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A O. "Quality audit on Diagnosis of Pre eclampsia at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2011;41(2):45-49. Abstract

Background: Pregnancy and childbirth are usually a time of celebration in most parts of the world and is often marked with rituals in all societies. However this period of time can be the hardest of all experiences with anxiety and concern for some women. This is because a number of pregnant women end up with disabilities or even death due to pregnancy related complications. Pre eclampsia is one of the conditions that are responsible for maternal morbidity and mortality. Screening and monitoring in pregnancy are some of the strategies used by health care providers to identify high risk pregnancies so that they can provide more targeted and appropriate treatment and follow up care, and to monitor fetal well being in both low and high risk pregnancies.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify whether blood pressure and urinalysis are done for mothers seeking antenatal and delivery services at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital Eldoret.
Methods: A review of records at the antenatal, labor and delivery units at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital.
Findings: over 96% of women came for first visit and had their Blood Pressure taken, 48.7% of women came for the second visit and had their blood pressure taken, 17.8% of women came for the third visit and had their blood pressure taken and 5.6% of women came for the fourth visit and had their blood pressure taken . All women admitted to the labor ward had blood pressure measured and recorded. 40% of the women admitted to labor ward had urinalysis done.
Conclusion: Blood Pressure and urinalysis are key in the early diagnosis and management of Pre eclampsia and other hypertensive states in pregnancy. There is need that they are done as routine procedures.

A DRINDALOANNE. "Pharmacokinetics of oxamniquine in rabbit and rat.Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6.". In: 1: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of the schistosomicidal agent oxamniquine (6-hydroxmethyl-2-isopropylaminomethyl-7-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetra hydroquinoline) were studied in 8 (4 male, 4 female) New Zealand White rabbits and 5 female Wistar rats, following intravenous administration (15 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic parameters (mean +/- SD) in the rabbit and rat, respectively, were as follows: plasma clearance, 65.5 +/- 33 and 17.2 +/- 5.7 ml/min/kg; steady-state volume of distribution, 7.9 +/- 4.5 and 2.1 +/- 0.5 l/kg; terminal elimination half-life, 1.8 +/- 0.3 and 1.8 +/- 0.9 h. Oxamniquine appeared to be widely distributed in both species, although significantly higher in the rabbit. Similarly, plasma clearance was significantly higher in the rabbit. Using reported estimates of liver blood flow and fractions excreted unchanged in urine of the rabbit and rat, calculations based on blood clearances indicated that oxamniquine has a low hepatic extraction ratio (0.2) in the rat and an intermediate hepatic extraction ratio (0.6) in the rabbit. From separate experiments, however, hepatic extraction appeared to be low in the rabbit, suggesting that oxamniquine disposition is probably broadly similar in both rabbit and rat.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Chindia ML, Macigo FG.Pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12. Safety 2010; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga MA, Holt RD. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis and their relationship to social class amongst nursery-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40.". In: Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

A DROWILLAHFRANCIS. "Pattern and outcome of abdominal injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43. 1999; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the pattern and results of interventions in patients with abdominal injuries requiring admission. DESIGN: A descriptive, prospective, hospital-based study involving observation of patients from admission to final outcome of management as either discharged or deceased. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, from November 2004 to February 2005 in the adult general surgical wards. PATIENTS: Eighty consecutive admissions of adult patients with either blunt or penetrating abdominal injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type and cause of injury, demographic data, temporal parameters, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: The 80 patients had a male to female ratio of 12.3:1, the majority were in the third decade of life with a range 15-56 years and mean of 28.2 years. Penetrating to blunt abdominal injuries had 2:1 ratio with the leading causes of injury being stab wounds, gunshot wounds and road traffic accidents. Blunt abdominal injuries had a higher tendency to extra-abdominal injuries. Duration prior to presentation to hospital and surgery depended on severity of injury. Modes of management varied between attending surgical firms. There was a 20% change in the mode of management and a 16.1% rate of negative laparotomy. Penetrating injuries had a better interventional outcome. Penetrating abdominal injuries had higher rates of complications while the blunt injuries had higher rates of mortality. Overall, both the complication and mortality rates were 12.5%. Correlates of mortality included delay before surgery, associated injuries, need for blood transfusion, admission to intensive care unit and duration prior to admission. Abdominal injury patients stayed an average of 6.4 days with the blunt injuries with complications staying close to twice as much as their penetrating counterparts. CONCLUSION: Abdominal injuries are a predominantly male disease with the majority in the third decade of life. As opposed to previous studies, gunshot wounds are now a significant cause of abdominal injuries in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The rate-of negative laparotomies has come down by 10% over the past 15 years. The outcome of management depends on the severity and type, of injury sustained.
A N, GO O, C O. "The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound of the wrist and hand in the assessment of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis patients." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):3-7. Abstract

Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis is a
debilitating disease with accrual of joint damage during each flare of the disease that progresses to considerable functional disability. Early treatment is
thus aimed to achieve remission status so as to reduce the progression of joint
damage. Currently the disease activity parameter DAS28 (amongst others)
is used to define a remission status and thus demonstrate the efficacy
of a treatment regimen, however musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) is
proving to be superior at determining the amount of inflammation within joints by grading synovial hypertrophy and neo-vascularization of the
inflamed synovium. This article is thus intended to shed light on the usefulness of musculoskeletal ultrasound
both greyscale and Doppler in the determination of treatment response
in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Design: This article will elaborate
the importance and effectiveness of musculoskeletal ultrasound. Thus it will involve a discussion on the need for an effective tool to detect inflammatory activity, the ability of ultrasound to detect and grade the disease activity i.e.
being sensitive to change, the various scoring systems currently used, and
lastly a comparison of musculoskeletal ultrasound to other modalities and
clinical and serological evaluation. Data source and extraction:
Published studies, reviews and guidelines regarding the use of
musculoskeletal ultrasound of the wrist/hand in assessing treatment
response in rheumatoid arthritis patients were sourced through the
internet and library searches and the relevant data extracted. Conclusion:
status of the patient or a high initial ESR with significant serological and clinical
improvement, which will again not be portrayed in the DAS28 results. There may also be variability when assessing joints that are swollen or tender in between different examiners4. Moreover, there is a subset of
patients who still have disease progression despite achieving clinical remission status5.
  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and radiographic evaluation have also been used as adjuncts to clinical exam but both have their drawb

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Role of TGF-beta in normal human endometrium and endometiosis Human Reproduction 2010; 25(1):101-109.". In: journal.; 2010. Abstract

A mini review of contamination routes and limitations to effective control. Japanesegricultural Quarterly Journal 2010; 44 (1) 7-16.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1982) The general position paper for the coffee factories section of the Ministry of Agriculture. Government Working Paper (unpublished).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1982. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C. J., Obondo A. A., Kathuku D. M., and Ndetei D. M. (2001). Patterns of substance use among Kenya street Children.Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Vol. 12, no. 2: 154-150.". In: Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Vol. 12, no. 2: 154-150. International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Charles O. A. Omwandho, Thoma Dreyer, Renate Blutters-Sawatzki, Alfred Reiter, Hans R. Tinnerberg, Rainer M. Bohle. Management of stage I cervical sarcoma botryoides in childhood and adolescence.". In: European Journal of Pediatrics 163: 452 .; 2004. Abstract

Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcomas in childhood. The botryoid variant arises in infancy from the vagina or urinary bladder and extremely rarely from the uterine cervix. Treatment regimes range from local excision of the tumour to radical hysterectomy with adjuvant multidrug therapy and/or radiotherapy. In cases of minimal cervical invasion, the less invasive local excision in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy has resulted in excellent survival rates with complete functional preservation of the bladder, rectum, vagina, and ovaries. We present here a 30-year literature review and a case report of a cervical sarcoma botryoides in a 5-year-old girl. CONCLUSION: based on the literature review and our own observation, we recommend minor surgical approaches in combination with chemotherapy as the treatment of choice for early stage I cervical rhabdomyosarcoma. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Hall, AL., Falconer, J., Roberts, TK.: Elution and partial characterization of immunoglobulins bound to ovine placenta.". In: Immunology and Cell Biology 75: 231 .; 1997. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "Influence Of House Form On Dweller-Initiated Transformations In Urban Housing.". In: XXXIII IAHS World Congress On Housing At The University Of Pretoria, South Africa. University Of Pretoria, South Africa; 2005. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Maxillary obturator prosthesis rehabilitation following maxillectomy for ameloblastoma: case series of five patients. Int J Prosthodont. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(4):464-8.". In: Int J Prosthodont. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(4):464-8. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Nyamu, E.N., Masiga, M.A., Gathece, L.W., Mutara, L.N. Knowledge attitude and practices of care givers attending the Kenyatta N. Hospital MCH clinics towards oral health of their children. Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (3): 326 .". In: Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (3): 326 . University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Konrad L.1, Owmandho C.A.2 , von Hobe A.-K. 1, Sui C. 1, Kloeppels K1.,Hersemeyer K.1 Tinneberg H.-R 1 In proceedings of 14th World Congress of Gynecological Endocriology, ISGE. March 4-7, 2010, Firenza, Italy. 1 University of Giessen, Department of Gynec.". In: In proceedings of 14th World Congress of Gynecological Endocriology, ISGE. March 4-7, 2010, Firenza, Italy.; 2010. Abstract

Introduction: To establish  a model for investigationg endometrics in vitro, we analyzed several immortalized endometrial and endometriotic cell lines for typical biological functions. Especially transforming growth factor (TGF)-betas were investigated, because TGF-betas are increased during menstrual and endometriosis and seem to modulate effects of progesterone on endometrial cells primarily on secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).Methods: We used two stroma and one epithelial cell line from human endometrium and one stromal and three epithelial cell lines from endometrial patients. Protein secretion was quantitated with ELISAs and apoptosis determined with FACS analysis.Results: All cell lines secrete TGF-beta1, but interestingly the endometriotic cell lines secret considerably higher levels compared to normal endometrial cells. Of note,not the endometriotic cells secrete TGF-beta2. However, all cell lines only produce very slow levels of TGF-beta3. All cell lines could be stimulated by TGF-bata because they express high-affinity receptors TBR1 and TBR2. Treatment with TGF-betas reduced cell proliferation by innducing apoptosis, whereas TGF-beta1 more efficiently increased secretion of MMP2 compared to TGF0beta2. Progesterone reduced cell proliferation dose-dependent but induced secretion of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2. Interestingly TGF-beta3 was predominantly found in endothelial cells of patients with endometriosis.Conclusion: The results obtained with the endometrial and endometriotic celss lines are highly consistent with published data. For example TGF-beta1 is the predominant TGF-beta isoform in explant cultures as well as in endometriosis, followed by TGF-beta2 and very low levels of TGF-beta3. Our results convincingly demonstrate that cell lines are a suitable model for studying endometriosis.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. et al. (1985) The joint GOK/IDA/CDC/Smallholder Coffee Improvement Project supervision and review mission report. Report of findings submitted to the project steering committee.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Ngare D, Obondo A. A, Neema S, Oladimeji B.Y, Ndetei D, M, Chikovore J. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "S. Gruessner, C. A. Omwandho, V. Klingmueller, R. M., Bohle, H.-R Tinneberg. Cerebro and cardiovascular responses and oxygen consumption during prolonged hypoxia in fetal sheep. In Proceedings of the 15th World Congress on Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gyn.". In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 26: 449.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA, Tinneberg HR, Tumbo-Oeri AG, Roberts TK, Falconer J. Recurrent pregnancy losses and the role of immunotherapy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2000 Jul;264(1):3-12.". In: Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2000 Jul;264(1):3-12.; 2000. Abstract

Post implantation pregnancy losses are psychologically and economically stressful to the childbearing population. The etiology in the vast majority of cases is unknown but is partly thought to result from a break-down of the maternal tolerance to the fetoplacental unit. Immunologically based therapy remains controversial but no alternative therapy is available at the moment. This article reviews the conceived immunological basis of recurrent pregnancy losses, discussing the controversies arising, and recommending the use of intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIg, in well controlled experiments for further clinical trials.

