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Biamah, E. K; Stroosnijder OL; CT. "Watershed conservation in semi-arid Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

Over the past three decades, agricultural watersheds in semi-arid Kenya have experienced some rapid decline in soil and crop productivity due to severe soil erosion, low soil water, low soil fertility and high soil crusting and compaction. Thus, the management of these watersheds requires some good understanding of agricultural drought, stratification of production zones according to slope, and suitable conservation options that include in-situ water conservation and runoff utilization. The planning of watershed conservation requires the application of runoff models in the selection of interventions that reduce upstream flood magnitude and downstream sedimentation. Successful interventions can be introduced under enabling conditions to farmers at various hierarchical policy levels. A few of these enabling conditions that are elaborated upon include agricultural policy, focus on smallholder agriculture and public¬community partnerships.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., 2005. Coping with Drought: Options for soil and water management in semi-arid Kenya. Tropical Resource Management Papers No. 58 (2005).". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., G. Sterk, T.C. Sharma. 2005. Analysis of agricultural drought in Iiuni, Eastern Kenya: Application of a Markov model. J. Hydrol. Processes (2005).". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Gichuki. F., 2004. Land and Water Management for Poverty Alleviation: Experiences from Iiuni Watershed, Machakos District, Kenya. Paper submitted to Journal of WaterSA, South Africa.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sterk, G., 2005. Influence of land use changes on watershed runoff volume: Application of AGNPS model in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. Paper accepted for publication by Euro Asian Journal of Applied Sciences.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sterk, G., Stroosnijder, L., 2005. Tillage and Farmyard Manure effects on Crusting and Compacting Soils in Semi Arid Kenya. Paper accepted for publication by Euro Asian Journal of Applied Sciences.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Stroosnijder, L., Omuto, C.T., 2005. Watershed Conservation in Semi-arid Kenya. Paper accepted for publication by Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Journal (but yet to receive official communication), an Elsevier Science Publication.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Gitau, A.N., Gumbe, L.O., Biamah, E.K., 2005. Influence of soil water on stress-Strain Behaviour of a compacting soil in semi arid Kenya. Paper accepted for publication by Soil Tillage and Research Journal, an Elsevier Science Publication (in press).". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Omuto, T.C., Shepherd, K.D., Walsh, M.G., Coe, R., Biamah, E.K., 2005. Bio-exponential modeling of watershed water retention Characteristics. Paper submitted to European Journal of Soil Science.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Omuto, T.C., Shepherd, K.D., Walsh, M.G., Coe, R., Biamah, E.K., 2005. Spectral reflectance screening of soil physical degradation using CART. Paper submitted to Journal of Remote Sensing of Environment.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
2004
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sterk, G., Sharma, T.C. 2004. Analysis of agricultural drought in Iiuni, Eastern Kenya: Application of a Markov model. J. Hydrol. Processes.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Stroosnijder, L., 2004. Watershed conservation in semi arid Kenya, Submitted to Physics and chemistry of the earth.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Metto, J.K.; Biamah, E.K; R.K. Cherogony; G.A. Mukolwe (2004). Design of on-farm hydraulic structures for regulating road drainage. Submitted to the 15th International Congress of Agricultural Engineering(CIGR) Conference, Beijing, China. October, 2004.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Omuto, T.C., Walsh, M.G., Shepherd, K.D., Biamah, E.K., 2004. Nonlinear mixed effect fitting of soil hydraulic functions from a large watershed, Minor corrections suggested to paper, corrected and sent back to Journal of Soil Science Society of America.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
2003
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Nhlabathi, N., 2003. Conservation tillage practices for dryland crop production in semi arid Kenya: Promotion of conservation tillage techniques for improving household food security in iiuni, Machakos, Kenya. In: Beukes, D., de Villiers, M.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Nhlabathi, N., 2003. Conservation tillage practices for dryland crop production in semi arid Kenya: Promotion of conservation tillage techniques for improving household food security in iiuni, Machakos, Kenya. p 45-50. In: Beukes, D., de Vil.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, the most dominant soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurrence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction decreases rainwater infiltration and increases surface runoff. Increased and concentrated surface runoff water flow causes severe soil erosion. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrological effects of different tillage practices with and without farmyard manure on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of crusting and compacting soils under field and laboratory conditions in semi arid Kenya. Field investigations on infiltration, soil moisture, surface runoff, soil loss, soil bulk density and soil shear strength covered two rainy seasons (short and long rains) and were done on a Chromic Luvisol. The field treatments were zero and conventional tillage, and two farmyard manure applications (5 and 10 Mg/ha). Laboratory investigations on infiltration, time to runoff, surface runoff, soil loss and penetration resistance were conducted under simulated rainfall on four Luvisols for sixty days with the same farmyard manure (5 and 10 Mg/ha) treatments. A regression analysis and a one way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05) differences between soil types and treatments. The results obtained showed significant effects of conventional and zero tillage and farmyard manure on infiltration and soil moisture, time to runoff, surface runoff and soil loss. Soil crusting and compaction significantly influenced the hydrological responses of all soil types and treatments. These responses were attributed to seasonal rainfall events of varying amounts, intensities and duration and treatment differences in soil surface conditions and aggregation. Farmyard manure (FYM) application enhanced infiltration and reduced soil crusting and compaction, and surface runoff during the initial stages of the rainy season. But in the mid-stages of the rainy season, the effects of FYM on soil aggregation diminished and resulted in an increase in soil loss. At the end of the rainy season, when soil crusts had formed, some significant decrease in soil loss with FYM treatments was observed. Conventional tillage without farmyard manure led to high surface runoff and soil loss in these structurally unstable soils. Zero tillage performed poorly under these soil conditions because of high soil crusting and compaction, low rainwater infiltration and subsequent increase in surface runoff.