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Byskov J., Bloch P. BHFKKKMMDKMAA-KK. "Accountable priority setting for trust in health systems - the need for research into a new approach for strengthening sustainable health action in developing countries." Health Research Policy and Systems. 2009;7(1 ):23-10. AbstractAccountable_priority_setting_for_trust_in_health_systems-the_need_for_research_into_a_new_approach_for_strengthening_sustainable_health_action_in_developing_countries.pdf

Despite multiple efforts to strengthen health systems in low and middle income countries, intended sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. To date most priority setting initiatives in health systems have mainly focused on technical approaches involving information derived from burden of disease statistics, cost effectiveness analysis, and published clinical trials. However, priority setting involves value-laden choices and these technical approaches do not equip decision-makers to address a broader range of relevant values - such as trust, equity, accountability and fairness - that are of concern to other partners and, not least, the populations concerned. A new focus for priority setting is needed. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an explicit ethical framework for legitimate and fair priority setting that provides guidance for decision-makers who must identify and consider the full range of relevant values. AFR consists of four conditions: i) relevance to the local setting, decided by agreed criteria; ii) publicizing priority-setting decisions and the reasons behind them; iii) the establishment of revisions/appeal mechanisms for challenging and revising decisions; iv) the provision of leadership to ensure that the first three conditions are met. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study started in 2006, which is testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. The objectives of REACT are to describe and evaluate district-level priority setting, to develop and implement improvement strategies guided by AFR and to measure their effect on quality, equity and trust indicators. Effects are monitored within selected disease and programme interventions and services and within human resources and health systems management. Qualitative and quantitative methods are being applied in an action research framework to examine the potential of AFR to support sustainable improvements to health systems performance. This paper reports on the project design and progress and argues that there is a high need for research into legitimate and fair priority setting to improve the knowledge base for achieving sustainable improvements in health outcomes.

Byrne GF, Jacob AWB, Mechie J, Dindi E. "Seismic Structure of the Upper mantle beneath the Southern Kenya Rift from wide-angle data." Tectonophysics. 1997. Abstract

In February l994, the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project carried out two wide-angle reflection and refraction seismic profiles between Lake Victoria and Mombasa across southern Kenya. Our investigation of the data has revealed evidence for the presence of two upper mantle reflectors beneath southwestem Kenya, sometimes at short range, from seven shotpoints. Two-dimensional forward modelling of these reflectors using a pre-existing two-dimensional velocity—depth model for the crust [Birt, C.S., Maguire, P.H.K., Khan, M.A., Thybo, H., Keller, G.R., Patel, J., l997. The influence of pre-existing structures on the evolution of the Southern Kenya Rift Valley — evidence from seismic and gravity studies.
Tectonophysics 278, 211—242], has shown them to lie at depths of approximately 51 and 63 km. The upper reflector, denoted d1, shallows by about 5-10 km in the area beneath Lake Magadi, situated in the rift itself. Correlations for the deeper reflector, denoted d2, are sparse and more dificult to determine, so it was not possible to define any shallowing corresponding to the surface expression of the rift. Only limited control exists over the upper mantle velocities used in the modelling. Immediately beneath the Moho we use a value of Pn calculated from the crustal model, and constraints from previous refraction, teleseismic and gravity studies, to determine the velocity at depth. At the d2 reflector a reasonable velocity contrast was introduced to produce a reflector for modelling purposes. Beneath the d1 reflector the velocity decreases to the average value over 3 km. Beneath the rift the velocity also rises across d1 and again, decreases to the average value over the next 3 km. At the d2 reflector a similar model is used. This model accounts for the presence of the mantle reflectors seen in the data by using layers of thin higher velocity in a lower background velocity. Due to the uncertainty in the velocities the absolute position of both dl and d; could vary, but the relative upwelling beneath the rift is reasonably well constrained and data from four different shotpoints which indicate the shallowing show good agreement. A significant result of this study is that the continuity of the d, reflector indicates that the sub-Moho lithosphere has not been substantially disrupted by mantle upwelling, even though probably thinned and stretched.
Keywords: rifting; upper mantle; Kenya; wide-angle reflections; tectonics; P-wave velocities

Bykowski J, Jahan R, Pakbaz SR. "Variant carotid origin of left anterior inferior cerebellar artery mimicking infarct on angiography." Journal of neurointerventional surgery. 2011:jnis–2010. AbstractWebsite
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Byaruhanga-Akiiki ABT, Mkhize N, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Culture and Mental Health."; 2006.
Bwibo NO;, Acham JM. "Health education in Kenya- an overview.". 2006.
Bwibo NO. "Whooping cough in Uganda.". 1971.
Bwangamoi O, Varma S. "Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteopathy in a Gelding – A Case Report.". In: Presented at the Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association,. Nairobi,Kenya; 1992.
Bwangamoi O, Varma S. "Pulmonary Tumour and Hypertrophic Osteopathy in a Horse. ." Kenya Veterinarian. 1992;16:13-17.
Buyinza D. Phytochemical investigation of Zanthoxylum holstzianum for antimicrobial principles. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

As a response to the worldwide alarm of increased resistance of microbes to readily available antibiotics, the stem bark of Zanthoxylum holstzianum (Rutaceae) with no prior phytochemical report was investigated so as to isolate, and elucidate secondary metabolites with likely antimicrobial activities. The plant material was collected from Diani Veminant forest (coastal province of Kenya), dried at room temperature under shade, pulverised and extracted using acetone. The crude extract was subjected to fractionation and purification using a range of separation techniques including, partitioning, Column Chromatography (CC), Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (PTLC) and crystallization. The structure of the isolated compounds was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques such as UV, MS, and NMR.
In total seven compounds were isolated, of these, three were benzophenanthridine alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine (2), 8-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (5) and 8oxochelerythrine (7)], one canthin-6-one alkaloid [N-methylflindersine (3)], a flavanone
[hesperidine (1)], a fatty acid [hexadecanoic acid (6)], and an amide (2E,4E)-Nisobutyltetradeca-2,4-dienamide (4)]. This is the first report of the occurrence of (2E,4E)N-isobutyltetradeca-2,4-dienamide (4), hexadecanoic acid (6) and hesperidin (1) from the genus Zanthoxylum. A summary of the isolated compounds is shown in figure 1. The crude extract and isolated compounds were screened against four microbial
pathogens, namely: Escherichia coli NC 35218 (Bacterium), Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 259213 (Bacterium), Candida albicans SC 5314 (Yeast fungus), and Aspergillus
niger ATCC 16404 (Filamentous fungus) using the disc diffusion technique as
recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012).
Dihydrochelerythrine (2), N-methylflindersine (3), (2E, 4E)-N-isobutyltetradeca-2,4dienamide (5) and the crude extract, each had minimum inhibition concentration (MIC)
of 6.25 μg/disc against Staphylococcus aureus. The crude had MIC of 62.5 μg/disc
against Candida albicans and the essential oils showed a MIC of 12.5 μg/disc against
both Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Abstract

The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).
Keywords: Millettia dura, Leguminosae, isoflavone, cytotoxicity.

Buyela SN, Muthomi JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Njau P, Olubayo F. "Effect of Seed Treatment on Wheat Seed Viability and Vigour." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(1):1-9.
Buxton BF, Wasunna AE, Gutierrez LV, Bedi BS, Gillespie IE. "Role of inhibition by fat in the production of gastric hypersecretion following small-bowel resection.". 1971.
Buxton B, Wasunna AE, Bedi BS, Gillespie IE. "Role of the jejunum and the ileum in the acid response of dogs to a meal.". 1972.
Buxton B, Wasunna AE, Saunders J, Gillespie IE. "Site of the abnormal stimulus of gastric secretion after small bowel exclusion.". 2007. Abstract

In dogs with either vagally innervated or denervated pouches, the acid responses to a standard meal, a meal which bypassed the greater part of the small bowel, and a meal introduced directly into the small intestine were measured before and after exclusion of 75% of the small bowel.After intestinal exclusion an increase in acid secretion was found in the latter part of the acid response to the standard meal and the intestinal meal. No increase in acid secretion resulted from the meals which bypassed the small bowel. These findings suggest that an increase in stimulation from the remaining small intestine is responsible for the elevation in acid secretion following small bowel exclusion.

BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN, BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN. "Identification of determinants of infant mortality in Rwanda using a shared frailty model.". In: European Journal of Scientific Research. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
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BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN, BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN. "Logistic regression modeling of poverty using Demographic and Health Survey data.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
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BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN, BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN. "Spatial Durbin model for poverty mapping and analysis.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
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BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN, BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN. "The unrestricted Dorfman-Sterrett group screening designs without error in decision.". In: ICASTOR Journal of Mathematics. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
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Buttolph J, Inwani I, Agot K, Cleland CM, Cherutich P, Kiarie JN, Osoti A, Celum CL, Baeten JM, Ruth Nduati, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Hallett TB, Alsallaq R, Kurth AE. "Gender-Specific Combination HIV Prevention for Youth in High-Burden Settings: The MP3 Youth Observational Pilot Study Protocol." JMIR Res Protoc. 2017;6(3):e22. Abstract

Nearly three decades into the epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the region most heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with nearly 70% of the 34 million people living with HIV globally residing in the region. In SSA, female and male youth (15 to 24 years) are at a disproportionately high risk of HIV infection compared to adults. As such, there is a need to target HIV prevention strategies to youth and to tailor them to a gender-specific context. This protocol describes the process for the multi-staged approach in the design of the MP3 Youth pilot study, a gender-specific, combination, HIV prevention intervention for youth in Kenya.

Butt FMA, Chindia ML VVPMK. "Oral manifestations in a Kenyan Provincial Hospital." EAMJ. 2001;78(8):398-401.oral_manifestations_2001.pdf
Butt F, Moshi J CM. "Xeroderma pigmentosum: a review and case series." Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2010;38(N/a):534-537.xp__oct_2010.pdf
Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FMA, W. GS, Chindia ML, Rana F, M. OT. "Early outcome of three cases of Melanotic Neuroectodermal of infancy." journal of Cranio-maxillofacial Surg.. 2009.
Butt F, Mandela P, Munguti J. "Sex differences in the cranial and orbital indices for a black Kenyan population.". 2013. Abstract

Craniometric parameters including cranial and orbital indices have been employed to determine the sex of a person in forensic medicine. These parameters are usually population specific. However, they have not been documented for a black Kenyan population. This study aimed at calculating the sex differences in the cranial and orbital indices. The cranial vault height, glabellomaximal length and orbital height and length were measured from 150 crania (80 male and 70 female) using a sliding vernier caliper. Cranial and orbital indices were calculated and the results were analyzed. The cranial index was 71.04 for the male and 72.37 for the female (P=0.095). The orbital index was 82.57 and 83.48 for the male and female, respectively (P=0.472). From these results, although the cranial and orbital indices are within range of previously reported values for an African population, they cannot be used independently in sexing of black Kenyan crania

Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FMA, Guthua SW, Waweru W, Kiarie G. "Lung Bronchogenic Carcinoma in the mandible: A rare metastasis." The Annals of African Surgery. 2016;13 (1):32-35.
Butt FMA, Ogeng'o J, Bahra J, Chindia ML. "Pattern of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts." J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22(6):2160-2. Abstract

The jaws are host to a variety of cysts due in large part to the tissues involved in tooth formation. Odontogenic cysts (OCs) are unique in that they affect only the oral and maxillofacial region. There are few studies from sub-Saharan Africa. This study was aimed at describing the pattern of various types of cysts in the oral and maxillofacial region in a Kenyan population. This was done at the Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Medicine and Pathology, University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. This was a retrospective audit. All histopathologic records were retrieved from 1991 to 2010 (19 years) and were counted. The following information was extracted and recorded in a data sheet: age, sex, and the type of cystic lesions. There were 194 cysts (4.56%) diagnosed of 4257 oral and maxillofacial lesions. Of these, 64.4% were from male and 35.6% were from female patients with an age range of 1 to 70 years (mean, 23.76 [SD, 14.05] years; peak and median of 20 years). The most common OCs (57.2%) were dentigerous and radicular, whereas the most common nonodontogenic cyst (42.8%) was nasopalatine duct cyst. Other soft tissue cysts reported were epidermoid, branchial, thyroglossal, dermoid, and cystic hygroma. Oral and maxillofacial cysts are not uncommon in this population, the majority being the OC, dentigerous cyst, followed by the nonodontogenic cyst, nasopalatine cyst. The cysts are male predominant and occur 10 to 15 years earlier compared with those in the white population.

BUTT DRFAWZIAMOHAMEDA. "An Audit of ranulae occurung with the Human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Oral. Maxillofacial. Path. 2010; 14:33-35.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2010. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical presentation and management of children with nephroplastoma and the factors influencing the outcome at Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: This was a retrospective case series study based on secondary data accumulated between 1990 and 1996. SETTING: The relevant data were extracted from records of all children aged 12 years and below, admitted for cancer at KNH, Nairobi. RESULTS: Out of 803 children with cancer, 71 (8.8%) had histologically proven nephroblastoma. At presentation, 1.5% were in stage I, 13.2% stage II, 36.8% stage III, 41.2% stage IV and 7.4% stage V. Eighty five per cent presented with stage III-V disease. Ninety five per cent had nepherectomy and received chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was given to 50.7% of the patients. Nine patients died before commencement of chemotherapy, two of whom died in the immediate post-operative period. The median duration between admission and surgery was 41 days. Pre-operative chemotherapy was given to 42% of the patients. Approximately 25.5% of the patients received little or no induction chemotherapy due to unavailability of drugs while only 2.8% received the prescribed maintenance treatment with the remainder getting erratic or no treatment. Overall, only 34.7% remained disease free two years from time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Late presentation, poor availability of cytotoxic drugs and frequent treatment interruptions for various reasons have contributed to the poor outcome of nephroblastoma in Kenya.
Butt FMA, Ogeng'o J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Open Journal of Stomatology . 2012; 2:54-59. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Dimba EAO, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

