavit V, Kongtim S, Pasharawipas T. "Presence of multiple viruses in non-diseased, cultivated shrimp at harvest.". 2004. Abstract

Histological examinations were carried out with 400 cultivated black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from 12 commercial rearing ponds from three different areas in Thailand over a period of 3 years. The shrimp were collected at or near harvest time as two arbitrary size groups of 10–20 each from each pond. Aside from size difference, they showed no gross signs of disease and were normally active. Pathognomonic histopathological lesions were found only for hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) or monodon baculovirus (MBV). Although these were relatively frequent, no unusual shrimp mortality had occurred in any of the ponds examined. Severity of these infections was negatively correlated with shrimp size. When grouped together, HPV-infected shrimp gave mean lengths of approximately 6.5 cm that were significantly different from uninfected shrimp at 9 cm length, early in the cultivation cycle while MBV-infected groups of approximately 9 cm length were not readily distinguishable until uninfected shrimp were 10 cm or more, later in cultivation. Thus, HPV infection was correlated with more severe stunting than MBV. In addition to histopathological examination, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for HPV, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) were carried out on one large sample of 240 shrimp from 6 ponds where visible lesions were apparent for MBV only. Surprisingly, 94% of the specimens gave a positive test for at least one of the four viruses. HPV and IHHNV alone or in combination were detected at high prevalence (approximately 60%) despite the absence of visible histological lesions and were confirmed by southern blot hybridization. Although the prevalence of the four viral pathogens was very high, it would normally have gone unnoticed, since normal shrimp are rarely examined for viruses.

Fleet GH, Phaff HJ. "Glucanases in Schizosaccharomyces. Isolation and properties of an exo-beta-glucanase from the cell extracts and culture fluid of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus var. versatilis." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(2):318-32. Abstract

(11 Cell extracts and extracellular culture fluids of species of the yeast genus Schizosaccharomyces exhibited exo-beta-(1 leads to 3)- and exo-beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.-) activities. (2) Using a combination of Sephadex G-100 and DEAE-cellulose chromatography, the exo-beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucanases from the cell extracts and culture fluid of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus var. versatilis were purified extensively. The enzymes from either location exhibited similar purification and other properties. (3) The purified enzymes hydrolysed the beta-(1 leads to 6)-glucosidic linkage in addition to the beta-(1 leads to 3) linkage. Heat denaturation, inhibition and electrophoretic studies indicated that both hydrolytic activities were properties of a single protein. Laminarin and pustulan hydrolysis followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Km and V for laminarin hydrolysis were 6.25 mg/ml and 350 mumol of glucose released/min/mg protein, and for pustulan they were 166 mg/ml and 52 mumol of glucose released/min/mg protein. (4) The exo-beta-glucanase was assigned a molecular weight of 43 000. (5) the purified enzyme failed to hydrolyse isolated cell walls from either baker's yeast or Schizosaccharomyces pombe or to induce protoplast formation from intact cells of S. japonicus var. versatilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Flarian MM, Frederick AO, Julius MT, John WK. "Farmer-based dynamics in tissue culture banana technology adoption: a socio-economic perspective among small holder farmers in Uganda." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;13(50):2836-2854.
Fitch W, MacKenzie ET, Harper AM. "Effects of decreasing arterial blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in the baboon. Influence of the sympathetic nervous system." Circ. Res.. 1975;37(5):550-7. Abstract

The influence of the sympathetic nervous system on the cerebral circulatory response to graded reductions in mean arterial blood pressure was studied in anesthetized baboons. Cerebral blood flow was measured by the 133Xe clearance method, and arterial blood pressure was decreased by controlled hemorrhage. In normal baboons, the constancy of cerebral blood flow was maintained until mean arterial blood pressure was approximately 65% of the base-line value; thereafter, cerebral blood flow decreased when arterial blood pressure was reduced. Superior cervical sympathectomy of 2-3 weeks duration did not affect the normal response. In contrast, both acute surgical sympathectomy (cervical trunk division) and alpha-receptor blockade (1.5 mg/kg of phenoxybenzamine) enhanced the maintenance of cerebral blood flow in the face of hemorrhagic hypotension in that cerebral blood flow did not decrease until mean arterial blood pressure was approximately 35% of the base-line value. The results indicate that the sympathetic nervous system is not involved in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow in the face of a fall in arterial blood pressure. Indeed, the implication is that the sympathicoadrenal discharge accompanying hemorrhagic hypotension is detrimental to, rather than responsible for, cerebral autoregulation.

Fisher LJ. "Development of retinal synaptic arrays in the inner plexiform layer of dark-reared mice." Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. 1979;54:219-227. Abstract

In the central area of the retina of mouse the rate of synaptogenesis in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) drops precipitously at about the time the eyes open. To determine if the visual input at eye opening provides a signal for the neurons to stop adding synapses, mice were raised in darkness during the period of maximal synaptogenesis and through eye opening. Retinal synaptic arrays of dark-reared and normally reared animals were compared quantitatively. The rate of synaptogenesis after eye opening in dark-reared mice indicated that the onset of visual stimulation was not the cue to stop synaptogenesis. However, the synaptic arrays of the IPL of dark-reared mice consistently had more conventional synapses than those of normally reared mice. It is concluded that the number of conventional synapses in the central retina was increased by dark-rearing.