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sterk, G., Stroosnijder, L. 2003. Hydrological effects of tillage and farmyard manure on crusting and compacting soils in semi arid Kenya. p 150-158. In: Tullberg, J., Hoogmoed, W. (Eds.), Soil management for sustainability, Proceedings of 1.". In: The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. ISBN 0-646-42496-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, the most dominant soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurrence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction decreases rainwater infiltration and increases surface runoff. Increased and concentrated surface runoff water flow causes severe soil erosion. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrological effects of different tillage practices with and without farmyard manure on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of crusting and compacting soils under field and laboratory conditions in semi arid Kenya. Field investigations on infiltration, soil moisture, surface runoff, soil loss, soil bulk density and soil shear strength covered two rainy seasons (short and long rains) and were done on a Chromic Luvisol. The field treatments were zero and conventional tillage, and two farmyard manure applications (5 and 10 Mg/ha). Laboratory investigations on infiltration, time to runoff, surface runoff, soil loss and penetration resistance were conducted under simulated rainfall on four Luvisols for sixty days with the same farmyard manure (5 and 10 Mg/ha) treatments. A regression analysis and a one way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05) differences between soil types and treatments. The results obtained showed significant effects of conventional and zero tillage and farmyard manure on infiltration and soil moisture, time to runoff, surface runoff and soil loss. Soil crusting and compaction significantly influenced the hydrological responses of all soil types and treatments. These responses were attributed to seasonal rainfall events of varying amounts, intensities and duration and treatment differences in soil surface conditions and aggregation. Farmyard manure (FYM) application enhanced infiltration and reduced soil crusting and compaction, and surface runoff during the initial stages of the rainy season. But in the mid-stages of the rainy season, the effects of FYM on soil aggregation diminished and resulted in an increase in soil loss. At the end of the rainy season, when soil crusts had formed, some significant decrease in soil loss with FYM treatments was observed. Conventional tillage without farmyard manure led to high surface runoff and soil loss in these structurally unstable soils. Zero tillage performed poorly under these soil conditions because of high soil crusting and compaction, low rainwater infiltration and subsequent increase in surface runoff.
2002
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., 2002. Soil and water conservation. In: Managing Dryland Resources: An Extension Manual for Eastern and Southern Africa. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya. pp 83-99.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, the most dominant soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurrence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction decreases rainwater infiltration and increases surface runoff. Increased and concentrated surface runoff water flow causes severe soil erosion. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrological effects of different tillage practices with and without farmyard manure on infiltration, surface runoff and soil loss of crusting and compacting soils under field and laboratory conditions in semi arid Kenya. Field investigations on infiltration, soil moisture, surface runoff, soil loss, soil bulk density and soil shear strength covered two rainy seasons (short and long rains) and were done on a Chromic Luvisol. The field treatments were zero and conventional tillage, and two farmyard manure applications (5 and 10 Mg/ha). Laboratory investigations on infiltration, time to runoff, surface runoff, soil loss and penetration resistance were conducted under simulated rainfall on four Luvisols for sixty days with the same farmyard manure (5 and 10 Mg/ha) treatments. A regression analysis and a one way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05) differences between soil types and treatments. The results obtained showed significant effects of conventional and zero tillage and farmyard manure on infiltration and soil moisture, time to runoff, surface runoff and soil loss. Soil crusting and compaction significantly influenced the hydrological responses of all soil types and treatments. These responses were attributed to seasonal rainfall events of varying amounts, intensities and duration and treatment differences in soil surface conditions and aggregation. Farmyard manure (FYM) application enhanced infiltration and reduced soil crusting and compaction, and surface runoff during the initial stages of the rainy season. But in the mid-stages of the rainy season, the effects of FYM on soil aggregation diminished and resulted in an increase in soil loss. At the end of the rainy season, when soil crusts had formed, some significant decrease in soil loss with FYM treatments was observed. Conventional tillage without farmyard manure led to high surface runoff and soil loss in these structurally unstable soils. Zero tillage performed poorly under these soil conditions because of high soil crusting and compaction, low rainwater infiltration and subsequent increase in surface runoff.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Sharma, T.C., Stroosnijder, L., 2002. Simulation of watershed peak runoff rate using the Nash Model. JEAE 2 (1) 49-56.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

