Publications

Found 883 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Desc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is D  [Clear All Filters]
A B C [D] E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
D
D’alessandro U, Dujardin J-C, Laurent T, Overmeir CV, Nyachieo A. "Plasmodium falciparum genotyping by microsatellites as a method to distinguish between recrudescent and new infections.". 2005. Abstractatunga_nyachieo.pdf

In vivo tests for susceptibility to antimalarial drugs require molecular methods to distinguish recrudescence from new infection. The most commonly used DNA markers (merozoite surface proteins [MSPs]) are under immune selective pressure, which might lead to misclassification. We evaluated immunologically neutral microsatellite markers in blood samples collected during a drug efficacy trial in Rwanda. Fifty percent of the infections classified as recrudescent by MSP were classified as new by microsatellite markers. Reciprocally, 23.3% of infections classified as recrudescent by microsatellite markers were identified as new by MSP. In drug efficacy studies, microsatellite markers should complement MSP genotyping to distinguish a recrudescence from a new infection

Dzupire NC, Ngare P, Odongo L. "A Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data." Journal of Probability and Statistics. 2018;2018(1012647). AbstractA Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data

Rainfall modeling is significant for prediction and forecasting purposes in agriculture, weather derivatives, hydrology, and risk and disaster preparedness. Normally two models are used to model the rainfall process as a chain dependent process representing the occurrence and intensity of rainfall. Such two models help in understanding the physical features and dynamics of rainfall process. However rainfall data is zero inflated and exhibits overdispersion which is always underestimated by such models. In this study we have modeled the two processes simultaneously as a compound Poisson process. The rainfall events are modeled as a Poisson process while the intensity of each rainfall event is Gamma distributed. We minimize overdispersion by introducing the dispersion parameter in the model implemented through Tweedie distributions. Simulated rainfall data from the model shows a resemblance of the actual rainfall data in terms of seasonal variation, means, variance, and magnitude. The model also provides mechanisms for small but important properties of the rainfall process. The model developed can be used in forecasting and predicting rainfall amounts and occurrences which is important in weather derivatives, agriculture, hydrology, and prediction of drought and flood occurrences.

Dziuban EJ, DeVos J, Ngeno B, Ngugi E, Zhang G, Sabatier J, Wagar N, Diallo K, Nganga L, Katana A, Yang C, Rivadeneira ED, Mukui I, Odhiambo F, Redfield R, Raizes E. "High Prevalence of Abacavir-associated L74V/I Mutations in Kenyan Children Failing Antiretroviral Therapy." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017;36(8):758-760. Abstract

A survey of 461 HIV-infected Kenyan children receiving antiretroviral therapy found 143 (31%) failing virologically. Drug resistance mutations were found in 121; 37 had L74V/I mutations, with 95% receiving abacavir (ABC)-containing regimens. L74V/I was associated with current ABC usage (P = 0.0001). L74V/I may be more prevalent than previously realized in children failing ABC-containing regimens, even when time on treatment has been short. Ongoing rigorous pediatric drug resistance surveillance is needed.

DW.Gakuya, P.N.Mbugua, B.Kavoi, S.M.Mwaniki, S.G.Kiama. "Evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation in broiler and layer chicken feed.". In: RISE-AFNNET Fellows conference on natural products. Imperial Royale hotel,Kampala,Uganda; 2015.evaluation_of_moringa_oleifera_leaf_meal_supplementation_in.pdf
DW G, P.M.F. Mbithi, Musimba NK. "Preliminary study of three medicinal plants used as anthelmintic for livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet district.". 2011:81-83. Abstract

Three preliminarv experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of three medicinal plants used as anthelmintics in humans and livestock in Kibwczi and Tunyo divisions of Mukueni and Marakwet district respectivelv. At double the dosage used traditionally. powdered Albizia anthelmintica, fresh Maerua subcodata. Powdered M. edulis, fresh M. edulis and fresh Albizia anthelmintica had a percentage faecal egg count reduction of 55..1.51.4.49.4. 16.2 and 13.5 percent respcctivelv

Duysburgh E, Kerstens B, Kouanda S, Kaboré CP, Belemsaga Yugbare D, P G, Masache G, Crahay B, Gondola Sitefane G, Bique Osman N, Foia S, Barros H, Castro Lopes S, Mann S, Nambiar B, Colbourn T, M. T. "Opportunities to improve postpartum care for mothers and infants: design of context-specific packages of postpartum interventions in rural districts in four sub-Saharan African countries." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.. 2015;3;15:131. (doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0562-8. ).
Dutta A, Wallace N, Savosnick P, Adungosi J, Kioko UM. "Investing In HIV Services While Building Kenya’s Health System: PEPFAR’s Support To Prevent Mother-To-Child HIV Transmission." Health Aaffairs Journal. 2012.
Duque RB, Ynalvez M, Sooryamoorthy R, aul Mbatia P, aul Mbatia P, esley Shrum W. "Collaboration paradox: Scientific productivity, the Internet, and p roblems of research in developing areas." Social Studies of Science. 2005;5(35):755-785.
Dunstan Kaburu, Nderitu JH, John Kamanu, Chemining’wa G. Snap bean Integrated Crop Management booklet. UON; 2012.snap_bean_integrated_crop_management_booklet.doc
Dundon WG, Kihu SM, Settypalli BTK, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, John NM, Oyugi JO, Silber R, Loitsch A, Diallo A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of a Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus." Genome Announc. 2014;2(5). Abstract

We report the first complete genome sequence of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus (KN5/2011) using RNA extracted from goat lung tissue collected in Kenya in 2011. The genome shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity with lineage II peste des petits ruminants viruses (PPRVs) (86.1 to 87.2%) and the lowest with lineage IV PPRVs (82.5 to 83.8%).

Dundon W, Kihu S, Settypalli BK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, J.O.Oyugi, Silber R, L.Angelica, Diallo A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus." Genome Announcement . 2014;2(5).
DUNDON WG, Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, John NM, Oyugi JO, Loitsch A, Diallo A. "Detection and Genome Analysis of a Lineage III Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus in Kenya in 2011." Transboundary and Emerging diseases. 2015;DOI:10.1111/tbed.12374:1-7.onlinelibrarytps.pdf
Dulo SO. "Determination of some Physico-chemical parameters of the Nairobi River, Kenya.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

This paper discusses the results of a study carried out in 2003 on the water quality of Nairobi River on the basis of pollution parameters and water quality index. The study aimed at establishing whether the water meets the surface water quality criteria for water supply. The area of study in Nairobi River was within its entry and exit of Nairobi province. It was observed that human activities along the river with visible encroachment to the banks, contribute to the heavy level of pollution of the river. This is the section that industrial discharges and municipal sewerage are discharged into the river. The study was carried out through field surveys and laboratory tests on samples taken from the river. The results obtained from laboratory tests were analysed and compared to the established surface water quality criteria by A.S.C.E, W.H.O, Natural watercourses Standards of Kenya and classification of rivers by Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal. Human activities along the river course have severely impacted on the River water quality. The study area had average pH of 7.04; the average turbidity was 41.5N.T.U, the average suspended solids in the section was 116.43 mg/l, the average dissolved oxygen was 4.32mg/l. the average BOD was 182.5mg/l. The average COD for the reach studied was 49.5mg/l. The river was therefore classified as bad according to Klein 1966. The study concluded that the Nairobi River within Nairobi province was badly polluted as indicated by the water quality index analysis. The WQI gives a value of 49.27, fall between the numerical ranges of the classification of bad (26-50).

Dulo SO. "Knowledge Management and Capacity Building in IWRM in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Re-orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training, September 2008, pp, 113-118. HABRI,UoN; 2008.
Dulo, Simeon, Otieno;, Odira P(S)PM. Impact of poor solid waste management in Kenya on groundwater .; Submitted. Abstract

One of the most obvious impacts of rapid urbanization and economic development can be witnessed in the form of uncollected municipal solid waste. The study reports on solid waste management in selected towns in Kenya. It reviews the collection, handling, policy support, institutional development, private sector involment, user participation, technical development and waste management. The study revealed that the urban councils were grappling with challenges of preventing environmental degradation due to non-systematic solid waste management and the impetus in pollution control was rather slow and seems to be mostly crisis driven.

Duguma, D; Mirkena HIOAM; TRSWT; A; L;. Participatory approaches to investigate breeding objectives of livestock keepers.; 2010. Abstract

There are distinct breeds suitable for diverse purposes in the different production environments or ecological zones. Farmers in different production systems have different trait preferences and the strategies followed by them are also as diverse as the agro-environments within which they operate. In order to design a viable breeding plan, farmers’ preferences for the different traits need to be investigated. In this paper available tools and methods for defining livestock breeding objective traits are described, discussed and comparisons among them are made. The reviewed tools were: participatory rural appraisal (PRA), choice experiments, ranking of animals from own flock/herd and ranking of others animals. Each methodology may be appropriate to specific situation; however, it is recommended that a combination of approaches be used to precisely capture the breeding objective traits of livestock producers. Elucidation of objective traits using the tools with active involvement of producers can result in appropriate livestock genetic improvement that is well grounded in practical reality and truly reflects owners’ preferences.