Fisher SK, Lewis GP, Linberg KA, Verardo MR. "Cellular remodeling in mammalian retina: results from studies of experimental retinal detachment." Progress in retinal and eye research. 2005;24:395-431. Abstract

Retinal detachment, the separation of the neural retina from the retinal pigmented epithelium, starts a cascade of events that results in cellular changes throughout the retina. While the degeneration of the light sensitive photoreceptor outer segments is clearly an important event, there are many other cellular changes that have the potential to significantly effect the return of vision after successful reattachment. Using animal models of detachment and reattachment we have identified many cellular changes that result in significant remodeling of the retinal tissue. These changes range from the retraction of axons by rod photoreceptors to the growth of neurites into the subretinal space and vitreous by horizontal and ganglion cells. Some neurite outgrowths, as in the case of rod bipolar cells, appear to be directed towards their normal presynaptic target. Horizontal cells may produce some directed neurites as well as extensive outgrowths that have no apparent target. A subset of reactive ganglion cells all fall into the latter category. Muller cells, the radial glia of the retina, undergo numerous changes ranging from proliferation to a wholesale structural reorganization as they grow into the subretinal space (after detachment) or vitreous after reattachment. In a few cases have we been able to identify molecular changes that correlate with the structural remodeling. Similar changes to those observed in the animal models have now been observed in human tissue samples, leading us to conclude that this research may help us understand the imperfect return of vision occurring after successful reattachment surgery. The mammalian retina clearly has a vast repertoire of cellular responses to injury, understanding these may help us improve upon current therapies or devise new therapies for blinding conditions.

Fisher SK, Lewis GP. "Müller cell and neuronal remodeling in retinal detachment and reattachment and their potential consequences for visual recovery: a review and reconsideration of recent data." Vision research. 2003;43:887-897. Abstract

Recent evidence suggests that the adult mammalian retina is far more plastic than was previously thought. Retinal detachment induces changes beyond the degeneration of outer segments (OS). Changes in photoreceptor synapses, second- and even third-order neurons may all contribute to imperfect visual recovery that can occur after successful reattachment. Changes that occur in Müller cells have obvious effects through subretinal fibrosis and proliferative vitreoretinopathy, but other unidentified effects seem likely as well. Reattachment of the retina induces its own set of responses aside from OS re-growth. Reattachment halts the growth of Müller cell processes into the subretinal space, but induces their growth on the vitreal surface. It also induces the outgrowth of rod axons into the inner retina.

Fisher JN, Shahshahani MN, Kitabchi AE. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: low-dose insulin therapy by various routes." The New England Journal of Medicine. 1977;297:238-241. Abstract

Since in normal persons the hypoglycemic effect of low-dose intramuscular exceeds that of subcutaneous insulin we studied the effect of routes of insulin therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis. Forty-five patients with diabetic ketoacidosis entered a randomized prospective protocol with insulin administered either intravenously, subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Initial priming dose of insulin had to be repeated in two of 15, three of 15 and six of 15 of the intravenous, subcutaneous and intramuscular groups respectively. The intravenous group had a more rapid fall in plasma glucose (P less than 0.01) and ketone bodies (P less than 0.05) during the first two hours. Thereafter, there were no significant differences in the rate of decline of plasma glucose or ketones nor in the time required for glucose to reach 250 mg per deciliter or for complete recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis. The data confirm the efficacy of low-dose insulin therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis and indicate that the optimal route of insulin administration is by initial intravenous combined with subcutaneous or intramuscular.

Fisher JN, Kitabchi AE. "A randomized study of phosphate therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1983;57:177-180. Abstract

The use of phosphate therapy in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been controversial, particularly with respect to the effect of phosphate intermediates on tissue oxygenation. In a prospective randomized study we evaluated the effect of phosphate (8.5 mmol/h or approximately 6 g phosphate/24 h) (experimental group) vs. no phosphate therapy (control group) in 30 DKA patients, 15 in each group. Various determinations including erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), oxyhemoglobin dissociation (p50), serum phosphate, calcium, lactate, pyruvate, electrolytes, and response time to reach predetermined values for glucose, bicarbonate, and pH were measured at frequent intervals during the first 24 h of therapy and daily for 5 days after metabolic control. Initial electrolytes, glucose, pH, erythrocyte 2,3-DPG, lactate, and p50 were not different in either group. Whereas the experimental group had a greater level of 2,3-DPG than the control group by 48 h, the difference was not statistically significant. Recovery indices, including hours to reach glucose of 250 mg/dl, bicarbonate greater than 15 meq/liter, pH greater than 7.3, and mental alertness, were not different in the two groups nor were the p50 or lactate measurements. The experimental group exhibited significantly lower plasma ionized calcium values during therapy. We conclude that phosphate therapy may accelerate regeneration of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG but in the relatively small number of patients studied it had no demonstrable influence on tissue oxygenation or clinical response to low dose insulin therapy of DKA. Furthermore, the exaggeration of hypocalcemia seen in phosphate-treated patients may be reason for caution in the use of such therapy.

Fischer AJ, Dierks BD, Reh TA. "Exogenous growth factors induce the production of ganglion cells at the retinal margin." Development. 2002;129:2283-2291. AbstractWebsite
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Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Fikir Alemayehu, Onwonga Richard MJK, V WO. "Assessment of Shoreline Changes in the Period 1969-2010 in Watamu area, Kenya." Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: H Environment & Earth Science. 2014;14. Abstract
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Fifková E. "The effect of monocular deprivation on the synaptic contacts of the visual cortex." Journal of Neurobiology. 1969;1:285-294. AbstractWebsite

The effect of visual deprivation on synaptic contacts in the visual cortex was studied with the electron microscope. The deprivation was achieved by unilateral lid suture in 14-day old white rats before eye opening after which the animals were kept for 8 weeks. The density and the size of synaptic contacts in the upper part of the visual cortex (from the surface of layer II up to V) were estimated. The mean density of synapses of the visual cortex supplied by the deprived eye was 20% less than on the control side, the upper levels of the cortex being more affected. The mean size of synaptic contacts was larger (+7.5%) in the upper levels of the deprived cortex. No right left difference in density and size were found in control animals.

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