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O DROGARAWILLIAM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "Risk of infection with Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with marketing of unpasteurized milk in Kenya.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
Onono JO, Kangethe EK, Ogara WO. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". 2010. Abstract

The objective was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of the non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli colonies from cattle feaces and milk samples collected from Dagoretti division in Nairobi. A total of 285 feacal and 260 milk were collected from urban dairy farming households while non-dairy households provided 137 milk samples. The samples were used for culture and isolation of E. coli and the colonies isolated using standard microbiological methods. 23% (66) and 8.8% (23) of feacal and milk samples from urban dairy farming households had non sorbitol fermenting colonies, while 8.8% (12) of non-dairy farming household neighbours had non sorbitol fermenting colonies in milk samples. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns showed that isolates of E. coli were resistant to various antibiotics. There was a high percentage resistance to sulphamethoxazole in feacal samples isolates (14.4%), milk sample isolates (10%) from dairy farming household and milk sample isolates (11.7%) nondairy households. The feacal isolates had a low resistance to ampicilin (1.4%), but the resistance in isolates from milk samples of urban dairy household (6.5%) and non-dairy household’s milk samples (7.3%) were high. The other antibiotics showed varied resistance pattern with feacal isolates having a high percentage resistance to tetracyclines (6.7%) while most bacterial isolates were susceptible to gentamicin. Multiple antibiotic resistances was observed in feacal sample isolates (6.7%), dairy farming household milk isolates (4.2%) and non- dairy farming household milk isolates (7.3%). Non-sorbitol fermenting E. coli colonies from cattle feaces and milk samples were resistant to most of the antibiotics tested and the higher percentage resistance to sulphamethoxazole, ampicilin and tetracyclines requires further investigation to isolate, identify and compare the genes responsible for development of resistance.

Ouma EA, Kang'ethe EK, Arimi SM, Staal S, McDermott JJ, Omore AO. "Analysis of public health risks from consumption of informally marketed milk in sub-Saharan African countries.". 2000. Abstract

Despite policies to discourage them, informal milk markets account for over 80% of milk sales in most sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Informal milk market agents include farmer dairy co-operatives, small traders using bicycles and public or private transport and small retail outlets, such as dairy kiosks, and shops. Studies conducted by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and national collaborators (e.g., in Kenya1) show that convenient delivery and lower prices (reflecting lower handling and processing costs) are the principal benefits for consumers. Current milk handling and safety regulations in most SSA countries are derived from models in industrialised countries. These may not be appropriate for local market conditions where such regulations may unnecessarily inhibit efficient milk marketing. An important step in developing targeted policies more supportive of market participation of the majority is to collect quantitative and qualitative information about milk-borne health risks under different production and marketing situations. This paper gives an over-view of on-going activities in central Kenya aimed at assessing public health risks from informally marketed milk and presents preliminary results of milk quality and handling practices of informal milk market agents and consumers

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