2001
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Conservation Planning and management of agricultural watersheds; in semi arid Kenya: Strategies and Technological options. Accepted by Engineering in Agriculture and Environmental. Journal of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Conservation tillage for dryland farming: Promotion of conservation tillage techniques for improving household food security in semi arid Kenya. Paper presented at a Regional Workshop on Conservation Tillage, Arusha. Tanzania.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Design of on-farm hydraulic structures for regulating road drainage. Accepted by Engineering in Agriculture and Environment. Journal of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Rainfall characteristics and agricultural drought: A stochastic simulation of seasonal dry and wet spells using a Markov model. Submitted to Discovery and Innovation. Journal of the African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Simulation of watershed peak runoff discharge using the Nash model Submitted to Discovery and Innovation, Journal of the African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

2000
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Conservation tillage for dryland farming. Proceedings of a Regional/Wor kshop on Conservation Tillage for Eastern and Southern Africa. Supported by RELMA/Sida. Gitau. A.N. and E.K. Biamah (2000). Influence of selected tillage operations on draft power and.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Seasonal crop response to conservation tillage under dryland conditions. Proceedings of the 15th International Soil Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO). Dallas Fort Worth, Texas, USA.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

1999
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Suitable Conservation Techniques for the Nyando River Catchment Area. Lake Victoria Basin. Unpublished Study Report.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

1998
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K and A.R. Oduor. Soil, Water and Nutrient Management in China: An assessment of environmental degradation, conservation farming strategies and management options for Dryland Agriculture. Unpublished Manuscript.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K; A.N. Gitau; and R.K. Cherogony(1998a). Temporal hydrologic response of unstable crusting soils in Semi Arid Kenya, Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineering(KSAE). Nairobi, Kenya. Gicheru, P.T.; C.K.K. Gachene and E.K.Biama.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K; L. Stroosnijder and R.K. Cherogony. Effect of tillage on infiltration, runoff and erosion of crusting soils in Semi Arid Kenya. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR). Rabat. Morocco.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K; L. Stroosnijder; T.C. Sharma; and R.K. Cherogony. Temporal and spatial features of Agricultural drought in Semi Arid Kenya: An analysis of seasonal dry and wet spells as requirements for conservation tillage. Proceedings of the 13th Internati.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K; R.K. Cherogony and G.A. Mukolwe. Runoff water harvesting and conservation technologies for dryland crop production and rural water supply in arid and semi arid lands. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Agricultural Engineering .". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah. E.K; L. Stroosnijder; T.C. Sharma; and R.K. Cherogony, Effect of conservation tillage on watershed hydrology in Semi Arid Kenya: An application of AGNPS, SCS-CN and Rational Formula runoff models. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of .". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

1997
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K and R.K. Cherogony(1997). Runoff water management technologies for dryland agriculture in arid and Semi arid lards. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sustainable Farming Systems for Dryland Agricultural in North West China. Yanglin.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K. (1997). Conservation of cropland: Structural measures. In Soil and Water Conservation Manual for Kenya. !D B Thomas. A Encksscn. M. Grunder, and J.K. Mburu(eds). Soil and Water Conservation Branch, Ministry of Agriculture. Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