BUTT DRFAWZIAMOHAMEDA. "Awareness and Experience of needle stick injuries among Dental Students at the University of Nairobi, Dental Hospital. E Afr Med J 2010; 87:38-41.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2010. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical presentation and management of children with nephroplastoma and the factors influencing the outcome at Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: This was a retrospective case series study based on secondary data accumulated between 1990 and 1996. SETTING: The relevant data were extracted from records of all children aged 12 years and below, admitted for cancer at KNH, Nairobi. RESULTS: Out of 803 children with cancer, 71 (8.8%) had histologically proven nephroblastoma. At presentation, 1.5% were in stage I, 13.2% stage II, 36.8% stage III, 41.2% stage IV and 7.4% stage V. Eighty five per cent presented with stage III-V disease. Ninety five per cent had nepherectomy and received chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was given to 50.7% of the patients. Nine patients died before commencement of chemotherapy, two of whom died in the immediate post-operative period. The median duration between admission and surgery was 41 days. Pre-operative chemotherapy was given to 42% of the patients. Approximately 25.5% of the patients received little or no induction chemotherapy due to unavailability of drugs while only 2.8% received the prescribed maintenance treatment with the remainder getting erratic or no treatment. Overall, only 34.7% remained disease free two years from time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Late presentation, poor availability of cytotoxic drugs and frequent treatment interruptions for various reasons have contributed to the poor outcome of nephroblastoma in Kenya.
Busula AO, Takken W, Loy DE, Hahn BH, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Niels O Verhulst. "Mosquito host preferences affect their response to synthetic and natural odour blends." Malaria journal. 2015;14(1):133.
Busula AO, Takken W, de Boer JG, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Niels O Verhulst. "Variation in host preferences of malaria mosquitoes is mediated by skin bacterial volatiles." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2017;31(3):320-326.
Busolo DN, Samuel Ngigi. "Assessing Sustainability of Rural Community Radio in Kenya: A Case of Radio Mangelete." New Media and Mass Communication. 2016;53:23-32.
Businge MS, Maina I, Ayiemba E, M.Odongo, Maingi P, Nderitu P, Ngweyo S. "Socio- Economic Status, Poverty, Gender and Environment.". In: Supporting the Development of Vision 2030. Malta: Progress Press; 2012.
Busienei JR, K'Obonyo PPO, Ogutu PM. "The Effect of Human Resource Strategic Orientation on Performance of Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2013;Vol. 3(1)(ISSN: 2251-1261):pp. 834-857.
Busby L, Brown I, Mwango G, Rawlings-Fein M, and others. "RISE (Radiology International Student Education): creation and utilization of virtual online classroom for global radiology education." Annals of Global Health. 2016;82(3):408-409.
Buruchara R;, Otsyula R;, Opiyo F;, Musoni A;, Kantengwa S;, Nderitu J;, Nekesa P;, Wortman C. "A case study on developing and disseminating Integrated Pest Management technologies for bean root rots in Eastern and Central Africa.".; 2000.
Buruchara RA;, Mukunya DM;, Gathuru EM. "Bacterial black spot of mangoes in Kenya."; 1990.
Burri PH, Haenni B TSAMAN. "Morphometry and allometry of the postnatal marsupial lung development: an ultrastructural study." Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2003;53(1):72-80.
Burke LF, Clark E. "Ileocolic intussusception—a case report." Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 1977;5:346-347. AbstractWebsite
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Burgis MJ, Mavuti KM. The Gregory Rift Lakes.; 1987.The Gregory Rift Lakes
Burezq H, Williams B, Chitte SA. "Management of cystic hygromas: 30 year experience." Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2006;17:815-818. AbstractWebsite
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Buregeya A. "Interlanguage variability in the use of French auxiliary verbs by low-proficiency learners of French in Kenya." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2018;7(Oct 2017):pp. 25-58.
Buregeya A. "Kenyan English.". In: The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter ; 2012.
Buregeya A, Buregeya A. "Dyslexia and dysgraphia in the reading and writing of English words by upper-primary pupils from select schools in Sabatia Sub-county in Kenya." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2017;6(Oct 2017):Oct 2017.
Buregeya A. "Kenyan English.". In: The Electronic World Atlas of Variities of English. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology; 2011.
Buregeya A, Ochoki B. "Misuse of prepositions in Kenyan English: Further evidence of the difficulty in choosing the "right" preposition." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2010;2(1):71-85. Abstract

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Buregeya A. "“Kenyan English”, in B. Kortmann & K. Lunkenheimer (eds.).". In: The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter 466-467.; 2012.
Buoro IBJ, Kanui TI, Atwell RB, Njenga KM, Gathumbi PK. "Polymyositis associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in two dogs.". 1990. Abstract

Clinical, haematological, biochemical, electrophysiological and pathological features of two dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis and with concurrent signs of polymyositis are presented. Both dogs had a history of relatively acute onset, progressive tetraparesis, hyporeflexia and generalised muscle wasting. Skeletal muscles were atrophic and characterised histologically by plasmocytic, lymphocytic and immature lymph-oreticular cellular infiltrates with accompanying areas of necrosis. Histopathological similarities between ehrlichiosis and polymyositis are noted and a probable aetiological relationship is inferred.

Buoro IB, Nyamwange SB, Chai D, Munyua SM. "Putative avocado toxicity in two dogs.". 1994. Abstract

Two dogs were seen at the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, both having histories of dyspnoea, progressively enlarging abdomens, anasarca, ascites, pleural and pericardial effusion, and pulmonary oedema. One of the dogs had a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and proteinuria. Histopathological examination of the myocardium revealed some damage to myocytes and a mononuclear cellular infiltration involving the myocardium, liver and kidneys. The two dogs had a fondness for avocado fruits and, as the presenting syndrome is identical to that seen in goats, sheep and horses poisoned by avocados, a comparison is made and the probable manifestation of this poisoning presented.

Bundi PK, Ogeng’o JA, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "Regional Histomorphometry of the Hepatic Inferior vena cava; a possible sphincteric mechanism." Int J Morphol. 2009;27(3):849-854.
Bundi KP, Ogeng'o JA, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "Course of the hepatic inferior vena cava in a Kenyan population." Clin Anat. 2009;22(5):610-3. Abstract

The course of the hepatic inferior vena cava (HIVC) has a wide range of variations which are relevant in hepato-vascular surgery and liver transplantation. Eighty livers were studied for hepatic course and axial orientation of the HIVC. The HIVC was found to run in an incomplete tunnel in 43.8% of the cases (n = 35), complete tunnel in 32.5% of the cases (n = 26) while in the rest, it was contained in a shallow groove on the retrohepatic surface. It assumed an oblique course in relation to the longitudinal axis of the liver in 60% of the cases (n = 48). The findings of this study vary to a wide range from those reported previously, and call for extra caution during surgical operations involving the HIVC region.

Bundi RM;, Gitau GK;, Vanleeuwen, J; Mulei CM, Vanleeuwen, J; Mulei CM. "The application of petrifilmsTM for diagnosis of bovine mastitis in Kenya."; 2013.
Bundi PK;, Ogeng’o JA, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "Topography and distribution of ostia vena hepatica in the retrohepatic inferior vena cava." Ann Afr Surg; : . 2009;4:13-17.
Bundi RM;, Gitau GK;, Vanleeuwen J;, Mulei CM. "The application of petrifilmsTM for diagnosis of bovine mastitis in Kenya."; 2013.
Bulsara KR, Zomorodi A, Provenzale JM. "Anatomic variant of the posterior cerebral artery." American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007;188:W395. AbstractWebsite
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Bülow Pedersen I, Laurberg P, Knudsen N, Jørgensen T, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Rasmussen LB. "An increased incidence of overt hypothyroidism after iodine fortification of salt in {Denmark}: a prospective population study." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2007;92:3122-3127. AbstractWebsite
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Bullock RM, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, Gordon D, Hartl R, Newell DW, Servadei F, Walters BC, Wilberger JE. "Surgical management of acute epidural hematomas." Neurosurgery. 2006;58:S2-7. AbstractWebsite
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Bulle Hallo Dabasso, Oliver Vivian Wasonga PIBK. "Stratified cattle production in pastoral areas of Kenya: Existing forms, driving factors and management practices." Applied Animal Husbandry & Rural Development. 2018;11. Abstract
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Bulinda DM. "Reflections on management ethics and managemen integrityin Higher education management ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10).
Bulinda DM. Supervision and Inspection practice in Educational Administration. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Bulinda DM. organizational behaviour in Educational management. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Bulinda DM, Inyega JO. "Pre-service graduate teachers' perceptions on instructional supervision in relation to students' classroom involvement and assessment in Kenya." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies. 2019;3(1):9-14.
Bulinda, D. M. MJW. "Extent to which system migration influence the implementation of core banking systems project: A case of NIC Bank Kenya LTD." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):156-166.
Bulinda DM. "Basics of Educational Administration ." Lambart Academic Publishing. 2018.
Bulinda DM. Human Resource Planning and organizational performance in Education. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Bulinda DM. Management tit biyts in Lecture series. Nairobi: Riverbrooks Communications; 2011.
Bulinda DM. The theoretical narrative in Educational Administration. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Bulimo WD, Gachara G, Opot BH, Murage MW, Wurapa EK. "Evidence in Kenya of Reassortment Between Seasonal Influenza A(H3N2) and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 to yield A(H3N2) Variants With the Matrix Gene Segment of A(H1N1)pdm09." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2012;1:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Background: Influenza viruses evolve rapidly and undergo frequent reassortment of different gene segments leadingto emergence of novel strains with new traits possessing pandemic potential.Objectives: To determine evidence of reassortment amongst A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 co-circulating influenza virussubtypes and relate these to adamantine antiviral resistance.Methodology: Nasopharyngeal swabs in virus transport medium were collected from patients with influenza-likeillness. The presence of influenza was determined using real-time PCR followed by culture in MDCK cells.Haemagglutination inhibition was carried out to confirm the identity of the virus. Complete haemagglutinin (HA),matrix (M) and neuraminidase (NA) genes were sequenced and analyzed using a suite of bioinformatics tools.Results: Influenza A(H3N2) was detected in 32 out of 708 samples collected between October and December 2010.Analysis of the HA gene confirmed it to be of the H3 subtype. However, analysis of the matrix gene showed that 28 ofthe isolates had the M gene of influenza A(H3N2) viruses while 4 had the M gene of the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.Discussion: Our results show that four of the 32 influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated had acquired the M gene segmentof the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus by reassortment. This has implications in their transmissibility as the M gene isimplicated in the increased transmissibility of the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.

