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KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF. "TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND THE CONSERVATION OF BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AT THE NGULIA RHINO SANCTUARY, TSAVO WEST NATIONAL PARK, KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
Tsetse polupations and trypanosome infections were monitored at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary to assess the impact of trypanosomiasis on rhinoceros. High densities of Glossina pallidipes were found near a permanent spring by the Ngulia escarpment; G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis were also present in lower numbers. Infection rates in G. pallidipes averaged 3.6%, with three times as many T. vivax as T. congolense infections. T. simiae and T. brucei were present at low frequency. DNA probes revealed that all mature T. congolense infections belonged to the savanna subgroup. G. pallidipes fed on many hosts, with most meals taken from bovides and elephants. Rhino account for one of the blood meals in a small sample taken from G. longipennis. During a time of low tsetse densities (dry season), we estimated that the wild host population was acquiring seven infections per km2 per day. At lower levels of challenge, an experimental rhino became infected with T. congolense. These results are discussed in terms of future plans for the repopulation of rhino in tsetse-infested areas in Kenya.   Keywords; epidemiology, disease, Glossina, parasitology, Trypanosoma
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "TRIALS OF TRAPS AND ATTRACTANTS FOR STOMOXYS SPP. (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE).". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Five blue and black cloth traps designed for tsetse were tested for their ability to catch Stomoxys spp. in Kenya. Significantly greatest catches were obtained with Vavoua traps, which then were used to compare odor baits at Nairobi Park. Acetone, lactic acid and animal urine (cow, buffalo, waterbuck, camel) or dung (rhinoceros, elephant and hippopotamus) didn’t increase catches. However, 1-oceten-3-ol dispensed at 0.2-2.0 mg/h increased catches up to 3.7-fold. Vavoua traps were highly specific for Stomoxyinae, with 80% of the catch consisting of 11 different taxa of Stomoxys as well as genera such as Prostomoxys, Haematobosca, Stygeromyia and Rhinomusca. During periods of peak seasonal abundance, up to 3,000 Stomoxys per day were collected in an octenol-baited Vavoua trap. These high catches suggest that Vavoua traps may be of practical use for fly control in isolated settings at a relatively low cost.
Violet N K, Brigid MD, Delia G, Alfred K. L’at, Monica W K, Nancy K. "A trans-disciplinary study on the health risks of cryptosporidiosis from dairy systems in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya: study background and farming system characteristics.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Cryptosporidium was conducted with 20 farmers randomly selected from the 29 farmers in the wider survey who were considered at high risk because of farming system. We found that around 1 in 80 urban households kept dairy cattle with an average of three cattle per household. Cross-breeds of exotic and local cattle predominate. Heads of dairykeeping households were significantly less educated than the heads of non-dairy neighbours, had lived in Dagoretti for significantly longer and had significantly larger households. There was a high turnover of 10 % of the cattle population in the 3-month period of the study. Cattle were zero grazed, but productivity parameters were sub-optimal as were hygiene and husbandry practices. In conclusion, dairy keeping is a minor activity in urban Nairobi but important to households involved and their community. Ecohealth approaches are well suited to tackling the complex problem of assessing and managing emerging zoonoses in urban settings. Keywords Urban dairy . Cryptosporidiosis . Ecohealth . Kenya

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS SUITABLE FOR USE IN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAYS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MEAT FROM VARIOUS SPECIES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
A method for the extraction of thermostable muscle antigens for use in enzyme immunoassays is described. The method yields antigens devoid of contaminating proteins which reduce the adsorption of the antigens on to the plate. The effect of such proteins is stimulated by the addition of gelatin. Gelatin (5 mg ml-1) results in 100% inhibition of the antigen adsorption on to the plate.   Keywords: thermostable muscle antigens, enzyme immunoassay, meat species identification
Githua A, Macharia JK, Nduhiu JG, McDermott JJ;, Omore AO, Arimi SM, Kang'ethe EK. "Testing for Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Milk From Consumers and Market Agents in Kenya Using Milk Ring Test and Enzyme Immunoassay.". 2004. Abstract

Over 85% of all milk sales on Kenya pass through informal channels. The extent of the risk posed by the sale of this raw milk to human health in respect to brucellosis is unknown. This paper presents the results of a study on the occurrence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in milk from households consuming raw unpasteurized milk and market agent selling the same. Four hundred thirty four (434) raw milk samples from consumer households and 508 from informal market agents were collected between January 1999 and January 2000 from Nakuru /Narok and Nairobi/Kiambu. Milk agents sampled included co-operative societies, milk collecting centers and self-help groups, milk bars, shops and kiosks and mobile traders on foot, bicycle or motorized transport. In addition, 147 samples from the formal market chain (pasteurized) were collected. All the samples from the samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus using ELISA and Milk Ring Test (MRT), except for the formal milk that was tested using ELISA only. Five percent of the consumer household samples and 4% of the samples form informal milk market agents tested positive on ELISA. There was poor agreement between the two antibody surrogate tests (Kappa =0.40, 95% confidence interval =0.19-0.60). ELISA detected 3.2% more samples from consumer households and 0.4% from informal market agents than MRT. Of the formal market samples, 16.4% were positive. Ways of reducing the risk of contracting brucellosis from drinking raw milk are proposed.

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