Biamah, E.K., Sterk, G., Stroosnijder, L. 2003. Hydrological effects of tillage and farmyard manure on crusting and compacting soils in semi arid Kenya. p 150-158. In: Tullberg, J., Hoogmoed, W. (Eds.), Soil management for sustainability, Proceedings of 1

Citation:
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sterk, G., Stroosnijder, L. 2003. Hydrological effects of tillage and farmyard manure on crusting and compacting soils in semi arid Kenya. p 150-158. In: Tullberg, J., Hoogmoed, W. (Eds.), Soil management for sustainability, Proceedings of 1.". In: The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. ISBN 0-646-42496-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003.

Abstract:

In semi arid Kenya, the most dominant soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurrence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction decreases rainwater infiltration and increases surface runoff. Increased and concentrated surface runoff water flow causes severe soil erosion. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrological effects of different tillage practices with and without farmyard manure on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of crusting and compacting soils under field and laboratory conditions in semi arid Kenya. Field investigations on infiltration, soil moisture, surface runoff, soil loss, soil bulk density and soil shear strength covered two rainy seasons (short and long rains) and were done on a Chromic Luvisol. The field treatments were zero and conventional tillage, and two farmyard manure applications (5 and 10 Mg/ha). Laboratory investigations on infiltration, time to runoff, surface runoff, soil loss and penetration resistance were conducted under simulated rainfall on four Luvisols for sixty days with the same farmyard manure (5 and 10 Mg/ha) treatments. A regression analysis and a one way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05) differences between soil types and treatments. The results obtained showed significant effects of conventional and zero tillage and farmyard manure on infiltration and soil moisture, time to runoff, surface runoff and soil loss. Soil crusting and compaction significantly influenced the hydrological responses of all soil types and treatments. These responses were attributed to seasonal rainfall events of varying amounts, intensities and duration and treatment differences in soil surface conditions and aggregation. Farmyard manure (FYM) application enhanced infiltration and reduced soil crusting and compaction, and surface runoff during the initial stages of the rainy season. But in the mid-stages of the rainy season, the effects of FYM on soil aggregation diminished and resulted in an increase in soil loss. At the end of the rainy season, when soil crusts had formed, some significant decrease in soil loss with FYM treatments was observed. Conventional tillage without farmyard manure led to high surface runoff and soil loss in these structurally unstable soils. Zero tillage performed poorly under these soil conditions because of high soil crusting and compaction, low rainwater infiltration and subsequent increase in surface runoff.

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