Bulimo WD, Garner JL, Schnabel DC, Bedno SA, Njenga MK, Ochieng WO, Amukoye E, Magana JM, Simwa JM, Ofula VO, Lifumo SM, Wangui J, Breiman RF, Martin SK. "Genetic analysis of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated in 2006-2007 in Nairobi, Kenya." Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2008;2:107-13. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Minimal influenza surveillance has been carried out in sub-Saharan Africa to provide information on circulating influenza subtypes for the purpose of vaccine production and monitoring trends in virus spread and mutations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate a surveillance program in Kenya to isolate and characterize influenza viruses. RESULTS: In the 2006-2007 influenza season, nine influenza A viruses were isolated. All were of H3N2 subtype with key amino acid (aa) changes indicating that they were more closely related to recent World Health Organization recommended vaccine strains than to older vaccine strains, and mirroring the evolution of circulating influenza A globally. Hemagglutination inhibition data showed that the 2006 Kenya isolates had titers identical to the 2005-2006 H3N2 vaccine strain but two- to threefold lower titers to the 2006-2007 vaccine strain, suggesting that the isolates were antigenic variants of the 2006-2007 vaccine strains. Analysis of aa substitutions of hemagglutinin-1 (HA1) protein of the 2006 Kenyan viruses revealed unique genetic variations with several aa substitutions located at immunodominant epitopes of the HA1 protein. These mutations included the V112I change at site E, the K 173 E substitution at site D and N 278 K change at site C, mutations that may result in conformational change on the HA molecule to expose novel epitopes thus abrogating binding of pre-existing antibodies at these sites. CONCLUSION: Characterization of these important genetic variations in influenza A viruses isolated from Kenya highlights the importance of continuing surveillance and characterization of emerging influenza drift variants in sub-Saharan Africa.

Bulimo WD, Achilla RA, Majanja J, Mukunzi S, Wadegu M, Osunna F, Mwangi J, Njiri J, Wangui J, Nyambura J, Obura B, Mitei K, Omariba D, Segecha S, Nderitu M, Odindo A, Adega C, Kiponda J, Mupa R, Munyazi F, Kissinger G, Mwakuzimu M, Kamola D, Muhidin E, Kamau D, Kairithia S, Koech M, Sang A, Onge'ta L, Schnabel DC. "Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hemagglutinin 1 Protein of Human Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Circulating in Kenya During 2007–2008." Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;206:S46-S52. Abstractj_infect_dis.-2012-bulimo-s46-52.pdfWebsite

Background.Among influenza viruses, type A viruses exhibit the greatest genetic diversity, infect the widest range of host species, and cause the vast majority of cases of severe disease in humans, including cases during the great pandemics. The hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) domain of the HA protein contains the highest concentration of epitopes and, correspondingly, experiences the most intense positive selection pressure.Objectives.We sought to isolate and genetically characterize influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]) circulating in Kenya during 2007–2008, using the HA1 protein.Methods.Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from patients aged ≥2 months who presented to 8 healthcare facilities in Kenya with influenza-like illness. We tested specimens for seasonal influenza A viruses, using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Viruses were subtyped using subtype-specific primers. Specimens positive for seasonal A(H1N1) were inoculated onto Madin-Darby canine kidney cells for virus isolation. Viral RNAs were extracted from isolates, and the HA1 gene was amplified by RT-PCR, followed by nucleotide sequencing. Nucleotide sequences were assembled using BioEdit and translated into amino acid codes, using DS Gene, version 1.5. Multiple sequence alignments were performed using MUSCLE, version 3.6, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using MrBayes software.Results.We found that, similar to A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)–like virus, which was included in the southern hemisphere vaccine for the 2009 influenza season, all 2007 Kenyan viruses had D39N, R77K, T132V, K149R, and E277K amino acid substitutions, compared with A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)–like virus, a component of the southern hemisphere vaccine for the 2008 influenza season. However, the majority of 2008 viruses from Kenya also had R192K and R226Q substitutions, compared with A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)–like virus. These 2 changes occurred at the receptor binding site. The majority of the 2008 Kenyan isolates contained N187S, G189N, and A193T mutations, which differed from A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)–like virus. The A193T substitution is involved in binding the sialic acid receptor. Phylogenetically, the 2008 Kenyan isolates grouped into 2 clusters. The main cluster contained viruses with N187S and A193T changes; residue 187 is involved in receptor binding, whereas residue 193 is at antigenic site Sb.Conclusion.Overall, the major genetic variations that occurred in seasonal A(H1) viruses either affected receptor binding or altered epitopes at the immunodominant sites. These genetic variations in seasonal A(H1N1) isolated in Kenya during 2007–2008 highlight the importance of continuing surveillance and characterization of emerging drift variants of influenza virus in Africa.

Bulimo WD, Miskin JE, Dixon LK. "An ARID family protein binds to the African swine fever virus encoded ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, UBCv1." FEBS Lett. 2000;471:17-22. Abstractbulimo-2000-an_arid_family_prote.pdfWebsite

The NH(2)-terminal end of a protein, named SMCp, which contains an ARID (A/T rich interaction domain) DNA binding domain and is similar to the mammalian SMCY/SMCX proteins and retinoblastoma binding protein 2, was shown to bind the African swine fever virus encoded ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (UBCv1) using the yeast two hybrid system and in in vitro binding assays. Antisera raised against the SMCp protein were used to show that the protein is present in the cell nucleus. Immunofluorescence showed that although UBCv1 is present in the nucleus in most cells, in some cells it is in the cytoplasm, suggesting that it shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The interaction and co-localisation of UBCv1 with SMCp suggest that SMCp may be a substrate in vivo for the enzyme.