Dugassa S, Lindh JM, Oyieke F, Mukabana WR, Lindsay SW, Fillinger U. "Development of a Gravid Trap for Collecting Live Malaria Vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.". 2013.Website
Dugassa S, Lindh JM, Torr SJ, Oyieke F, Lindsay SW, Fillinger U. "Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition.". 2012.malaria_paper_1.pdf
Drinkwater CJ, Neil MJ. "Optimal timing of wound drain removal following total joint arthroplasty." The Journal of arthroplasty. 1995;10:185-189. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Dreher D, Obregon C, Kok M, Kiama SG, Gehr P, Nicod LP. "Release Of IL-18 By Salmonella SipB Protein In Human Antigenpresenting Cells.". 2001.
Dreher D, Kok M, Cochand L, Kiama SG, Gehr P, Peche` J-C, Nicod LP. "Genetic background of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium has profound influence on infection and cytokine patterns in human dendritic cells.". 2001. Abstract

Salmonella typhimurium (ST) can cause infection in man, and attenuated strains are under consideration as live vaccine vectors. However, little is known about the interaction of ST with human dendritic cells (DC). Here, we compared the consequences of exposure of human, monocyte-derived DC with different attenuated strains of ST. Infection was observed with all four strains tested (wild type, PhoP2, PhoPc, and AroA), but the PhoPc strain was by far the most efficient. Intracellular persistence of wild type and PhoP2 was longer than that of PhoPc and AroA, both of which were largely eliminated within 24 h. Most DC survived infection by the attenuated strains, although apoptosis was observed in a fraction of the exposed cells. All strains induced DC maturation, independent from the extent of infection. Although all strains stimulated secretion of TNF-a and IL-12 strongly, PhoPc induced significantly less IL-10 than the other three strains and as much as 10 times less IL-10 than heat-killed PhoPc, suggesting that this mutant suppressed the secretion of IL-10 by the DC. These data indicate that infectivity, bacterial elimination, and cytokine secretion in human DC are controlled by the genetic background of ST. J. Leukoc. Biol. 69: 583–589

Drannik AG, Nag K, Yao X-D, Henrick BM, Jain S, Ball BT, Plummer FA, Wachihi C, Kimani J, Rosenthal KL. "Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Elafin Is More Potent than Its Precursor's, Trappin-2, in Genital Epithelial Cells.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL) is a natural source of anti-HIV-1 factors; however, molecular characterization of the anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL remains elusive. In this study, we confirmed that CVLs from HIV-1-resistant (HIV-R) compared to HIV-1-susceptible (HIV-S) commercial sex workers (CSWs) contain significantly larger amounts of serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr) and its processed form, elafin (E). We assessed anti-HIV-1 activity of CVLs of CSWs and recombinant E and Tr on genital epithelial cells (ECs) that possess (TZM-bl) or lack (HEC-1A) canonical HIV-1 receptors. Our results showed that immunodepletion of 30% of Tr/E from CVL accounted for up to 60% of total anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL. Knockdown of endogenous Tr/E in HEC-1A cells resulted in significantly increased shedding of infectious R5 and X4 HIV-1. Pretreatment of R5, but not X4 HIV-1, with either Tr or E led to inhibition of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. Interestingly, when either HIV-1 or cells lacking canonical HIV-1 receptors were pretreated with Tr or E, HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis were significantly reduced, and decreased attachment was not associated with altered expression of syndecan-1 or CXCR4. Determination of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Tr and E anti-HIV-1 activity indicated that E is ~130 times more potent than its precursor, Tr, despite their equipotent antiprotease activities. This study provides the first experimental evidence that (i) Tr and E are among the principal anti-HIV-1 molecules of CVL; (ii) Tr and E affect cell attachment and transcytosis of HIV-1; (iii) E is more efficient than Tr regarding anti-HIV-1 activity; and (iv) the anti-HIV-1 effect of Tr and E is contextual

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Kiarie J, Richardson BA, Wald A, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Infant safety during and after maternal valacyclovir therapy in conjunction with antiretroviral HIV-1 prophylaxis in a randomized clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(4):e34635. Abstract

Maternal administration of the acyclovir prodrug valacyclovir is compatible with pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, the safety profile of prolonged infant and maternal exposure to acyclovir in the context of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) has not been described.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, Richardson BA, Hitti J, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Farquhar C. "Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):366-75. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, Richardson BA, Hitti J, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Farquhar C. "Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):366-75. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Kiarie J, Richardson BA, Wald A, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Infant safety during and after maternal valacyclovir therapy in conjunction with antiretroviral HIV-1 prophylaxis in a randomized clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(4):e34635. Abstract

Maternal administration of the acyclovir prodrug valacyclovir is compatible with pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, the safety profile of prolonged infant and maternal exposure to acyclovir in the context of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) has not been described.

Drake, Alison L; Roxby AKJ; RBWA; J-SG; FCC; A;. "Infant Safety during and after Maternal Valacyclovir Therapy in Conjunction with Antiretroviral HIV-1 Prophylaxis in a Randomized Clinical Trial.". 2012. Abstract

Background Maternal administration of the acyclovir prodrug valacyclovir is compatible with pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, the safety profile of prolonged infant and maternal exposure to acyclovir in the context of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) has not been described. Methods Pregnant Kenyan women co-infected with HIV-1/HSV-2 with CD4 counts > 250 cells/mm3 were enrolled at 34 weeks gestation and randomized to twice daily 500 mg valacyclovir or placebo until 12 months postpartum. Women received zidovudine from 28 weeks gestation and single dose nevirapine was given to women and infants at the time of delivery for PMTCT. Infant blood was collected at 6 weeks for creatinine and ALT. Breast milk specimens were collected at 2 weeks postpartum from 71 women in the valacyclovir arm; acyclovir levels were determined for a random sample of 44 (62%) specimens. Fisher’s Exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used for analysis. Results One hundred forty-eight women were randomized and 146 mother-infant pairs were followed postpartum. PMTCT ARVs were administered to 98% of infants and all mothers. Valacyclovir was not associated with infant or maternal toxicities or adverse events, and no congenital malformations were observed. Infant creatinine levels were all normal (< 0.83 mg/dl) and median creatinine (median 0.50 mg/dl) and infant growth did not differ between study arms. Acyclovir was detected in 35 (80%) of 44 breast milk samples collected at 2 weeks postpartum. Median and maximum acyclovir levels were 2.62 and 10.15 mg/ml, respectively (interquartile range 0.6–4.19). Conclusions Exposure to PMTCT ARVs and acyclovir after maternal administration of valacyclovir during pregnancy and postpartum to women co-infected with HIV-1/HSV-2 was not associated with an increase in infant or maternal toxicities or adverse events.

DR.KARIUKI, DAVID MUIGUA. "Heralding a New Dawn: Achieving Justice through effective application of Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms (ADR) in Kenya." The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, Kenya -. 2013;Volume 1 Number 1 (2013):43-78.
DR.KARIUKI, DAVID MUIGUA. "Alternative Dispute Resolution and Article 159 of the Constitution.". In: Legal Resource Foundation Trust, Programme for Judges and Magistrates Training. Lake Baringo Soi Lodge; 2012.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Everyday communication and socializing.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. American Psychological Association; 2010. Abstract
Article first published in Antos/Ventola/Weber 2008 and chosen by the American Psychological Association to be reprinted in: David Matsumoto (ed.): APA handbook of inter-personal communication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
DR. WEBER TILO, DR. WEBER TILO. "Introduction: interpersonal communication – linguistic points of view.". In: In: Gerd Antos & Eija Ventola in cooperation with Tilo Weber (eds.). Interpersonal Communication. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter. 1. de Gruyter; 2008. Abstract
with Gerd Antos & Eija Ventola.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Die Sprachwissenschaft und das doppelte Problem der Interpretation.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. thelem Verlag; 2010.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Explizit vs. implizit, propositional vs. prozedural, isoliert vs. kontextualisiert, individuell vs. kollektiv .". In: In: Tilo Weber & Gerd Antos (eds.). Arten von Wissen. Frankfurt, M.: Peter Lang. 13. Peter Lang; 2009.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Lexikon und Grammatik in Interaktion .". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. de Gruyter; 2010. Abstract
What are the elementary building blocks of language? Which categories can they be assigned to, based on which criteria? What function do parts of speech or lexical categories have for the speakers of a language? This study provides answers to these theoretical questions, showing on the example of German that lexical categorization is dependent on cognitive and functional conditions ― not as a static structure, but rather as a dynamic process. The empirical part of the study shows that this has consequences, especially for writers of German.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Typen von Wissen .". In: In: Tilo Weber & Gerd Antos (eds.). Arten von Wissen. Frankfurt, M.: Peter Lang. 13. Peter Lang; 2009. Abstract
with Gerd Antos (eds.). Series: Transferwissenschaften 7.
Dr. WANG'ONDU VIRGINIAWANGECHI. "Wang'ondu V.W, JHP Kahindi, NK Olembo and JO Ochanda, 2007, Screening of Local Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates for Toxicity to Chilo partellus,Sesamia calamistis and Busseola fusca in Kenya .J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 3(2):27-35.". In: J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 3(2):27-35. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2007. Abstract

Stem borers are a major source of pre-harvest maize crop losses in Kenya and many Sub-Saharan African countries. This menace needs to be addressed if food security is to be realized in this region. Seven local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soils collected from Kakamega and Machakos districts in Kenya. They were screened for toxicity against 1st and 2nd instar larvae of Chilo partellus, Sesamia calamistis and Busseola fusca through laboratory bioassays on artificial and natural diets. On farm Bt toxin potency trials were carried out only in Machakos using isolate 1M which was isolated from the area. The various isolates showed differences in their toxicity to the three stem borers. Isolates 1M and VM-10 (from Machakos district) were found to be the most potent against C. partellus with larval mortalities of 100 % within 72 h. Their LD50 values were 0.004 mg/ml and 0.04 mg/ml respectively. The most toxic isolates against S. calamistis were, 44M, VM-10 and 1M, with larval mortalities of 73%, 64% and 62% respectively after 72h at a concentration of 8.6 mg/ml through artificial diet bioassays on 1st instar larvae. Isolates 44M and K10-2 showed high toxicity against B. fusca with larval mortalities of 20% by artificial diet bioassays and 44% by maize leaf bioassays respectively. Leaf disk bioassays with all the insect species showed higher larval mortalities than those done with the artificial diet bioassays indicating the larval preference of natural diet. However leaf disk bioassays with B. fusca recorded higher larval mortalities with sorghum than maize leaves. Field trial results obtained from Machakos district using a biopesticide made from isolate 1M indicated that it was highly effective in stem borer control.