A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Chindia ML, Macigo FG.Pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12. Safety 2010; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "NATURAL KILLER CELLS AND SELECTED ENZYME/ METABOLITE PROFILES IN HIV INFECTION AND PROGRESSION TO AIDS (Mecha, Ezekiel Onyonka. (MSc. Hons), UON.". In: M.Sc. Thesis.; 1989. Abstract

Abstract   Acquired immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of grave psychological and economic concern. It effects all sectors of the community namely education, military, health, transport and communication. To date, it is estimated that 40 million people are infected with the virus globally of which 28.5 million resides in Sub Saharan Africa   This study sought to evaluate the role of Natural killer cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. It

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Sociodemographic characteristic and clinic features among patients attending a private paediatric clinic in Nairobi, Kenya E.A Med. J. 2004: 8 ; 577 .". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry/Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, PO Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1990) An Investigation into the effect of Cultivator Design on seedbed preparation . Proceedings of the Annual Postgraduate Research Conference, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1990. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Mrumbi K, Obondo A.A, Rono R, Ngare D, & Ndetei D.M. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Daudi K. Langat(1), Pedro J. Morales(1), Charles O. Omwandho(2), Asgerally T. Fazleabas(3), Joan S. Hunt(1). Polymorphisms in Paan-AG promoter influences NF-kB binding and transcription activity in HEK293 cells. In Proceedings of the 39th Meeting of the S.". In: Biology of Reproduction. Special Issue, July 2006, pp 73, Abstract No. 13.; 2006. Abstract

1. University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas, KS 2. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya 3. University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL The human leukocyte antigen-G(HLA-G), a protein highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy, is thought to be critical for the survival of the semi-allogenic fetus. Current evidence suggests that HLA-G programs immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface into immunosuppressive phenotypes, but definitive proof remains elusive since the vivo experiments in humans are not possible due to ethical concerns. In the search for an appropriate animal model, we have identified the olive baboon (Papio anubis) as a potential candidate. The primate expresses an HLA-G-like protein termed Paan-AG n the placenta. Preliminary data shows that Paan-AG gene shares many characteristics with HLA-G, including limited polymorphism, alternative splicing of the mRNA, and restricted tissue expression of the protein. Restricted tissue expression suggested that the two genes might share tissue-specific regulatory elements. We previously identified a number of two Paan-AG alleles, 5'UTAG-1(AG1) and 5'UTAG-2(AG2). The objective of the current study was to assess binding of the transcription factor NF-kB to Paan-AG promoter activity. Both alleles contained two kB elements, kB1 and kB2. Binding was assessed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and functional activity using luciferase reporter assays. NF-kB bound both kB1 and kB2 elements in the AG1 allele. In contrast, only kB1 of the AG-2 allele bound to NF-kB; kB2 did not bind. The AG2 kB1. Mutagenesis studies showed that the difference in binding was due to two alleles also differed; AG2 consistently showed higher luciferase activity compared to AG1. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of kB1 resulted in an increase of luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results suggests that variations in the proximal promoter may influence transcription rates of Paan-AG as reported recently for HLA-G, and provide further evidence of the potential usefulness of the baboon as a model for in vivo HLA-G studies. Supported by NIH grant HD39878 (JSH)

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Tinneberg H.R., Tumbo Oeri AG., Roberts TK., Falconer J (2001): Immunological role of placenta, Blocking factors and NK Cells in the post implantation pregnancy.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 8: 2 .; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy to term. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS: A review of the literature on state of the art thinking among researchers and clinicians on recurrent spontaneous abortions is summarised. RESULTS: A large body of recently published data strongly suggest that a breakdown in immunological maternal-foetal interactions may lead to occasional or recurrent foetal loss. Immunoregulatory activities involving blocking antibodies, regulatory factors, immunological cells, hormones, structural proteins and cytokines constitute the pregnancy-sustaining network. CONCLUSION: The majority of the evidence reviewed points to the involvement of immunological factors in successful pregnancies. However, the underlying mechanisms are inadequately explained, are largely speculative and require more focused investigation. A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved would enhance our capacity to develop rational ways of addressing recurrent pregnancy losses.

A D, D O, E O. "Development of the roadmap and guidelines for the prevention and management of high blood pressure in Africa: Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting.". In: : Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting.; 2014. Abstract

Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The economic changes are associated with a health transition characterised by a rise in cardiovascular risk factors and complications, which tend to affect the African population at their age of maximum productivity. Recent data from Africa have highlighted the increasing importance of high blood pressure in this region of the world. This condition is largely underdiagnosed and poorly treated, and therefore leads to stroke, renal and heart failure, and death. Henceforth, African countries are taking steps to develop relevant policies and programmes to address the issue of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in response to a call by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to reduce premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by 25% by the year 2025 (25 × 25). The World Heart Federation (WHF) has developed a roadmap for global implementation of the prevention and management of raised blood pressure using a health system approach to help realise the 25 × 25 goal set by the WHO. As the leading continental organisation of cardiovascular professionals, the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) aims to contextualise the roadmap framework of the WHF to the African continent through the PASCAR Taskforce on Hypertension. The Taskforce held a workshop in Kenya on 27 October 2014 to discuss a process by which effective prevention and control of hypertension in Africa may be achieved. It was agreed that a set of clinical guidelines for the management of hypertension are needed in Africa. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a roadmap for implementation of the prevention and management of hypertension in Africa under the auspices of the WHF.

A MRKABURIAHF. "Study of the Microbiologigal quality of processed Kenyan honey. A preliminary report. Bull. Anim. Hlath. Prod. Afr. 1989. Special issue p. 203-206.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1989. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Oloowokere, JO., Makawiti, DW., Konji. VN., Omwandho, CA. Experimental Kwashiokor and Obesity: Differences in Energy Metabolism and relative Organ body weight Ratios.". In: International Journal of Biochemie Physics 1: 26 .; 1991. Abstract

Resting metabolic rates have been measured and compared with hepatic mitochondrial respiration in Kwashiorkor and diet-induced obese weaned rats. In Kwashiorkor, resting metabolic rate was 21% lower than the value of controls, while that of the obese rats was 14% higher than in control animals. The resting metabolic rate for Kwashiorkor animals was 50% of the predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR), whereas that of the obese rats was 23% higher than the predicted BMR. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption patterns, using malate plus glutamate or succinate as respiratory substrates, revealed that the resting respiration (state 4) was 23.9% higher in Kwashiorkor and 29.1% higher in obese animals, while the active (state 3) respiration was 34.8% lower in Kwashiorkor and 43.3% lower in obese rats compared to controls. The respiratory control ratios (RCR) were 51.1% and 43.8% in Kwashiorkor and obese rats, respectively, relative to the values in control rats. It is concluded from these studies that Kwashiorkor disease and diet-induced obesity appear to interfere with oxygen utilization at the level of state 3 mitochondrial respiration, which is markedly decreased when compared to the values for control animals.

A AS. Export Marketing: A Case Study of Handicraft Exporters. . Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 1988.
A MRSOMBOKMARGARET. "Business Plan, a manual for Higher Diploma in entrepreneurship ILO, UNDP.". In: The Kenya Times (Nairobi: November 27,1983), p.6. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) Some Engineering opportunities for the Sustainable Development of African Agriculture. Proceedings of the FAOE/IEK All African Engineers Conference, December,.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Rono R, Onem T, Kilonzo G, Ndetei D.M, Obondo A.A. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Daudi K Langat , Pedro J Morales , Charles O Omwandho , Asgerally T Fazleabas and Joan S Hunt, Polymorphisms in Paan-AG promoter influences NF-kB binding and transcription activity in HEK293 cells.". In: The Journal of Immunology 2007, 178: 42.12.; 2007. Abstract

HLA-G is a protein highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy. It is thought to be critical for the survival of the semi-allogenic fetus. The baboon (Papio anubis) expresses an HLA-G-like protein termed Paan-AG in the placenta, and may serve as a model for HLA-G studies. Paan-AG shares many characteristics with HLA-G, including alternative splicing of the mRNA and restricted tissue expression of the protein. Our hypothesis is that the two genes share similar regulatory mechanisms. The objective of the current study was to assess binding of the transcription factor NF- B to Paan-AG B elements and determine the effects of binding on Paan-AG promoter activity. We assessed two Paan-AG alleles each containing two B elements, B1 and B2. NF- B bound both B1 and B2 elements in the AG1 allele. In contrast, only B1 of the AG-2 allele bound to NF- B; B2 did not bind. Mutagenesis studies showed that the difference in binding was due to two nucleotide differences in the 3' end of B1. The functional activity of the two alleles also differed; AG2 consistently showed higher luciferase activity compared to AG1. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of B1 resulted in an increase of luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results suggest that variations in the proximal promoter may influence transcription rates of Paan-AG as reported recently for HLA-G, and provide further evidence of the potential usefulness of the baboon as a model for in vivo HLA-G studies.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Tumbo-Oeri AG, Omwandho CA. Cellular and molecular interactions in HIV infections: a review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):249-53. w.; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To review the cellular and molecular interactions between HIV and the host immune system that lead to full-blown AIDS. DATA SOURCES: Published reports on HIV/host interaction during a fifteen year period beginning from 1987. STUDY SELECTION: Only those studies involving humans and non-human primates were selected. The studies included original articles and state-of-the-art reviews covering in vivo and in vitro findings. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: This article presents a critical review of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HIV infection and their relationship to the onset of AIDS. CONCLUSION: HIV has elaborated diverse and somewhat complicated mechanisms for the subversion and evasion of the host immune defence strategies. These include escape through mutation, prolonged latency of the infection, masking of the viral envelope proteins, down-regulation of MHC-I and up-regulation of the Fas-ligand on infected cell surfaces. This review enhances our understanding of HIV/AIDS disease and presents a basis on which management strategies could be developed.