Bulimo WD, Mukunzi S, Achilla R, Opot BH, Osuna F, Majanja J, Wadegu M, Wurapa EK. "Were the WHO-recommended Human Influenza Vaccine Formulations Appropriate for Kenya During the 2010-2011 Season? Inferences from the HA1 Gene Analysis." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2012;1(1):46-54. Abstract3-ajpt-mr11-0312-2_bulimo.pdfWebsite

Background: The knowledge of evolutionary patterns of the HA gene of the influenza virus is important in vaccinestrain selection.Objective: Genetic analysis of HA1 of influenza viruses isolated in Kenya during the 2010-2011 season with referenceto WHO vaccine strains.Methods: A total of twenty seven (27) influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, Nineteen (19) influenza A (H3N2) and Sixteen (16)influenza B virus isolates were analyzed. A partial HA1 gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced.Results: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that influenza B viruses were closely related to B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccinestrain while A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses were genetic variants of A/California/07/2009. The Kenyan A (H1N1) pdm09isolates had P83S, D97N, S185T, I321V and E374K amino acid substitutions. Influenza A/H3N2 isolates showed K62E,T212A and S214I simultaneous amino acid substitutions when compared to A/Perth/10/2009. The K62E changeoccurred at antigenic site E. Majority of the Kenyan H3N2 isolates further had S45N and K144N amino acidsubstitutions at sites C and A respectively, which introduced N-glycosylation motifs absent in the vaccine strain.Conclusion: The study showed that although the WHO 2010 vaccine strains recommendations for the southernhemisphere matched with influenza viruses which circulated in Kenya during the 2010-2011 season, the viruses hadevolved genetically from the vaccine strains.

Bukuluki, P. WMEI. "Implications of Research findings for Policy Development.". In: Re-thinking Research and Intervention Approaches That aim at Preventing HIV Infection Among the Youth. Vol. 1. Social Science and Medicine Africa Network (SOMA-Net); 2006:. Abstract
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Bukola F, Idi N, M’Mimunya M, Jean-Jose WM, Kidza M, Isilda N. "Unmet need for induction of labor in Africa: secondary analysis from the 2004 - 2005 WHO Global Maternal and Perinatal Health Survey (A cross-sectional survey).". 2012. Abstract

Induction of labor is being increasingly used to prevent adverse outcomes in the mother and the newborn.This study assessed the prevalence of induction of labor and determinants of its use in Africa. Methods We performed secondary analysis of the WHO Global Survey of Maternal and Newborn Health of 2004 and 2005. The African database was analyzed to determine the use of induction of labor at the country level and indications for induction of labor. The un-met needs for specific obstetric indications and at country level were assessed. Determinants of use of induction of labor were explored with multivariate regression analysis. Results A total of 83,437 deliveries were recorded in the 7 participating countries. Average rate of induction was 4.4% with a range of 1.4 – 6.8%. Pre-labor rupture of membranes was the commonest indication for induction of labor. Two groups of women were identified: 2,776 women with indications had induction of labor while 7,996 women although had indications but labor was not induced. Induction of labor was associated with reduction of stillbirths and perinatal deaths [OR – 0.34; 95% CI (0.27 – 0.43)]. Unmet need for induction of labor ranged between 66.0% and 80.2% across countries. Determinants of having an induction of labor were place of residence, duration of schooling, type of health facility and level of antenatal care. Conclusion Utilization of induction of labor in health facilities in Africa is very low. Improvements in social and health infrastructure are required to reverse the high unmet need for induction of labor.

Bukachi SA, Onyango-Ouma W, Siso JM, Nyamongo IK, Mutai JK, Hurtig AK, Olsen OE, Byskov J. "Healthcare priority setting in Kenya: a gap analysis applying the accountability for reasonableness framework." The International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2013:DOI: 10.1002/hpm.2197.Health Prioritysetting A4R_2013.pdf
Bukachi F, Waldenstrom A, Mörner S, Lindqvist P, Henein MY, Kazzam E. "Age dependency in the timing of mitral annular motion in relation to ventricular filling in healthy subjects: Umea General Population Heart Study.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

AIMS:

Peak left ventricular (LV) relaxation normally precedes peak filling (E), which supports the hypothesis that LV suction contributes to early-diastolic filling. The significance of similar temporal discordance in late diastole has previously not been studied. We describe the time relationships between mitral annular motion and LV filling in early and late diastole and examine the effect of normal ageing on these time intervals.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

A total of 128 healthy subjects aged 25-88 years were studied. Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow reversals (Ar) were recorded by Doppler echocardiography. Mitral annular diastolic displacement-early (E(m)) and late (A(m))-were recorded by Doppler tissue imaging. With reference to electrocardiographic R and P-waves, the following measurements were made: R to peak E-wave (R-E) and E(m) (R-E(m)); onset P to peak A-wave (P-pA), A(m) (P-pA(m)), and Ar (P-pAr). The differences between [(R-E) and (R-E(m))] for early-diastolic temporal discordance (EDTD) and [(P-A) and (P-A(m))] for late-diastolic temporal discordance (LDTD) were calculated. Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) was also measured. Early-diastolic temporal discordance was approximately 26 ms in all age groups. Late-diastolic temporal discordance, however, was inversely related to age (r = -0.35, P < 0.001) and IVRT (r = -0.34, P < 0.001) and therefore decreased in the elderly vs. young (13 +/- 10 vs. 23 +/- 10 ms; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age failed to predict LDTD in the presence of IVRT. A, A(m), and Ar were simultaneous at onset, and peak A(m) coincided with peak Ar in all age groups (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted in the RR intervals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sequential prolongation of IVRT with ageing reduces LDTD, thus converging the peaks of A(m), A, and Ar (atrial mechanical alignment)-a potential novel method to identify subjects at increased dependency on atrial contraction for late-diastolic filling

Bukachi S, Nyamongo IK, Wandibba S. "The treatment pathways followed by cases of human African trypanosomiasis in western Kenya and eastern Uganda.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Wiley Interscience; 2009. Abstract

Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.

BUERS DRAWUORJOHN. "Awuor J. Buers, J.O. Malo, Sant Ram, The Curvature of Spacetime Under a Constrained Expansion Potential, Proceedings of The Third Volga International Summer School in Space Plasma Physics, ISS97 (1997).". In: Mod Phys. Lett. A, Vol 13, No 9 (1998)677 - 683. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN. "Antigravity in a Composite Spacetime Model.". In: Proc. Int. Conf. Phys, Tehran, (January 2004) pp.171-178. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004.
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN, OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "A Composite Spacetime Curvature Model.". In: Mod Phys. Lett. A, Vol 13, No 9 (1998)677 - 683. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN. "AWUOR, J. BUERS, The Search for Alternatives:(a strategy for innovation), .". In: Proc. IEEE International Engineering Seminar on Electronics and Electronics Engineering, Serena Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya (August 1995)pp.110 - 114. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1995.
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN. "Analysis of van der Waal equation near the critical point.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 6 No. 1 (June 2004) pp.11-14. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004.
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN. "A Generalization of Fractional Calculus.". In: 2005 Issue of the European Journal of Scientific Research. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005.
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN, OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "A Composite Spacetime Curvature Model.". In: Mod Phys. Lett. A, Vol 13, No 9 (1998)677 - 683. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998.
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN. "Entropy as a Relative Measure.". In: European Journal of Scientific Research, on October 4, 2005. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005.
Budjorova E, Mulwa, M R. "Technical Efficiency of Cotton Production in Uzbekistan.". In: In (Knierim, A., Nagel, U. J. and C. Shaefer Eds.), Managing Economic, Social and Biological Transformations: Proceedings of the First Green Week Scientific Conference. Margraf Publishers. ISBN 978-3-8236-1499-9: Pp 116-121.; 2007.
Budgell B. "Cardiovascular {Reflexes}." In: Binder MD, Hirokawa N, Windhorst U, eds. Encyclopedia of {Neuroscience}. Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2009:. Abstract
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Buchanan JR, Kleinstreuer C, Hyun S, Truskey GA. "Hemodynamics simulation and identification of susceptible sites of atherosclerotic lesion formation in a model abdominal aorta." Journal of Biomechanics. 2003;36:1185-1196. Abstract

Employing the rabbit's abdominal aorta as a suitable atherosclerotic model, transient three-dimensional blood flow simulations and monocyte deposition patterns were used to evaluate the following hypotheses: (i) simulation of monocyte transport through a model of the rabbit abdominal aorta yields cell deposition patterns similar to those seen in vivo, and (ii) those deposition patterns are correlated with hemodynamic wall parameters related to atherosclerosis. The deposition pattern traces a helical shape down the aorta with local elevation in monocyte adhesion around vessel branches. The cell deposition pattern was altered by an exercise waveform with fewer cells attaching in the upper abdominal aorta but more attaching around the renal orifices. Monocyte deposition was correlated with the wall shear stress gradient and the wall shear stress angle gradient. The wall stress gradient, the wall shear stress angle gradient and the normalized monocyte deposition fraction were correlated with the distribution of monocytes along the abdominal aorta and monocyte deposition is correlated with the measured distribution of monocytes around the major abdominal branches in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. These results suggest that the transport and deposition pattern of monocytes to arterial endothelium plays a significant role in the localization of lesions.