Dr. Wairimu waweru PKC. "Thyroid Profile at private clinic.". In: 6th Biennial regional pathologists conference. Mombasa; 2002.
Dr. Wairimu Waweru DWP. "Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the scalp. .". In: Aga Khan hospital . Aga Khan hospital ; 2005.
Dr. Wairimu waweru DM. "Histology of endophalmitis.". In: Kenya Association of Clinical Pathologists Workshop . College of Health Scinces, KNH; 2005.
Dr. W. Waweru, Dr. J. Githang'a DOA. "FNA finding at a private clinic.". In: 9th Biennial APECSA Conference. Mombasa; 2005.
Dr. Susan Chepkonga PD, Dr. Justus Mochama Gori PD, Chelangat C. "Relationship Between Selected Life Skills Education Management on the Performance of Learners in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Narok South Sub County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;4(11):19-30.
Dr. Susan Chepkonga PD, Jane Njuguna ME. "Quality of Medicaland Counselling Services as DeterminantsofStudents’ Satisfaction in Public Primary Teacher Training Colleges in Kenya." International Journal ofEducation and Evaluation. 2016;2(7):32-40.
DR. OYIEKE FLORENCEAWINO. "The Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma evansi by Haematobia minuta (Diptera: Muscidae) and Hippobosca camelina (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) from an infected camel to a mouse and the survival of trypanosomes in fly mouthparts and gut." journal. 2003. Abstractabstract_Folio_Veterinaria.pdfWebsite

Background & objectives: Bancroftian filariasis in Kenya is endemic in coastal districts with anestimated number of 2.5 million people at risk of infection. The main mosquito genera involved intransmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in these areas are Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. Thestudy was envisaged to compare the infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors between thehigh transmission (wet) and the low transmission (dry) seasons.Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled from houses and compounds from two study sites, Gazi andMadunguni, on the Kenyan coast. Day resting indoor collection (DRI), pyrethrum spray catch(PSC) and CDC light traps were used to collect mosquitoes. After identification, female mosquitoeswere dissected to search for W. bancrofti III stage larvae.Results: A total of 1832 female mosquitoes were dissected. Infectivity rates of vectors in Madunguniwere 1.49 and 0.21% in wet and dry seasons respectively, whereas in Gazi, these were 1.69 and0%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the infectivity rates between the two seasonsin both Madunguni and Gazi villages (p <0.05). Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the main vector inboth study sites followed by Culex quinquefasciatus and An. funestus.Conclusion: There was a difference in infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors betweenthe wet and dry seasons. The abundance of An. gambiae s.s. during the transmission season couldbe responsible for the increased infectivity rates of vectors in this season.

DR. OYIEKE FLORENCEAWINO. "Electric nets and sticky materials for the study of gravid Anopheles mosquitoes.". In: Malaria Journal. Sissay Dugassa et al; 2012. Abstract

Background & objectives: Bancroftian filariasis in Kenya is endemic in coastal districts with anestimated number of 2.5 million people at risk of infection. The main mosquito genera involved intransmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in these areas are Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. Thestudy was envisaged to compare the infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors between thehigh transmission (wet) and the low transmission (dry) seasons.Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled from houses and compounds from two study sites, Gazi andMadunguni, on the Kenyan coast. Day resting indoor collection (DRI), pyrethrum spray catch(PSC) and CDC light traps were used to collect mosquitoes. After identification, female mosquitoeswere dissected to search for W. bancrofti III stage larvae.Results: A total of 1832 female mosquitoes were dissected. Infectivity rates of vectors in Madunguniwere 1.49 and 0.21% in wet and dry seasons respectively, whereas in Gazi, these were 1.69 and0%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the infectivity rates between the two seasonsin both Madunguni and Gazi villages (p <0.05). Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the main vector inboth study sites followed by Culex quinquefasciatus and An. funestus.Conclusion: There was a difference in infectivity rates of Bancroftian filariasis vectors betweenthe wet and dry seasons. The abundance of An. gambiae s.s. during the transmission season couldbe responsible for the increased infectivity rates of vectors in this season.

DR. OYIEKE FLORENCEAWINO, DR. NYAMASYO GIDEONNZIOKAH. "Obonyo DN, Songa JM, Oyieke FA, Nyamasyo GHN and Mugo SN, 2008. Bt-transgenic maize does not deteroviposition by two important African cereal stem borers, Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Sesamiacalamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuid.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences 10: 424 . Survey Review; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To assess Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) ovipositionalresponses on Bt (Event 216, containing the Cry1Ab gene) andisogenic non-Bt (CML 216) maize plants. Methodology and results: Stem borer moths were allowed to oviposit on maize plants in oviposition cagesunder both choice (cages containing both Bt and non-Bt plants) and non-choice conditions (cagescontaining either only Bt or non-Bt plants). There were no significant differences in the mean numbers of egg batches per plant, eggs per batch, eggs laid per plant and egg hatchability between Bt and non-Bt plants in both choice and non-choice tests. Conclusion and application of findings: Event 216 did not deter oviposition by Chilo partellus and Sesamia calamistis. This factor should be taken into consideration when designing suitable refuge arrangements for managing resistance. Although most of the larvae exposed to the Bt plants would be killed, thus reducingchances of the pests developing resistance, an effective resistance management strategy would require that the Bt plants are further engineered to incorporate additional genes that would make them unattractive for oviposition by stem borer moths.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS in Rok Ajulu(ed.). "The East African Legislative Assembly and the National Assemblies of Partner States: Conflict or Harmony.". In: The Making of a Region: The Revival of the East African Community. SOUTH AFRICA: Institute for Global Dialogue; 2005.
and Dr. OLOO ADAMS in P. Wanyande, M. OC(eds.)L. "Minority Rights and Transitional Politics in Kenya.". In: Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya. NAIROBI: University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS in Njogu, K. and Herve Maupeu(eds.)H. "Song and Politics: The Case of D. Owino Misiani.". In: Songs and Politics in Eastern Africa. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers; 2007.
and Dr. OLOO ADAMS in Maupeu H., Katumanga M. M(eds.)W. "The Raila Factor in Luoland.". In: The Moi Succession: Elections 2002. NAIROBI: Transafrica Press; 2005.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS in Kibua, Thomas and Mwabu Germano(eds.). "Devolution and Democratic Governance.". In: Decentralization and Devolution in Kenya. NAIROBI: University of Nairobi Press; 2008.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS in Godwin Murunga, and Shadrack Nasongo(eds.). "The Contemporary Opposition in Kenya: Between Internal Traits and State Manipulation.". In: : The Struggle for Democracy. LONDON: UK: ZED Books; 2007.
and Dr. OLOO ADAMS in Charton, H. M(eds.)C. "Contested Terrain: The Politics of Citizenship and Constitutionalism in Kenya.". In: L’Afrique Orientale: Annuaire 2005. NAIROBI: IFRA; 2007.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS co-authored with Winnie Mitullah in Lawrence Mute and Smokin Wanjala(eds.). "The Legislature and Constitutionalism in Kenya.". In: the Constitution begins to Flower. NAIROBI: Claripress; 2002.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS co-authored with Walter Oyugi in Said Adejumobi and Abdalla Bujra(eds.). "The Democratization Process in Kenya: Prospects and Obstacles.". In: Breaking Barriers, Creating New Hopes: Democracy, Civil Society and Good Governance in Africa. ADDIS ABABA: DPMF; 2002.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS co-authored with Marcel Rutten, Alamin Mazrui and Francois Grignon(eds.). "Patronizing the Incumbent: Kalenjin Unity in the 1997 Kenyan elections.". In: Out For The Count: The 1997 Elections and Prospects for Democracy in Kenya. UGANDA: Fountain Publishers; 2001.
and Dr. OLOO ADAMS co-authored with Grignon, F. M(eds)H. "From FORD-Kenya to National Development Party: Political Mobilization in Luoland.". In: L’Afrique Orientale. PARIS: IFRA; 2000.
Dr. Okeyo JO. "The Impact of Water Sector Reforms on Women’s Access to Water Services in Lake Victoria Basin." Public Policy and Administration Review. 2014;2( 3):65-82. AbstractThe Impact of Water Sector Reforms on Women’s Access to Water Services in Lake Victoria Basin