A MRKABURIAHF. "On-Farm cross-section Survey for bovine Fascilosis in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (1997). 45: 251-157.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, August 30th-31st, 2000. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1997. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A PKARANIFLORIDA. "Capacity Building and Women Empowerment, Towards realization of Kenya Vision 2030”: .". In: the Kenya Public Service Week . Kenyatta International Conference Center (KICC) ; 2009.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Konji, VN., Makawiti, DW., Kiaira, JK., Omwandho, CA., Oloowokere, JO. Defects in respiration in mitochondria isolated from liver of goats infected with Trypanosoma Congolense.". In: International Journal of Biochemie Physics 2: 152 .; 1993. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

and A TSR. "Ulimwengu wa Kanga." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2016;5:195-203.
A PROFODHIAMBOJACK. "Understanding Philosophy: A text for science based students of Philosophy - 1993.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
A DRINDALOANNE. "Pharmacokinetics of temazepam in male surgical patients.East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):483-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):483-5. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1995. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of temazepam, the 3-hydroxy1 derivative of diazepam, were studied in nine male surgical patients (age: 28-57 years; weight: 55-87 kg) who had ingested single 40 mg doses, 4 hours prior to minor surgical procedures. Peak plasma temazepam concentrations were achieved rapidly (within 1 h post drug administration) and the estimated volume of distribution (mean: 1.13 1/kg), total clearance (mean: 1.6 ml/min/kg) and terminal elimination half-life (mean: 8 hours) were comparable to previously reported values in healthy subjects. There was no correlation between volume of distribution and either weight or age, and between clearance and age. These findings are broadly consistent with previous reports from studies in healthy subjects. Temazepam can therefore be used as a premedicant in patients requiring minor surgery; the concomitant anaesthetic agents administered and the surgical procedures have no effects on temazepam pharmacokinetics
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "W Odhiambo, Guthua SW, Saoke P. One Bullet Story: Public Health Consequences of Small arms injuries: The role of public health in the prevention of war related injuries, June, 2004. www.ippnw.org. W Odhiambo, HIV/AIDS and debt crises; Threat to Human Surv.". In: Int J Prosthodont. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(4):464-8. IPPNW; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Shitanda, D., Mutuli, D.A. and Odongo, F. (1994) Indigenous Vegetable Oils in Kenya as a Diesel Fuel . In Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN. "Abdulreshid A. B, Ndetei D.M, Mburu J.M, Obondo A.A, Kokonya D,.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans Rudolf Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN A MULTI-HEAD MAGIC BULLET?". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract
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A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "S. Gressner, C. A. Omwandho, V. Klingmueller, R. M. Bohle (2004): Effect of intermittent uterine occlusion on hemodynamic changes in pre-term and near term ovine twin fetuses .". In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 24:341.; 2004. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A MRNYANDEGAISAIAH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., Nyandega, I.A. and Ochola-Ayayo, AB.C., 2001: Farming in TseTse Controlled Areas: A household Survey of Selected Districts in Western Kenya. A consultancy Report for FITCA-Kenya Project, October, 2001, Nairobi Kenya.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
A MRKABURIAHF. "Participatory validation of medicinal plants used to treat livestock diseases by pastoralists of Kenya: A case of Samburu and Turkana pastoralists.". In: Proceedings of The First National Workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other under utilized plant species in Kenya held on 29th October to 3rd November 2001 at Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2001. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Makawiti DW, Konji VN, Omwandho CA and Olowookere JO. Altered 3,5,3.". In: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 65, 132-136.; 1995. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A DRRAJABJAMILLA. "Safe blood transfusion module 4 STI control and prevention manual for postgraduate diploma.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Mar;82(3):123-7. VDM Verlag; 1999. Abstract
Rajab J.A. Unit 4: Safe blood transfusion module 4 STI control and prevention manual for postgraduate diploma in the control and management of sexually transmitted infections by distance learning. Ministry of Health and the Belgian Development Cooperation, 1999.
A DRINDALOANNE. "Kokwaro GO, Indalo AA.Oxamniquine inhibits metabolism of caffeine, hexobarbitone and antipyrine in vivo in mice. Afr J Health Sci. 1996 Aug;3(3):105-8.". In: 1: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
Inhibition of hepatic metabolism of caffeine (as assessed from expiration of (14)CO(2) resulting from N-demethylation of (14)C-labelled caffeine), hexobarbitone (as assessed from sleeping times) and antipyrine (as assessed from expiration of I4CO2 resulting from the oxidation of "C-labelled antipyrine) was studied in male GB-1 mice administered a single SO mg kg-1 oral dose of the schistosomicidal drug oxamniquine. Metabolism of caffeine, catalysed by cytochrome P-4S0 1A2(CYP1A2), was inhibited most, while hexobarbitone and antipyrine metabolism were inhibited to a lesser, though significant, degree. These results indicate a need for further studies to investigate possible clinically relevant inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism by oxamniquine.
A K, CA MOTURI. A Framework for Knowledge Management of Wildlife Research in Kenya. KICC, Nairobi, Kenya: AIBUMA; 2011.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "F.G.F Hugenberg, W.A Odhiambo A. Mwita and D. Opondo:Firearm injuries in Nairobi, Kenya; Who pays the Price? Journal of Public Health Policy 2007, 28: 4.410.". In: Journal of Public Health Policy. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Muriithi, H., Masiga, M.A., Chindia, M.L. Paediatric dental injuries at Kenyatta N. Hospital.(EAMJ 82: 592-597).". In: (EAMJ 82: 592-597). University of Nairobi.; 1982. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho1 , Lutz Konrad 2, Gulden Halis3,4, Frank Oehmke 2 and Hans-Rudolf Tinneberg 2 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi,Nairobi, Kenya. 2Department of Gynecology ond Obstetrics, klinskstr. 32, 35392 Giessen, Germany 3Fertili.". In: http://biochem.uonbi.ac.ke/sites/default/files/chs/medschool/biochem/Role%20of%20FGF-Bs%20in%20normal%20human%20endometrium%20and%20endometriosis1.doc.; 2009. Abstract
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1981) Draft proposals for the practical training programme for graduate engineers serving the coffee industry in the Ministry of Agriculture . Government Working Paper (unpublished)Mutuli, D.A. (1982).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1981. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE. "Obondo, A. A. & Dhadphale, M., (1990): .". In: East African Medical Journal Vol. 67 No. 2, February 1990, pp.100-8. International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 1990. Abstract
The problem of school non-attendance is an increasing one in our setting and yet its cause has not been established. This paper presents data of work done through interviews with parents and observations of the home environments of the sample cases in attempt to establish factors associated with school non-attendance. After the initial interviews, the children were seen periodically for follow-ups, usually at two to three monthly intervals for at least one year, by the team which consisted of a consultant psychiatrist, a clinical psychologist, a paediatric registrar and a psychiatric social worker. Out of the ten cases sampled for the study, nine were of school phobia and one of conduct disorder (truancy). Generally, family characteristics significantly associated with school non-attendance in this study were neuroticism in parents, unstable family relationships occasioned by marital discord, parental expectations of high academic performance by the child and, to some extent, poverty. The common management approaches used were family therapy, counselling and anti-depressant pharmacotherapy.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Gruessner S 1, Omwandho C. A. O. 1, V. Klingmueller 2, Bohle R. 3, Tinneberg H.R 1. 2D .". In: Ultrasound in Medicine 2004 Okt; Vol 25 (Suppl 1).; 2004. Abstract

1 Universit

A MRKABURIAHF. "An assessment of the presence of Escherichia coli in the roof-collected rain water from some areas around Nairobi. The Kenya veterinarian 27: 97-102.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2004. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA. Ovine placental Immunoglobulins: purification, partial characterization and some in vitro Biological Activities.". In: Ph.D Thesis - 1996.; 1996. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "Influence Of House Form On Dweller-Initiated Transformations In Urban Housing.". In: International Journal For Housing Science and its Applications. University Of Pretoria, South Africa; 2006. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "W Odhiambo, Guthua SW, Saoke P. One Bullet Story: Public Health Consequences of Small arms injuries: The role of public health in the prevention of war related injuries, June, 2004. www.ippnw.org. W Odhiambo, HIV/AIDS and debt crises; Threat to Human Surv.". In: Int J Prosthodont. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(4):464-8. IPPNW; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
A DRINDALOANNE. "Antibiotic sale behaviour in Nairobi: a contributing factor to antimicrobial drug resistance.East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):171-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):171-3. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1997. Abstract

A survey of antibiotic sale behaviour in retail chemist shops in Nairobi revealed that about 64% of chemists sell antibiotics without prescriptions from doctors. Most shops sold underdose drugs according to the request of the patient. The practice is more common in peri-urban than city centre chemists. Out of the 128 chemist shops visited, 82 sold the antibiotic, 33 sent the patients to go and see the doctors while 13 did both. Sixty eight per cent of the chemists in the city centre recommended the taking of full antibiotic course to the patients while only 46% in peri-urban centres did so. Even after the recommendation, some of the chemists still sold under dose drugs. Some of the drugs were sold in envelopes without any instruction at all and none of the drugs sold were fully labelled. Only seven chemists sold septrin, the brand of co-trimoxazole requested by the patients, the rest sold various brands of the drug some of whom still labelled the brands 'septrin'.

A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "2. Odhiambo WA, Muchai A and Njuguna P The Health Cost assessment of Firearm Injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital , Nairobi.(Abstract accepted for the 10th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, London sept 2010).". In: BOOK. Safety 2010; 2010. Abstract

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Demographic characteristics of patients attending for surgical treatment of unerrupted canines. Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2002; 3 (2): 129 .". In: Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2002; 3 (2): 129 . University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A S, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infection in indigenous chicken in Eastern Province of Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2011. Abstract

Livestock Research for Rural Development 23 (11) 2011

Prevalence of haemoparasites infection in indigenous chicken in Eastern Province of Kenya
Z A Sabuni, P G Mbuthia*, N Maingi*, P N Nyaga*, L W Njagi*, L C Bebora* and J N Michieka
Ministry of Livestock Development, Kabete,
P.O Box Private Bag, Kangemi, Kenya
alexsabuni@yahoo.com
* Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi
P.O Box 29053-00625 Nairobi Kenya

Abstract
Indigenous chickens constitute over 81% of poultry in Kenya and produce 71% of eggs and poultry meat. Ecto- and haemoparasites limit production of these birds in the rural areas. However, there exists scanty information on these parasites infection in indigenous chicken. This study was conducted to determine and document the type and prevalence of haemoparasites affecting different ages and sex groups of free range indigenous chicken from two agro ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower Midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District in Eastern Province, Kenya.