Buard V, den Berg VR, Tayler-Smith K, Godhia P, Sorby A, Kosgei RJ, Szumilin E, Harries AD, Pujades-Rodriguez M. "Characteristics, medical management and outcomes of survivors of sexual gender-based violence, Nairobi, Kenya." Public Health Action . 2013;3(2):109-112.characteristics_medical_management_and_outcomes_of_survivors_of_gender_based_violence.pdf
Brzustowski TA, Lutia MF. "Flow due to a two-dimensional heat source with cross flow in the atmosphere.". 1976. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents a model describing the flow field due to a two-dimensional infinitely long heat source in a stably-stratified atmosphere with a uniform wind cross-flow. The governing equation which is valid for any wind shear is non-linear in its general form and is solved for uniform flow only. The energy equation is not solved but a “source” function is assumed. The results of this model exhibit some of the observed mass fire characteristics such as the inflow window, the pinch effect, the upstream downdraft and a strong dynamic convection column. Blocking and the formation of eddies are shown to be the most important characteristics of the onset of mass fire conditions.

Bryja J, Ondřej Mikula, Radim sumbera, Meheretu Y, Aghova T, Lavrenchenko LA, Mazoch V, Oguge N, Mbau JS, Welegerima K, Amundala N, Colyn1 M, Leirs H, Verheyen11 E. "Pan-African phylogeny of Mus (subgenus Nannomys) reveals one of the most successful mammal radiations in Africa." BMC Evolutionary Biology . 2014;14:256.nannomys_dec_2014.pdf
Brunjes P. "Unilateral naris closure and olfactory system development." Brain Research Reviews. 1994;19:146-160. AbstractWebsite

In most animals there is bilateral access of odorants to the olfactory sensory epithelium. Air enters the nose through two external nares and passes back through the nasal cavity, which is divided down the midline by a cartilaginous nasal septum. The olfactory mucosa, a sheet of ciliated bipolar receptor cells, is found in the caudal two thirds of the nasal cavity. Axons from the sensory cells project to an ipsilateral extension of the telencephalon known as the olfactory bulb. If a single external naris of a rat pup is surgically closed (usually via brief cauterization) on the day after the day of birth (P1) and the subject is examined on P30, the size of the ipsilateral olfactory bulb is reduced by approximately 25%. The large reduction in size, coupled with the clear lamination and other features of the olfactory system, indicates that the manipulation is an ideal preparation for examining the regulation of early growth. We know that both olfactory bulbs are of equal size at the time of occlusion, but that 30 days later there is a large discrepancy. What series of events produces the changes? The present paper outlines what is known about the anatomical, biochemical and physiological changes introduced by naris occlusion in order to lay a framework for further work.

Brun-Buisson CJ, Bonnet F, Bergeret S, Lemaire F, Rapin M. "Recurrent high-permeability pulmonary edema associated with diabetic ketoacidosis." Critical Care Medicine. 1985;13:55-56. Abstract

Delayed-onset pulmonary edema complicating severe diabetic ketoacidosis was observed twice in one patient. Hemodynamic measurements during the second episode showed normal transmural pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, suggesting an alteration in alveolocapillary permeability. Hyperventilation and acidosis may underlie this alteration. Vigorous fluid therapy, while decreasing oncotic pressure, may also contribute to the pulmonary edema. The two episodes in one patient suggest that pulmonary microvascular diabetic angiopathy may predispose some diabetics with severe ketoacidosis to increased-permeability pulmonary edema.

Bruce OJ, Joseph OO. "The Moderating Influence of Industry Competition on the Relationship between Corporate Strategy and Organizational Performance." International Journal of Research in Business Studies and Management. 2017;4(4):13-20. Abstractogaga_and_owino_2017.pdf

The influence of strategic choice on performance is a subject of debate in strategic management. However,
previous studies have yielded inconsistent results. While industrial organization economics theory and the
contingency theory emphasize the role of industry environment in organizational performance, little
research attention has been directed towards investigating the indirect influence of the competitive
environment on performance. The current study, attempts to highlight the indirect influence of the
environment by testing the moderating influence of industry competition on the relationship between
corporate strategy and performance. The study adopted the descriptive cross sectional survey with data
collected from companies listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. Structured questionnaire was used and
data analyzed through both descriptive and inferential statistics and linear regression. The findings
demonstrate that industry competition has a significant moderating influence on the relationship between
corporate strategy and performance. Drawing from the findings, we conclude that performance of the firm
depends on the degree of alignment of corporate strategy to industry competition.

Bruce IN. "Atherogenesis and autoimmune disease: the model of lupus." Lupus. 2005;14:687-690. Abstract

Accelerated atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Certain 'classic' risk factors are associated with atherosclerosis risk in SLE. However, these factors alone do not fully explain the excess risk observed. Atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as a chronic inflammatory condition and in SLE, complement activation and immune complex formation may promote atheroma development. Similarly, autoantibody production, especially those in the anticardiolipin (ACLA) family are gaining increasing attention. The role of steroids may not be completely straightforward, low doses may have a beneficial anti-inflammatory role whereas higher doses may exacerbate metabolic factors. In contrast, antimalarials have a beneficial effect on lipids as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet effects. The aetiology of atherosclerosis in SLE is therefore multifactorial. A better understanding of the interface of autoimmunity and atherogenesis in the context of SLE will benefit lupus patients and will also help us better understand the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in general.

Bruce IN. "'{Not} only...but also': factors that contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis and premature coronary heart disease in systemic lupus erythematosus." Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2005;44:1492-1502. Abstract

