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  Host blood effects on Trypanosoma congolense establishment in Glossina morsitans and Glossina morsitans centralis were investigated using goat, rabbit, cow and rhinocerous blood. Meals containing goat erythrocytes facilitated infection in G. m. morsitans, whereas meals containing goat plasma facilitated infection in G. m. centralis. Goat blood effects were not observed in the presence of complementary rabbit blood components. N-acetyl-glucosamine (a midgut lectin inhibitor) increased infection rates in some, but not all, blood manipulations. Cholesterol increased infections rates in G. m. centralis only. Both compounds together added to cow blood produced superinfection in G. m. centralis, but not in G. m. morsitans. Midgut protease levels didn’t differ 6 days post infection in flies maintaining infections versus flies clearing solutions. Protease levels were weakly correlated with patterns of infection, but only in G.m. morsitans. These results suggest that physiological mechanisms responsible for variation in infection rates are only superficially similar in these closely related tsetses.   Keywords; Glossina, Diptera, Glossinidae, Trypanosoma, lectis, proteases, goat, rabbit, cow, Diecros bicornis, choleastrol, glucosamine, erythocytes, serum
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

O DROGARAWILLIAM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "Risk of infection with Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with marketing of unpasteurized milk in Kenya.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.

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