Of the 144 birds examined, 79.2% were infected with haemoparasites, with 62.3% single and 37.7% mixed haemoparasitic infections. Plasmodium gallinaceum was the most prevalent haemoparasite (53.5%) followed by Leucocytozoon schoutedeni (52.1%) and Hemoproteus spp., (3.5%). Grower birds had a prevalence of 83.3% for haemoparasites compared to 81.3% of adults, and 72.9% of chicks (p> 0.05). Male birds had 83.3% prevalence, while female birds had 75.0% (p> 0.05). LH1 was found to have a slightly high prevalence of 81.9% compared to LM5, 76.4% (p> 0.05). Hemoproteus spp were isolated in chickens from LH1 but not from LM5. This study has documented a high prevalence of haemoparasites, hence further studies to determine the impact of infection on the health and productivity of these birds, and evaluation of cost benefit of various control strategies need to be undertaken.
Key words: Age, agro-ecological zones, free range, sex

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. OMWANDHO(1)and Takayuki KUBOTA(2) 1. Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi (P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya) 2.Department of Drug Formulation Development, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agricultural and Food Research.". In: Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly (JARQ Vol. 44 No. 1, 2020).; 2010. Abstract

Salmonellosis is assocciated with massive public health and economic losses globally. It is estimated to cost poultry farmers in the United States of America up to US$114 million annually. Attempts to develop effective vaccines and eradicate Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) from hen hopuses are undermined by serios limitations. This article reviews documnet contamination routes and limitations on the rapid development of vaccines. Host-parasite interactions and clinical pathology are discussed and methods for reducing S. Enteritidis infection and transmission suggested.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1985) Mechanical drying of Arabien Coffee . Proceedings of the Annual Coffee Seminar, Eldoret, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE. "Obondo A.A, and Mwanda O. W., (2004): .". In: Review article, MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13 . International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among leprosy patients in western Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Busia and Teso districts in western Kenya. SUBJECTS: A sample of 152 male and female, adult leprosy patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (PM) was 53.29%. The PM was positively correlated with physical disability and marital status but not with age, sex, education, type of leprosy, or duration of the illness. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among Kenyan leprosy patients compared to studies carried out in India (56% to 78%). It was high compared to the rate of psychiatric morbidity in those seeking medical help in primary health care centres in Kenya, which was recently estimated to be 10%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PM in leprosy patients in western Kenya was lower than that in studies carried out in India. This could be attributed to de-institutionalisation and re-integration of leprosy sufferers back into their local communities. Since the rate was more than double that in the general Kenyan population and seemed to be related to presence of physical disability, an appraisal of psychiatric services offered to these patients is needed.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Gruessner S, Omwandho C, Klingnueller V, Tinneberg HR. Partielle unde komplette Reduktion de uterinen Perfusion beim Schaffeten .". In: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sept 2004, Vol 270 (Suppl 1): S10.; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "John M.Muchiri, Charles O. A. Omwandho, Aloys G. Tumbo-Oeri, Emmanuel O. Wanga, Timothy K. Roberts, and Hans R. Tinneberg (2000). Purification and partial characterization of goat placental IgG: a possible model for the study of human maternal foetal inte.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 7: 136 .; 2000. Abstract

Post implantation pregnancy losses are psychologically and economically stressful to the childbearing population. The etiology in the vast majority of cases is unknown but is partly thought to result from a break-down of the maternal tolerance to the fetoplacental unit. Immunologically based therapy remains controversial but no alternative therapy is available at the moment. This article reviews the conceived immunological basis of recurrent pregnancy losses, discussing the controversies arising, and recommending the use of intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIg, in well controlled experiments for further clinical trials.

A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "Control Of Energy In Offices In Nairobi: A Study Of Fenestration In A Tropical Highland Climate.". In: Architecture, Energy And Environment: Tools For Climatic Design, 1998. Lund Centre for Habitat Studies. Lund University; 1998. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "F.G.F Hugenberg, W.A Odhiambo A. Mwita and D. Opondo:Firearm injuries in Nairobi, Kenya; Who pays the Price? Journal of Public Health Policy 2007, 28: 4.410.". In: Journal of Public Health Policy. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
A WG, D. A, O. AA, GN K, I.N M, J.K M. "Kinetics and Isothermal Studies of Lambda Cyhalothrin Sorption on eburru Soils in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2017;10(1):24-34.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga MA. Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical features among patients attending a private paediatric dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1988)Infiltrating solar collectors for crop drying . Proceedings of the Annual Postgraduate Research Conference, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1988. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Obondo A.A, Ndetei D.M, Rono R, & Ngare D. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Mecha EO 1, Mukuria JC 1 , Foglia G 2 and Omwandho C.A.O 1. NATURAL KILLER CELLS, CD4+/CD8+ CELL RATIOS AND SELECTED LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTION ENZYME AND METABOLITE LEVELS IN HIV INFECTION AND PROGRESSION TO AIDS.". In: In Proc. 16th World AIDS conference, August 2006, Toronto, Canada.; 2006. Abstract

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus is currently estimated to have infected 40 million people globally, 28.5 million of whom reside in sub Saharan Africa. It has affected all sectors of society. Identification of indices associated with clinical progression of HIV to AIDS would facilitate development of effective management strategies. We evaluated the relationship between Natural killer, N cell counts to CD4+/CD8+ cell rations during HIV infection and clinical progression to AIDS and measured with activities of selected liver and kidney function enzymes and metabolites with the view of determining the cause of anaemia in AIDS patients. Methods: Blood samples (10mls) were drawn twice by veni-puncture at six months intervals from 17 anti-retroviral na

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Peters, C., Falconer, J., Roberts, T.k., and Tumbo-Oeri, A. G. (2001): Is placental IgG toxic to natural killer cells?". In: In Proceedings of The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/South African Societies for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Special meeting on the .; 2001. Abstract

In Proceedings of The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/South African Societies for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Special meeting on the "Biochemical and Molecular Basis of Disease" Cape Town, South Africa (19th to 23rd November 2001. Abstract No. P155.

A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "2. Odhiambo WA, Muchai A and Njuguna P The Health Cost assessment of Firearm Injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital , Nairobi.(Abstract accepted for the 10th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, London sept 2010).". In: BOOK. Safety 2010; 2010. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Okello, G. B. A. and Tumbo-Oeri, AG. Effects of Albendazole therapy on leukocyte counts in hydatid patients .". In: In: Proceecngs of the 11th KEMRI/KETRI Scientific. Conference. Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract

Resting metabolic rates have been measured and compared with hepatic mitochondrial respiration in Kwashiorkor and diet-induced obese weaned rats. In Kwashiorkor, resting metabolic rate was 21% lower than the value of controls, while that of the obese rats was 14% higher than in control animals. The resting metabolic rate for Kwashiorkor animals was 50% of the predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR), whereas that of the obese rats was 23% higher than the predicted BMR. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption patterns, using malate plus glutamate or succinate as respiratory substrates, revealed that the resting respiration (state 4) was 23.9% higher in Kwashiorkor and 29.1% higher in obese animals, while the active (state 3) respiration was 34.8% lower in Kwashiorkor and 43.3% lower in obese rats compared to controls. The respiratory control ratios (RCR) were 51.1% and 43.8% in Kwashiorkor and obese rats, respectively, relative to the values in control rats. It is concluded from these studies that Kwashiorkor disease and diet-induced obesity appear to interfere with oxygen utilization at the level of state 3 mitochondrial respiration, which is markedly decreased when compared to the values for control animals.

A KJM, CM M, JD M, J W. "A Retrospective Study of Canine Ehrlichiosis in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3(3):122-124.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Presenting chief complaints and clinical characteristics among patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. (accepted December 2005, EAMJ).". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):652-5. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the chief complaints and clinical presentation among patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UONDH). DESIGN: A retrospective survey of hospital records. SETTING: The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients who attended the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic during a three year period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Chief complaint, dental caries, gingivitis, traumatic injuries, treatment at first visit. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, including 391 male and 400 female. The average age of the patients was 9.0 years. The presenting complaint for most patients was dental pain (31.5%), orthodontic related complaints (25.4%) and dental decay (19.7%). Very few children attended for dental check-up (3.9%). Five hundred ninety (73.8%) children suffered from dental caries, while 275 (34.4%) children manifested gingivitis. The average number of teeth decay was 3.71 (SD+/-3.76). Only 51 (6.4%) children attended with traumatic injuries to the dentition. Treatment performed at the first visit mainly consisted of dental extractions (21.8%), oral prophylaxis and dental health education (20.5%) and restorative treatment (20.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The presenting complaint for most patients was pain. However, there was an almost equal demand for orthodontic treatment. Dental caries was the most prevalent dental disease. Oral prophylaxis and dental health education (DHE) constituted a significant component of treatment offered at first visit.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Marenya, M.O., Kaumbutho, P.G., Mutuli, D.A. and Kamau J.N. (1993) Simulation of the Materials Handling Systems in a Sugarcane Mill Yard - A case study . Paper accepted for publication in the AMA Journal.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Mrumbi K, Rono R, Ngare D, Obondo A.A, Olademije Y, & Ndetei D.M. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA, Gruessner SE, Falconer J, Tumbo-Oeri AG,Mala G, Mecha E,Tinneberg HR, Roberts TK. Ovine placental eluate immunoglobulins recognise isologous and third party acid-treated trophoblast microvesicle antigens in vitro.". In: J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2006 Mar;77(1):24-7.; 2006. Abstract

Placental microvesicles were prepared from ovine placentae and immunoglobulins eluted with 0.5 M glycine buffer pH 2.5. The ability of eluate immunoglobulins to re-associate with isologous (self) and third party acidified microvesicles was tested by ELISA. Ovine placental immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles suggesting that at least 2 types of antigenic epitopes I and II maybe expressed on the ovine placentae. Type I antigens may be present on placentae of all ovines while type II epitopes may be paternally derived, hence unique to each pregnancy. Analysis by SDS PAGE revealed the heavy and light chains of IgG at 57 and 27 kDa, respectively, together giving a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa. Results suggest that immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the trophoblast, possibly defining a mechanism by which the foetus evades maternal immunological rejection.