This paper assesses whether by commercializing the provision of water services as part of water
sector reforms, the government has reneged on its promise to provide water to its citizens as a
basic human right. The study used secondary data and primary data from a household survey of
288 respondents, seven Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), and 28 Key Informant interviews
from seven (7) WSPs, namely, Mogombet, Chemosit, Boya, KIWASCO, SNWSCO, MIKUTRA
and Nyasare of the Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB) umbrella. The study was
conducted through human rights approach under governance theory, positing that the
government in as much as it receives either resistance or competition from other interacting
actors, still has an obligation to provide basic services, water provision included, to its citizens.
The study used both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the collected data. The
techniques included use of content analysis of secondary data, frequency tables and cross
tabulations to measure the central tendencies and dispersions. The main findings were that water
sector reforms has not benefited the consumers of water services in general, and women in
particular. Instead it has impoverished the population further as expressed in the form of
increased proportion of household income on water expenses. Secondly the government has
concentrated more on regulatory and distributive aspects of water service provision than
producing more water for increased access to a greater number of population, implying that more
women still do not access quality water in the right quantity at the right time. The study
recommended that , the “Service Provider” role of the state should be changed to that of a
regulator and facilitator of services at the Counties’ level for increased popular participation in the
governance of water provision services through community and private operators as well. This
will therefore enhance the participation of women in the local level governance of water services,
hence, increased access to water by virtue of being active participants in the determination of
ownership, distributive, and management processes of water.

DR. Ogola ESN. Some Aspects Of Dilated Cardiomyopathy As Seen At Kenyatta National Hospital With Emphasis On Echocadiographic Features.; 1985. Abstract

A total of 37 patients were studied, 16 males and 21 females. The ages ranged from 13-78 (mean!
Almost all the males (except

one) were 30 years and above, while the females showed a peak in the twenties followed by another from the fifties.
A11 the patients presented in severe heart

failure, most (81%) being in New York Heart

Association (NYHA) class 4. Third heart sound

was universal, while murmur of mitral regurgitation was heard in about two thirds. Chest pain was present in 10 patients (27%) but only in one case was it angina-like. Embolic phenomena occured in two patients, both in association with pregnancy.
Mean rate(velocity) of circumferential fibre

shortening (Mean Vcf) was depressed in a~l patients, range, 0018-0095 circ/sec, Mean ± 5.0, = 0048
+ 0.22 circ/sec.

Electrocardiographic abnormalities were present in all except one patient. ST - T changes were the most common (64.9%), followed by left bundle branch
block (LBBE) (24.3%)0

- 5 -

No single case of atrial fibrillation was seene

Pregnancy was a strong contributory factor

in the female population, being associated in

52% of the caseSe

Association with alcohol was observed

exclusively in the males. There was association in 6205% of the maleso
Elevated blood pressure was found in 6

patients (l6.20/0)e

DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M. M., Inchimaru M., Matsukawa M., Fakuoka N., Kishida K. and Juma F. D. .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1983. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Maitai C. K. .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1983. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Muriuki G., Juma F. D., - Some toxic effects of the alkaloids extracted from Strychnos henningsii Plant .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1984. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Kibwage I. O., Maitai C.K., Rutere G., Thuranira J. and Ochieng A.: - Drug Quality Control in DARU Observations during 1983 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Oct;70(10):643-5. University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of albendazole were investigated in five children who were hospitalized at the Kenyatta National Hospital for the treatment of hydatid disease. Unchanged albendazole was below detectable level in plasma. The major metabolite present was albendazole sulphoxide. In one of the patients, the concentration of albendazole sulphone in plasma was significantly high, whereas in the other four children, only trace amounts were detected. Maximum concentrations of albendazole sulphoxide in these five children were variable and generally higher than those reported in adults by other workers. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those found in other studies.
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M., Ichimaru M., Nishiyama Y., Juma F. D., Ng.". In: UNESCO /ICOGRAD A, Conference Proceedings Nairobi Kenya. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M., Ichimaru M., Nishiyama Y., Juma F.D., Ng.". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1983. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Watkins W. M., Spencer H. C., Kariuki D. M., Sixsmith D. G., Boriga D. A., Kipingor R., Koech D. K. .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1984. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M.M., Inchimaru M., Matsukawa M., Fakuoka N., Kishida K. and Juma F. D. .". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Oct;70(10):643-5. University of Nairobi Press; 1989. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of albendazole were investigated in five children who were hospitalized at the Kenyatta National Hospital for the treatment of hydatid disease. Unchanged albendazole was below detectable level in plasma. The major metabolite present was albendazole sulphoxide. In one of the patients, the concentration of albendazole sulphone in plasma was significantly high, whereas in the other four children, only trace amounts were detected. Maximum concentrations of albendazole sulphoxide in these five children were variable and generally higher than those reported in adults by other workers. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those found in other studies.
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Tachibana Y., Kato A., Kawanishi K., Toba H., Nishiyama Y., Juma F. D., Mathenge.". In: Planta Med. 1993 Aug;59(4):354-8. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines were examined using protein fractions obtained from their extracts by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Potent mitogenic activities for human and mouse lymphocytes were found in the three plants: Croton macrostachyus, Croton megalocarpus (Euphorbiaceae), and Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae). All the gel chromatographic patterns of these protein fractions progressed toward the smaller molecule site with pronase treatment, while their mitogenic activities decreased significantly. Protein fractions from these three plants induced mitogenesis both in human and mouse isolated T cells, but not in lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. By testing further fractionated protein fractions with gel filtration chromatography, it was found that all three plants contained several mitogens having different molecule sizes.
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M., Ichimaru M., Nishiyama Y., Juma F. D., Ng.". In: UNESCO /ICOGRAD A, Conference Proceedings Nairobi Kenya. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Maitai C. K., Munenge R. W., Ochieng S., Juma F. D., - .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1983. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Maitai C. K., Mkoji M. L., Wakori E. A., Rutere G. K., Mithamo R. W., Ochieng A., Githiga I. M. .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1983. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Juma F. D. .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1989. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Okello G. B., Hagos B., Ng.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Oct;70(10):643-5. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of albendazole were investigated in five children who were hospitalized at the Kenyatta National Hospital for the treatment of hydatid disease. Unchanged albendazole was below detectable level in plasma. The major metabolite present was albendazole sulphoxide. In one of the patients, the concentration of albendazole sulphone in plasma was significantly high, whereas in the other four children, only trace amounts were detected. Maximum concentrations of albendazole sulphoxide in these five children were variable and generally higher than those reported in adults by other workers. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those found in other studies.
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O. A Chemical and Pharmacological investigation of Strychnos henningsii. Thesis submitted to the University of Nairobi for the Degree of Master of Science of on Pharmacy 1997.". In: UNESCO /ICOGRAD A, Conference Proceedings Nairobi Kenya. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Dr. Oduor J. "“The Anticipated Benefits of Multilingualism in Education in Kenya” .". In: Africa: Challenges of Multilingualism. Africa: Peter Lang - International Academic Publishers; 2013.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M. Review Article: Planning In Emergencies and Disasters. . East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 9, No.1 April/May 2004.". In: East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 9, No.1 April/May 2004. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2004. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Adungo.J.I, Mutiso.V.M, Ngugi.M, Pattern of Fractures in The American Embassy Terrorist Bomb Explosion in Nairobi, Kenya. . East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 10, No.1 May 2005.". In: East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 10, No.1 May 2005. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. mutisovm@yahoo.com
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M,Ongaro.N.: Sickle Cell Disease in Surgery. Tropical Doctor 2006; 36:200-202.". In: Trop Doct. 2006 Oct;36(4):200-2. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstractsickle_cell_disease_in_surgery.pdf

Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. mutisovm@yahoo.com

DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Khainga SO, Githae B, Mutiso VM, Wasike R.Reverse sural island flap in coverage of defects lower third of leg: a series of nine cases. East Afr Med J. 2007 Jan;84(1):38-43.". In: PMID: 18465102 [PubMed - in process]. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2007. Abstract
The distally based sural island flap was first described by Masquelet, et al., in 1992. It is a skin island flap supplied by the vascular axis of the sural nerve. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that it can be applied in coverage of difficult wound in the lower third of the leg. We treated nine patients with nine distally based sural island flaps. All the flaps survived, most of the flaps had venous congestion. The largest flap was 10 x 8 cm and Doppler was used in only one flap. This technique is easy and quick to execute without sacrificing major arteries.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M: Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the anorectum: A case report. East African Medical Journal, Feb.". In: East African Medical Journal, Feb. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 1996. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Meniscal Cysts: - An Appraisal. The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol 21 No. 1, March 2002.". In: Journal of Medicine. Vol 21 No. 1, March 2002. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2002. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Submitted for publication EAMJ (acknowledged ref MS145 / 05) .". In: EAMJ (acknowledged ref MS145 / 05). University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. mutisovm@yahoo.com
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Adungo.J.I, Mutiso.V.M, Ngugi.M,Pattern Of Fractures Sustained In The American Embassy Terrorist Bomb Explosion In Nairobi Kenya .". In: East and Central African Journal of Surgery,Vol 10, No.1,May 2005. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. mutisovm@yahoo.com
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. Psychometric properties of an African symptoms check list scale: the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. <br>DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study.  <br>SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up.  <br>SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members.  <br>RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Attitudes toward psychiatry: a survey of medical students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.Acad Psychiatry. 2008 Mar-Apr;32(2):154-9.PMID: 18349338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: PMID: 18349338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2008. Abstract
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kuria M, Mutiso V, Syanda J, Kokonya D. Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dmndetei@mentalhealthafrica.com OBJECTIVES: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or her lecture theater before or immediately after the lectures. Analysis was done using SPSS version 11.5 and the results are presented in tables. RESULTS: Nearly 75% of the students had overall favorable attitudes toward psychiatry but only 14.3% considered psychiatry as a potential career choice. Sixty-six percent reported that they would not choose psychiatry as a career while the remaining 19.7% were not decided. CONCLUSIONS: There is dissonance between positive attitudes toward psychiatry and the choice of psychiatry as a potential career. Therefore, there is a need to bridge the gap by addressing the various factors that potentially account for this dissonance. PMID: 18349338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M.; Pelvic Fractures at Kenyatta National Hospital. M.Med Dissertation .". In: M.Med Dissertation . University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 1990. Abstract
n/a
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M: Meniscal Cysts - An Appraisal. The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol 21 No. 1, March 2002.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol 21 No. 1, March 2002. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2002. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M., Okumu.D., Kinoti.M.:Fire Safety- Awareness Of Fire RiskAmong Students At The Medical School Of The University Of Nairobi:A Preliminary Study. East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 9, No.1 April/May 2004.". In: East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 9, No.1 April/May 2004. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2004. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Gome.D.L., Mutiso.V.M., Kimende.K. Paeditric Trauma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.ECAJS, Vol 10 No.2 Dec 2005.". In: ECAJS, Vol 10 No.2 Dec 2005. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. mutisovm@yahoo.com
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso VM, Ongaro N. Related Articles, Links No abstract Sickle cell disease in surgery. Trop Doct. 2006 Oct;36(4):200-2. Review. No.". In: Trop Doct. 2006 Oct;36(4):200-2. Review. No. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. <br>DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study.  <br>SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up.  <br>SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members.  <br>RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Clinical epidemiology in patients admitted at Mathari Psychiatric Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2008 Sep;43(9):736-42. Epub 2008 May 8.PMID: 18465102 [PubMed - in process].". In: PMID: 18465102 [PubMed - in process]. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2008. Abstract
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Maru H, Pizzo M, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA. Africa Mental Health Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya. dmndetei@mentalhealthafrica.com BACKGROUND: Knowledge of types and co-morbidities of disorders seen in any facility is useful for clinical practice and planning for services. AIM: To study the pattern of co-morbidities of and correlations between psychiatric disorders in in-patients of Mathari Hospital, the premier psychiatric hospital in Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: All the patients who were admitted at Mathari Hospital in June 2004 and were well enough to participate in the study were approached for informed consent. Trained psychiatric charge nurses interviewed them using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders Clinical Version (SCID-I). Information on their socio-demographic profiles and hospital diagnoses was extracted from their clinical notes using a structured format. RESULTS: Six hundred and ninety-one patients participated in the study. Sixty-three percent were male. More than three quarters (78%) of the patients were aged between 21 and 45 years. More than half (59.5%) of the males and slightly less than half (49.4%) of the females were single. All the patients were predominantly of the Christian faith. Over 85% were dependents of another family member and the remainder were heads of households who supported their own families. Schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder, psychosis, substance use disorder and schizo-affective disorder were the most common hospital and differential diagnoses. Of the anxiety disorders, only three patients were under treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nearly a quarter (24.6%) of the patients were currently admitted for a similar previous diagnosis. Schizophrenia was the most frequent DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition) diagnosis (51%), followed by bipolar I disorder (42.3%), substance use disorder (34.4%) and major depressive illness (24.6%). Suicidal features were common in the depressive group, with 14.7% of this group reporting a suicidal attempt. All DSM-IV anxiety disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorders, were highly prevalent although, with the exception of three cases of PTSD, none of these anxiety disorders were diagnosed clinically. Traumatic events were reported in 33.3% of the patients. These were multiple and mainly violent events. Despite the multiplicity of these events, only 7.4% of the patients had a PTSD diagnosis in a previous admission while 4% were currently diagnosed with PTSD. The number of DSM-IV diagnoses was more than the total number of patients, suggesting co-morbidity, which was confirmed by significant 2-tailed correlation tests. CONCLUSION: DSM-IV substance use disorders, major psychiatric disorders and anxiety disorders were prevalent and co-morbid. However, anxiety disorders were hardly diagnosed and therefore not managed. Suicidal symptoms were common. These results call for more inclusive clinical diagnostic practice. Standardized clinical practice using a diagnostic tool on routine basis will go a long way in ensuring that no DSM-IV diagnosis is missed. This will improve clinical management of patients and documentation. PMID: 18465102 [PubMed - in process]
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M: Advocacy and Legislation in Emergency and Disaster Management .". In: Proceedings of The First International Conference on Emergency Management in Africa, 19th-22nd Nov 2001. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2001. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "Deep-sea nematodes from the Indian Ocean:.". In: new and known species of the family Comesomatidae. Hydrobiologia 346: 25-57. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1997.
DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI, DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "Size and shape of ocean margin nematodes: morphological diversity and depth-related patterns.". In: Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 242: 179-193. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 2002.
DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "Acantholaimus (Chromadoridae: nematoda) from the Indian Ocean:.". In: description of seven species. Hydrobiologia 346: 59-76. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1997.
DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI, DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "Microlaimidae (Microlaimoidea: Nematoda) from the Indian Ocean: Description of nine new and known species.". In: Hydrobiologia 397: 39-58. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1999.
DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "New Desmodoridae (Nematoda: Desmodoroidea): three new species from the Ceriops mangrove sediments (Kenya) and one related species from the North Sea.". In: Cah. Biol. Mar. 36: 181-195. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1995.
DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI, DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI, DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "Chromadoridae (Chromadorida: Nematoda) from the Indian Ocean:.". In: difficulties in morphological identification of Actinonema Cobb, 1920 and Rhips Cobb, 1920. Hydrobiologia 364: 155-167. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1998.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Host-specific cues cause differential attractiveness of Kenyan men to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.". In: Malaria Journal, 1, 17. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Mshinda, H., Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Mathenge, E.M, Mboera, L.E.G., Knols, B.G.J., 2004, Development of genetically modified mosquitoes in Africa. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 4 (5), 264 -265.". In: Lancet Infectious Diseases, 4 (5), 264 -265. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Mukabana, W.R., K. Kannady, G.M. Kiama, J. Ijumba, E.M. Mathenge, I. Kiche, G. Nkwengulila, L.E.G. Mboera, D. Mtasiwa, Y. Yamagata, I. van Schayk, B.G.J. Knols, S.W. Lindsay, M. Caldas de Castro, H. Mshinda, M. Tanner, U. Fillinger, & G.F. Killeen. 2006, .". In: Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 9. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Harbison, J.E., Mathenge, E.M., Misiani, G.O, Mukabana, W.R., & Day, J.F. 2006, A simple method for sampling indoor-resting malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Africa. Journal of Medical Entomology, 43(3): .". In: Journal of Medical Entomology, 43(3): 473- 479. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Knols, B.G.J., Bossin, H.C., Mukabana, W.R., A.S. Robinson, 2007, Transgenic mosquitoes and the fight against malaria: managing technology push in a turbulent GMO world. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 77 (Supplement 6), 232-242.". In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 77 (Supplement 6), 232-242. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}   Genetic modification (GM) of mosquitoes (which renders them genetically modified organisms, GMOs) offers opportunities for controlling malaria. Transgenic strains of mosquitoes have been developed and evaluation of these to 1) replace or suppress wild vector populations and 2) reduce transmission and deliver public health gains are an imminent prospect. The transition of this approach from confined laboratory settings to open field trials in diseaseendemic countries (DECs) is a staged process that aims to maximize the likelihood of epidemiologic benefits while minimizing potential pitfalls during implementation. Unlike conventional approaches to vector control, application of GM mosquitoes will face contrasting expectations of multiple stakeholders, the management of which will prove critical to safeguard support and avoid antagonism, so that potential public health benefits can be fully evaluated. Inclusion of key stakeholders in decision-making processes, transfer of problem-ownership to DECs, and increased support from the wider malaria research community are important prerequisites for this. It is argued that the many developments in this field require coordination by an international entity to serve as a guiding coalition to stimulate collaborative research and facilitate stakeholder involvement. Contemporary developments in the field of modern biotechnology, and in particular GM, requires competencies beyond the field of biology, and the future of transgenic mosquitoes will hinge on the ability to govern the process of their introduction in societies in which perceived risks may outweigh rational and responsible involvement.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatelite loci.". In: Insect Molecular Biology, 8, 287-297. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Analysis of arthropod blood meals using molecular genetic markers.". In: Trends in Parasitology. 18, 505-509. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Contained semi-field environments for ecological studies on transgenic African malaria vectors: Benefits and constraints. In: Ecological aspects for application of genetically modified mosquitoes (W. Takken & T.W. Scott, eds.).". In: Chapter 8, pp 91 - 106. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Frontis series no. 2. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "African institutions to take the lead in development of GM mosquito.". In: Lancet Infectious Diseases, 4 (5), 264 -265. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Knols, B.G.J., Hood-Nowotny, R.C., Bossin, H., Franz, G., Robinson, A., Mukabana, W.R., & Kemboi, S.K., 2006, GM sterile mosquitoes: a cautionary note. Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068.". In: Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Opiyo, P., Mukabana, W.R., Kiche, I.O., Mathenge, E.M., Killeen, G.F., Fillinger, U., 2007, An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya. Malaria Journal, 6: 48.". In: Malaria Journal, 6: 48. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Extent of digestion affects the success of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 92, 233-239.". In: Bulletin of Entomological Research, 92, 233-239. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "A greenhouse-based simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) ecosystem in Western Kenya.". In: Malaria Journal, 1, 19. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Allomonal effect of breath contributes to differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.". In: Malaria Journal, 3, 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Kalongolela, M.S., Kannady, K., Lindsay, S.W., Tanner, M., Castro, M.C., Fillinger, U., 2006, Habitat targeting for controlling aquatic stages of malaria vectors in Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, .". In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 74(4): 517 . Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Njiru, B.N., Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Knols, B.G.J., 2006, Trapping of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae with odour-baited MM-X traps in semi-field conditions in western Kenya. Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 39. http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/14.". In: Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 39. http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-5-39.pdf. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Knols, B.G.J., Njiru, B.N., Mathenge, E.M., Mukabana, W.R., Beier, J.C. & Killeen, G.F., 2002, Malariasphere: A greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) ecosystem in Western Kenya. Malaria Journal, 1, 19. http://w.". In: Malaria Journal, 1, 19. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
Dr. Molepo PKDN. "Polymorphism of calcium carbonate." FC.D. 1978.
DR. MISRA ANILK. "Predicting the Longevity of Finger Millet and Vegetable Amaranth Seeds During Storage Under Controlled Temperature and Moisture Content Conditions.". In: Seed Technology 23 58-67. Departmental seminar; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Glycoalkaloids are important metabolites in potato because of their toxic properties and potential harmful effects to humans. To validate a rapid assay to determine and quantify glycoalkaloid content and its distribution in potato tubers, we have characterized and quantified, by HPLC and by colorimetry with bromphenol blue, the glycoalkaloids in 15 potato cultivars and experimental clones grown in the tropical climate of Kenya. There was significant correlation of TGA by HPLC and colorimetry. Significant differences in glycoalkaloid content were detected among potato cultivars. The concentration of a-chaconine in the 15 cultivars ranged from 1.62 to 4.46 mg/100 g fresh weight (fwt), of a-solanine from 1.45 to 4.51 mg/100 g, and of solanidine from 1.58 to 5.21 mg/100 g. Total glycoalkaloid values (TGA, sum of the three compounds) for the 15 cultivars determined by HPLC ranged from 5.31 to 15.39 mg/100 g and the corresponding values determined by bromphenol blue colorimetry, from 3.51 to 17.48 mg/100 g. Dutch Robijn, a late blight susceptible cultivar under Kenyan conditions had the lowest level (3.51 mg/100 g) of total glycoalkaloids and Tigoni, a late blight resistant cultivar, had the highest amount (15.97 mg/100 g). In contrast to most previous studies, high levels of solanidine in tubers of tropical-climate adapted cultivars were recorded in our experiments. The dietary significance of a high amount of solanidine in the cultivars has not been previously reported and deserves further study.
DR. MISRA ANILK. "Nitrate reductase activity in the roots and leaves of Sorghum biocolor.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 1986. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
DR. MISRA ANILK. "G. K. Kirui, A. K. Misra, O. M. Olanya, M. Friedman, R. El-Bedewy and P. T. Ewell, 2007, Glycoalkaloid content of some superior potato (Solanum tuberosum L) clones and commercial cultivars. Archives Of Phytopathology and Plant Protection,.". In: Archives Of Phytopathology and Plant Protection,. Departmental seminar; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Glycoalkaloids are important metabolites in potato because of their toxic properties and potential harmful effects to humans. To validate a rapid assay to determine and quantify glycoalkaloid content and its distribution in potato tubers, we have characterized and quantified, by HPLC and by colorimetry with bromphenol blue, the glycoalkaloids in 15 potato cultivars and experimental clones grown in the tropical climate of Kenya. There was significant correlation of TGA by HPLC and colorimetry. Significant differences in glycoalkaloid content were detected among potato cultivars. The concentration of a-chaconine in the 15 cultivars ranged from 1.62 to 4.46 mg/100 g fresh weight (fwt), of a-solanine from 1.45 to 4.51 mg/100 g, and of solanidine from 1.58 to 5.21 mg/100 g. Total glycoalkaloid values (TGA, sum of the three compounds) for the 15 cultivars determined by HPLC ranged from 5.31 to 15.39 mg/100 g and the corresponding values determined by bromphenol blue colorimetry, from 3.51 to 17.48 mg/100 g. Dutch Robijn, a late blight susceptible cultivar under Kenyan conditions had the lowest level (3.51 mg/100 g) of total glycoalkaloids and Tigoni, a late blight resistant cultivar, had the highest amount (15.97 mg/100 g). In contrast to most previous studies, high levels of solanidine in tubers of tropical-climate adapted cultivars were recorded in our experiments. The dietary significance of a high amount of solanidine in the cultivars has not been previously reported and deserves further study.
Dr. Maluki P, Dr.Ouma M. "Journal of Science Technology Education and Management." Arms Proliferation,Disarmament and Human Security in the Horn of Africa. 2014;6(1&2):161-178.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Jeruto, P.,Lukhoba, C., Ouma, G., Otieno, D. and Mutai. C., 2008. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Nandi people in Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116 (2) 370-376.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116 (2) 370-376.; 2008. Abstract