1996
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Kaumbutho. P.G.; M. Sishekanu; G. Gebresenbet; and E.K. Biamah(1996). Tillage effect on soil water conservation properties of a hardsetting soil in a semi arid environment. Proceedings of the 9th International Soil Conservation Organisation Conference. Bo.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

1995
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Gikonyo, J K. and E.K. Biamah (1995b). The Influence of drip factors on soil moisture of a fluvisol in Kapsengere. Kenya. Journal of Discovery and Innovation, The African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya 7(3):pp 289-298.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Gikonyo. J.K. and E.K. Biamah (1995a) The influence of upward soil water flux on soil moisture in the potential crop rooting zone of a fluvisol in Kapsengere. Kenya. Journal of Discovery and innovation, The African Academy of Sciences. Nairobi. 7(3): pp 2.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

1994
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah E.K , R.M. Chiti and R.K.K. Cherogony (1994j). Trends in infiltration, runoff and soil loss of unstable crusting soils In. .Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environment. Proceedings of 13th International Soil TillageResearch C.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah E.K. L.M. Nagava. E.M. Gichangi and R.X.K. Cherogony (f 994j), Micrcscale effects of tillage and organic manure on infiltration and erosion of a crushing soil. In Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environmental Proceedings of 1.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah E.K., J.K. Muketha and W.K. Sitonik (1994b). Report of national seminar on "Community participation in project planning in ASAL, areas of Kenya, Emergency Drought Recovery Programme, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation. Office of the President,.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K. and G.K. Maritim (I994d). Sectoral background profiles of arid and semi arid lands of Kenya. Emergency Drought Recovery Programme, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation, Office of the President, Kenya. July, 1994.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K. and R.K. Cherogony (1994a). Djabia rainwaterharvesting system for domestic water supply in Lamu, Kenya. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Rainwater Catchment Systems held in Nairobi, Kenya. August, 1993.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K. and W.K. Yabann (1994e). Training of Trainers Report on Community participation in project planning in arid lands of Kenya.' Emergency Drought Recovery Programme, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation, Office of the President, Kenya. Octobe.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., C.K.K. Gachene, P.T. Gichem and R.K.K. Cherogony (1994f). Seasonal variability in soil moisture due to tillage and residue mulching of a clay soil. In: Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environment. Proceedings of 13th I.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., G.K. Maritim and W.K. Yabann (1994c). Report on Grassroots community mobilization in Kalokol, Central Turkana. Emergency Drought Recovery Programme, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation, Office of the President, Kenya. May, 1994.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah. E.K. C.K.K. Gachene, P.T. Gicheru and R.K.K. Cherogony (1994g). Crop response to tillage and residue mulching practices in a clay soil. In Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environment Proceedings of 13th International Soil Ti.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Yabann, W.K., E.K. Biamah and A.J. Haji (1994). Environmental impact assessment of the Arid Lands Project (ALP), Kenya. Emergency Drought Recovery Programme, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation, Office of the President, Kenya. May, 1994.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

1993
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., Gichuki, F.N., Kaumbutho, P.G., 1993. Tillage methods and soil and water conservation in Eastern Africa. Soil & Tillage research, 27: 105-123.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.; F.N. Gichuki and P. G. Kaumbutho (1993). Tillage methods and soil and water conservation in Eastern Africa. Soil Tillage Research, 27 (1993) 105-123. Elsevier Science Publishers, The Netherlands.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

1992
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K., J.K. Gikonyo, P.T. Gicheru and S.O. Oketch (1992a). Influence of tillage on crop water use at Kalalu, Laikipia, Kenya. East African Journal of Sciences, Kenya. August, 1992.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1992b). Production Oriented Conservation Strategy for developing sustainable projects in Arid and Semi Arid Areas of Kenya. In: People Protecting their Land. Proceedings of the 7th International Soil Conservation Conference (ISCO), Sydney, A.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
1991
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E. K., (1991) . Soil Erosion Survey of Kaibon Catchment, West Pokot District. Study funded through the Suam River Catchment Rehabilitation Project (SRCRP) of the Kerio Valley Development Authority (KVDA), Vidman Consulting Engineers, Nairobi.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Thomas, D.B.;and E.K. Biamah (1991). Origin, Application and Design of the Fanya Juu Terrace. In: Development of Conservation Farming on Hillslopes. W.C. Moldenhauer, N. W. Hudson, T. C. Sheng and San Wei Lee (Eds). Soil and Water Conservation Society, An.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
1989
Cheatle, Rodney J; Muraya P; YA; TBKLMDB; EK;. Modelling soil changes under agroforestry.; 1989.
Cheatle RJ, Muraya P, Young A, Thomas DB, Biamah EK, Kilewe AM, Lundgren L. Modelling soil changes under agroforestry.; 1989. AbstractWebsite