A A’oD, J.O O, M H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya:." The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya. 2017;6(3):1-10.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Tumbo-Oeri AG, Omwandho CA, Muchiri JM. Possible immunological basis for recurrent spontaneous abortions: a review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Nov;78(11):586-9. .; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy to term. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS: A review of the literature on state of the art thinking among researchers and clinicians on recurrent spontaneous abortions is summarised. RESULTS: A large body of recently published data strongly suggest that a breakdown in immunological maternal-foetal interactions may lead to occasional or recurrent foetal loss. Immunoregulatory activities involving blocking antibodies, regulatory factors, immunological cells, hormones, structural proteins and cytokines constitute the pregnancy-sustaining network. CONCLUSION: The majority of the evidence reviewed points to the involvement of immunological factors in successful pregnancies. However, the underlying mechanisms are inadequately explained, are largely speculative and require more focused investigation. A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved would enhance our capacity to develop rational ways of addressing recurrent pregnancy losses.

A PKARANIFLORIDA. "Opportunities and Constraints in teacher training: Primary versus Secondary Education levels.". In: Consultative Workshop on Coordination of primary teacher training and University education.; 2009.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Olowookere JO, Konji VN, Makawiti DW, Kiaira JK, Kamau JM, Omwandho CA. Defects in resting metabolic rates and mitochondrial respiration in Kwashiorkor and dietary obese rats.". In: J Comp Physiol [B]. 1991;161(3):319-22.; 1991. Abstract

Resting metabolic rates have been measured and compared with hepatic mitochondrial respiration in Kwashiorkor and diet-induced obese weaned rats. In Kwashiorkor, resting metabolic rate was 21% lower than the value of controls, while that of the obese rats was 14% higher than in control animals. The resting metabolic rate for Kwashiorkor animals was 50% of the predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR), whereas that of the obese rats was 23% higher than the predicted BMR. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption patterns, using malate plus glutamate or succinate as respiratory substrates, revealed that the resting respiration (state 4) was 23.9% higher in Kwashiorkor and 29.1% higher in obese animals, while the active (state 3) respiration was 34.8% lower in Kwashiorkor and 43.3% lower in obese rats compared to controls. The respiratory control ratios (RCR) were 51.1% and 43.8% in Kwashiorkor and obese rats, respectively, relative to the values in control rats. It is concluded from these studies that Kwashiorkor disease and diet-induced obesity appear to interfere with oxygen utilization at the level of state 3 mitochondrial respiration, which is markedly decreased when compared to the values for control animals.

A PROFODHIAMBOJACK. "Inter-rational faculties relationships (rational ethnics) an anstotelian - thomistic analysis - 1992.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1992. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
A DRINDALOANNE. "Premedication with temazepam in minor surgery. The relationship between plasma concentration and clinical effect after a dose of 40 mg.Anaesthesia. 1989 Oct;44(10):812-5.". In: Anaesthesia. 1989 Oct;44(10):812-5. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1989. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Macigo FG, Akama MK.Maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist bomb attack in Nairobi, Kenya.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Aug;31(4):374-7.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Aug;31(4):374-7. IPPNW; 2002. Abstract

Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) Agricultural Mechanization in Kenya: A Review of Policies and Strategies to date . In Proceedings International Conference August, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE. "Obondo A.A, Mbewe E, Marokinyo O, .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Langat DK, Morales PJ, Omwandho CO, Fazleabas AT. Polymorphisms in the Paan-AG promoter influence NF-kappaB binding and transcriptional activity.". In: Immunogenetics. 2007 May;59(5):359-66.; 2007. Abstract

The human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene encodes a protein that is highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy and may be critical to the survival of the semiallogenic fetus. A unique feature of this gene is a 13-bp deletion in the proximal promoter that renders it unresponsive to transactivation by the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). We previously showed that the proximal promoter of Paan-AG, the functional homologue of HLA-G in the olive baboon (Papio anubis), is intact. We cloned the promoters of two putative Paan-AG alleles (AG1 and AG2) and identified a number of regulatory elements including two kappaB sites. In the current study, binding and activity of the two kappaB elements in each putative allele were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. Functional activity was determined using luciferase reporter assays. The kappaB1 and kappaB2 elements in AG1 bound NF-kappaB with similar affinity. In contrast, the kappaB1 element of AG2 bound NF-kappaB with a much higher affinity than AG-1 kappaB1 (a 30-fold increase), whereas kappaB2 did not bind. Mutagenesis analysis showed that the difference in binding intensities was due to two nucleotides in the 3' end of kappaB1. Similarly, failure of AG2 kappaB2 binding was a result of the last nucleotide in the 3' end that differed from the consensus; mutating this nucleotide to match the consensus reestablished binding. Functional activity of the two putative alleles also differed; AG1 luciferase activity was consistently lower than that of AG2. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of AG1 kappaB1 resulted in increased luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results show that in vitro variations in the promoter region may influence transcription of Paan-AG.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Gruessner S, Omwandho C, Klingm.". In: In Proceedings of 55th Congress of German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics: 14-17 Sept 2004, Hamburg, Germany.; 2004. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A MRNYANDEGAISAIAH. "Mosi. R.O. and Nyandega, I.A.: Farming in the Tsetse Controlled Areas: A Veterinary census of Selected Districts in Western Kenya. A Consultancy Report for FITCA-Kenya, October 2001, Nairobi Kenya.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
A MRKABURIAHF. "Influence of PH and usefulness of buffered diluents on the recovery of microorganisms from the honey.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, August 30th-31st, 2000. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2000. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho C. A., Peters, C., Falconer, J., Roberts TK (1994): Sheep placental IgG inhibits human Natural killer cell cytotoxicity.". In: In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of .; 1994. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A DRRAJABJAMILLA. "Mwanda WO, Rajab JA. Granulocytic sarcoma: report of three cases.East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):594-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):594-6. VDM Verlag; 1999. Abstract
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is a rare extramedullary solid tumour composed of malignant immature cells of the granulocytic series. It may herald, accompany or signal acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or chronic granulocytic leukaemia (CGL). GS may also occur in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) where it is a sign of imminent disease progression. Three cases of GS are presented; the first one involving the pancreas and preceding AML, the second case affecting uterine cervix in stable phase CGL and the third case is GS of the breast accompanying AML. Any site of the body may be involved by the GS, and morbidity depends on the local organ/tissue affected in addition to the attending primary leukaemia or MDS. Treatment of GS involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The objective of this communication is to enhance awareness in personnel providing health care. Further, early diagnosis and treatment affects overall outcome.
A DRINDALOANNE. "Kokwaro GO, Indalo AA.Effect of route of administration on systematic availability of oxamniquine in the rabbit. Afr J Health Sci. 1996 Aug;3(3):101-4.". In: 1: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
Eight New Zealand white rabbits (4 females, 4 males) each received oxamniquine (15 mg kg(-1)) orally, rectally, intravenously and via the hepatic portal vein in a random cross-over study. Serial plasma samples were obtained for up to 10 hours post drug administration and the bioavailable fraction was calculated, with reference to the intravenous route, from areas under plasma drug concentration-time profiles. Estimated fractions available were approximately 1.0, 0.45 and 0.46 respectively, for portal vein, oral and rectal routes. Hepatic "first-pass" metabolism appeared to be negligible. Low oral availability suggested incomplete absorption and/or metabolism within gastrointestinal wall. Rectal administration resulted in comparable availability to oral administration. These results suggest that if a suitable formulation can be developed, then rectal administration of oxamniquine may provide an alternative to oral administration in patients who cannot take drug orally.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "D.E. Zavala, S. Bokongo, A.J Ime, I.M Senoga, R.E Mtonga, A.Z Mohammed, W.A. Odhiambo and P. Olupot Olupot; A Multinational Injury Surveillance System Pilot Project in Africa; 2007, 28: 4.431.". In: JPHP. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Obondo A.A, Ngare D, Ndetei D.M, Mbewe E, Marakinyo O, Rono R, Addo S.A .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1980). Design of a solar supplemented continuous flow dryer for coffee . Third year design project dissertation. University of Nairobi (unpublished).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1980. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Jaeger M, Grussner SE, Omwandho CO, Klein K, Tinneberg HR, Klingmuller V. Cranial Sonography for Newborn Screening: A 10 year retrospective Study in 11, 887 Newborns.[Article in German].". In: Rofo. 2004 Jun;176(6):852-8. [Article in German].; 2004. Abstract

We retrospectively analyzed the results of a sonographic cranial screening study, performed between 1985 and 1994 to determine the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral anomalies based on obstetrical risk factors. In the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University Giessen, Giessen, Germany, 94.6 % (n = 11,887) of all children born during the study period were included and underwent sonographic cranial screening within the first 10 days after birth. Cerebral abnormalities were found in 653 (= 5.5 %) cases, and peri-/intraventricular hemorrhages (PIVH, grade I-IV) in 303 cases. Periventricular leucomalacia, porencephaly, subarachnoidal hemorrhage and hydrocephaly were rare (

A MRKABURIAHF. "Efficiency of Myrsine africana, albizia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosao herbal remedies against mixed natural sheep helminthsosis in Samburu district, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2004) 91: 7-12.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2004. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Falconer, J., Roberts TK. Re-association of human and ovine placental eluate immunoglobulins with acidified trophoblast vesicles .". In: American journal of Reproductive Immunology.; 1996. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "A Manual For Organized Self-Help Densification Of Eastlands.". In: International Course Of Organized Self-Help Housing Planning & Development. Housing Development & Management, Lund University, Sweden.; 2005. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Macigo FG, Akama MK.Maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist bomb attack in Nairobi, Kenya.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Aug;31(4):374-7.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Aug;31(4):374-7. IPPNW; 2002. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
A 8. TSR &. "Ulimwengu wa Kanga." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2016;5(2224-1655):195-203 .
A DRINDALOANNE. "Steady-state anticonvulsant drug levels in epileptic patients.East Afr Med J. 1996 Oct;73(10):679-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Oct;73(10):679-82. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
Steady state concentrations of three anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbamazepine) were measured in plasma samples from fifteen patients (eight males and seven females; ages: 13-49 years; body weights: 44-70 kg), attending the outpatient Neurology Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. In addition, total protein and albumin levels were measured in plasma from patients taking phenytoin. Total protein levels were normal (range: 6.3-7.6 g/dl) in all patients except in one patient (10.7 g/dl). Albumin levels were also normal (range: 3.7-4.1 g/dl) in all patients except one (25.4 g/dl). One patient on phenobarbitone and three patients on phenytoin had no detectable drug levels in their plasma. In the remainder, phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbamazepine steady state concentrations were 8.7-21.1 mg/L (N = 8), 9.3-27.3 mg/L (N = 6) and 10-19.7 mg/L (N = 5), respectively. The unbound fraction of phenytoin in plasma (fu) was normal(approximately 0.1) in six patients, but relatively high (0.2) in one patient. Most patients in the study complied with the prescribed treatment and their epilepsy was controlled. Cases where drug levels were undetectable probably arose from a lack of money to purchase all prescribed medicines rather than deliberate non-compliance. Routine monitoring of anticonvulsant drug levels may improve management of epileptic patients
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "1. Odhiambo WA, Gitau R W; The Pattern and Tools of violence Used in the Post- election Violence in Kenya .(Abstract accepted for the 10th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, London sept 2010).". In: BOOK. Safety 2010; 2010. Abstract