Premature coronary heart disease (CHD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Overall SLE patients have a 5-6-fold increased risk of CHD and this excess risk is especially pronounced in younger women where the excess risk may be {\textgreater}50-fold. Studies from our group and others have also demonstrated that SLE patients have a higher prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with controls, with approximately 30% having evidence of subclinical involvement. It is important to consider what factors may underlie this excess risk. We have found that certain 'classic' risk factors, i.e. hypertension and diabetes mellitus, are more prevalent in SLE and that persistent hypercholesterolaemia independently predicts patients who will develop CHD. These risk factors alone do not completely explain the excess risk observed, and after adjusting for classic risk factors SLE remains independently associated with both clinical and subclinical outcomes. Certain other metabolic changes also occur more frequently in SLE, namely premature menopause, renal impairment, high triglycerides and higher plasma homocysteine. In addition, insulin resistance is more pronounced in patients with SLE, and approximately 18% have the metabolic syndrome. It is also increasingly accepted that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition, and in SLE systemic complement activation as well as immune complex formation can result in changes that promote the development of atheroma. Similarly, autoantibody production, especially antibodies directed against lipoprotein subtypes and those in the antiphospholipid (APLA) family, are gaining increasing attention. The role of the latter are particularly controversial as different subtypes have been shown to both promote and protect against atherogenesis. In a study looking at carotid plaque in SLE, we found that APLA was independently associated with the presence of plaque; this study also found that patients with plaque had higher white cell counts, suggesting ongoing chronic inflammation. We have also noted a negative correlation between activation of transforming growth factor beta-1 and carotid intima-medial thickness. This cytokine, which is known to be a potent anti-inflammatory molecule, has also been shown to be protective against atherogenesis. With regard to therapy, steroids may be a true double-edged sword, with low doses exerting a beneficial anti-inflammatory role whereas higher doses may be detrimental through exacerbation of metabolic risk factors. In contrast, we have found that antimalarials have a beneficial effect on lipids especially when co-prescribed with steroids, and this, along with anti-inflammatory and proposed antiplatelet effects, may confer protection against CHD in lupus. The risk of premature CHD in SLE is therefore mediated by a number of factors that involve not only classic risk factors but also a range of factors associated with SLE itself. Preventative strategies will therefore need to address all potential risk factors of relevance. A more through understanding of the interplay between autoimmunity and atherogenesis should be possible by the study of SLE, and this may not only benefit lupus patients but also may have implications for our understanding of atherosclerosis in general.

BROWN GINA, WARREN MARY, Williams JE, Adam EJ, Coles JA. "Cranial computed tomography of elderly patients: an evaluation of its use in acute neurological presentations." Age and ageing. 1993;22:240-243. AbstractWebsite
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Brown ER, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, R W Nduati, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Comparison of CD4 Cell Count, Viral Load, and other markers for the prediction of mortality among HIV-1–Infected Kenyan pregnant women.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Background. There are limited data regarding the relative merits of biomarkers as predictors of mortality or time
to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Methods. We evaluated the usefulness of the CD4 cell count, CD4 cell percentage (CD4%), human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 (HIV-1) load, total lymphocyte count (TLC), body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin measured
at 32 weeks’ gestation as predictors of mortality in a cohort of HIV-1–infected women in Nairobi, Kenya. Sensitivity,
specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC)
were determined for each biomarker separately, as well as for the CD4 cell count and the HIV-1 load combined.
Results. Among 489 women with 10,150 person-months of follow-up, mortality rates at 1 and 2 years postpartum
were 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7%–3.4%) and 5.5% (95% CI, 3.0%–8.0%), respectively. CD4 cell count
and CD4% had the highest AUC value ( 0.9). BMI, TLC, and hemoglobin were each associated with but poorly
predictive of mortality (PPV, 7%). The HIV-1 load did not predict mortality beyond the CD4 cell count.
Conclusions. The CD4 cell count and CD4% measured during pregnancy were both useful predictors of mortality
among pregnant women. TLC, BMI, and hemoglobin had a limited predictive value, and the HIV-1 load did not
predict mortality any better than did the CD4 cell count alone.

Brown PM, Tompkins CV, Juul S, Sönksen PH. "Mechanism of action of insulin in diabetic patients: a dose-related effect on glucose production and utilisation." British Medical Journal. 1978;1:1239-1242. Abstract

Six insulin-requiring diabetics were studied after insulin had been withheld for 24 hours. On three separate occasions each received a two-hour infusion of insulin at a low dose (2.6 U/h) and a high dose (10.6 U/h) and an infusion of saline as control. The rates of production and utilisation of glucose were measured isotopically. The rate of fall of plasma glucose concentration was faster on the high-dose infusion of insulin than on the low, whereas the fall in plasma free fatty acids, glycerol, and keton bodies was the same on both insulin infusions. The mechanism whereby the two rates of insulin administration lowered plasma glucose concentration differed: during the low-dose infusion the decrease in the glucose concentration was produced entirely by a fall of hepatic glucose output, whereas during the high-dose insulin infusion the glucose concentration fell because both the rate of glucose production fell and the rate of glucose utilisation rose. In all experiments there was a direct relation between a fall in serum potassium concentration and the fall in plasma glucose concentration irrespective of the mechanism that reduced the glucose concentration.These results indicate that in uncontrolled diabetics low-dose insulin infusions lower the blood glucose concentration entirely by reducing glucose production from the liver and that the effect of insulin on potassium transport is independent of its effect on glucose uptake.

of the Broutet N, Fruth U DGSLRPSTIVTCCH 201. "Vaccines against sexually transmitted infections: the way forward." Vaccine. 2014;32(14):1630-7.
Brklacich, M. and Oucho JO. "Water, Health and Well-Being.". In: ibid.; 2001.
K
Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
B
Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. "Are Blind People More Likely to Accept Free Cataract Surgery? A Study of Vision-Related Quality of Life and Visual Acuity in Kenya." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17(1):41-49. Abstract

Purpose: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and visionrelated Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.
Methods: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.
Results: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.
Conclusion: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person’s decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

Brichon P, Bertrand Y, Plantaz D. "Burkitt's lymphoma revealed by acute intussusception in children.". In: Annales de chirurgie. Vol. 126.; 2001:. Abstract
n/a
Brian W, Ogeng’o J, Kirsteen A, Ongeti K, Gichambira G, Olabu Beda. "MORPHOMETRY OF OSTEODURAL BRIDGEAND THE MYODURAL BRIDGE OF THE RECTUS CAPITIS POSTERIOR MAJOR IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2016;5(2):735-740. Abstractmorphometry_of_osteodural_bridgeand_the_myodural_bridge_of_the_rectus_capitis_posterior_major_in_a_black_kenyan_population.pdfWebsite

The connective tissue between the rectus capitis posterior major and the cervical dura, popularly known
as the myodural bridge has been postulated to contribute to dural tension monitoring. It prevents dural
enfolding thus preventing stimulation of dural nociceptors which would result in cervicogenic headaches.
Its length may be an indicator of its effectiveness; however, determination of its length radiographically
is difficult. The osteodural bridge, the connective tissue between the axis and dura can be measured
radiographically. The aim of the study was therefore to determine if there is a relationship between their
lengths. Thirty formalin fixed cadavers were meticulously dissected at the department of Human
Anatomy, University of Nairobi, to expose the suboccipital triangle. The lengths of the bridges were
measured using a pair of digital vernier caliper. The data was recorded, coded and analyzed using
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. The means and standard deviations were
determined. Histograms and probability plots were generated to determine the normality of the data. A
Pearson’s correlation coefficient was generated to determine a correlation between the length of the
myodural bridge and osteodural bridge. Of the 30 cadavers dissected, all had the myodural bridge and
Osteodural bridge present. The mean length of the myodural bridge was 4.02+/- 0.395 mm. Mean length
of the osteodural bridge was 2.71 +/- 0.311 mm. There was a linear relationship of the equation y=1.02x
+ 1.26 (R2 =0.640). The length of the osteodural bridge may be used as a predictor of the myodural
bridge’s length.