In the older approach to soil conservation, the emphasis was on controlling the rate of soil loss, expressed as tonnes per hectare or millimeters of soil depth. Conservation measures were directed at reducing erosion to a presumed acceptable rate, called soil-loss tolerance. Earlier attempts to assess economic terms were made on the basis of reduction in soil erosion control should come first, as a prerequisite to other agricultural improvements. Recent research has changed this emphasis in several ways. It has been recognized that the effects of erosion are by no means limited to reduction in soil depth. Equally important are loss of nutrients, organic matter, and through the latter, deterioration in soil physical properties. This is leading towards integration between tow aspects of soil conservation: erosion control and maintenance of fertility. Both are necessary to achieve land use which is sustainable as well as productive.

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah,E.K.,(1989a). Training Requirements in Soil Conservation for African Countries. Paper presented at the African Network of Scientific and Technological Institutions (ANSTI) annual meeting, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. August, 1989.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah,E.K.,(1989b). Editor of proceedings of a UNEP/FAO seminar on Soil Conservation Strategy for Africa. Accra, Ghana. August, 1989.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah,E.K.,(1989c). Waterharvesting and Conservation techniques for increased crop and fodder production in Arid and Semi Arid Areas of Kenya. Paper presented at a workshop on ASAL s soil and water conservation, Ministry of Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya. S.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
1988
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1988a). Environmental Degradation and Rehabilitation in Central Baringo, Kenya. In: Land Conservation for Future Generations .S. Rimwanich (Ed.). Proceedings of the 5th International Soil Conservation Conference (ISCO), Bangkok, Thailand. Ja.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1988b). Evaluation of Feasible Conservation Strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa: A case study on Kenya and Malawi. In: Challenges in Dryland Agriculture ; A Global Perspective. P.W. Unger, T.V. Sneed W.R. Jordan and R. Jensen (Eds.). Proceeding.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Smith, J.L.; Biamah, E.K.; Otieno, J.O.,(1988). Simulating Rainfall, Runoff and Soil Erosion using a Distributed Parameter Model (ANSWERS) The Kenya Engineer, Journal of the Institution of Engineers of Kenya. July/August, 1988.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
1987
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1987). Lessons learnt from Arid and Semi Arid Lands Development Projects in Kenya. Proceedings of a Conference on Project Identification in Developing Countries, held at the University of Manchester, U.K. September, 1987.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
1986
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1986). Environmental Degradation and Conservation within the Njemps Flats and Tugen Plateau Areas of Central Baringo, Kenya. December,1986. Unpublished Report.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1986). Technical and Socio-Economic considerations in rehabilitating and conserving an eroded/denuded catchment area: A case study of the Chemeron Catchment Area, Central Baringo, Kenya. In: Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya . Proceedings.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Thomas, D.B,; E.K.Biamah; A.M.Kilewe; L.Lundgren and B.O.Mochoge, Eds.(1986). Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya. Proceedings of the Third National Workshop, Kabete, Nairobi, Kenya. September, 1986.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
1985
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1985). Editor, Proceedings of a Workshop on Soil Conservation on Grazing Lands. Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.; Nyagah, C.R.J.,(1985). Proposed Integrated Rehabilitation Programme for the Chemeron Watershed Area, Central Baringo, Kenya. Project Proposal Document, Ministry of Agriculture,Nairobi,Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
1984
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1984). Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya; Concepts and Practices Unpublished Manuscript, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
1983
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K.,(1983). Comparison between field measurements and local climatic estimates of crop water use in Oklahoma. M.Sc. Thesis. Oklahoma State University. Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.
1194
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Biamah, E.K. and R.K.K. Cherogony (1994h). Tillage technique for effective soil erosion control in Kenya: Evaluation of alternative fanya juu terrace designs. In: Soil Tillage for Crop Production and Protection of the Environment. Proceedings of 13th Inte.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1194. Abstract
This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.

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