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A., Holt, R. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis and their relationship to social class amongst nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. of Paed. Dent. 1993; 3: 135 .". In: Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Salmonella enteritidis.". In: journal.; 2010. Abstract

A mini review of contamination routes and limitations to effective control. Japanesegricultural Quarterly Journal 2010; 44 (1) 7-16.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1985) Small holder Coffee Processing in Kenya . Proceedings of the Annual Coffee Seminar, Meru, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE. "Mwanda W. O., Abdallah F. K., Obondo A.A., Musau F., .". In: East African Medical Journal 2004; 81: 341 . International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Volker Klingmueller, Charles O. A. Omwandho, Rainer M. Bohle, Hans Rudolf Tinneberg. Detection of Vascular responses to Hypoxia in the pre-term ovine fetus: a preliminary study using 3 .". In: Journal of Society for Gynecological Investigations 11: (Suppl No2.): pp243.; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

A O, EC R, chindia ML, FG M, M N, Fred W. "Craniofacial anomalies amongst births at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012;41:596-603. Abstractcraniofacial_anomalies_amongst_births_at_two_hospitals_in_nairobi_kenya.pdf

The pattern of congenital oral and craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) in the Kenyan population remains unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of occurrence of CFAs at two hospitals in Nairobi. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital was carried out from November 2006 to March 2007. Mothers who delivered at the hospitals consented to an interview and physical examination of their babies within 48 h of delivery. The anomalies were classified for type and magnitude. Data were analysed to determine the association of these anomalies with ages of the mothers, gender, weight, birth order, mode of delivery and birth status of the babies. During the study period, 7989 babies were born. The CFAs manifested in 1.8% of the total births and were more common in female (1.4%) than in male (1.0%) live births. 12.8% of stillbirths had CFAs, with lesions manifesting more in males (16.7%) than in females (6.9%). The commonest CFA was preauricular sinus (4.3/1000) followed by hydrocephalus (1.9/1000) then preauricular tags and cleft lip and palate (1.5/1000 and 1.3/1000 total births, respectively).

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "J. M. Muchiri, C.A. Omwandho, A.G.Tumbo .". In: In Proc. 6th Biochem. Soc. Kenya Ann. Scient. Conference. 2000 pp. 12 .; 2000. Abstract

Post implantation pregnancy losses are psychologically and economically stressful to the childbearing population. The etiology in the vast majority of cases is unknown but is partly thought to result from a break-down of the maternal tolerance to the fetoplacental unit. Immunologically based therapy remains controversial but no alternative therapy is available at the moment. This article reviews the conceived immunological basis of recurrent pregnancy losses, discussing the controversies arising, and recommending the use of intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIg, in well controlled experiments for further clinical trials.

A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "A Cost Modeling Design Strategy For Dweller-Initiated Transformation In Urban Housing.". In: 3rd International Conference On Construction Industry Development Post-Graduate Conference (CIDB) 2005. Lund Centre for Habitat Studies. Lund University; 2005. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "D.E. Zavala, S. Bokongo, A.J Ime, I.M Senoga, R.E Mtonga, A.Z Mohammed, W.A. Odhiambo and P. Olupot Olupot; A Multinational Injury Surveillance System Pilot Project in Africa; 2007, 28: 4.431.". In: JPHP. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
A AH, Emily R, TM O, Ndaguatha PLW. "HER2/Neu Protein Over-Expression in Patients with Gastric and Gastro- Esophageal Junction Carcinoma Seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis. 2014;5(186):doi: 10.4172/2157-2518.1000186.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Iatrogenic hypodontia following traditional excision of decidous canine tooth buds: case reports. Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (1): 173-174.". In: Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (1): 173-174. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Oehmke F, Weyand j, Hackethal A, Konrad L, Omwandho C, Tinneberg HR. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Justus Liebig university of Giessen, Giessen, Germany. IMPACT OF ENDOMETRIOSIS ON QUALITY OF LIFE:A PILOT STUDY.". In: Gynecol. Endocrinol. 2009 Nov; 25(11):722-5:.; 2009. Abstract

Endometriosis affects 6-10% of women in reproductive age, 35-50% of whom experience pain, infertility or both. Mild cases are managed medically but surgery provides relief to women in pain. However, symptoms recur in 75% of cases within 2 years. We investigated the impact of endometriosis on quality of life among 65 women aged 18-60 years working at a city supermaket in Giessen, Germany. Of the 65 women, 12 had undergone surgeries, 22 had dysmenorrhoea, 24 dyspareunia and 3 were infertile. Of the 22 women with dysmenorrhoea, 10 had difficulties perfoming gardening, housework, sports and leisure activities. Five of these 10 women experienced social isolation, 6 professional setbacks; 6 declined efficiency at work and 3 had taken time off work. Of the 24 women with dyspareunia, 7 experienced minimal , 12 light and 5 moderate to strong pain. only 16 of these 24 women discussed the problem with their partnes. This study demonstrates that pain is a major cause of physical, psycho-social, emotional and professional or work related impairment among women with endometriosis. Because endometriosis is  likely to impose emotional and financial burdens, we suggest that future studies should be extended to include interviews with family members.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1988) The performance of an air-infiltrating solar collector M. Phil thesis. University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1988. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Onem T, Obondo A.A, Ndetei D.M, Karani K.A, & Wagoro M. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA, Falconer J, Gruessner SE, Mecha E, Tumbo-Oeri AG, Roberts TK, Tinneberg HR. Human placental immunoglobulins show unique re-association patterns with isologous and third party acid treated trophoblast microvesicles in vitro.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):290-3.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA, Tumbo-Oeri AG, Tinneberg HR, Roberts TK, Falconer J.Immunological Role of the Placenta, Blocking Factors and NK Cells in Post-implantation Pregnancy.Afr J Health Sci. 2001 Jan-Jun;8(1-2):2-16.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 2001 Jan-Jun;8(1-2):2-16.; 2001. Abstract

The unexpected failure of the mother to immunologically reject the foetus is partly thought to result from immunological properties of the placenta. The placental trophoblast produces immunosuppressive factors including progesterone and blocking antibodies which together down-regulate maternal immune responses to the foetoplacental unit. This article reviews the post implantation immunology of pregnancy emphasizing the roles of placenta, blocking factors and natural killer (NK) cells.

A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "1. Odhiambo WA, Gitau R W; The Pattern and Tools of violence Used in the Post- election Violence in Kenya .(Abstract accepted for the 10th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, London sept 2010).". In: BOOK. Safety 2010; 2010. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA. Effects of Albendazole therapy on serum proteins and Leukocyte Counts of Hydatid patients - 1989 M.Sc. Thesis.". In: M.Sc. Thesis.; 1989. Abstract

Resting metabolic rates have been measured and compared with hepatic mitochondrial respiration in Kwashiorkor and diet-induced obese weaned rats. In Kwashiorkor, resting metabolic rate was 21% lower than the value of controls, while that of the obese rats was 14% higher than in control animals. The resting metabolic rate for Kwashiorkor animals was 50% of the predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR), whereas that of the obese rats was 23% higher than the predicted BMR. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption patterns, using malate plus glutamate or succinate as respiratory substrates, revealed that the resting respiration (state 4) was 23.9% higher in Kwashiorkor and 29.1% higher in obese animals, while the active (state 3) respiration was 34.8% lower in Kwashiorkor and 43.3% lower in obese rats compared to controls. The respiratory control ratios (RCR) were 51.1% and 43.8% in Kwashiorkor and obese rats, respectively, relative to the values in control rats. It is concluded from these studies that Kwashiorkor disease and diet-induced obesity appear to interfere with oxygen utilization at the level of state 3 mitochondrial respiration, which is markedly decreased when compared to the values for control animals.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Muriithi HM, Masiga MA, Chindia ML. Dental injuries in 0-15 year olds at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):592-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):592-7. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1992) Advances in Agricultural Machinery Technology Towards Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the KSAE Annual Seminar, 5-7th August.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1992. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Mrumbi K, Obondo A.A, Rono R, Ngare D, & Ndetei D.M. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O. A. Omwandho, Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Hans R Tinnerberg. Early Pregnancy loss and neonatal deaths associated with Klebsiella pneumonia infection: A mini Review of possible Occupational Health Risk.". In: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 273 (5): 258 .; 2006. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss is a disease of grave psychological and economic concern. The etiology in the vast majority of the cases is unknown or at best poorly understood. Although Klebsiella pneumonia infections have been reported in humans and animals during pregnancy, there is hardly any information to indicate whether or not these infections may be responsible for early pregnancy loss. We present a review of literature and report for the first time in humans, Klebsiella pneumonia infection in placenta of a 38-year-old secondary recurrent aborter (parity 2 + 3).