Brezina R, Schramek S, Kazár J. "Selection of chlortetracycline-resistant strain of Coxiella burnetii." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):496.
Braun HMH, Mungai DN. "A new map of agroclimatic zones of Kenya.". 1983.
Braun JV, et al. "Property Rights for Poverty Reduction.". In: The Poorest And Hungry: Assessments, Analyses, And Actions. IFPRI; 2009.
Braun, David R; Plummer T; DP; FJMD; BLPRV; C;. "Oldowan behavior and raw material transport: perspectives from the Kanjera Formation.". 2008.
Brauch HG, Grin J, Mesjasz C, Behera NC, Chourou B, Spring UO, Liotta PH, Kameri-Mbote P. "‘Water and food security in the River Nile Basin: The perspectives of governments and NGOS of upstream countries.". In: Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concept. Berlin – Heidelberg – New York – Hong Kong – London – Milan – Paris – Tokyo: Springer-Verlag; 2008.
Bratzler DW, Hunt DR. "The surgical infection prevention and surgical care improvement projects: national initiatives to improve outcomes for patients having surgery." Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2006;43:322-330. Abstract

Among the most common complications that occur after surgery are surgical site infections and postoperative sepsis, cardiovascular complications, respiratory complications (including postoperative pneumonia), and thromboembolic complications. Patients who experience postoperative complications have dramatically increased hospital length of stay, hospital costs, and mortality rates. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has implemented the Surgical Infection Prevention Project to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with postoperative surgical site infections. More recently, the Surgical Care Improvement Project, a national quality partnership of organizations committed to improving the safety of surgical care, has been announced. This review will provide an update from the Surgical Infection Prevention Project and provide an introduction to the Surgical Care Improvement Project.

Bratusch-Marrain PR, Komajati M, Waldhausal W. "The effect of hyperosmolarity on glucose metabolism." Pract Cardiol.. 1985;11:153. Abstract
n/a
Brassier G, Morandi X, Fournier D, Velut S, Mercier P. "Origin of the perforating arteries of the interpeduncular fossa in relation to the termination of the basilar artery." Interventional Neuroradiology: Journal of Peritherapeutic Neuroradiology, Surgical Procedures and Related Neurosciences. 1998;4:109-120. Abstract

SUMMARY: We studied the perforating arteries of the interpeduncular fossa in 100 human brains which had previously been embalmed and injected with coloured intravascular neoprene latex. Three groups of perforating arteries were observed: the short interpeduncular arteries, a group of very fine arteries which can originate on every artery in the interpeduncular fossa and are destined to the cerebral peduncles and the oculomotor nerves (III); the diencephalic arteries, larger in diameter, most of which supply the mamillary bodies; only a few of them (one or two) penetrate the diencephalic floor and reach the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the anterior and medial thalamus; the diencephalic arteries are either individual branches of the PI segment of the posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) or stem from the same segment of the PCA via a trunk common to the mesencephalic arteries; the latter supply the mesencephalic area medial to the pars reticularis of the black substance. Our study focusses on where the diencephalic and mesencephalic arteries originate, based on how both anterior longitudinal neural arteries merged into a basilar artery in the embryo. When merging was symmetrical, whether in the early stages or later, the origins are more or less equally distributed; however, when merging was asymmetrical, the great majority of the perforating diencephalic and mesencephalic arteries stem from the P1 segment on the side that merged earliest (cranially).

Branthomme A, Bunning C, Kamerlaczyk S, Rodas R., Anyango SO, Situma C. Integrated Natural Resources Assessment Kenya: field manual . Rome: FAO; 2009.
Braitstein P, Siika A, Hogan J, Kosgei R, Sang E, Sidle J, Wools-Kaloustian K, Keter A, Mamlin J, Kimaiyo S. "A clinician-nurse model to reduce early mortality and increase clinic retention among high-risk HIV-infected patients initiating combination antiretroviral treatment." J Int AIDS Soc. 2012;15(1):7. Abstracta_clinician-nurse_model_to_reduce_early_mortality_and_increase_clinic_retention_among_high-risk_hiv-infected_patients_initiating_combination_antiretroviral_treatment.pdf

In resource-poor settings, mortality is at its highest during the first 3 months after combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) initiation. A clear predictor of mortality during this period is having a low CD4 count at the time of treatment initiation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on survival and clinic retention of a nurse-based rapid assessment clinic for high-risk individuals initiating cART in a resource-constrained setting.

Bragt JV. A Soga Ryōjin Reader. Muriuki W, ed. Nagoya, Japan: Chisokudō; 2017. Abstract
n/a
Brady JP, Wasunna AO, Bowker MH, Musoke RN. "Does the "Baby Cloche" heat shield keep low birth-weight infants warm?" East Afr Med J. 1992;69(1):37-9. Abstract

To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age.

Brady JP, Awan FB, Wafula EM, Onyango FE. "Recognition of illness in very young infants by inexperienced health workers.". 1993. Abstract

To determine whether inexperienced health workers can recognize severe infection in infants less than 3 months of age, a study was conducted of 200 infants with cough, fever or 'not feeling well'. The presence or absence of five symptoms: cough, difficulty in breathing, feeding problem, fever or history of convulsions, and ten signs: appearing ill, respiratory rate > or = 60/min, chest indrawing, grunting, cyanosis, wheeze, lethargy, 'too hot', 'too cold' or abdominal distension, were recorded by a health worker, who made a diagnosis of 'ill' or 'mildly ill'. Each infant was then reviewed by an experienced paediatrician who made a diagnosis of 'ill' (pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis or other severe illness) or 'mildly ill'. Using these diagnoses as the 'gold standard', the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of each parameter were calculated. In 89% of the 200 infants, the health worker made the correct diagnosis. Forty infants were admitted. In 36 instances (90%) the health worker made the correct decision. The most discriminating symptoms and signs were 'not feeding well', 'appears ill', chest indrawing and grunting. A respiratory rate > or = 60/min was 78% sensitive and 69% specific. Our study suggests that inexperienced health workers can recognize severe illness in infants under 3 months of age.

Brady JP, Awan FB, Wafula EM, Onyango FE. "Recognition of illness in very young infants by inexperienced health workers.". 1993. Abstract

To determine whether inexperienced health workers can recognize severe infection in infants less than 3 months of age, a study was conducted of 200 infants with cough, fever or 'not feeling well'. The presence or absence of five symptoms: cough, difficulty in breathing, feeding problem, fever or history of convulsions, and ten signs: appearing ill, respiratory rate > or = 60/min, chest indrawing, grunting, cyanosis, wheeze, lethargy, 'too hot', 'too cold' or abdominal distension, were recorded by a health worker, who made a diagnosis of 'ill' or 'mildly ill'. Each infant was then reviewed by an experienced paediatrician who made a diagnosis of 'ill' (pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis or other severe illness) or 'mildly ill'. Using these diagnoses as the 'gold standard', the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of each parameter were calculated. In 89% of the 200 infants, the health worker made the correct diagnosis. Forty infants were admitted. In 36 instances (90%) the health worker made the correct decision. The most discriminating symptoms and signs were 'not feeding well', 'appears ill', chest indrawing and grunting. A respiratory rate > or = 60/min was 78% sensitive and 69% specific. Our study suggests that inexperienced health workers can recognize severe illness in infants under 3 months of age.

Bowry TR;, Ojwang J;, Lumba M. "HBV infection: prevalence of core antibody and other markers in urban based, black school children in Kenya.". 1983. Abstract

This paper reports a study of 279 sera obtained from children attending five schools in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya which is situated in a non-malarious zone. Their ages ranged from six to 16 years. The surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was detected in 13 children (4.7%) including seven boys and six girls. The core and surface antibodies were measured by radioimmunoassay on 125 of the samples to study the pattern of infection in childhood and the interrelationships of different parameters of the infection. The core antibody by itself was observed in four children (3.2%). A total of 31 samples (24.8%) had both core and surface antibodies, 19 (15.2%) had only surface antibody. Thus, 48% of all school children tested had serological evidence of past exposure to the virus. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Bowa O. Kwach WSO, et al. "Spartial and Seasonal Variations in Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediment of Kisumu City Bay of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya." Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009;83(2009)(DOI 10.1007/s00128-009-9830-5):734-741.
Bowa O. "The Role of ICT Equipment, Connectivity and Access on Teaching and Learning in Education Institutions In Nairobi And Environs.". In: Pedagogical Integration of ICT in Education in Nairobi and Environs. Central Catering Unit, University of Nairobi; 2009.abstract_role_of_ict_impact.pdf

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