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KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH: THE MISSING LINK TO SUSTAINABLE AND EFFECTIVE INTERVENTION IN AGRICULTURAL COMMITTEEE IN THE AESH FRAMEWORK.". In: Journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

There is an increasing need to incorporate into agricultural research an element of community participation. Community involvement in the identification of problems and solutions is seen as the key to adoption ands adaptation of new technologies. These two processes have been identified as crucial for sustainable agriculture and hence sustainable rural communities.

A wide gap exists between researchers in the various institutions and the farmer. Yet the latter is the end user of the products thereof. This is an approach to the top-down approach to agricultural extension where extension agents tell farmer's what ought to be done with little regard to the farmers experience and circumstances. Participatory action research (PAR) techniques bridge the gap between the farmer's experiences and the research/extension services. It enables analysis of problem situations and opportunities by farmers and researchers in a participatory and inclusive process. Within the agro-ecosystem health framework PAR is the process that generates a farmer driven demand for research and technology development. This paper describes how PAR is being used in an integrated assessment of agricultural communities in Kiambu agro-ecosystem.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CAPRINE BESNOITIOSIS IN KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Inoculation of cystozoites obtained from natural, chronic cases of caprine besnoitiosis produced clinical disease in goats but not in rabbits, mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, rats or cattle. Histological examination of tissue sections from the experimental animals showed Besnoitia cysts only in goats. This, together with field observations that cattle reared together with goats having besnoitiosis do not contract the disease, suggests that the Besnoitia species that infects goats in Kenya is host-specific and is not Besnoitia besnoiti. We suggest that the name Besnoitia caprae be adapted for the pathogen.   Keywords; Besnoitia, clinical signs, conjuctiva, goats, infectivity, rabbits, rodents
Randolph TF, M'Ibui GM, Kang'ethe EK, Lang'at AK. "Prevalence of aflatoxin M1 and B1 in milk and animal feeds from urban smallholder dairy production in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence of Aflatoxin M1 and Total Aflatoxin B1 in milk and animal feeds. Cross sectional household study. Urban and peri-urban area of Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya. Two hundred fifty seven dairy farming households and 134 non-dairy neighbouring households. The prevalence of AFM1 in milk was found to be 45.5% (178/391). The farmer prevalence was 43.5% (112/257), while that of non-farmer was 49.2% (66/ 134). There was however no statistical significant difference between the two categories. Of the 178 positive milk samples, 49% had aflatoxin levels exceeding 0.05 microg Kg(-1). The prevalence of AFB1 in the feed was found to be 98.6% (69/70) with 83% of the samples having aflatoxin B1 levels exceeding 10 microg Kg(-1). Only one feed sample had no traces of AFB1. This study points to an underlying problem that requires the action by policy makers, considering the number of samples with aflatoxin M1 [49%] and aflatoxin B1 [83%] exceeding the WHO/FAO tolerance limits for milk and feeds destined for dairy animals.

Githua A, Macharia JK, Nduhiu JG, McDermott JJ, Omore AO, Arimi SM, E K K'the. "The prevalence of antibodies to Brucella abortus in marketed milk in Kenya and its public health implications.". 2000. Abstract

The risk of infection by milk-borne brucellosis is one reason for public health regulations which discourage informal milk markets that sell unpasteurized milk. However, these regulations are not generally implemented in many developing countries. Kenya is a typical example, with over 85% of milk sales passing through informal channels. Consumer practices to reduce or eliminate potential infection by milk-borne health hazards under these circumstances have rarely been studied. Seasonal survey data were collected between January 1999 and January 2000 from informal milk market agents of various cadres and from households consuming unpasteurized milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. In addition, pasteurized and packaged milk samples from five processors were collected. Samples were screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the milk ring test (MRT) (unpasteurized milk) and indirect antibody ELISA (both unpasteurized and pasteurized milk). Milk samples originating from farms in the extensive production system and those containing milk from many sources were associated with higher antibody detection proportions. Five percent of all raw milk samples collected from consumer households and 4% of samples collected from various levels of bulking of market samples were positive to the ELISA. There was poor to no agreement between the two antibody detection tests. All urban consumers and 96% of rural consumers of unpasteurized milk indicated that they boil the milk (in tea or otherwise) before consumption. The implications of these results on milk marketing in Kenya are discussed.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "PREVALENCE OF BESNOITIOSIS IN DOMESTIC RUMINANTS IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
A preliminary survey of besnoitiosis in domestic ruminants in Kenya based on field and farm visits, clinical and post mortem examinations and histopathological of tissues and biopsies showed that goats are the most affected followed by cattle, while sheep were unaffected. Caprine besnoitiosis occurred in a continuous belt in five of the 8 provinces in Kenya stretching from the Coast, Eastern, North Eastern, Nairobi and Rift Valley provinces.  Mandera in the North Eastern province had the highest prevalence rate of 36%, followed by Kwale 35%, Isiolo 35% Marsabit 33%, Wajir 28%, Nairobi 265 Meru 24%, Garissa 21% Taita Taveta 18%, Embu 17%, Kitui 9%, Machakos 7%, Laikipia 3% Kajiado 2% and Turkana and Elgeyo- Marakwet 1% each. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) between the bucks and does (18 and 18.4% respectively), but kids were less (4%) affected. Bovine besnoitiosis was found only in Tana River district with an infection rate of 11%.

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