A O-R, GO O, E K, E G, F O, E O. "Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests in rheumatoid arthritis." Afr J Rheumatol . 2017;5(1):70-75. Abstractprevalence_of_abnormal_liver2.pdf

Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence
of Abnormal Liver Function Tests (LFTs)
in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
at the rheumatology out-patient clinic,
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Design: Cross-sectional descriptive
study.
Setting: Rheumatology out-patient clinic
at KNH.
Participants: One hundred and seven
RA patients.
Results: The overall prevalence of
abnormal LFTs in the study population
was 57%. The most common abnormal
LFTs were direct bilirubin and alkaline
phosphatase (ALP), which were elevated
in 34.6% and 15% of the study population,
respectively. Abnormal direct bilirubin
was associated with longer duration of
disease; adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 0.54
(0.34, 0.86) p-value 0.009 and higher
disease activity, adjusted OR 2.79 (1.23,
6.25) p-value 0.014. Abnormal ALP
was significantly associated with BMI,
adjusted OR 0.205 (0.074, 0.57), p-value
0.002 as well as duration of disease,
adjusted OR 1.14 (1.013, 1.29), p-value
0.031.
Conclusion: This study found the
prevalence of liver dysfunction in
patients with rheumatoid arthritis to be
high, at 57%, and recommends regular
monitoring of liver function tests in
patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Introduction
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a systemic,
chronic, progressive inflammatory
disease characterized by symmetric joint
polyarthritis that progresses to severe joint
destruction1
. As a systemic illness, RA
has many extra-articular manifestations
and co-morbidities, many of which have
been studied in our local setting, and
have been found to correlate with disease
activity2-5. The liver has however been
overlooked as a target organ in patients
with RA. Rheumatoid arthritis can affect
the liver in many ways6,7; dysfunction
is thought to arise from the disease
itself, independent autoimmune disease,
infections such as viral hepatitis or as a
consequence of anti-inflammatory drugs
such as Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory
Drugs (NSAIDs) or Disease Modifying
Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs)6
.
The most common DMARDs used
in treatment of RA in our setting are
methotrexate and leflunomide, which can
be hepatotoxic. The risk of hepatotoxicity
while on treatment with DMARDs may
be increased in the presence of hepatitis
or alcohol intake.
LFTs may be abnormal in up to
50% of patients with RA and this has
been shown to correlate with disease
activity7,8. The ‘rheumatoid liver’ has
long been a topic of interest and previous
studies noted histological changes in
the liver of RA patients who were not
on treatment with DMARDs such as
fatty change, cellular necrosis, chronic
passive congestion and gross atrophy9-12.
Studies have also investigated use of
multiple DMARDs, which were thought
to predispose patients with RA to a higher
risk of developing hepatotoxicity13,14.
With increasing awareness and
knowledge of the RA, more patients
are being diagnosed early and started
on treatment, which may be life-long.
Effective treatment modalities may have
hepatotoxic effects. Abnormal LFTs are
in themselves an independent predictor
of mortality15. Due to high mortality
from both RA as well as abnormal LFTs,
such a subset of patients could therefore
be at a higher risk. This is especially so
because we currently have limited ways
of managing liver injury in our setting.
It is therefore important for us to monitor
liver dysfunction in patients with RA.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN. "Abdulreshid A. B, Ndetei D.M, Mburu J.M, Obondo A.A, Kokonya D,.". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). CHAK Times; 2006. Abstract
Mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense developed a severe anaemia 1 week after infection, which persisted till treatment with diminazine aceturate when the packed cell volume (PCV) recovered to pre-infection levels. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the plasma levels of the acute phase proteins (APP), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp). The initial peak levels of Hp and SAP were attained 7 and 12 days post-infection (DPI), respectively. Thereafter SAP levels decreased significantly to near pre-infection levels, but later increased even after treatment to give a second peak 34 DPI after which there was a decline till the study was terminated. The Hp levels on the other hand decreased to an intermediate level after the initial peak increasing to a second peak 22 DPI. Thereafter Hp decreased significantly following diminazine aceturate treatment to reach pre-infection levels within 5 days post-treatment. This indicates that T. congolense-infected mice develop severe anaemia accompanied by an acute phase response leading to an increase in SAP and Hp but that following treatment divergent responses occurred indicating differences in the pathways for stimulation of the APP. Haptoglobin was shown to be an earlier indicator of infection and a better marker in monitoring the response to treatment.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Peters C., Falconer, J., Roberts TK. Ovine and Human placental IgG inhibit human natural killer cell cytotoxicity in vitro.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 8: 47 .; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy to term. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS: A review of the literature on state of the art thinking among researchers and clinicians on recurrent spontaneous abortions is summarised. RESULTS: A large body of recently published data strongly suggest that a breakdown in immunological maternal-foetal interactions may lead to occasional or recurrent foetal loss. Immunoregulatory activities involving blocking antibodies, regulatory factors, immunological cells, hormones, structural proteins and cytokines constitute the pregnancy-sustaining network. CONCLUSION: The majority of the evidence reviewed points to the involvement of immunological factors in successful pregnancies. However, the underlying mechanisms are inadequately explained, are largely speculative and require more focused investigation. A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved would enhance our capacity to develop rational ways of addressing recurrent pregnancy losses.

A P, M O, K O, P K, M I, J O'o. "Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9. Abstract

Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population
A Pulei, M Obimbo, K Ongeti, P Kitunguu, M Inyimili, J Ogeng’o

Abstract

Background: Knowledge of the variant anatomy of the brachial artery is important in radial arterial grafts for coronary bypass, percutaneous trans-radial approach to coronary angiography, angioplasty and flap surgery. These variations show ethnic differences but data from black populations are scarce. This study therefore describes the course in relation with median nerve, level and pattern of termination of brachial artery in a black Kenyan population.
Methods: This was a cadaveric dissection study of 162 upper limbs at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. The brachial artery was exposed entirely from the lower border of teres major to its point of termination. The course in relation to the median nerve and the level of termination were recorded. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows.
Results: 72.2% of the brachial arteries followed the classical pattern described in Gray’s Anatomy. Superfi cial brachioradial and superficial brachial arteries were present in 12.3% and 6.1% of the cases respectively. Brachial artery terminated at the radial neck in 79% of the cases, radial tuberosity (8.6%), and proximal arm (11.1%), mid arm (1.2%). Pattern of termination was either a bifurcation into the radial and ulnar arteries (90.1%) or trifurcation into radial, ulnar and common interosseous arteries (9.3%). We also report a case of trifurcation of the brachial artery into the profunda brachii, radial and ulnar arteries (0.6%).
Conclusion: Variations of the brachial artery in its relationship with the median nerve, level and pattern of termination are common. These may complicate arm surgical exposures, fl ap and vascular surgery. Pre-operative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Keywords: brachial artery, bifurcation, trifurcation, superficial brachioradial artery

A MRKABURIAHF. "Tuna fish infection with protozoa, subphylum mycosporeay as aesthetic case. Bull. Anim. Hlth and Production Afric. 1993.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1993. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
A PKARANIFLORIDA. "“Adult and Continuing Education in Kenya.". In: National Symposium on Adult and Continuing Education (ACE) in Kenya . Kenya School of Monetary Studies; 2003.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Oloowokere, JO., Konji, VN., Omwandho, CA., Makawiti, DW. Changes in Mitochondrial Oxidative phosphorylation characteristics in Dietary obese rats.". In: Biokemistri 1: 65 .; 1991. Abstract

Resting metabolic rates have been measured and compared with hepatic mitochondrial respiration in Kwashiorkor and diet-induced obese weaned rats. In Kwashiorkor, resting metabolic rate was 21% lower than the value of controls, while that of the obese rats was 14% higher than in control animals. The resting metabolic rate for Kwashiorkor animals was 50% of the predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR), whereas that of the obese rats was 23% higher than the predicted BMR. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption patterns, using malate plus glutamate or succinate as respiratory substrates, revealed that the resting respiration (state 4) was 23.9% higher in Kwashiorkor and 29.1% higher in obese animals, while the active (state 3) respiration was 34.8% lower in Kwashiorkor and 43.3% lower in obese rats compared to controls. The respiratory control ratios (RCR) were 51.1% and 43.8% in Kwashiorkor and obese rats, respectively, relative to the values in control rats. It is concluded from these studies that Kwashiorkor disease and diet-induced obesity appear to interfere with oxygen utilization at the level of state 3 mitochondrial respiration, which is markedly decreased when compared to the values for control animals.

A PROFODHIAMBOJACK. "Approach to lthe endomonic absolute aim - 1992.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1992. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
A M, Nyagol J, Rogena E, Ochuk W, Kimani M, Onyango N, Pacenti L, Santopietro R, Leoncini L, W. M. "Correlation of EGFR, pEGFR and p16INK4 expressions and high risk HPV infection in HIV/AIDS-related squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva." Infect Agent Cancer.. 2014;9(1):7-15.
A MRSOMBOKMARGARET. "Enterpreneurial behaviour: A manual for Higher Diploma in Enterpreneurship ILO, UNOP,.". In: The Kenya Times (Nairobi: November 27,1983), p.6. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) The Role of Agricultural Engineering in Food Manufacturing . In Proceedings for the Kenya Institute of Food Science and Technology Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, November 7th.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Mrumbi K, Ndetei D.M, Ovuga E, Obondo A.A, Gakinya B, Ongecha .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Suwandinata FS, Bohle RM, Omwandho CA, Tinneberg HR, Gruessner SE.Management of vulvar melanoma and review of the literature.". In: Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2007;28(3):220-4.; 2007. Abstract