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance

The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests.

Aims of the study

This study therefore sought to collect information from local populations concerning the use of Nandi Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used and determine the relative importance of the species surveyed.

Materials and methods

Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. A total of 40 medicinal plants used locally for the treatment and/or control of human ailments were collected through interviews conducted with selected traditional doctors and professional healers.

Results

This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants use and that leaf material form the major component of plant parts exploited. The other harvested materials consist of stem bark, the roots and the whole plant, though at a lower intensity for making liquid concoctions from different plants. Majority of the remedies were prepared from a single species. In most cases, the mode of administration was oral. In the forest, some of the plants collected were scarce. This scarcity was attributed to indiscriminate logging, overexploitation, poor harvesting methods and current agricultural trends.

Conclusion

Conservation procedures and creation of awareness were identified as the main remedies to the current situation.

Keywords: Ethnobotany; Kenya medicinal plants; Nandi people

DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C., 2000. Medicinal plants: Their role and future. First Symposium on EastAfrica in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change, 4th-7th July 2000, Nairobi.". In: First Symposium on EastAfrica in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change, 4th-7th July 2000, Nairobi.; 2000.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba C.W. 2001. Taxonomic revision of the genera Ocimum L. and Plectranthus L.". In: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract

Ocimum L. and Plectranthus L'Hér. are cosmopolitan genera in the tribe Nepeteoideae in the family Labiatae Juss. The accumulation of essential oils in their flower and foliage has contributed to their prominence and popularity in traditional and conventional medicine, in cosmetology and perfumery, in the food industry as preservatives and spices, and more recently in the manufacturing industry as ingredients for pesticides, plastics, paints, etc.

The taxonomic aspect of the group has lagged well behind the economic one. The latest world- wide account of the two genera was by Briquet (1895-7), more than 100 years ago. In both these taxa, the taxonomic delimitation has been inadequate, the major problem being the continuous nature of the variation of characters particularly the morphological ones, which results in difficulties in circumscription of species. To further complicate the situation, Ocimum species tend to hybridize readily and undergo polymorphism. Morphological characters have proved to be inadequate in delimitation of the genera. It is therefore imminent that other criteria be investigated to substitute or corroborate the morphological ones in the delimitation of these two genera.
The major aim of this project was therefore to find novel morphological characters or novel combinations of already known characters and the value of new criteria from phytochemical data and anatomy to augment the morphological data in the delimitation of Ocimum and Plectranthus. Field and herbarium collections were used in this study. Gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GLC/MS) on the essential oils from field samples were conducted in the chemotaxonomic study while the surface anatomical characters of Plectranthus were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the revision of Ocimum, new morphological characters have been identified that can differentiate between sections and even between species, for instance, in the dendrite-haired species of subsection Gratissima, O. cufodontii and O. jamesii have n-shaped while O. spicatum have bowl-shaped anthers. Morphological features separating O. basilicum and O. americanum were established. In Plectranthus, three new species namely, P. agnewii C. Lukhoba & A. Paton, P. xylopodus C. Lukhoba & A. Paton sp. nov. and P. kwalensis C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro as well as the varieties P. barbatus var. glabricalyx C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro and P. edulis var. longiflora C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro have been described. One name change, P. igniarius var. verdcourtii C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro formerly P. igniarius var. grandicalyx) has been made. The chemical analysis conducted on four Ocimum and eleven Plectranthus species revealed the presence of numerous essential oil constituents. Some compounds were species-specific, some genera-specific while others were common to both genera thus can be of taxonomic value. The species O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and O. kenyense clustered together in the cluster analysis. These three species have traditionally been grouped together in the section Ocimum. O. gratissimum showed greater affinity to Plectranthus than to Ocimum. The Plectranthus species came out as one homogenous group with two subgroups. The anatomical analysis of Plectranthus showed the indumentum to have a large number of sessile glands (peltate, gland dots), some capitate glands and numerous multi-cellular eglandular hairs. The viscid species P. kamerunensis and P. agnewii had the highest number of capitate glands. The presence, structure and nature of the stomata and glands were of taxonomic importance. Seven species had amphistomatic stomata and another seven species had stomata on the stems. The stratification of the leaf and stem surfaces was also found to be taxonomically significant. Cluster analysis showed that members of subgenus Calceolanthus clustered together into one group. They were also distinct from subgenus Plectranthus. A key based on these anatomical characters was drawn up to identify species in Plectranthus. Ethnomedicinal data revealed that Ocimum and Plectranthus species are popularly used to cure or alleviate gastro-intestinal, febrile, respiratory and skin conditions. Four species namely, O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum, O. gratissimum and P. barbatus showed high potential for further pharmacological evaluation, and for incorporation into local health care systems. This data also revealed that the medicinal species in the two genera are greatly affected by the current degradation of the environment. Thus propagation of the potentially medicinal ones was recommended. It is recommended that future taxonomic revisions of the two genera should include chemotaxonomic and anatomical data as they have proved to be promising criteria. Members of the two genera that have substantial amounts of essential oils can be commercially utilized in industry. The promising medicinal Ocimum and Plectranthus species can be incorporated into the primary health care systems. It is hoped that the new criteria used in this study will be relevant for the on-going revision of the family Labiatae for the Flora of Tropical East Africa.

DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Siboe, G.M. and Lukhoba, C.W., 1998. Plant disease data in planning for sustainable use of African mountain forest resources: Problems and opportunities. In: Francis G. Ojany (ed.), African Mountains and Highlands: Planning for Sustainable Use of Mountain.". In: In: Francis G. Ojany (Ed.),African Mountains and Highlands: Planning for Sustainable Use of Mountain Resources, The United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan.; 1998.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba C.W. and Midiwo, J.O. 2001. Kenyan aromatic plants with a potential for economic utilization. First National Workshop On Medicinal, Aromatic and Other Under-utilised Plant Species in Kenya, 29th October- 3rd November, 2001.". In: First National Workshop On Medicinal, Aromatic and Other Under-utilised Plant Species in Kenya, 29th October- 3rd November, 2001.; 2001.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C and Siboe G., 2008. Ethnobotanical data in the search and identification of drug plants. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 11: 43-48.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2008. Abstract
Traditional medicine has utilized plants to palliate, cure and/or prevent diseases in both humans and animals. The acquisition of knowledge has been through trial and error, and observation. Today, the enhanced search for botanical drugs throughout the world has increased the need for accurate means of identifying plants with possible pharmacological and biological activity. A number of methodologies have been used in selecting plants likely to possess pharmacological properties, but many have recorded low success rates. Data reported in this paper reveal that the accuracy of identification of these herbal drugs for pertinent ailments using ethnobotanical data is almost as accurate as techniques applied in modern medical practice. This paper discusses the value of ethno-botanical data in the preliminary search for potential drug plants Key words: Ocimum, Plectranthus, ethnobotany, medicinal plants.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Githinji, C.W and Kokwaro, J.O., 1993. Ethnomedicinal study of major species in the family Labiatae from Kenya, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 39:197-203.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 39:197-203.; 1993. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C. & Paton, A.J., 2000. Two new species of Plectranthus L.". In: Kew Bulletin, 55 (4): 957-964.; 2000.
Dr. Laban Shihembetsa EM. "Application of Brick as a Building Material for Low Cost Housing in Hot and Dry Climates." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication, . 2018;Volume 8, (Issue 9, September 2018 (619-623). ISSN: 2250-3153.).
Dr. Kamenju J. https://mukuyu.wordpress.com.; 2011.
Dr. Kamenju J. https://mukuyu.wordpress.com.; 2019.
DR. KAMAU FRANCON, DR. KAMAU FRANCON. "F.N. Kamau, I.O. Kibwage, G. Muriuki, A.N. Guantai, J. Hoogmartens, E. Roets, C. Govaerts, H. Chepkwony And R. Busson.Estrogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Steroidal Indoxyl. East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 5:44-48.". In: J. Chromat. Sci.; 40, 529-533. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
An isocratic liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 215 nm, which is suitable for the analysis of azithromycin (AZT) in bulk samples, is described. AZT is separated from its synthesis intermediates and a degradation product as well as from six unknown impurities on an XTerra RP18 column at 70 degrees C using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-pH 6.5 0.2M K2HPO4-water (35:10:55, v/v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. The XTerra stationary phase contains methyl groups that are incorporated in the bulk structure of the material. This allows for special selectivities. Robustness is evaluated by a full factorial design experiment. The method shows good selectivity, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity.
DR. KAMAU FRANCON, DR. KAMAU FRANCON. "F.N. Kamau, I.O. Kibwage, A.N. Guantai, G. Muriuki and R. Munenge. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-diarrhoeal Activities of a Steroidal Indoxyl. East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 6(2): 26-29.". In: Paper presented to The 6th Annual Conference of the International society for African Philosophy and Studies (ISAPS) 10-12 March 2000, Nairobi. Kenya. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
An Instructional Manual for teaching African Philosophy to second year students in the department of philosophy, University of Nairobi
DR. KAMAU FRANCON, DR. KAMAU FRANCON. "F.N. Kamau, G.N. Thoithi, J.K. Ngugi, O.K. Kingondu and I.O. Kibwage. Quality of Amoxycillin preparations on the Kenyan market. East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 6: 57-60.". In: Paper presented to The 6th Annual Conference of the International society for African Philosophy and Studies (ISAPS) 10-12 March 2000, Nairobi. Kenya. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
An Instructional Manual for teaching African Philosophy to second year students in the department of philosophy, University of Nairobi
DR. KAMAU FRANCON, DR. KAMAU FRANCON. "F.N. Kamau, H.K. Chepkwony, J.N. Ngugi, E. Roets and J. Hoogmartens (2002). Isocratic Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Analysis of Azithromycin and its Structurally Related Substances in Bulk Samples. J. Chromat. Sci.; 40, 529-533.". In: J. Chromat. Sci.; 40, 529-533. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
An isocratic liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 215 nm, which is suitable for the analysis of azithromycin (AZT) in bulk samples, is described. AZT is separated from its synthesis intermediates and a degradation product as well as from six unknown impurities on an XTerra RP18 column at 70 degrees C using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-pH 6.5 0.2M K2HPO4-water (35:10:55, v/v/v) at 1.0 mL/min. The XTerra stationary phase contains methyl groups that are incorporated in the bulk structure of the material. This allows for special selectivities. Robustness is evaluated by a full factorial design experiment. The method shows good selectivity, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity.
DR. KAMAU FRANCON. "H.K. Chepkwony, N. Mwaura, E. Guantai, E. Gathoni, F.N. Kamau, E. Mbae, G. Wang.". In: Paper presented to The 6th Annual Conference of the International society for African Philosophy and Studies (ISAPS) 10-12 March 2000, Nairobi. Kenya. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract
An Instructional Manual for teaching African Philosophy to second year students in the department of philosophy, University of Nairobi
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "GENERAL TOXICITY TESTS on INDIGENOUS VEGETABLES.". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} GENERAL TOXICITY TESTS on INDIGENOUS VEGETABLES REPORT By J.M. Kabaru
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "7a-O-methyldequelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C from the roots of derris trifolianta Phytochemistry, Vol. 66, 653-657.". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The crude methanol extract of the seeds of Derris trifoliata showed potent and dose dependent larvicidal activity against the 2nd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. From this extract two unusual rotenoid derivatives, a rotenoloid (named 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol) and a spirohomooxarotenoid (named spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone), were isolated and characterised. In addition a rare natural chromanone (6,7-dimethoxy-4-chromanone) and the known rotenoids rotenone, tephrosin and dehydrodeguelin were identified. The structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The larvicidal activity of the crude extract is mainly due to rotenone.
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "A REPORT FOR THE INSTITUTE OF PRIMATE RESEARCH.". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 1997. Abstract
v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} Normal 0 false false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} A REPORT FOR THE INSTITUTE OF PRIMATE RESEARCH                   RICHARD W. MWANGI Ph.D EGERTON UNIVERSITY RESEARCH & EXTENSION DIVISION P.O. BOX 536 NJORO !- 1- BY "   AND J.M. KABARlJ Ph.D tJNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY P.O. BOX 30197 NAIROBI FEBRlJARY, 1997
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata.". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} From the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata an isofiavonoid derivative, named 7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, representing a new sub-class of isofiavonoids (the sub-class is here named as rotenoloid), was isolated and characterised. In addition, the known rotenoids, rotenone, deguelin and toxicarol, were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Rotenone and deguelin were identified as the larvicidal principles of the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata.
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "Potential for Melia volkensii fruit extract in the control of locusts.". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Fruits from the East African tree, Melia volkensii (Gurke) contain terpenoid compounds with well-established insecticidal activity. At high doses a concentrated M. volkensii extract (Mv) causes death or lack of physical fitness in locusts by irreversible paralysis of the locust skeletal muscles, without affecting the maliphigian tubules or the pulsation of the dorsal heart. This effect is temperature related, with lower doses becoming more effective as the temperature increases. This action favours Mv toxicity againstlocusts in hot desert areas. Mammalian toxicological studies showed that Mv does not present any acute or chronic toxicity effects when orally administered to laboratory mice. It was thus not possible to establish an oral LD so for the product in mice. Mv production in bulk and shelf-life are discussed with a view to demonstrating its advantages as a possible locust control product.
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "EFFECT OF POST-TREATMENT TEMPERATURE ON THE INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF MELIA VOLKENSII GURKE) FRUIT EXTRACT AGAINST THE AFRICAN MIGRATORY LOCUST LOCUSTA MIGRATORIA (REICHE & FAIRMAIRE).". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The influence of post- treatment temperature on the insecticidal activity of Melia volkensii (Gurke) fruit extract against the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Reiche & Fairmaire) is reported. In laboratory tests conducted Oil adult locusts, the toxicity of crude 80% methanol extracts of M. volkensii fruit increased by more than 20-fold when the post-treatment temperature was raised from 1S"C to 40"C. This temperature-dependent toxicity was observed in insects treated either topically or via injection. This phenomenon could partly explain the wide variability in efficacy of M. volkensii fruit extracts reported by different investigators.  
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "Two unusual rotenoid derivatives, 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol and spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone, from the seeds of Derris trifoliata.". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The crude methanol extract of the seeds of Derris trifoliata showed potent and dose dependent larvicidal activity against the 2nd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. From this extract two unusual rotenoid derivatives, a rotenoloid (named 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol) and a spirohomooxarotenoid (named spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone), were isolated and characterised. In addition a rare natural chromanone (6,7-dimethoxy-4-chromanone) and the known rotenoids rotenone, tephrosin and dehydrodeguelin were identified. The structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The larvicidal activity of the crude extract is mainly due to rotenone.
DR. JUMBA MIRIAMM. "An Entomopathogenic Coenorhabditis briggsae E. Eyualem Abebe, Miriam Jumba, Kaitlin Bonner, Vince Gray, Krystalynne Morris and W. Kelley Thomas.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . . The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 ; 2010.
DR. JUMBA MIRIAMM. "Genetically Modified Organisms .". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
Dr. Juliet Gathoni Muiga PRWR. "Drivers of Gated Community Developments in Urban Areas (Case Study: Nairobi, Kenya)." International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development -IJAUD. 2017;Volume 7(Issue 4):Pages 5-18.
DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Digestive Endo-proteases from the Midgut Glands of the Indian White Shrimp, Penaeus indicus (Decapoda:Penaeidae) from Kenya. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 4(1),109-121.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2005.
DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Studies on Digestive Enzymes from the Hepatopancreas of the Indian White Shrimp, Penaeus indicus. Department of Biological Sciences.". In: Grahamstown, South Africa. World Aquaculture Society; 1995. Abstract

Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. 256p.

DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Heavy Metals in Sediments from Makupa and Port-Reitz Creek Systems: Kenyan Coast. Environment International 28, 639-647.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2003.
DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Digestive Exo-proteases from the Midgut Glands of the Indian White Shrimp, Penaeus indicus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from Kenya. World Aquaculture 136 (3),.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2007.
DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Studies on Digestive Proteases from Mid-gut Glands of a Shrimp, Penaeus indicus and a Lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. Part I. Proteolytic activity. .Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Part A: Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology. Vol. 90, No. 2, p. 137-.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2001.
DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Water Quality parameters in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) polyculture in central Kenya. J. Aqua. Trop., 20(2), 159-174.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2006.
DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "A Partial Economic Analysis for Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. and Sharptoothed Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Polyculture in Central Kenya. Aquaculture Research 32, 1-9.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2001.
Dr. Derese S, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Yenesew A, Peter MG, Heydenreich. M. "neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia.". 2010. Abstractneo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are morphologically similar

DR. CHUAH(MRS) MINSHING. "Ah-Peng, C., Chuah-Petiot, M.S., Bardat, J., Stamenoff, P., Descamps-Julien, B. & D. Strasberg. Bryological diversity and distribution along an altitudinal gradient on a lava flow of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion island. Diversity and Distrib.". In: Poumon Coeur. 1983;39(3):159-62. uon press; 2007. Abstract
Pneumatocele, a special form of lung injury, is characterized by intrathoracic images of cavities detected on X-ray films. These cavities develop immediately after a trauma of the thorax, disappear rapidly and have a relatively favourable outcome.
DR. CHUAH(MRS) MINSHING. "Pocs, T. T, Pocs, S., Chuah-Petiot, M.S., Malombe, I. & S. Masinde. 2007. East African Bryophytes. XXIV. Records from the dry lands of Kenya, with a description of Didymodon revolutus var. nov. africanus (Pottiaceae). Lindbergia 32: 33-39.". In: Poumon Coeur. 1983;39(3):159-62. uon press; 2007. Abstract
Pneumatocele, a special form of lung injury, is characterized by intrathoracic images of cavities detected on X-ray films. These cavities develop immediately after a trauma of the thorax, disappear rapidly and have a relatively favourable outcome.
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Enviromental Risk Assesment of Genetically Modified Organisms.Vol. 2. Methodologies for Assesing Bt.Cotton in Brazil .. CAB International, Wallingford , UK .". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Anyango B., Giller K., Wilson K.J. and Beynon J.L. (1995). The genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in two Kenya soil types. Applied and Env. Microb. 61 : 4016-4021.". In: Applied and Env. Microb. 61 : 4016-4021. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1995. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Anyango B., Keya,S.O and Owino F .(2005) Occurrence of nodulation in leguminous trees in Kenya .". In: Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology.Vol.1(1) pp.21-26. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 2005. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE, DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Giller, K.E.,B.Anyango, J.L. Beynon and K.J.Wilson (1994). The origin and diversity of rhizobia nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris L . in African soils p.57-62. In J.I. Sprent and D. Mckey (ed), Advances in Legume systematics 5: The Nitrogen Factor. Royal Bota.". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1994. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Birch A.N.E., Wheatley R.., Anyango B., Arpaia S., Capalbo D., Getu E. Degaga, Fontes E., Kalama P., Lelmen E., Lovei G., Melo I. S., Munyekho F., Ngi-Song A., Ochieno D., Ogwang J., Pitelli R.., Shuler T., Setamou M., Sithanantham S., Smith J., Van Son N.". In: Vol. 1. Study of Bt Maize in Kenya . CAB International, Wallingford , UK . El-Banhawy, E. M.; 2004. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Giller, K.E., Anyango, B., Beynon J. and Wilson K.J. (1992). Using Molecular tools to study the Ecology of Tropical Rhizobia. J. Sci. Food Agri . 60: 394.". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1992. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Anyango B., Wilson K. J. and Giller K. (1998). Competition in Kenyan soils between Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli strain Kim5 and R. tropici strain CIAT 899 using gus marker gene. Plant and Soil 204: 69-78.". In: Plant and Soil 204: 69-78. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1998. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "L.C.Me.ndoca Haggler, I.S. de Melo, M.C.Valadares-Inglis,B..Anyango,J.O.Sequeira,Pham Van Toan and R.E.Wheatly.( 2006) Non Target and Biodiversity Impacts in Soil. In. .A.Hilbeck , D.A. Andow. And E.M.G.Fontes.(eds.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 2006. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda and D. Kumar. Studies with antitranspiratis on coffee. (Coffee Arabic L.).". In: E. Afr. Agric. For. J. 45(3) 230 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1980. Abstract
n/a
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda. Crop yields of sorghum and soybean in an intercrop.". In: The journal of Food technology in Africa. Vol. 6 No. 1, 2 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda. Influence of plant population on growth .". In: Paper presented at the MICREN BOARD MEETING, LILONGWE . Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
n/a
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "T. Darnhofer, D. Gatama, P. A. Huxley and E. M. W. Akunda. The rainfall distribution at a tree/crop interface.". In: In: Meteorology and Agroforestry. (1987). p. 371 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
n/a
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda. Improving Food Production by Understanding the effects of intercropping and plant population on soybean nitrogen fixing attributes.". In: The journal of Food technology in Africa. Vol. 6 No. 4, 110 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M.W Akunda. Inter cropping and population density effects on yield component, seed quality and photosynthesis of sorgum and soybean.". In: The journal of Food technology in Africa. Vol. 6 No. 3, 96 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda, S. K. Imbamba and D. Kumar. Responses of coffee Arabia to pruning in Kenya.". In: Journal of science and technology (B) (1982) 3: 83 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1982. Abstract
n/a
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "P. A. Oduol and E. M. W. Akunda. Tropical rainforest tree species with Agroforesty potential.". In: In: trees for development in sub-Saharan Africa. (1989) p. 49 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
n/a
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "E. M. W. Akunda, S. K. Imbamba and D. Kumar. High density plantings of coffee II. Adaptive changes in some plant characteristics.". In: E. Afri. Agri. For. J. (1979) 45(2) 133 . Kisipan, M.L.; 1973. Abstract
n/a

UoN Websites Search