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany. BACKGROUND: Vulvar melanoma represents a rare group of malignancies and is the second most common vulvar malignancy. Treatment options range from local excision of the tumor and sentinel lymph node dissection to radical resection involving en bloc vulvectomy and inguinofemoral lymphanedectomy. Vulvar melanomas have an overall poor prognosis, and there is lack of consensus in the published literature regarding treatment options. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the management of vulvar melanomas through review of the actual literature. METHODS: Identification of studies through computerized searches (January 2006) was conducted using MEDLINE (1966 to present), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the National Research Register and the Medical Research Council's Clinical Trials Register. The medical subject headings and text words used were: vulvar melanoma, malignant, management, case report, and therapy. The literature review was done over the past 36 years. RESULT: Results of these primary retrospective series have shown no improvement in the overall recovery or disease survival rates. CONCLUSION: Patients with malignant melanoma are often diagnosed at 70 years of age with multiple comorbidities. Less radical surgery presents a more realistic option for many patients without decreasing their survival rates. Surgery is still the gold standard of treatment and offers the best available treatment for controlling and potential curing of malignant melanomas. However, the whole concept of therapy should be tailored to meet the specific needs of individual patients.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Gruessner S, Omwandho C.A.O, Klingm.". In: In Proceedings of the 28th combined congress of German, Swiss and Austrian Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine, 6 .; 2004. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A MRNYANDEGAISAIAH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., Nyandega, I.A. and Weere, W.B., 1998: Climate Impact on Human Settlement: Case study of Laikipia and Nairobi Districts.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Association of Africa Universities; 1998. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
A MRKABURIAHF. "Motile aeromonads associated with Rainbow Trout (Onchoryncus mykiss) mortality in Kenya. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol.: 18(1). 7.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, August 30th-31st, 2000. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1998. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho C. A., Falconer, J., Roberts TK (1994): Purification and characterization of immunoglobulins bound to placenta of sheep.". In: In Proc. 1st International conference of World placental Associations, Sydney, Australia, A53.; 1994. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A PROFODHIAMBOJACK. "On Cognition : Ascent from sense knowledge to knowledge of essence with publisher for evaluation.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
A B, K KP, Nafula N, DK M. "The Decline in Primary School Enrolment in Kenya.". In: Economic reforms in developing countries.; 2008.
A DRINDALOANNE. "Kokwaro GO, Indalo AA.Metabolism of Diazepam and Ethosuximide in rats with malaria and endotoxin-induced fever. Afr J Health Sci. 1996 Feb;3(1):22-6.". In: 1: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
We have investigated the effects of malaria infection with rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei and fever induced by Escherischia coli endotoxin on the metabolism of diazepam to temazepam by rat liver microsomes, and on the clearance of ethosuximide in vivo in the rat. Livers from malaria-infected (parasitaemia =36.8+/- 7.6% endotoxin-treated or saline-treated (control) rats (N=5 per treatment) were used to prepare microsomes. These were incubated with diazepam (10-600ū M) for 10 minutes in an NADPH-generating system. V( max), K(m ) and the intrinsic clearance V(max )/K(m ) for the production of temazepam were determined. In separate experiments, ethosuximide (5mg/kg) was administered via the tail vein to control, malaria-infected and endotoxin-treated rats (parasitaemia=43.8+/- 5 %) under light ether anesthesia (N=5 per treatment). Total clearance of ethosuximmide was estimated form a single blood sample obtained 24h after drug administration. Diazepam metabolism was not affected by malaria infection or fever (V(max ):1.31+/- 0.34,0.73+/- 0.27 and 1.07+/- 0.78 nmol/min/mg protein; K( m): 158.7 +/- 63.7, 175.3+/- 44.9 and 190.0+/- 81.8ūM; Intrinsic clearance/whole liver: 0.31+/- 0.16, 0.26+/- 0.1 and 0.29+/- 0.1ml/min in livers from control, malaria-infected and endotoxin-treated rats respectively; P>0.05). Similarly, clearance of ethosuximide in vivo was not affected by malaria infection or fever (1.3+/- 0.2, 1.3+/- 0.01 and 1.4+/- 0.4 ml/min/kg in control, malaria-infected and endotoxin-treated rats respectively; p>0.05). These results suggest that malaria infection and fever have no effect on the activities of the CYP3A isozymes thought to be involved in the metabolism of diazepam and ethosuximide.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Maxillary obturator prosthesis rehabilitation following maxillectomy for ameloblastoma: case series of five patients. Int J Prosthodont. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(4):464-8.". In: Int J Prosthodont. 2004 Jul-Aug;17(4):464-8. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Obondo A.A, Khasakhala L, Ndetei D.M, Mutiso V, Ongecha .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract
n/a
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O. A. Omwandho, Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Timothy K. Roberts, Hans R Tinneberg. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG): Modes of action in the management of Recurrent Pregnacy loss and selected Autoimmune disorders.". In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 42 (4): 359 .; 2004. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno C. J., Obondo A. A., Kathuku D. M., and Ndetei D. M. (2001). Patterns of substance use among Kenya street Children.Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Vol. 12, no. 2: 154-150.". In: Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Vol. 12, no. 2: 154-150. Equinet; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tardive dyskinesia among psychiatric in-patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Mathari Hospital, Nairobi, the main psychiatric referral hospital in Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and two randomly selected in-patients seen in the hospital between January and April 2000. RESULTS: The prevalence of tardive dyskinesia was 11.9%. Neither the psychiatric diagnosis nor the sex was significantly associated with tardive dyskinesia. The antipsychotic dosage was also not associated with tardive dyskinesia but an increase in age was significantly associated with the abnormal movements. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of tardive dyskinesia among patients at Mathari Hospital is much lower than that found in western countries but similar to that from Asian studies. These findings indicate the possibility of racial differences in the aetiology of TD. Prospective cross-racial studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
A MRKABURIAHF. "Efficacy of Myrisine africana, Albezia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosa herbal remedies against mixed natural sheep helminthosis in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of The First National Workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other under utilized plant species in Kenya held on 29th October to 3rd November 2001 at Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2001. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Roberts, TK., Omwandho, CA., Peters, C., Falconer, J. Inhibition of human Natural Killer cell cytoxicity by sheep placental IgG .". In: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology.; 1995. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "Appropriate Building Materials & Construction Technology For Primary Schools In Kerio Valley.". In: International Course Of Organized Self-Help Housing Planning & Development. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 1985. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
A DRRAJABJAMILLA. "Rajab JA, Muchina WP, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Blood donor haematology parameters in two regions of Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2005 Mar;82(3):123-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Mar;82(3):123-7. VDM Verlag; 2005. Abstract
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. DESIGN: A cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks–Nairobi and its environs (Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) and Western Region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution, mean, median, and 95% percentile ranges of haemoglobin (Hb), red cell parameters (red cell count, haematocrit, MCV, MCH and MCHC), total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, and platelet counts in the two donor populations. RESULTS: A significant number of donations (16.5% in Kisumu and 3.4% in Nairobi) showed haemoglobin levels below the recommended National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) guideline of 42g/unit. Compared to Kisumu, Nairobi donors had significantly (p < 0.001) higher Hb, MCV and MCH values while the red blood cell counts and MCHC values were similar (p > 0.05). A low MCV (< 78 fl) was observed in 12.4% and 3.4% of Kisumu and Nairobi donors respectively. Both populations showed similar but significant frequencies (Kisumu, 21.3%; Nairobi, 18.7%) of mild neutropenia (< 1.5 x 10(9)/1), while eosinophilia (> 0.5 x 10(9)/1 in the tropics the cut off is > 0.6 x 109) was more prominent in Kisumu donors (18.8% versus 8.5%). Platelet counts were also significantly lower in Kisumu donors, with the prevalence of thrombocytopenia (< 150 x 10(9)/1) being considerably higher (15.9% versus 3.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of Kenyan donors showed abnormal haematology profiles that may indicate underlying pathology. Such abnormalities are not detected by current blood transfusion services screening practices and there may be a need to strengthen donor selection criteria to protect both donors and recipients.
A J N Ndathi, Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Mitaru BN. "Enhancing output oriented livestock improvement strategies in drylands of Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2011;23 ((6) ). Abstract

Farmers in the drylands practice mixed crop and livestock production systems. Both production systems have mutual relationships and understanding of target outputs in each system is important. With increasing demand for livestock products, livestock production is expected to be the major driving enterprise during a predicted food revolution. Targeting the most valued livestock species and the premium products or services from that species will improve the farmers’ interest and adoption of recommended technologies. In this cross sectional survey carried out in Kibwezi District, Kenya, this research team aimed at identifying the most valued livestock species and the premium products or services targeted. Systematic sampling method using road transects was used to select farmers to be involved in the survey. The pair wise ranking method was used in importance ranking during the survey and a focused group discussion held to discuss the survey results.

The farmers’ importance ranking of the livestock species was topped by the goat followed by chicken, cattle and sheep. Draft power was ranked most important followed by beef, milk and lastly manure. To produce the top ranked product (draft power) the most valued livestock age/sex class is the entire bulls followed by the heifers, mature females, castrates and lastly the calves. Therefore, to improve livestock production in Kibwezi District, we recommend that farmers focus on improving the performance of entire bulls for draft power and mature females for milk production.

Keywords: Cattle, draft power, livestock products, milk, mixed production systems

A Kibet, Rose A, P Omusula, Takken W, M Geier, Mweresa CK, B Otieno, Mukabana WR. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control.". 2014.
A Obiero, J Kalai OU. "Effect of Home Related Factors on Students Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Science. 2018;5(10):2415-1246 .
A. K. . Developmental Defects of Enamel.. Saarbrucken,: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co, Saarbrucken,; 2011.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A and Chesbro 1970. Identification of antigens in Jensen.". In: Bacteriology proceedings Pg. 79. IBIMA Publishing; 1970. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Development of Education in Kenya".". In: The 1 st Symposium on East Africa in Transition; Communities, Cultures and Change. Nairobi. Kenya. 4 - 7 th July 2000. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract

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A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1989. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Principles and Concepts in Real Property Management." paper presented to a Vision Consult Workshop in Kitwe, Zambia, 27th September, to 1st October, 1993.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""New Technologies in Higher Education Pedagogy".". In: UNESCO Workshop on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education held in Nairobi Kenya 18-22 November 1996. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract

 

 

A. DRAGANDAALEX. "Aganda, A. A,, Coney J. E. R., Sheppard, C. G. W. Effect of air maldistribution on performance of an evaporator. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2000.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2000.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. "Karani F.A.; Course Design and Development in B. Matiru ed. Towards Academic and Professional Excellence in Higher Education. Part II. Bonn.1990. pp 69 - 78.". In: B. Matiru ed. Towards Academic and Professional Excellence in Higher Education. Part II. Bonn.1990. pp 69 - 78. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFKETERJOSEPHKIPKORIR. "Kwaje, S., and J.K.A. Keter (Eds.) 1994. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Capacity Building in Soil and Water Management in Africa, Kampala, Uganda, 9-11 November, 1992. Academic Science Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN: 9966-831-15-0.". In: First International Workshop on Capacity Building in Soil and Water Management in Africa, Kampala, Uganda, 9-11 November, 1992. Academic Science Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN: 9966-831-15-0. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
A. MRJALEHAALEXC. "Currently developing a manual for distance learning undergraduate students, " Principles of Management.". In: Department of Clinical Studies University of Nairobi 2008. Departmental seminar; 1993. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. "Karani, F.A.; "The History of Maseno School, Its Alumni, and the Local Society, 1906 to 1962." M.A. Thesis, University of Nairobi 1974.". In: M.A. Thesis, University of Nairobi 1974. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1974.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "Fighting Two Sides: - Kenyas Chiefs and Politicians: 1918-1940 by Marshalls Clough (Niwot University Press, Colorado, A Review Article of the historic role of chiefs n Kikuyu-land in colonial Politics and administration, JMALR, London.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1995. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Kakai R, Wamola IA, Bwayo JJ.Association of human rotavirus infection and intestinal rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A in children with diarrhoea. East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):217-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):217-9. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of intestinal specific rotavirus IgA antibody in protection against diarrhoea due to rotavirus infection. Stool from children aged below 5 years with diarrhoea who reported to the Paediatric Observation Ward, Kenyatta National Hospital were examined for micro-organisms and IgA antibody. Specific rotavirus IgA antibody and antigen were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. Out of 153 stool specimens, 22% (34/153) were positive for rotavirus antigen and 15% (23/153) had IgA specific antibody to rotavirus. Children with specific IgA to rotavirus had no rotavirus except in two cases (p < 0.05). There was no difference in levels of specific IgA antibody between normal and malnourished children (p = 0.4). It is probable that intestinal specific IgA to rotavirus protects children against rotavirus diarrhoea.

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